ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0261.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Fluorescence immunoassay; sol-gel; 96-well microtiter plate; CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs); progesterone
Online: 13 October 2020 (07:52:14 CEST)
In this study, two heterogeneous fluorescence immunoassays using CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD) to label anti-progesterone antibody (P4Ab) for the determination of progesterone (P4) were performed in the wells of a 96-well microtiter plate. First, P4Ab was conjugated to hydrophilic CdSe/ZnS QDs via ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide(EDC)-N-hydroxysuccinimide) chemistry(NHS) (QDs-P4Ab conjugates). The QDs-P4Ab conjugate was employed as a second antibody in a sandwich assay, where the P4Ab was immobilized onto the 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) sol-gel membrane of the wells of a 96-well microtiter plate, and P4 was bound between the immobilized P4Ab and the QDs-P4Ab conjugate. In this assay, the fluorescence intensity of the QDs increased with increasing P4 concentrations. This assay had a detection limit of 553.9 pg/ml and a sensitivity of 18,251.96 pg/ml with a linear range of 2,184.6 – 117,082 pg/ml. In the direct binding assay, P4 was directly bound to the QDs-P4Ab conjugates immobilized onto the APTMS sol-gel membrane of the wells of a 96-well microtiter plate. In this direct binding assay the fluorescence intensity of the QDs decreased with increasing P4 concentrations, and this assay had a linear range of 28.95 – 26,607.7 pg/ml with a detection limit of 3.32 pg/ml and a sensitivity of 987.24 pg/ml. These fluorescence immunoassays have been successfully applied for the determination of P4 in real human serum, and the results were well correlated with those of a certified radioimmunoassay (RIA) method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0249.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: well testing; detrending; harmonic pulse testing; well performance monitoring; underground gas storage
Online: 17 May 2018 (13:01:50 CEST)
In reservoir engineering, one of the main sources of information for the characterization of reservoir and well parameters is well testing. Among the unconventional well testing methodologies, Harmonic Well Testing (HPT) is appealing from an economic standpoint because it could provide well performance and reservoir behavior monitoring without having to interrupt field production. Recorded pressure analysis is performed in the frequency domain by adopting a derivative approach similar to conventional well testing. To this end, pressure and rate data must be decomposed into harmonic components. Test interpretability can be significantly improved if pressure data are detrended prior to interpretation, filtering out non periodic events such as discontinuous production from neighboring wells and flow regime variations which did not respect the designed test periodicity. Therefore, detrending offers the possibility of overcoming the limitation of HPT applicability due to the difficulty of imposing a regularly pulsing rate for the whole test duration (typically lasting several days). This makes HPT attractive for well performance monitoring, especially in gas storage fields. In this paper, the application of different detrending methodologies to synthetic HPT pressure data generated in different reservoir and operational scenarios is presented and discussed. Moreover, a real case application is also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0335.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: volunteers; self-efficacy; optimism; empathy; psychological well-being; subjective well-being; incremental contribution
Online: 15 July 2020 (11:54:51 CEST)
Optimism and self-efficacy have been associated with psychological health. Empathy has also been found to promote positive functioning and to have a unique role in community health volunteering. This study investigated whether self-efficacy and optimism were associated with psychological and subjective well-being in a group of healthcare volunteers and whether empathy added incrementally to these associations. A sample of 160 Italian clown doctors volunteering in various hospitals completed self-report measures of self-efficacy, optimism, empathy, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being. Results indicated that self-efficacy and optimism were associated with both outcomes and that aspects of empathy, such as others’ perspective-taking and personal distress for others’ difficulties, incrementally added to these associations, although with opposite effects. The present study adds to previous research on the role of self-efficacy, optimism, and empathy for community health volunteers’ psychological health and offers suggestions regarding the training of this type of volunteer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0170.v1
Online: 15 August 2019 (16:17:46 CEST)
As mental health problems tend to increase during adolescence and is a serious public health issue in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Early detection is necessary and monitoring at the population level can be used to evaluate the progress of national programmes promoting positive well-being. Physical activity (PA) can be protective whereas increased screen time behaviours (STB) can be a risk for low levels of well-being. A national representative sample (n=4,731) of young adolescents aged 11y, 13y, and 15y from the Republic of Kazakhstan took part in the WHO collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Respondents completed the WHO-5 Well-being scale, and items in on PA and STB. Internationally recognised, recommended cut-offs were used for analyses. Two models of binary logistic regressions were performed to examine the associations with PA (Model 1) and PA with STB (Model 2) after stratification by gender and controlling for age, locality and family affluence. Three quarters of young adolescents in the Republic of Kazakhstan have good overall well-being, despite the proportion reduces as adolescents age from 11y to 15y (boys, OR=0.66 CI=0.49-0.80; girls, OR=0.55, CI=0.43-0.71). The odds ratio for positive well-being were more than twice for boys and more than 3.5 for girls who reported daily PA than not being active daily. Spending less time on STB for girls was associated with positive well-being than spending more STB time (OR=1.28, CI=1.04-1.59). Well-being among young adolescents drops dramatically between the ages of 11y and 15y and is higher among rural schools attendees than in urban schools. The recommended amounts of PA can be protective of low well-being for both boys and girls. However, meeting reporting STB recommendations was only protective for girls and not boys. Designing and implementing positive well-being programmes require consideration of locality and amounts of PA and STB
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0358.v1
Online: 25 May 2018 (10:25:29 CEST)
Using data from the China Family Panel Studies, this study examines the socioeconomic characteristics of Internet users, as well as the relationships between the dynamics of different forms of online activities and the subjective well-being of urbanites and rural migrants in urban China. The study finds that online behaviour may clearly reflect differences in individuals’ personal traits and socioeconomic positions. Patterns of the association between online activities and subjective well-being tend to differ among rural migrants and urbanites, especially in terms of depression. A difference-in-differences model is employed to estimate the impact of intensified engagement in online activities on depression and life satisfaction from 2010 to 2016. The results show that increased frequency of online entertainment exhibits a comparatively positive effect on depression and life satisfaction. Spending more time on online social networking has a similar impact on rural migrants, but not on urbanites. These findings suggest that the rapid development of urban China’s online community has important implications for residents’ subjective well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0079.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: EGS; crustal permeability; finite element flow modelling; crustal wellbore temperatures; wellbore injection; well logs; well core
Online: 18 September 2017 (12:01:16 CEST)
We use Matlab 3D finite element fluid flow/transport modelling to simulate localized wellbore temperature events of order 0.05-0.1oC logged in Fennoscandia basement rock at ~ 1.5km depths. The temperature events are approximated as steady-state heat transport due to fluid draining from the crust into the wellbore via naturally occurring fracture-connectivity structures. Flow simulation is based on the empirics of spatially-correlated fracture-connectivity fluid flow widely attested by well-log, well-core, and well-production data. Matching model wellbore-centric radial temperature profiles to a 2D analytic expression for steady-state radial heat transport with Peclet number Pe ≡ r0φv0/D (r0 = wellbore radius, v0 = Darcy velocity at r0, φ = ambient porosity, D = rock-water thermal diffusivity), gives Pe ~ 10-15 for fracture-connectivity flow intersecting the well, and Pe ~ 0 for ambient crust. Darcy flow for model Pe ~ 10 at radius ~ 10 meters from the wellbore gives permeability estimate κ ~ 0.02Darcy for flow driven by differential fluid pressure between least principal crustal stress pore pressure and hydrostatic wellbore pressure. Model temperature event flow permeability κm ~ 0.02Darcy is related to well-core ambient permeability κ ~ 1µDarcy by empirical poroperm relation κm ~ κ exp(αmφ) for φ ~ 0.01 and αm ~ 1000. Our modelling of wellbore temperature events calibrates the concept of reactivating fossilized fracture-connectivity flow for EGS permeability stimulation of basement rock.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0006.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: well-being; evolution; emotion; learning; language; motivation
Online: 1 September 2022 (04:29:47 CEST)
Evolutionary perspectives have generated many questions and some answers in the study of human health and disease. The field of evolutionary medicine, and related analytics of evolutionary psychiatry and evolutionary psychology have extended and expanded the way health disorders are viewed by searching for why humans, as a species, are vulnerable to certain pathological conditions. The search is organized into four domains that apply proximate and evolutionary explanations to human traits and developmental sequences. This framework opens inquiry to the ontogeny, phylogeny, mechanism, and adaptive significance of human health conditions. In this paper I argue that evolutionary medicine seems to parallel biomedicine in its primarily pathogenic focus. That is, conditions of pain, suffering, and disorder have received the most attention. Some work has used the architecture of evolutionary medicine to take a salutogenic approach, evaluating the proximate and evolutionary explanations of human well-being. I propose that an evolutionary understanding of human well-being requires a survey of emotions and their relationship with neurobiology, language, and culture. My anthropology based, multidisciplinary review of biopsychosocial processes reveals the way evolution has shaped modern human understanding of well-being through sociolinguistic learning processes and thereby our individual experiences of well-being. These insights have the power to contextualize human suffering and flourishing as we progress toward the goal of attenuating the former and expanding the latter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0283.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: well-being; mental health; bonsai; art; psychotherapy
Online: 25 September 2019 (10:24:02 CEST)
Background: Bonsai integrates relaxation, leisure and art therapy into one medium that can have personal, emotional and commercial value and have benefits beyond the therapist’s couch. The art of bonsai, when used as a therapy tool may affect the capacity of the bonsai practitioner to adjust to negative and stressful life events. Objective: The study was initiated to evaluate the benefit of bonsai on the wellbeing of practitioners of the art. Method: 255 bonsai artists participated in a study that examined the effect of bonsai on their well-being. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with bonsai artists. Results: The majority of participants agreed that being able to work on their bonsais affected their moods positively. Discussion: Although bonsai artists did not report better mental health, participants reported an improvement in their mood when working on a bonsai tree. These findings are significant in that it can be especially useful in settings such as psychiatric hospitals, old age homes, orphanages, prisons, etc., as a preventative measure as well as restorative measures in the well-being of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0241.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: motivation; well-being; self-steem; psychology; sport
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:29:23 CEST)
The work shows a single case intervention based on the motivational coaching model the “Cantón’s Giraffe”, theoretically and experimentally proven in a 20-years-old dancesport practitioner, who considered improving her execution with her dance partner. Methodological triangulation was used , combining a test-retest quantitative measure (Using Ryff Psychological Wellbeing Scales; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire and an ad-hoc instrument for the motivational force assessment) and subjective analysis of the responses from the interviews conducted. A three-phase intervention protocol was used : identification, intervention, and follow-up. The results show an improvement in reevaluation scores, an increase in the subjective evaluation, and participant satisfaction and perceived resources raised at the end of the intervention. These results are in line with previous similar studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0104.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Philosophy; Social media; Psychological well-being; Self-regulation
Online: 7 September 2022 (07:03:56 CEST)
Introduction: The application of the concept of self-regulation that has an impact on the psychological well-being of adolescent social media users as self-regulation in a core aspect of human functioning that helps facilitate the successful pursuit of personal goals and adaptability to changes in the environment. This literature aims to determine the study of the psychological well-being philosophy of adolescent social media users based on self-regulation.Methods: This literature study was conducted through a search for scientific publications ranging from 2018-2022. The databases used are PubMed, Science Direct, and ProQuest. The literature search was carried out according to topics with four groups of keywords based on Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) and combined with Boolean operators AND, OR and NOT, keywords Self-regulation AND mental wellbeing AND social media AND adolescence.Results: A study of the psychological well-being of adolescent social media users based on self-regulation based on ontology, epistemology, and axiology studies. Self-regulation is a philosophy that emphasizes the dynamic process that directs the behavior of a teenager towards the desired final state and adapts to changes that occur in the surrounding environment. The adaptation process is carried out as a form of self-regulation of the positive and negative impacts of using social media on adolescents with a motivational approach and avoidance system. The approach motivation system is carried out if it provides positive aspects in social media. While avoidance motivation is carried out if it has a negative impact in the form of low self-esteem, depression, and body image disturbances as a result of social comparisons made by teenagers when they see other people's posts.Conclusion: The concept of psychological well-being of adolescent social media users based on self-regulation is beneficial for parents to improve the parenting pattern of adolescent children. Good parenting is needed in understanding the positive and negative impacts of using social media and reducing externalization problems in adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0424.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Aging; Attitudes; Subjective Well-being; Ageism; Psychometric Validation
Online: 25 August 2022 (03:17:06 CEST)
Scientific literature shows increased interest in the aged and the aging phenomenon. The Aging Attitudes Questionnaire - AAQ was validated for the Portuguese population to understand the importance of attitudes towards old age and their impact on the subjective well-being of the elderly. A sample of 400 subjects (from 18 to 93 years) answered a socio-demographic questionnaire, and the AAQ was composed of three subscales (psychosocial losses, physical change, and psychological growth). The CFA confirmed the tri-factorial structure with very good adjustment of the model to the data with the Cronbach alpha of the total scale scoring .84 and ranging from .65 to .77 for each factor. A total of 9 items were omitted both for poor factor loadings (<0.50. Notwithstanding, 3 items below the criteria were maintained, as they conceptually fit into the factor. Of the final 15 AAQp items, 5 belong to the Psychosocial Loss factor, 6 to Physical Change, and 4 to Psychosocial Growth. This tree factor model explained 50.1 % of the total variance. In conclusion, this study supports that AAQ has acceptable validity, confirming the composite reliability and the discriminant validity, but not the convergent validity. Through multi-group analysis, the invariance of the scale was confirmed. This validation is of pivotal importance once it allows measuring the attitudes towards aging, thus facilitating the promotion of wellbeing across the lifespan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0061.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Economic well-being; Poverty alleviation; Quantitative data analysis
Online: 3 November 2021 (08:17:17 CET)
The goal is to reduce poverty, the method used is a literature study to see the effect of using Financial Technology (Fintech) on financial inclusion, method to see the effect of financial inclusion on poverty. From the results of the tests, the use of Fintech can increase financial inclusion, thereby encouraging poverty alleviation. It can be seen that the Financial Inclusion variable has a significant and negative effect on the poverty variable. This shows that countries that have high levels of financial inclusion are generally estimated to have low poverty rates. Increasing a country's financial inclusion can reduce poverty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: urban flows; turbulence; well-resolved large-eddy simulations
Online: 1 June 2021 (10:43:13 CEST)
The mean flow and turbulence statistics of the flow through a simplified urban environment, which is an active research area in order to improve the knowledge of turbulent flow in cities, is investigated. This is useful for civil engineering, pedestrian comfort and for health concerns caused by pollutant spreading. In this work, we provide analysis of the turbulence statistics obtained from well-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES). A detailed analysis of this database reveals the impact of the geometry of the urban array on the flow characteristics and provides for a good description of the turbulent features of the flow within a simplified urban environment. The most prominent features of this complex flow include coherent vortical structures such as the so-called arch vortex, the horseshoe vortex and the roof vortex. These structures of the flow have been identified by an analysis of the turbulence statistics. The influence of the geometry of the urban environment (and particularly the street width and the building height) on the overall flow behavior have also been studied. Finally, the well-resolved LES results were compared with the experimental database from Monnier et al. to discuss differences and similarities between the respective urban configurations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Social rhythm; Behavioral rhythm; Well-being; Old adults
Online: 6 May 2021 (14:27:34 CEST)
Social and behavioral rhythms (SBRs) are related to circadian rhythms well known as central points in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorders. The purpose is to verify in elderly people if having functional SBRs correlated with a positive perception of the quality of life (QoL) and health parameters and if there was an association between dysfunctionality of SBRs and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Sample: 141 people aged 65 years (58,9%Female). Each subject was submitted to SBRs Scale (in which higher scores show more dysfunctional SRB); SF-12 for QoL; PHQ-9 for depressive symptoms and underwent blood levels essays including cholesterol and triglyceride. The medical documented lifetime diagnosis including Major Depressive Disorder was taken into account. SBRs Scale score correlated inversely with SF-12 score (r=-0.360, p<0.0001) and positively with PHQ9 (r=0.396, p<0.0001). Lifetime MDD medical diagnosis was associated with a higher score at scale on social rhythms (24.811.9 vs 20.18.0, F=15.848, p<0.0001).The study highlighted, for the first time, that SBRs such as sleep, and nutrition have a role in well-being and that dysregulation of SBRs is related to MDD. Further longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of individuals will have to confirm these data and clarify causal links of the association between QoL and SBRs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0020.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Gender Roles; Household Production; Telecommuting; Teleworking; Well-Being
Online: 4 January 2017 (10:43:32 CET)
This study examines the relationship between teleworking, gender roles and happiness of couples using data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) and the Understanding Society Survey (USS) during the period 1991-2012. Various approaches are followed, including Probit-adapted fixed effects, multinomial Logit and Instrumental variables (IV). The results support that both men and women who are teleworkers spend more time on housework, while teleworking increases the probability that the household chores examined in this study, such as cooking, cleaning ironing and childcare, will be shared relatively to those who are non-teleworkers. In addition, women are happier when they or their spouse is teleworker, as well as, both men and women are happier when they state that the specific household chores are shared. Thus, women teleworkers may be happier because they can face the family demands and share the household chores with their spouse, increasing their fairness belief about the household division allocation and improving their well-being, expressed by happiness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0222.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: servant leadership; perceived organizational support; employee well-being; correlation
Online: 13 March 2020 (02:53:46 CET)
This current research follows up on Greenleaf’s oft-quoted best test of servant leadership that calls for employees to be better off financially, emotionally, physically, psychologically, etc. because of the time spent with the servant leader. While oft-quoted, little empirical work exists to see if this is true. In this study, 170 participants provided their perception of their supervisors’ level of servant leadership, their perception of the organization’s support, and their self-report of their general well-being. Gender and age bracket information described the participants, and there were no significant differences between gender or age brackets for participants’ perception of their supervisors’ servant leadership. The analysis showed that there was a moderate positive correlation between servant leadership, perceived organizational support, and general well-being. A modification of an existing general well-being instrument provided a new eight-item general well-being scale with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.956.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0290.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: groundwater model; well field; pre-field investigation; aquitard breach
Online: 15 October 2018 (08:30:00 CEST)
Memphis aquifer is the primary drinking water source in Shelby County (Tennessee, USA) and supplies industrial, commercial, and residential water. Memphis aquifer is separated from the Shallow aquifer by a clayey layer known as Upper Claiborne Confining Unit (UCCU). All of the production wells in the Memphis area are screened in the Memphis aquifer or even deeper in the Fort Pillow aquifer. Traditionally, it was assumed that the UCCU could fully protect the Memphis aquifer from the contaminated Shallow aquifer groundwater. However, recent studies show that at some locations the UCCU is thin or absent which possibly leads to the contribution of Shallow aquifer to the Memphis aquifer. Accurately locating the breaches demands expensive and difficult geological or geochemical investigations, especially within an urban area. Hence, a pre-field investigation to identify the locations where the presence of breaches is likely can significantly reduce the cost of field investigations and improve the their results. In this study, to identify the locations where the presence of breaches in the UCCU is likely we use three different analyses: (1) pilot point calibration (PPC), (2) velocity and flow budget (VFB), and (3) particle tracking (PT) to post-process the developed groundwater results. These pre-field numerical investigations provide relevant and defensible explanations for groundwater flow anomalies in an aquifer system for informed decision-making and future field investigations. In this study, we identify five specific zones within the broad study area which are reasonable candidates for the future field investigations. Finally, we test the results of each analysis against other evidence for breaches to demonstrate that the results of the numerical analyses are reliable and supported by previous studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0104.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: state IQ; aggregate IQ; well-being; g nexus; PIAAC; NAEP
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:05:43 CET)
At the level of the 50 U.S. states, an interconnected nexus of well-being variables exists. These variables have been shown to strongly correlate with estimates of state IQ in interesting ways. But the state IQ estimates (McDaniel 2006) are now more than 16 years old, and the state well-being estimates (Pesta et al., 2010) are over 12 years old. Updated state IQ and well-being estimates are therefore needed. I thus first created new state IQ estimates by analyzing scores from both the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competency (for adults), and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (for fourth and eighth grade children) exams. I also created new global well-being scores by analyzing state variables from the following four well-being subdomains: crime, income, health, and education. When validating the nexus, several interesting correlations existed among the variables. For example, state IQ most strongly predicted FICO credit scores, alcohol consumption (directly), income inequality, and state temperature. Interestingly, state IQ derived here also correlated .58 with state IQ estimates from over 100 years ago. Global well-being likewise correlated with many old and new variables in the nexus, including a correlation of .80 with IQ. In sum, at the level of the U.S. state, a nexus of important, strongly correlated variables exists. These variables comprise well-being, and state IQ is a central node in this network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0448.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: moral identity; subjective well-being; identity commitment quality; internalization; symbolization
Online: 20 July 2021 (11:52:09 CEST)
Moral identity can promote people’s well-being, but existing research has paid little attention to the mechanism of the link between the two. The current study proposed that the eudaimonic identity function is a critical mechanism that links moral identity and well-being. Specifically, the quality of identity commitment mediates the link between subjective well-being and the two dimensions of moral identity, namely, internalization and symbolization. We examined these hypotheses in 419 participants, who completed the Self-importance of Moral Identity Questionnaire, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Scale of Positive and Negative Experience, and Questionnaire for Eudaimonic Well-being. Results from the obtained data confirmed our hypotheses: There is a significant correlation between moral identity and subjective well-being. Both the internalization and symbolization dimensions of moral identity promote subjective well-being through the mediating role of identity commitment quality. We discussed these findings with respect to implications and proposed research suggestions for future studies.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: exciton-polaritons; PT-symmetry; double-well potential; Bose-Einstein condensates
Online: 5 July 2021 (13:21:48 CEST)
We investigate the dynamics and stationary states of a semiconductor exciton-polariton condensate in a double well potential. We find that upon the population build up of the polaritons by above-threshold laser pumping, coherence relaxation due to the phase fluctuations of the polaritons drives the system into a stable fixed point corresponding to a self-organized PT-symmetric phase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0626.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Sexism; social networks; adolescence; digital gender gap, emotional well-being
Online: 23 April 2021 (10:01:04 CEST)
Despite gender equality being present in the social and political sphere, we still encounter aspects that are characteristic of sexism. Such aspects impact upon gender inequality and different types of violence towards women. The present article aims to examine the behaviour of adolescents from Huelva with regards to ambivalent sexism towards women on social networks and their influence on health. Further, we seek to uncover adolescent’s perceptions with regards to gender differences in the use of social networks, the relationship between sexism and women's emotional well-being was observed. The study sample was formed by young people aged between 14 and 16 years who were residing in rural and urban zones in the south of Spain. A mixed methods approach was taken. At a quantitative level, a sample of 400 young people was recruited. These were administered a questionnaire about sexism which was composed of two scales and has been validated at a national and international level. At a qualitative level, the study counted on 33 young people who participated in in-depth discussions via interviews and discussion groups. The results showed that sexism emerges in adolescence in the analysed sample from the south of Spain. This favoured a digital gender gap and was reinforced through social networks such as Instagram and Snapchat. Rising awareness and a critical view of the aforementioned sexism was shown on the behalf of females, particularly those from urban backgrounds.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0397.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Sugarcane, impacts, ecosystem services, human well-being, agro-systems, sustainability
Online: 27 February 2020 (10:56:50 CET)
Since the 1950s sugarcane production has grown rapidly from less than 0.5 billion tonnes in the late 50s to reach over 1.9 billion tonnes in 2012 on about 27 million hectares of agricultural land. This expansion has been boosted by the high demand for bioethanol promoted as a sustainable bioenergy source which accounted in 2010 for the biggest share of the global biofuel market. Despite its benefits, the scientific debate on sugar is growing especially that counterarguments are so many, including negative impacts on different interacting ecosystems and human well-being, e.g. bigger stress on land and water resources, environmental externalities on air, a harmful impact on the biodiversity and endemic species, negative environmental externalities, health, and socio-economic aspects. This paper provides a narrative systematic review (SR) of the impacts of sugarcane production on these different ecosystems employing the ecosystem services framework for its acceptance by policy-makers. The references included for the SR were 163 and results showed that the majority of the studies are from Brazil, Australia, South Africa and the USA (≈ 75% of the literature), most of them were from peer-reviewed journals (85%), and most of the case studies adopted a quantitative research approach (93%). The literature assessed showed that sugarcane, like all agro-systems, depends on the practices and techniques to transform negative impacts into positive externalities on ecosystems and human well-being. However, the literature studied failed to include the inter-linkage in sugarcane production impacts’ and therefore to evaluate the related ecosystem services with respect to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) framework to account for existing trade-offs. Therefore, the findings are addressed to the scientific community and decision-maker for an intensification of interdisciplinary and integrated research based on the MA framework to cover all ecosystem services, for sustainable development of the sugarcane sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0143.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: UAS; ADS-B; Drop Out; DAA; well clear; monte carlo simulation; risk matrix
Online: 18 September 2018 (10:49:23 CEST)
This work analyzes the severity and risk associated with Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) message drop out in Detect and Avoid (DAA) function of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). Performance assessment of the Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) ADS-B message implies that in some cases ADS-B fails to update within a specified update interval, which is referred to as drop out in this work. ADS-B is a fundamental surveillance sensor for both class 1 and class 2 DAA systems. Message loss or drop out has been found as one of the common limitations of the ADS-B system. The key feature of this study is incorporating the update rate of real ADS-B data transmitted from the manned aircraft. The data were received from the Grand Forks International Airport, North Dakota. Monte Carlo method has been adopted to resolve encounter scenarios in the presence of drop out. The change in the alert triggered by the UAS DAA in the presence of ADS-B drop out has been investigated. Furthermore, the risk matrices are created to quantify the associated risk with drop out affected alerts. Simulation results depict that both the duration of drop out and DAA look-ahead time affect the alert-triggering function of UAS. With a small look- ahead window and longer duration of drop out, the number of warning alerts increases. Also, alerts are affected more during an overtaking encounter than that of a head-to-head encounter. A system-level analysis is also carried out to recognize the potential reasons behind the ADS-B drop out.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0080.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: One Health; shelter dog; dog adoption; dog well-being; dog behavior
Online: 6 May 2022 (13:55:36 CEST)
Today, the kennel is considered one of the crucial concerns of the human-animal relationship, since it is very often regarded as animal dump where dogs exile, thus representing a burden on society. Therefore, drawing up strategies for a new “kennel conception”, as an added value for human society, environment, and dogs is still an unmet need. Here, we described the activities of a shelter dog in southern Italy, which faithfully meets criteria aimed at One Health perspective. It normally relies on an initial careful assessment by veterinary behaviorist, in order to guarantee the most suitable life conditions for the animals in the kennels, increase the chances of adoption and enroll them in projects tailored to their predispositions. Accordingly, dogs housed there are normally included in training courses to increase the skills to be used in different human social contexts, like support to the inmates, rescue in the rubble, animal-assisted interventions, as well as zooanthropology educational programs. The main strength for this groundbreaking shelter relies on the environmental protection schedule, where the purposes, employing technically and economically sustainable tools, point towards the continuous improvement and minimization of the environmental impact, promoting joint integrative projects for a sustainable One Health framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; spinal cord injury; disability; stroke; well-being; social isolation
Online: 5 May 2022 (12:35:32 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 restrictions impacted Canadians' daily living, especially those at higher risk of compromised health conditions. This study aimed to describe the physical, psychological, and social well-being of adults with disabilities, and older adults from May to June 2020. An online survey was used to administer standardized measures of mobility, anxiety and depression, boredom, resilience, technology readiness, social support, social networks, and participation. Seventy-two participants were recruited, with a mean age (SD) of 61.2 (13.8). 69.4% of participants had a disability, and 51.4% were older adults. 27.8% and 16.7% of participants exceeded the anxiety and depression cut-off scores, respectively. Boredom and restriction in participation were experienced by 76.4% and 80.1% of participants, respectively. Participants' mean (SD) resilience and life space scores were 72.4 (14.0) and 51.9 (24.0), respectively. Individuals with disabilities have comparatively higher mean anxiety (5.5 to 3.3), depression (4.8 to 2.9), and boredom (92.2 to 72.3) scores than those without. Individuals with a disability had lower resilience (69.9 to 78.0) and felt more life space restrictions (45.4 to 67.6). Our findings revealed issues with anxiety, boredom, participation, and life space activity. This information may provide supporting evidence when creating policies to mitigate existent health and social inequities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Adolescent girls; Immigrant; Sexuality; Girls Voices; Well-being; Psychological Health; Pakistani
Online: 4 April 2022 (10:30:02 CEST)
The sexual health needs of female immigrant adolescents in Canada have been largely unmet and have increased in magnitude over the last few years. Evidence suggests that immigrant adolescents lack sexual and reproductive health knowledge and use fewer sexual health-related services and sex education resources than do non-immigrant youth. In Pakistani immigrant adolescents, this difference appears to be associated with socio-cultural and religious practices. This paper aims to describe how first-or-second generation Pakistani-descent female adolescents, living in Canada, describe their perspectives on developing sexuality and well-being. In addition, this paper explicates female adolescents’ perceptions of their needs to support their sexuality while going through the adolescence stage. Using a qualitative interpretive descriptive design, individual interviews were conducted in combination with drawing timelines. A purposive sample of 21 female adolescents who were first- or second-generation Pakistani-descent was obtained. A thematic analysis approach was used for data analysis. Findings suggest that immigrant female adolescents encounter mental health concerns as a result of confusing messages they received from their parents related to sexuality. Also, discrimination, exclusion from sex education classes, and lack of knowledge on sexual health can result in social exclusion, avoidance of health care, and poor mental health outcomes such as depression and anxiety. These participants related experiences are potentially contributed by the lack of communication with parents about sexuality and lack of health care providers who can understand and speak to their needs and realities as immigrant individuals. Female adolescents expressed their need to break the silence around the topic of sexuality, to have a non-judgemental and blame-free attitude from adults, and for open, honest, and stigma-free conversations. This study provides preliminary qualitative evidence of the interplay between experiences of developing sexuality and overall well-being, particularly psychological wellbeing in female adolescent immigrants. It is crucial to involve, listen to, and incorporate adolescent girls’ voices when planning and implementing interventions to support healthy sexuality among immigrant adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0408.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Cauchy problem; The generalized Navier-Stokes-Coriolis equation; Global well-posedness
Online: 22 November 2021 (15:03:54 CET)
We studies the initial value problem for the fractional Navier-Stokes-Coriolis equations, which obtained by replacing the Laplacian operator in the Navier-Stokes-Coriolis equation by the more general operator $(-\Delta)^\alpha$ with $\alpha>0$. We introduce function spaces of the Besove type characterized by the time evolution semigroup associated with the general linear Stokes-Coriolis operator. Next, we establish the unique existence of global in time mild solutions for small initial data belonging to our function spaces characterized by semigroups in both the scaling subcritical and critical settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Well placement; CO2-EGS; water-EGS; Discrete fracture networks; THM modeling
Online: 12 October 2021 (12:40:20 CEST)
Well placement optimization in a given geological setting for a fractured geothermal reservoir is a prerequisite for enhanced geothermal operations. High computational cost associated in the framework of fully coupled thermo-hydraulic-mechanical (THM) processes in a fractured reservoir simulation, makes the well positioning as a missing point in developing a field scale investigation. Here, in this study, we shed light on this topic through examining different injection-production well (doublet) position in a given real fracture network. Water and CO2 are used as working fluids for geothermal operations and importance of well positions are examined using coupled THM numerical simulations for both the fluids. Results of this study are examined through the thermal breakthrough time, mass flux and the energy extraction potential to assess the impact of well position in a two-dimensional reservoir framework. Almost ten times of the difference between the final amount of heat extraction is observed for different well position but with the same well spacing and geological characteristics. Furthermore, stress field is be a strong function of well position that is important with respect to the possibility of unwanted stress development. As part of the MEET project, this study recommends to perform similar well placement optimization study for each fracture set in a fully coupled THM manner before a field well drilling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0646.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: WHO-5 Well-being; COVID-19; social distancing; preventive measures; Vietnam
Online: 25 March 2021 (16:35:46 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictive measures implemented may considerably affect people’s lives. This study aimed to assess the well-being of Vietnamese people after COVID-19 lockdown measures were lifted and life gradually returned to normal. An online survey was organized from 21st to 25th April 2020 among Vietnamese residents aged 18 and over. Besides collecting socio-demographic and COVID-19-related data, the WHO-5 Well-Being Index (scored 0–25) was used to score participants’ well-being. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of well-being. A total of 1922 responses were analyzed (mean age: 31 years; 30.5% male). Mean well-being score was 17.35±4.97. Determinants of high well-being score (≥13) included older age, eating healthy food, practising physical exercise, working from home, and adhering to the COVID-19 preventive measures. Female participants, persons worried about their relatives’ health, and smokers were more likely to have a low well-being score. In conclusion, after the lockdown measures were lifted, the Vietnamese people continued to follow COVID-19 preventive measures and most of them scored high on the well-being scale. Waiting to achieve large scale COVID-19 vaccine coverage, promoting preventive COVID-19 measures remains important, together with strategies to guarantee the well-being of the Vietnamese people.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; health literacy; information sharing; family well-being; preventive measures
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:40:50 CET)
Objective: We tested a model of individual health literacy information sharing with family members, personal preventive behaviours and family well-being during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Hong Kong. Methods: We analysed data of 1501 randomly selected Chinese adults from a cross-sectional survey in Hong Kong from 9 to 23 April, 2020. Individual health literacy about COVID-19 with the items extracted from the questionnaire in World Health Organization Risk Communication and Community Engagement (RCCE) Action Plan Guidance for COVID-19 preparedness and response, COVID-19 information sharing with family members, preventive behaviours against COVID-19 and family well-being were measured. Structural equation modelling analysis tested the proposed model. Findings: COVID-19 information sharing with family members partially mediated the association between individual health literacy and personal preventive behaviours. The direct eﬀect of 0.24 was shown, and the indirect eﬀect through COVID-19 information sharing with family members was small at 0.03 (Z = 3.66, p < 0.001). Family well-being was associated with personal preventive behaviours against COVID-19. The model was adjusted for sex, age, and socioeconomic status factors and had good ﬁt with RMSEA = 0.04, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.96, and SRMR = 0.02. Conclusion: COVID-19 information sharing with family members was a partial mediator between individual health literacy and personal preventive behaviours against COVID-19. Strategies for enhancing health literacy and preventive measures against COVID-19 are needed to promote family well-being in the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0219.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: women; health; psycho-emotional well-being; factors; attitudes towards parents; attachment
Online: 9 December 2020 (11:10:52 CET)
The present study is aimed to determine the predicting role of objective (lifestyle) and subjective factors of middle-aged women’s psycho-emotional health such as their attitude towards parents, attachment and separation types. Women who are overloaded with professional and family roles have high stress level, their indicators of psychological well-being and emotional level decrease when they have to give everyday care to their elderly parents. (2) Methods: Sample consists of 146 women aged 38 to 56 ( =41.1, ó=3.5), married (70.5%) and divorced (29.5%), having children of 14-28 years old; giving everyday care to elderly parents for more than 1.5 yrs. Some live separately (62.3 %), or have to cohabitate with parents (37.7%). All women evaluate their life situation as difficult and manifest signs of high psycho-emotional stress. We used methods adapted for the Russian-speaking sample: getting socio-demographic information, an interview; Attachment style and Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaires (study 1); Psychological Separation Inventory, Purpose-in-Life Test, projective methods of incomplete sentences and metaphors` analysis (study 2), mathematical statistics. (3) Results: A number of factors and indicators of women`s psycho-emotional health decrease in the situation of role overload have been identified. Among the factors there are four main types of women’s attitudes towards parents: strong (anxious), distancing, ambivalent, normative closeness, predicting low indicators of psycho-emotional health: dependence on the others` opinions and feedbacks in making decisions, a lack of meaningfulness of life; reduced sense of control over life are showing the decrease. Anxiety about future and neurotic symptoms (increased demands on oneself, irritability, reduced emotional background) distinguish these respondents. (4) Conclusions: The study confirms that middle-aged Russian women`s psycho-emotional health depends on contextual factors (difficult role-overloaded lifestyle) and factors integrating women`s attitudes towards parents, attachment and separation types. Among the most important risk factors there are a difficult life situation, conflict separation type and gilt.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0726.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: horizontal well; pulsed gravel packing; completion; solid-liquid two-phase flow
Online: 30 November 2020 (12:03:31 CET)
Gravel packing completion method for horizontal wells has the advantages of maintaining high oil production for a long time, maintaining wellbore stability and preventing sand production, so it has become the preferred completion method for horizontal wells. At present, this technology still faces the problems of high sand bed height and poor gravel migration. In order to improve the efficiency of gravel packing in horizontal wells, pulsed gravel packing technology for horizontal wells is proposed for the first time. Based on the mechanism of hydraulic pulse, the Eularian model, RNG K-ε model and CFD model are used to simulate the solid-liquid two-phase flow. By optimizing the parameters such as frequency and amplitude of pulse waveform, the optimal pulse waveform of pulsed gravel packing in horizontal wells is determined. The effects of parameters such as sand-carrying fluid displacement, sand-carrying fluid viscosity, sand-carrying ratio, gravel particle size and string eccentricity on pulsed gravel packing in horizontal wells are studied, and the distribution law of gravel migration velocity and volume fraction in horizontal wells is obtained. According to the results, it can be seen that with the increase of displacement and viscosity of carrier fluid, the volume fraction of fixed bed and moving bed decreases gradually, while that of suspension bed increases gradually. With the increase of sand-carrying ratio, gravel particle size and string eccentricity, the volume fraction of fixed bed and moving bed increases gradually, while that of suspended bed decreases gradually. Comparing the effects of conventional gravel packing and pulsed gravel packing in horizontal wells, it can be concluded that the efficiency of pulsed gravel packing in horizontal wells is higher. The volume fraction of fixed bed and moving bed decreased by 30% and 40% respectively, while the volume fraction of suspended bed increased by 20%. The migration velocity of moving bed and suspended bed increased by 40% and 25% respectively. And the migration ability of gravel improved obviously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0135.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: Pannonian Basin; fractured reservoir; well-log; DFN modelling; fluid inclusion chemostratigraphy
Online: 5 September 2020 (09:31:16 CEST)
Numerous fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs exist in the metamorphic basement of the Pannonian Basin in Hungary. Many decades of experience in production have proven that these reservoirs are highly compartmentalised, resulting in a complex mosaic of permeable and impermeable domains situated next to each other. Consequently, in most fields, only a small amount of the total hydrocarbon reserve can be extracted. This paper aims to locate the potential migration pathways inside the most productive basement reservoir of the Pannonian Basin, using a multiscale approach. To achieve this, evaluation well-log data, DFN modelling and a composition analysis of fluid trapped in a vein-filling zeolite phase are combined. Data on a single well are presented as an example. The results of the three approaches indicate the presence of two highly fractured intervals separated by a barely fractured amphibolite. The two zones are probably part of the communicating fracture system inside the single metamorphic mass. The gas analysis further specifies the migrated fluids and indicates hydrocarbons of a composition similar to that of the recently produced oil. Consequently, we conclude that the two zones do not only form an ancient migration pathway but are also members of a more recent hydrocarbon system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0332.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; Tokyo Olympics 2020; Happiness; Subjective well-being; OMOTENASHI; JAPAN
Online: 15 August 2020 (03:55:01 CEST)
The 2020 Tokyo Olympics has been postponed due to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The implications for industries related to the Olympics—tourism, hotels and restaurants, and others—are expected to be affected by reduced demand. Japanese workers in these industries were prepared to offer their hospitality to visitors from around the world. They would be satisfied from not only an increase in income but also in offering visitors a taste of Tokyo’s great hospitality if the Olympics had been held in 2020. However, postponement of the sporting event is likely to have a significant impact on their happiness level. We independently collected individual-level panel data from March to April 2020. Based on this, we found that the happiness level of workers in the tourism and restaurant sectors declined drastically after the announcement of the postponement. Only two weeks later, their happiness level did not alter from the pre-announcement level. This tendency was strongly observed in Tokyo and the surrounding prefectures, but not in other prefectures. However, workers engaged in the tourism and restaurant sectors did not predict a decrease in their income even after the postponement. Combined, these findings indicate that loss of extending hospitality, rather than reduction in income, temporarily reduces the happiness level of workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0269.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: L.pneumophila, well water, tap water, ice cubes, hospital water, hotel water
Online: 14 September 2018 (14:24:40 CEST)
Background Legionella pneumophila is one of the causes of legionellosis. Water environments serve as the natural habitat and the main sources of Legionella pneumophila. Objectives The aims of this study was to understand the differences of Legionella pneumophila serogroups distribution in well water, tap water, ice cubes, hospital and hotel water in East Java-Indonesia. Methods a total of 60 water samples in east java-Indonesia; from well water (n=25), tap water (n=5), ice cubes (n=5), water from the hospital (n=16), and hotel water (n=9) were detected using polymerase chain reaction with mip gene spesific primers and then it was analyzed by phylogenetic tree. Results For the 60 water samples collected in East Java, 12% of the samples (7/60) were positively contaminated by L. pneumophila. In details, there was 8% of the well water samples (2/25), 2% of the tap water samples (1/5), 2% of the ice cubes samples (1/5), 0% of the hospital water samples (0/16) and 33.33% of the hotel water samples (3/9). The phylogenetic tree showed that Legionella pneumophila contaminating well water isolate 1 from Surabaya and tap water isolate from Sidoarjo was closer to L.pneumophila serogroup 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, isolates from Brazil, China, Spain and Australia. L.pneumophila contaminating the ice cubes from Sidoarjo was closer to serogroup 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, while the bacteria contaminating well water isolate 2 from Sidoarjo as well as water in hotel of Surabaya (hotel water isolate 1, 2 and 3) classified into their own group. Conclusion There is a difference in the distribution of L. pneumophila serogroups between well water, tap water, ice cubes, and hotels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0120.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: Transgender, non-binary gender identity, adolescence, health, well-being, gender nonconforming
Online: 6 September 2018 (15:31:10 CEST)
Purpose: Young transgender and non-binary are exposed to situations of discrimination and have a greater risk of violence. The purpose of this study is to analyze which protective, violence and health and well-being factors have more influence on transgender and non-binary people compared to cisgender people. Method: The sample comprised 856 people between 14 and 25 years old. A survey including questions about sociodemographic information and protective, violence and health and well-being factors was designed ad hoc for this study. Results: The results show non-binary group received the least support from family and friends, higher risk of suffering cyberbullying and a higher feel isolated and unhappy. Non-binary and transgender have suffered more verbal attacks both inside and outside their school and physical attacks at school than cisgender young. Conclusions: These results are important and may contribute to promote public policies and clinical interventions to favor the integration of non-binary and transgender people in our society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0105.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: ICT; sensors; well-being; family-centred design; healthy lifestyle; family time
Online: 5 July 2018 (16:34:20 CEST)
Within the Active Living and Well-Being Project (RRP3), funded by the Republic of Slovenia and the European Regional Development Fund Investing in Your Future programme, we aim to develop different approaches and prototypes to provide ICT solutions for the family in order to connect its members, communicate, promote quality family time, active life, a health-friendly lifestyle and well-being, and integrate various sensor and user-based data sources into a smart city ecosystem platform. A mixed methodology, combined qualitative and quantitative approaches, was selected to conduct a study. An online survey with a structured questionnaire as well as semi-structured interviews were performed. Through the analysis of the results we tried to establish a family-centred design approach that would be inclusive as much as possible, creating benefits for all generations in order to develop interactive prototypes that would allow us to further test and verify different use-case scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0385.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: hedonic well-being; utilitarianism; machine ethics; attitudinal hedonism; subjective desire satisfactionism
Online: 28 May 2018 (06:10:04 CEST)
Formally specifying hedonic well-being is difficult, but relevant to utilitarian theories of morality. In this paper we describe a starting point based on attitudinal hedonism, which posits that hedonic well-being is determined by the extent to which a moral patient believes her preferences to be fulfilled. While this assumption probably does not capture the sought-out notion of well-being fully, our formalization seems to be relevant first step towards more satisfactory definition of hedonic well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0052.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Burkina Faso, Economic Well-Being, Gender inequality, Literacy status, Sample Selection
Online: 7 March 2018 (09:27:26 CET)
This paper models the factors explaining households members economic well-being in Burkina Faso, with a focus on the relative influence of gender inequality in literacy status. It does so, using data from the 2014 survey on household living conditions and a semi-parametric bi-variate sample selection modeling approach. This approach compared to the classic Heckman two-step estimator is methodologically innovative because it deals simultaneously with non-random sample selection using conventional systems of two equations, non-linear covariates' effects using spline approach, and the non-normal bivariate distribution using copula functions. The graphical results from the Lorenz curves combined with the numerical Atkinson and Gini coefficients suggest that inequality in overall per-capita consumption spending among households headed by literates is higher than that of their illiterate counterparts in 2009 and 2014. However, independently of the head of household’s literacy status, the level of inequality in total economic well-being decreased from 2009 to 2014. Using the poverty indices of Watts, Sen, Foster ( alpha= 1)) we found that poverty among households headed by literates is lower than that of their illiterates counterparts for both years, although overall poverty decreased nationally between 2009 and 2014. The results also show that although the gender inequality in literacy status does not translate into inequalities in non-food wellness, it does however for food-wellness as female headed households have 38.9% less per-capita food consumption spending than their men counterparts. Combining both food and non-food consumption spending, total economic well-being also seems to exhibit gender inequality as female headed households now have relatively 26.7% less combined per-capita consumption spending.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0087.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: well-posedness; asymptotic stability; infinite memory; Cattaneo's law; time-varying delay
Online: 19 January 2017 (10:53:04 CET)
In this paper, we study a one-dimensional Bresse-Cattaneo system with infinite memories and time-dependent delay term (the coefficient of which is not necessarily positive) in the internal feedbacks. First, it is proved that the system is well-posed by means of the Hille-Yosida theorem under suitable assumptions on the relaxation functions. Then, without any restriction on the speeds of wave propagations, we establish the exponential or general decay result by introducing suitable energy and Lyapunov functionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0093.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: game-based learning; learning practicies; learning with mobility; oncological treatment; well-being
Online: 5 July 2021 (11:45:18 CEST)
The use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in education brings up new possibilities of promoting the learning and health experiences. In this sense, education contexts of 21st century must consider these two areas of knowledge, especially their integration. This article presents learning practices developed with mobile devices and games, in order to improve learning and well-being in children and adolescents undergoing cancer treatment in non-formal educational setting. The methodology is based on qualitative case studies with content-based data analysis, involving informal interviews and observation methods. The study considers data from 5 patients who participated in the research between 2015 and 2019. The results demonstrate a positive influence of the practices with mobile technologies and games in terms of learning and in the well-being feeling of patients during the treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0323.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: biophilia; biophilic design; sustainability; sustainable architecture; built environment; well-being; restorative environment
Online: 28 July 2019 (17:24:11 CEST)
Can ‘restoration and therapy in design’ signify something more than the places like hospitals and healing gardens? Can those restorative environments be brought inside the working and living environments to mitigate the psychological problem at the source? The main objective of this paper is to look at the strategies and developments of Biophilic design with respect to therapy and restoration in order to achieve sustainability in terms of quality of life within the immediate built-environment. The paper explores the mental health issues under the domains of built-environment and indoor environment with respect to their connection with nature. Biophilic design has gained a favourable momentum within the last four decades and is now visualised as a medium that bridges the gap between humans and the nature. Out of a variety of measures of sustainable environmental design, biophilic design focuses on the end-results of naturally nurtured or inspired habitats and workplaces. It embodies strategies of Green and Intelligent buildings, works as a mitigation strategy for foul indoor environment and establishes the vision that veristic sustainability can only be achieved if there is qualitative control over human physiological prosperity and psychological health. In context of work efficiency, preference and productivity within the indoor environment, it is seen as a promoter of constructive thoughts and enhancer of creativity. The paper aims to enlist biophilic design and retrofitting strategies, which can improve cognitive function, reduce stress and provide mental peace within the built environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0030.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: occupational stress; job burden-capital model; structural equation model; depression; well-being
Online: 4 August 2016 (12:47:57 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to identify the association between occupational stress and depression-well-being by proposing a comprehensive and flexible job burden-capital model with its corresponding hypotheses. Methods: For this research, 1618 valid samples were gathered from the electronic manufacturing service industry in Hunan Province, China; self-rated questionnaires were administered to participants for data collection after obtaining their written consent. The proposed model was fitted and tested through structural equation model analysis. Results: Single-factor correlation analysis results indicated that coefficients between all items and dimensions had statistical significance. The final model demonstrated satisfactory global goodness of fit (CMIN/DF=5.37, AGFI=0.915, NNFI=0.945, IFI=0.952, RMSEA=0.052). Both the measurement and structural models showed acceptable path loadings. Job burden and capital were directly associated with depression and well-being or indirectly related to them through personality. Multi-group structural equation model analyses indicated general applicability of the proposed model to basic features of such a population. Gender, marriage and education led to differences in the relation between occupational stress and health outcomes. Conclusions: The job burden-capital model of occupational stress-depression and well-being was found to be more systematic and comprehensive than previous models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0226.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: rotating systems; double-well potential; inertia force; minimal thermal engine; Landauer bound; symmetry.
Online: 12 November 2021 (14:50:51 CET)
Minimal rotating thermodynamic systems are addressed. Particle m placed into the rotating symmetrical double-well potential (bowl), providing binary logical system is considered. The condition providing the transfer of the particle from one frictionless half-well to another, and in this way possibility to record 1 bit of information is derived. The procedure of recording turns out to be irreversible; it is impossible to return the particle to its initial state under rotation about the same axis. The same rotating double-well system exerted to the thermal noise is considered. Minimal rotating thermal engine built of the rotating chamber, movable partition and the particle confined within the chamber is treated. Rotation of the system displaces the partition; thus, enabling erasing of one bit information. Erasing of 1 bit of information is due to the inertia (centrifugal force) acting on the partition. Isothermal expansion of the “minimal gas” expectedly gives rise to the Landauer bound. Compression of the “gas” with the rotation around the same axis is impossible and demands the additional axis of rotation. The interrelation between the possibility of recording/erasing information and the symmetry of the system is considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0495.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: pandemic; lockdown; physical activity; exercise; sport; well-being; dietary behavior; quality of life
Online: 19 March 2021 (08:59:58 CET)
Adolescents’ daily life has dramatically changed during the COVID-19 era due to the social restrictions that have been imposed, including closures of schools, leisure centers and sport facilities. The purpose of this study was to examine levels of well-being and mood and their relations with physical (in)-activity and eating behaviors in adolescents during a lockdown period in Greece. A total of 950 adolescents (Mean Age = 14.41years ± 1.63) participated in a web-based survey while education was online and organized sport activities were interrupted. Participants showed poor well-being, insufficient physical activity levels and moderate scores of healthy eating behavior. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that, after controlling for the effect of gender and body mass index, increased physical activity and healthier eating behavior predicted better well-being, whereas sedentariness predicted worse well-being. Furthermore, it was revealed that days of physical activity per week was a stronger predictor of well-being than minutes of physical activity per week, and that both in-house and out-of-house physical activity were beneficial. Considering that well-being was below the threshold recommended by the WHO as indicative of possible depressive symptoms, measures to increase physical activity and improve eating behavior should become a priority for communities and policy makers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Covid-19 perception; general well-being; orthopaedic patients; gender; pandemic; socio-economic issues.
Online: 2 March 2021 (12:34:50 CET)
This observational study aims to depict the impact of gender and socio-economic issues on the health status of Italian Orthopaedic patients during the COVID-19 lockdown. An Ad Hoc ques-tionnaire was developed and online administered. The following data were extracted from the questionnaire: age, body mass index (BMI), education level, distance from hospital, orthopaedic disease, concomitant medical comorbidities, living status (with/without cohabitants) and physical activity level (according to Tegner Activity Scale). The impact of the COVID-19 lockdown was studied analyzing differences related to the above-mentioned parameters. A significant increase of the call number to general practitioner and to the orthopaedic surgeon was observed during the COVID-lockdown, especially in patients with higher education level. Nonetheless, a reduced compliance in drugs assumption was observed in patients with higher education level during lockdown (p=0.007). Almost all the analyzed items were significantly in-fluenced by the distance between patient’s domicile and the nearest hospital. However, no sig-nificant differences were observed comparing pre-COVID to COVID lockdown. In the present study patients’ gender and education level revealed a significant impact on the social behavior during the COVID lockdown, compared with the pre-COVID period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0314.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: community health; rural Latino immigrants; mental well-being; network analysis; spatial statistics; intervention
Online: 23 May 2018 (07:40:58 CEST)
Social and spatial characteristics of a population often interact to influence health outcomes, suggesting a need to jointly analyze both to offer useful insights in community health. However, researchers have used either social or spatial analyses to examine community-based health issues and inform intervention programs. We propose a combined socio-spatial analytic approach to develop a social network with spatial weights and a spatial statistic with social weights, and apply them to an ongoing study of mental and physical well-being of rural Latino immigrants in North Florida, USA. We demonstrate how this approach can be used to calculate measures, such as social network centrality, support contact dyads, and spatial kernel density based on a health survey data. Findings reveal that the integrated approach accurately reflected interactions between social and spatial elements, and identified community members (who) and locations (where) that should be prioritized for community-based health interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0125.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: wellbore pressure analysis; equivalent circulating density; geothermal well; wellbore temperature distribution; mathematical modeling
Online: 27 January 2017 (03:10:16 CET)
The accurate wellbore pressure control not only prevents from lost circulation/blowout and fracturing formation by managing density of drilling fluid, but also improves productivity by mitigating reservoir damage. The geothermal pressure calculated by constant parameters for geothermal well would bring big error easily, as the changes of physical, rheological and thermal properties of drilling fluids with temperature were neglected. This paper researches the wellbore pressure coupling by calculating the temperature distribution with existed model, fitting the rule of density of drilling fluid with temperature and establishing mathematical models to stimulate the wellbore pressures, which is expressed as the variation of Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD) under different conditions. With this method, temperature and ECDs in the wellbore of the first medium-deep geothermal well ZK212 Yangyi Geothermal Field in Tibet were determined, and the sensitivity analysis was simulated by assumed parameters, i.e. circulating time, flow rate, geothermal gradient, diameters of wellbore, rheological models and regimes, the results indicated the geothermal gradient and flow rate were the most influence parameters on the temperature and ECD distribution, and additives added in drilling fluid should be careful which would change the properties of drilling fluid and induce the temperature redistribution. To make sure the safe drilling, velocity of pipes tripping into the hole, depth and diameter of wellbore are considered to control the surge pressure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0331.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Robot-based activities; hospitalized children; psychological health; well-being; CoderBot; positive emotion; single-setting
Online: 24 May 2022 (10:16:05 CEST)
Being hospitalized is a threatening and stressful experience for many children. From a psychological point of view, children may experience increased feelings of anxiety and fear that can negatively interfere with behavioral, cognitive, and emotional outcomes. To limit these impacts on children's well-being and mental health, interventions that could contribute to protecting the emotional domain of hospitalized children are welcomed. The present research reported a single-setting case study intervention to evaluate the impact of educational play-based activity with a CoderBot robot in a pediatric short-term recovery ward (N=61). The methodology included multiple sources of data (i.e., children, parents, nurses), observations on the field, and a sequential (quantitative-qualitative) mixed-method approach to data analysis. Results supported the idea that robot-based activities were associated with increased participant well-being (particularly positive emotions). The conclusions of this pilot study discuss the strengths, limitations, and further developments of using robots with hospitalized children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: teacher burnout; well-being; self-control; positive emotionality; professional experience; psychological profile; COVID-19
Online: 2 August 2021 (15:32:37 CEST)
Teacher burnout has been revealed to be one of the most common negative consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic The purpose of this study was to identify distinct psychological resources and burnout risk profiles of teachers and to examine their association with Kolb’s Educator Roles and the professional experience. Methods: The survey data were collected from 330 preschool and primary school (84 males, Mage = 38.3, SD = 9.14) teachers using a convenience sampling method. Results: The two-step cluster analysis revealed two distinct profiles. The first profile, ‘High psychological resources, no burnout risk’, was characterised by absent symptoms of burnout and increased levels of well-being, self-control, and positive emotionality. The second profile, ‘Moderate psychological resources, mild burnout’, was associated with medium levels of well-being, self-control and positive emotionality accompanied by mild burnout. Our findings highlighted that cluster 1 had a significantly higher score for the Facilitator role and cluster 2 for the Expert and Coach roles. In addition, teachers with less professional experience were more likely to belong to cluster 1, taking into account their good skills on digital literacy. Conclusions: These findings help to provide new insights into the explanation of teacher burnout and the design of intervention programmes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0433.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Climate change; loss and damage; human well-being; marginal salt farmers; adaptation; vulnerability; Bangladesh
Online: 19 May 2021 (07:58:13 CEST)
In recent years in Bangladesh, there has been regular cyclonic event, flooding and erratic pre-monsoons precipitation that has hampered production greatly and forced Bangladesh to import salt from abroad to manage market deficiency. There is much uncertainty about the effects of climate change on the frequency and intensity of small-scale, sudden onset weather phenomena such as heavy rainfall and subsequent loss and damage (L&D). But, several studies indicate that an obvious strong relationship exists between irregular rainfall and associated L&D. Nowadays, severe changing rainfall patterns are observed in Bangladesh, which is rapid-onset in nature, but low exposed in terms of response. The current study explored a ‘double-exposed’ burden combined of both climatic (e.g., uneven rainfall) and non-climatic governance factors (e.g., imperfect trade policy, the absence of risk transfer mechanisms) which are hindering salt production and pushing the country from the aspiration of salt exporting to the net buyer. This chapter mainly assesses the impacts of L&D due to climatic events that are causing overwhelming effects on the well-being of marginal salt farmers at Kutubdia Upazila of Bangladesh. Data were mainly collected through Participatory Vulnerability Analysis (PVA), Key informant interviews (KII), and Sample Surveys (SS). This study would provide insights for improved disaster management policy and an appropriate adaptive measure to address such extreme events as well as to initiate a further study for understanding the nexus of ‘nature and market’ in building resilience among the marginal salt farmers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0787.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: body image; healthy diet; weight-related stigma; subjective well-being; excessive weight; cluster analysis
Online: 31 March 2021 (17:35:50 CEST)
This study explored intraindividual multidimensional profiles integrating psychosocial factors, namely, body image and satisfaction, weight-related self-stigma, positivity, and happiness, and behavioural-lifestyle factors, namely, adherence to a healthy diet, among Spanish adults with overweight or obesity. We further aimed to investigate the association of excess weight (i.e., measured body mass index, BMI) with the abovementioned multidimensional configurations. A convenience sample of adult individuals with excessive weight completed self-reports regarding the study variables, and their weight and height were measured. With a perspective centered on the individual, a cluster analysis established three distinct intraindividual psychosocial and diet-related profiles: a group of healthy individuals with excess weight; a group of individuals who were negatively affected by their excessive weight and showed the most distressed profile; and a group of dysfunctional individuals who seemed to be excessively unrealistic and optimistic regarding their excessive weight and unhealthy lifestyles. Furthermore, individuals in the affected cluster had higher obesity. The results showed that there are specific psychosocial and lifestyle profiles in the adult population with excess weight and that there are relationships among psychological, behavioural, and body-composition factors. For clinical application purposes, it is important to account for the heterogeneity within individuals who are obese and to individualize the interventions, with a focus from weight change to individual's overall well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0198.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: body image; healthy diet; weight-related stigma; subjective well-being; excessive weight; cluster analysis
Online: 5 March 2021 (21:27:00 CET)
This study explored intraindividual multidimensional profiles integrating psychosocial factors, namely, body image and satisfaction, weight-related self-stigma, positivity, and happiness, and behavioural-lifestyle factors, namely, adherence to a healthy diet, among Spanish adults with overweight or obesity. We further aimed to investigate the association of excess weight (i.e., measured body mass index, BMI) with the abovementioned multidimensional configurations. A convenience sample of adult individuals with excessive weight completed self-reports regarding the study variables, and their weight and height were measured. With a perspective centred on the individual, a cluster analysis established three distinct intraindividual psychosocial and diet-related profiles: a group of healthy individuals with excess weight; a group of individuals who were negatively affected by their excessive weight and showed the most distressed profile; and a group of dysfunctional individuals who seemed to be excessively unrealistic and optimistic regarding their excessive weight and unhealthy lifestyles. Furthermore, individuals in the affected cluster had higher obesity. The results showed that there are specific psychosocial and lifestyle profiles in the adult population with excess weight and that there are relationships among psychological, behavioural, and body-composition factors. For clinical application purposes, it is important to account for the heterogeneity within individuals who are obese.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0265.v1
Subject: Keywords: urban greenspace; sustainable city; urban forest management; psychological well-being; mental health; stress relief
Online: 13 October 2020 (09:31:06 CEST)
The construction of sustainable urban forests follows the principle that well-being in people is promoted when exposed to tree population. Facial expression is the direct representation of inner emotion that can be used to assess real-time perception in urban forests. The emergence and change of facial expressions for forest visitors are in an implicit process. The reserved character of oriental races strengthens the requirement for the accuracy to recognize expressions through instrument rating. In this study, a dataset was established with 2,886 randomly photographed faces from visitors in a constructed urban forest park and a promenade at summertime in Shenyang City at Northeast China. Six experts were invited to choose 160 photos in total with 20 images representing one of eight typical expressions as angry, contempt, disgusted, happy, neutral, sad, scared, and surprised emotions. The FireFACE ver. 3.0 software was used to test hit-ratio validation as the accuracy (ac.) to match machine-recognized photos with those identified by experts. According to Kruskal-Wallis test on the difference from averaged scores in 20 recently published papers, contempt (ac.=0.40%, P=0.0038) and scared (ac.=25.23%, P=0.0018) expressions cannot pass the validation test. Therefore, the FireFACE can be used as an instrument to analyze facial expression from oriental people in urban forests but contempt and scared expressions cannot be identified.
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: randomness; fluctuations; double well; bistability; finite heat bath; relaxation; irreversibility; chaos; spin-boson model
Online: 3 September 2020 (06:09:08 CEST)
We construct a microscopic model to study discrete randomness in bistable systems coupled to an environment comprising many degrees of freedom. A quartic double well is bilinearly coupled to a finite number N of harmonic oscillators. Solving the time-reversal invariant Hamiltonian equations of motion numerically, we show that for N=1, the system exhibits a transition with increasing coupling strength from integrable to chaotic motion, following the KAM scenario. Raising N to values of the order of 10 and higher, the dynamics crosses over to a quasi-relaxation, approaching either one of the stable equilibria at the two minima of the potential. We corroborate the irreversibility of this relaxation on other characteristic timescales of the system by recording the time dependences of autocorrelation, partial entropy, and the frequency of jumps between the wells as functions of N and other parameters. Preparing the central system in the unstable equilibrium at the top of the barrier and the bath in a random initial state drawn from a Gaussian distribution, symmetric under spatial reflection, we demonstrate that the decision whether to relax into the left or the right well is determined reproducibly by residual asymmetries in the initial positions and momenta of the bath oscillators. This result reconciles the randomness and spontaneous symmetry breaking of the asymptotic state with the conservation of entropy under canonical transformations and the manifest symmetry of potential and initial condition of the bistable system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0008.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Copula Regression; ICT resources; Middle East; Spatial Analysis; Students Well-being; Sustainable Development Goals
Online: 2 July 2020 (13:18:03 CEST)
Target 9.c of the 2015 United Nations (UN) sustainable development goals (SDGs) specifically addresses increasing access to information and communication technology (ICT) resources, and striving for universal access to the internet by 2020. The present study seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of the youth related national strategies implemented in this regard by a select number of countries in the Middle East region. The study does so, by relying on a spatial bivariate copula regression analysis of data on youth respondents from five countries, extracted from the 2018 Program for international students’ assessment (PISA). Focusing specifically on evaluating the availability of ICT resources to the youth population, and also identifying the impact of ICT resources on youth subjective well-being in the region, we find that except for the UAE and Qatar that have above OECD average youth performance on the ICT resource index, youth from the remaining countries reported below OECD level average access to ICT resources. The within region cross-country comparative analysis of ICT resources availability to the youth population at home, also highlighted significant heterogeneity across the five countries, post 2015 SDG adoption by UN country members. Furthermore, looking at the impact of ICT resources on youth well-being, controlling for not only cross-country spatial correlations, and factors such as home educational resources, cultural possessions at home, parental occupation status, youth expected occupation status, economic and socio-cultural status, age, gender, and grade level in school; we found that every standard deviation increase in ICT resources to the youth population in the region raises their self-expressed sense of belonging in school by 1.88% standard deviations. Given the empowering nature of ICT resources to youth, and the potential of both to support national as well as regional economic development initiatives, a concerted effort to ease ICT resources diffusion by member countries in the middle east region could assist not only each country in its own development path, but also the region as a whole to live up to its growth potential by the 2030.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0195.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: EUR; shale; infill wells; (re)fracturing; pressure depletion; average well; Middle Bakken; Three Forks
Online: 19 August 2019 (12:56:57 CEST)
We replace the current industry-standard empirical forecasts of oil production from hydrofractured horizontal wells in shales with a statistically and physically robust, accurate and precise approach, using the Bakken shale as an illustration. The proposed oil production forecasting method extends our previous work on predicting fieldwide gas production in the Barnett shale and merges it with our new scaling of oil production in shales. We first divide the existing 14,678 horizontal oil wells in the Bakken into 12 static samples in which depositional settings and completion technologies are similar. For each sample, we construct a purely data-driven P50 well prototype by merging the GEV distribution fits of oil production from appropriate well cohorts. We fit the parameters of our physics-based scaling curve to the statistical well prototypes, and obtain their smooth extrapolations to 30 years on production. By calculating the number of potential wells of each Bakken region, and scheduling future drilling programs, we stack up the extended well prototypes to achieve the most plausible forecast. We predict that Bakken will ultimately produce 5 billion barrels of oil from the existing wells, with the possible increments of 2 and 6 billion barrels from core and noncore areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0067.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: laminated beam; Gurtin-Pipkin thermal law; well-posedness; exponential stability; lack of exponential stability
Online: 8 January 2018 (11:19:30 CET)
In this paper, we investigate the stabilization of a one-dimensional thermoelastic laminated beam with structural damping, coupled to a heat equation modeling an expectedly dissipative effect through heat conduction governed by Gurtin-Pipkin thermal law. Under some assumptions on the relaxation function g, we establish the well-posedness for the problem. Furthermore, we prove the exponential stability and lack of exponential stability for the problem. To achieve our goals, we make use of the semigroup method, the perturbed energy method and Gearhart-Herbst-Prüss-Huang theorem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0036.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Quantum Theory; Double Potential Well; Phase-Amplitude Relations; Wave Function; Conditions of Log Analytical Uncertainty
Online: 5 January 2022 (11:35:52 CET)
We study the connection between the phase and the amplitude of the wave function and the conditions under which this relationship exists. For this we use model of particle in a box. We have shown that the amplitude can be calculated from the phase and vice versa if the log Analytical uncertainty relations are satisfied.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0532.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Lifestyle; Diet; Physical activity; Stress; Smoking; Substance; Alcohol; Emotional well-being; Social connectedness
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:39:05 CET)
Background: The primary objective worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic has been controlling disease transmission. However, lockdown measures used to mitigate transmission have affected human behavior and altered lifestyles, with a likely impact on chronic non-communicable diseases. More than a year into the pandemic, substantial peer-reviewed literature has emerged on altered lifestyles following the varying lockdown measures imposed globally to control the virus spread. Objective: To explore the impact of lockdown measures on the six lifestyle factors, namely diet, physical activity, sleep, stress, social connectedness, and the use of tobacco, alcohol, or other harmful substances.Methods: We comprehensively searched PubMed and the World Health Organization’s global literature database on COVID-19 and retrieved 649 relevant articles for the narrative review. A critical interpretative synthesis of the articles was performed.Results: Most of the articles included in the review identified the negative effect of lockdown measures on each of the lifestyle factors in many parts of the world. Interestingly, encouraging lifestyle trends were also highlighted in a few articles. Such trends can positively influence the outcome of lifestyle-related chronic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes.Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic provides an opportunity to better understand the negative impact of strict lockdown measures on lifestyles. At the same time, it helps us identify and initiate positive behavioral changes, which, if consolidated, could improve chronic disease outcomes. It is up to governments, communities, and healthcare/academic entities to derive benefit from lessons learned from the pandemic, with the ultimate objective of better educating and promoting healthy lifestyles among communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: shale gas reservoir; stress sensitivity; multi-fractured horizontal well; spatially varying permeability; pressure transient analysis
Online: 14 August 2019 (09:22:26 CEST)
Shale gas reservoirs (SGR) are important replacements for conventional energy resources and have been widely exploited by hydraulic fracturing technologies. On the one hand, due to the inherent ultra-low permeability and porosity, there is stress sensitivity in the reservoirs generally. On the other hand, hydraulic fractures and the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) generated by the massive hydraulic fracturing operation have contrast properties with the original reservoirs. These two phenomena bring huge challenges in SGR transient pressure analysis. Although some works in the literatures have been done on the transient pressure analysis of multi-fractured horizontal wells in SGR, unfortunately, none of them has taken the stress sensitivity and spatially varying permeability of SRV zone into consideration simultaneously. To fill this gap, this paper first idealizes the SGR to be four linear composite regions. What’s more, SRV zone is further divided into sub-sections on the basis of non-uniform distribution of proppant within SRV zone which easily yields spatially varying permeability away from the main hydraulic fracture. The stress sensitivity is characterized by the varying permeability depended on the pore pressure. By means of perturbation transformation and Laplace transformation, an analytical multi-linear flow model (MLFM) is obtained and validated by the comparison with the previous model. On the basis of our model, the flow regimes are identified and the sensitivity analysis of critical parameters are conducted to further understand the transient pressure behaviors. The research results provided by this work are of significance for well test interpretation and production performance analysis of SGR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0094.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Keywords: vegetable cultivation; health; physical health; mental health; social well-being; qualitative study; adult; Japan
Online: 8 April 2019 (12:49:04 CEST)
The present short communication aimed to determine the effects of vegetable cultivation on health. We conducted a qualitative study using responses to an open-ended question that was part of a survey on regional differences on vegetable intake. Participants in this study were residents of Gunma Prefecture, Japan, and were aged between 20–74 years. In the questionnaire, we asked: “Aside from increasing vegetable intake, how does vegetable cultivation affect your health?” We were able to categorize the answers into six subcategories related to physical health, mental health, and social well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0336.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: domestic markets; small producers; retailers; informal restaurants; low-income population; minister of health; well-being
Online: 16 October 2018 (07:49:00 CEST)
Taking four of the United Nations Development Goals as reference, this overview describes the need to see from a systemic perspective, the food certifications programs along the food chain in Mexico as today food certifications are voluntary. Using secondary data, the main objectives were: a) there is a fall short in food safety policies and those federal agencies responsible for food safety, to guarantee safe food along the whole domestic food chain, especially in that for low income players; b) the amount of the Mexican Federal Budget Expenses devoted to safety food issues is really low, considering the health, well- being, and food security consequences; and c) due the structural heterogeneity of the Mexican food market, there is a lack of coordination in food regulations along all agents of the food supply chain, bringing to alternate informal markets that put at risk peoples´ health, increasing poverty and inequalities. According to this exercise, only 0.7- 8.7% of producers, 12.5% of supermarkets as well as 42.8% of restaurants would have some type of certifications. Public policies must attend this issue in order to improve food safety and security for the whole population, reducing inequalities, poverty and ensuring them a healthy live.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0517.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Psychosocial factors; Professional-private interplay; COVID-19 pandemic; well-being; Teachers, education; technostress; perceived organizational support
Online: 30 September 2021 (14:05:09 CEST)
The confinement experienced due to the COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a rethink of the teaching-learning process to which teachers have responded without planning and instead using their resources. This study aims to analyze the relationships between work-family interactions, technostress, and perceived organizational support in teachers during the confinement period in Spain that began in March 2020. An online survey was administered to 640 pre-school, primary, and secondary school teachers. Positive reciprocal work-family interactions and their relationship with organizational support were found, with differences according to gender, with women showing a more negative perception of the impact on the family. There were no marked levels of technostress in the overall sample, although higher levels of perceived ineffectiveness and skepticism were found in teachers aged 46 years or older. Teachers in private and subsidized schools showed a higher level of perceived support than those in public schools. There is a need to continue this work to verify the values of these dimensions in other contexts and to apply institutional measures and public policies to improve these indicators in this group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0316.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Horizontal well; Coal bed methane reservoir; Apparent permeability modulus; Pseudo-steady state diffusion; Pressure transient analysis
Online: 16 August 2021 (10:43:16 CEST)
Abstract: Coal bed methane (CBM) reservoirs are complex systems whose properties differ from those of conventional reservoirs. Coal seams are dual-porosity systems that comprise the porosities of the matrix and cleat system. Gas in the coal seams can be stored as free gas in the cleat system and as adsorbed gas in the porous medium. The flow mechanisms of the natural gas through the formation include desorption, diffusion, and Darcy’s flow regimes. The permeability of CBM reservoirs is more sensitive to pressure variations than conventional gas reservoirs. To study the flow behavior of CBM reservoirs it is mandatory to use a model that considers their unique characteristics. The objective of this study was to propose a physical and mathematical model of production performance for horizontal wells in CBM reservoirs whose permeability is dependent on pressure. A solution for the model was obtained by applying Pedrosa´s transformation, perturbation theory, Laplace transformation, the point source method, and Sthefest´s algorithm. The solution to this problem was validated with previous work thoroughly. The type curves of the model were built and the pressure transient behavior of the model was analyzed and discussed. The effects of several parameters on pressure behavior were also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0286.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Mental health; psychological well-being; depression; anxiety; stress; undergraduate students; Bachelor’s degree students; student academic satisfaction.
Online: 15 January 2021 (12:18:32 CET)
Background Research on the mental health of students in health disciplines mainly focuses on psychological distress and nursing and medical students. This study aimed to investigate the psychological well-being and distress and related factors among undergraduate students training in eight different health-related tracks in Geneva, Switzerland. Methods This cross-sectional study used established self-filled scales for anxiety, depression, stress, psychological well-being, and study satisfaction. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical regression analyses were applied. Results In October 2019, out of 2835 invited students, 915 (32%) completed the survey. Lower academic satisfaction scores were strongly associated with depression (β=-.26, p<.001), anxiety (β=-.27, p<.001), and stress (β=-.70, p<.001), while higher scores with psychological well-being (β=.70, p<.001). Being female was strongly associated with anxiety and stress but not with depression or psychological well-being. Increased age was associated with enhanced psychological well-being. The nature of the academic training had a lesser impact on mental health and the academic year none. Conclusion Academic satisfaction strongly predicts depression, anxiety, stress, and psychological well-being. Training institutions should address the underlying factors that can improve students’ satisfaction with their studies while ensuring that they have access to psychosocial services that help them cope with mental distress and enhance their psychological well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0418.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: academic stress; psychological and physical well-being; adolescence; secondary education; validity; reliability; gender and age differences
Online: 23 August 2018 (15:32:43 CEST)
This study presents the validation process of the Questionnaire on Academic Stress in Secondary Education –QASSE-, designed to assess the wide variety of school sources and situations related to academic stress in adolescence, and their relationship with students’ physical and psychological well-being. Participants were 860 Spanish high school students (52.9% girls) with an average age of 14.62 years (SD = 1.8). Through a cross-validation process, EFA and CFA supported QASSE multifactorial structure with four first-order factors -academic overload, interaction with classmates, family pressure, and future-oriented perspective- and a second-order factor of academic stress, showing a significant and intense relationship with adolescents’ psychological and physical well-being. Results also highlight the effects of the gender*educational level interaction on the students’ stress, with girls showing higher levels of stress in the transition courses between educational phases (sophomore and junior years). The QASSE demonstrates good validity and reliability, showing potential for both research and educational application. The results show the high impact of the QASSE dimensions on psychological and physical well-being in adolescence, highlighting its special usefulness for designing and adjusting educational prevention and intervention actions in this area to the students’ specific characteristics and needs
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: intermittent food-restriction; mindfulness; self-efficacy; well-being; mixed methods; health behaviour; coping ability; religiously motivated fasting
Online: 5 January 2022 (12:58:32 CET)
Background / Objective: Historically, fasting has not only been practiced for medical but also for religious reasons. Bahá’ís follow an annual religious fast of 19 days. We assessed motivation behind and subjective health impacts of Bahá’í fasting. Methods: A convergent parallel mixed methods design was embedded in a clinical single arm observational study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six fasters before, during and after fasting. Three months after the fasting period, two focus group interviews were conducted. 146 Bahá’í volunteers answered an online survey at five time points before, during and after fasting. Results: Interviews: Fasting was found to play a central role for the religiosity of interviewees, implying changes in daily structures, spending time alone, engaging in religious practices, and experiencing social belonging. Results show an increase in mindfulness and well-being, accompanied by behavioural changes and experiences of self-efficacy and inner freedom. Survey: Scores point to an increase in mindfulness and well-being during fasting, while stress, anxiety and fatigue decreased. Mindfulness remained elevated even three months after the fast. Conclusion: Bahá'í intermittent dry fast seems to enhance participants’ mindfulness and well-being, lowering stress levels and reducing fatigue. Some of these effects lasted more than three months after fasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0221.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: air shaft; air well; solar chimney; field measurement; natural ventilation; tropical climate; terrace house; passive cooling design
Online: 10 September 2020 (04:46:23 CEST)
The provision requirement of 10% openings of the total floor area stated in the Uniform Building by Law 1984 Malaysia has been practiced by designers for building plan submission approval. However, the effectiveness of thermal performance in landed residential buildings, despite the imposition by the by-law, has never been empirically measured and proven. Although terraced houses in Malaysia have dominated 40.9% of the total property transaction in 2019, such mass production with typical designs hardly provides its occupants with thermal comfort due to the static outdoor air condition and lack of external windows, where the conventional ventilation technique does not work well, even for houses with an air well system. Consequently, the occupants need to rely on mechanical cooling, which is a high energy-consuming component contributing to outdoor heat dissipation and therefore urban heat island effect. Thus, encouraging more effective natural ventilation to eliminate excessive heat from the indoor environment is critical. Since most of the research focuses on simulation modelling lacking sufficient empirical validation, this paper drawing on field measurement investigates natural ventilation performance in terraced housing with an air well system. More importantly, the key concern as to what extent the current air well system serving as a ventilator is effective to provide better thermal performance in the single storey terraced house is to be addressed. By adopting an existing single storey air welled terrace house, the existing indoor environmental conditions and thermal performance were monitored and measured using scientific equipment, namely HOBO U12 air temperature and air humidity, the HOBO U12 anemometer and the Delta Ohm HD32.3 Wet Bulb Globe Temperature meter for a six-month duration. The findings show that the air temperature of the air well ranged from 27.48°C to 30.92°C, while the mean relative humidity were from 72.67% to 79.25%. The mean air temperature for a test room (single sided ventilation room) ranged from 28.04°C to 30.92°C with a relative humidity of 70.16% to 76%. These empirical findings are of importance, offering novel policy insights and suggestions to potentially revising the existing building code standard and by laws; since the minimum provision of 10% openings has been revealed to be less effective to provide a desired thermal performance and comfort, mandatory compliance with, and the necessity for, the bylaw requirement should be revisited and further studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0298.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: rumination; psychological detachment; perseverative cognition; work reflection; vitality; burnout; thriving; work engagement; employee well-being; mental health
Online: 28 June 2019 (12:09:30 CEST)
In the literature on occupational stress and recovery from work several facets of thinking about work in off-job time have been conceptualized. However, research on the focal concepts is currently rather disintegrated. In this study we take a closer look at the five most established concepts, namely (1) psychological detachment, (2) affective rumination, (3) problem-solving pondering, (4) positive work reflection, and (5) negative work reflection. More specifically, we scrutinized (1) whether the five facets of work-related rumination are empirically distinct, (2) whether they yield differential associations with different facets of employee well-being (burnout, work engagement, thriving, satisfaction with life, and flourishing), and (3) to what extent the five facets can be distinguished from and relate to conceptually similar constructs, such as irritation, worry, and neuroticism. We applied structural equation modeling techniques to cross-sectional survey data from 474 employees. Our results provide evidence that (1) the five facets of work-related rumination are highly related, yet empirically distinct, (2) that each facet contributes uniquely to explain variance in certain aspects of employee well-being, and (3) that they are distinct from related concepts, albeit there is a high overlap between (lower levels of) psychological detachment and cognitive irritation. Our study contributes to clarify the structure of work-related rumination and extends the nomological network around different types of thinking about work in off-job time and employee well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0013.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: attachment; parent-child relationship; contextual; context-specific; hierarchical model; psychological need satisfaction and frustration; well/ill-being
Online: 1 March 2019 (12:51:56 CET)
No research to date has explored the possibility of context-specific, within-relationship fluctuation in attachment security. In this present article, two cross-sectional studies were designed (1) to develop and validate context-specific attachment scales in Traditional-Chinese, and (2) to explore fluctuations in within-parent attachment security between the contexts of sport and academics, in relation to global attachment patterns and indicators of psychological wellbeing. Results indicated that youth can and do perceive within-parent attachment patterns differently depending upon context but that the relationship of such differences to context-specific outcomes is complex. Of particular interest was that the degree of within-parent attachment variability between contexts was clearly and negatively related to indices of psychological wellbeing. This suggests that contextual variation may be a meaningful and useful way to explore within-parent attachment fluctuation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0005.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Physical Education; social and emotional learning; Sport Education model; subjective well-being; trait emotional intelligence; social anxiety
Online: 3 January 2019 (09:34:10 CET)
The aim of this article has been to evaluate the impact of a physical-sport education programme, based on the pedagogical model of Sport Education within the framework of quality Physical Education and approached from the field of social and emotional learning, on a set of psychological variables: subjective well-being (quality of life related to health, positive affect and negative affect); trait emotional intelligence and social anxiety. A total number of 113 Compulsory Secondary Education students were involved, aged 12 to 15 years old, 44 of whom belonged to the control group (CG) and 69 to the experimental group (EG). A quasiexperimental design of repeated pretest and posttest measures with the CG was used. The results obtained in this investigation revealed that the intervention programme caused significant improvements in the subjective well-being and the trait emotional intelligence for the EG. These findings reinforce the pedagogical efficiency of the programme with regards to the aim that has been set. Likewise, the findings also highlight the suitability and appropriateness in terms of innovative teaching proposals. In the same way, the results showed relevant empirical contributions in this given school context due to its psychological benefits and the encouragement of healthy living.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: mental health; psychological well-being; depression; anxiety; stress; COVID-19; students' academic satisfaction; undergraduate students; Bachelor's degree students
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:20:50 CET)
Background University students’ psychological health is linked to their academic satisfaction. This study aimed to investigate students’ psychological health and academic satisfaction in the context of COVID-19 and academic year-end stress. Methods Standardized self-filled scales for anxiety, depression, stress, psychological well-being, and an ad-hoc COVID-19 stress scale were used in this cross-sectional study. Participants were first- to third-year students of eight different health-related tracks in Geneva, Switzerland. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical regression analyses were applied. Results In June 2020, out of 2835 invited students, 433 (15%) completed the survey. Academic satisfaction was a stronger mental health predictor than COVID-19, which mainly predicted stress and anxiety. Lower academic satisfaction scores were significantly associated with stress (β = -.53, p < .001), depression (β = -.26, p < .001), anxiety (β = -.20, p < .001), while higher scores with psychological well-being (β = .48, p < .001). Being female was strongly associated with anxiety and stress but not with depression or psychological well-being. Lower age was associated with stress only. The nature of the academic training had a lesser impact on mental health and the academic year none. Compared to students starting the academic year, year-end students reported significantly lower academic satisfaction, higher depression, and particularly higher anxiety and stress. There was, however, no difference in psychological well-being. Conclusion Students suffer more from anxiety, stress, depression, and lower satisfaction with studies at the end of the academic year than at the beginning. Academic satisfaction plays a more substantial role than COVID-19 in predicting students’ overall mental health status. Training institutions should address the underlying factors that can enhance students’ academic satisfaction, especially during the COVID-19 period, in addition to ensuring that they have a continuous and adequate learning experience, as well as access to psychosocial services that help them cope with mental distress and enhance their psychological well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0248.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: cryolithozone; geophysical monitoring; pulsed electromagnetic sounding; cross-well exploration; vector finite-element method; numerical simulation; high-performance computing
Online: 10 December 2020 (10:39:26 CET)
The paper is dedicated to the topical problem of examining permafrost state and the processes of its geocryological changes by means of geophysical methods. To monitor the cryolithozone, we propose and scientifically substantiate a new technique of pulsed electromagnetic cross-well sounding. Based on the vector finite-element method, we created a mathematical model of the cross-well sounding process with a pulsed source in a three-dimensional spatially heterogeneous medium. A high-performance parallel computing algorithm was developed and verified. Through realistic geoelectric models of permafrost with a talik under a highway, constructed following the results of electrotomography field data interpretation, we numerically simulated the pulsed sounding on the computing resources of the Siberian Supercomputer Center of SB RAS. The simulation results suggest the proposed system of pulsed electromagnetic cross-well monitoring to be characterized by a high sensitivity to the presence and dimensions of the talik. The devised approach can be oriented to addressing a wide range of issues related to monitoring permafrost rocks under civil and industrial facilities, buildings and constructions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0170.v1
Subject: Keywords: urban freight transport; multi agent; vehicle routing problem; decarbonization; fuel cell electricvehicles; well to wheel; total cost of ownership
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:58:43 CEST)
The option of decarbonizing urban freight transport using Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) seems promising.However, there is currently a strong debate whether Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) might be the bettersolution. The question arises as to how a fleet of FCEV influences the operating cost, the Greenhouse Gas(GHG) emissions and primary energy demand in comparison to BEVs and to Internal Combustion EngineVehicle (ICEV). To investigate this, we simulate the urban food retailing as a representative share of urbanfreight transport using a multi-agent transport simulation software. Synthetic routes as well as fleet size andcomposition are determined by solving a Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). We compute the operating costsusing a total cost of ownership (Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)) analysis and the use phase emissions as wellas primary energy demand using the Well To Wheel (WTW) approach. While a change to BEV results in 17 -23% higher costs compared to ICEV, using FCEVs leads to 22 - 57% higher costs. Assuming today’s electricitymix, we show a GHG emission reduction of 25% compared to the ICEV base case when using BEV. Currenthydrogen production leads to a GHG reduction of 33% when using FCEV which however cannot be scaled tolarger fleets. Using current electricity in electrolysis will increase GHG emission by 60% compared to the basecase. Assuming 100% renewable electricity for charging and hydrogen production, the reduction from FCEVsrises to 73% and from BEV to 92%. The primary energy requirement for BEV is in all cases lower and forhigher compared to the base case. We conclude that while FCEV have a slightly higher GHG savings potentialwith current hydrogen, BEV are the favored technology for urban freight transport from an economic andecological point of view, considering the increasing shares of renewable energies in the grid mix.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0148.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: well-defined macromolecules; sequence-defined macromolecules; sequence-defined polymers; conjugated oligomers; oligo(arylene ethynylene)s; biosensors; sensors; process monitoring
Online: 9 April 2020 (10:06:28 CEST)
Macromolecules with well-defined structures in terms of molar mass and monomer sequence became interesting building blocks for modern materials. The precision of the macromolecular structure makes fine-tuning of the properties of resulting materials possible. Conjugated macromolecules exhibit excellent optoelectronic properties that make them exceptional candidates for sensors construction. The importance of chain length and monomer sequence is particularly important in conjugated systems. The sequence lengths, monomer sequence and structural modification often influence the energy bang gap between HOMO and LUMO orbitals of the molecules that reflect in their properties. Moreover, the supramolecular aggregation that is often observed in oligo-conjugated systems is usually strongly affected by even minor structural changes that are used for sensor designs. This review summarizes the examples of well-defined conjugated macromolecules based on oligo(arylene ethynylene)s skeleton used for sensor applications. The sensing mechanisms and importance of uniformity of structure are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0368.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: psychological well-being; young offenders; social support; pretrial detention; correctional camps; positive and negative feelings; positive and negative affects
Online: 29 November 2019 (04:16:05 CET)
The present article aims at investigating the role of social support in the emotional well-being of young offenders. We hypothesized that perceived social support would be positively related to the emotional well-being of juvenile offenders. The methods were worked out to study perceived and received social support, psychological well-being and emotional state of the juvenile offenders. The entire sample consisted of 56 males aged from 15 to 18 years old (M = 16.5; SD = 0.8). 32 subjects (57%) were in pretrial detention and 24 participants (43%) were in a correctional camp located in the central region of Russia. The study detected that the level of psychological well-being of the respondents from the camp was correlated neither with perceived social support nor with the frequency of seeking assistance from the different sources of support. For the respondents in the pretrial detention, the level of psychological well-being was directly connected to the degree of the perceived support from the friends. The obtained differences might be associated with the influence of social environment in the pretrial detention and in the camps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0023.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: well-being; innate health; positive psychology; mental health; three principles; self-control; pro-social behaviors; criminology; incarcerated men; prisoners; inmates
Online: 2 June 2022 (02:57:49 CEST)
Knowledge about one’s innate health is central to a variety of positive mental health markers. However, men living in prison rarely receive education about how to access these internal resources. As such, this study seeks to replicate and extend emerging data on an innate health intervention. Volunteers from HMP Nottingham, England (n=126) participated in normal prison programming and the intervention group (n=65) received an additional 3-day intensive. The primary question: Does innate health function as a mediator in the same way self-control does within an incarcerated population? We conducted a mediation analysis, tested social desirability bias, and examined the impact of the intervention on crucial variables. This study found higher levels of innate health, self-control, wellbeing, and prosocial behavior and lower levels of aggression in the intervention group as compared to the control group. Importantly, innate health did play a mediating role equivalent to and/or partnering with self-control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0378.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: therapeutic landscapes; therapeutic environments; Indigenous knowledge; Mātauranga Māori; Rongoā Māori; traditional healing; health and well-being; cultural landscapes; cultural geography; landscape architecture
Online: 23 December 2021 (10:12:15 CET)
Although research has long established that the interaction with the natural environment is associated with better overall health and well-being outcomes, the Western model mainly focuses on treating the symptoms. In Aotearoa-New Zealand, the Indigenous Māori have long demonstrated significantly more negative health outcomes than non-Māori. Little research has examined the causes compared to Western populations or the role of the natural environment in health outcomes for Māori. An exploration of rongoā Māori (traditional healing system) was conducted to ascertain the importance of landscape in the process of healing. Eight rongoā healers or practitioners took part in semi-structured narrative interviews from June to November 2020. Transcribed interviews were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis and Kaupapa Māori techniques. The findings show how rongoā is underpinned by a complex set of cultural values and beliefs, drawing from the connection to wairua (spirit), tinana (body), tikanga and whakaora (customs and healing), rākau (plants), whenua (landscape) and whānau (family). Incorporating such constructs into the landscape can foster our understanding of health and well-being and its implications for conceptualising therapeutic environments and a culturally appropriate model of care for Māori and non-Māori communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0198.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Public Safety Personnel; First Responders; Mental Disorders; Mental Health; Well-Being; Trauma; Operational Stress Injuries; Post-Traumatic Stress Injuries; Role Identity Theory; Qualitative Research
Online: 14 January 2022 (08:31:02 CET)
Role identity theory describes the purpose and meaning in life that comes, in part, from occupying social roles. While robustly linked to health and well-being, this may become, however, when an individual is unable to fulfil the perceived requirements of an especially salient role in the way that they believe they should. Amid high rates of mental illness among public safety personnel, we interviewed a purposely selected sample of 21 paramedics from a single service in Ontario, Canada to explore incongruence between an espoused and able-to-enact paramedic role identity. Situated in an interpretivist epistemology, and using successive rounds of thematic analysis, we developed a framework for role identity dissonance wherein chronic, identity-relevant disruptive events cause emotional and psychological distress. While some participants were able to recalibrate their sense of self and understanding of the role, for others, this dissonance was irreconcilable, contributing to disability and lost time from work. In addition to contributing a novel perspective on paramedic mental health and well-being, our work also offers a modest contribution to the theory in using the paramedic context as an example to consider identity disruption through chronic workplace stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: diet quality; neighborhood deprivation; Japanese areal deprivation index; neighborhood socioeconomic status; hazard ratios; mortality; Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top; well-balanced diet; early death
Online: 31 July 2019 (04:26:11 CEST)
Individuals residing in more deprived areas have a lower diet quality. While several studies have shown that individuals with a lower diet quality have a higher mortality risk, a low quality diet might also lead to poor health in highly deprived areas. We aimed to examine the association between deprivation within an area and all-cause mortality risk according to diet quality. Methods: We conducted a population-based prospective study on 27994 men and 33273 women aged 45–75 years. Neighborhood deprivation was assessed using the Japanese areal deprivation index (ADI). Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated 147-item food frequency questionnaire. Subsequently, Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top scores were calculated. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of mortality were calculated according to tertiles of ADI by diet quality score. Results: Individuals residing in the most deprived area had the lowest dietary scores. During the 16.7-year follow-up, compared to individuals with a high quality diet residing in the least deprived area, individuals with a low quality diet had a higher risk of mortality according to increment of ADI (P trend = 0.02); the multivariate adjusted HR (95% CI) was 1.07 (1.00-1.15), 1.15 (1.07-1.24), and 1.18 (1.08-1.29) in those residing in the lowest through the highest third of ADI, respectively. However, individuals with a high quality diet had no significant association between ADI and mortality (P trend =0.87). Conclusion: A well-balanced diet may prevent early death associated with neighborhood socioeconomic status among those residing in highly deprived areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0368.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Public Safety Personnel; First Responders; Mental Disorders; Mental Health; Well-Being; Trauma; Operational Stress Injuries; Post-Traumatic Stress Injuries; Resilience; Peer Support; Paramedics; Emergency Medical Services
Online: 27 January 2022 (13:57:44 CET)
There is growing recognition in research and policy of a mental health crisis among Canada’s paramedics but despite this, epidemiological surveillance of the problem is in its infancy. Just weeks before the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, we surveyed paramedics from a single, large, urban paramedic service in Ontario, Canada to assess for symptom clusters consistent with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder and to identify potential risk factors for each. In total, we received 589 completed surveys (a 97% completion rate) and found that 11% screened positive for PTSD, 15% for depression, and 15% for anxiety, with 1 in 4 active-duty paramedics screening positive for any of the three as recently as February 2020. In adjusted analyses, the risk of a positive screen varied as a function of employment classification, gender, self-reported resilience, and previous experience as a member of the service’s peer support team. Our findings support the position that paramedics screen positive for mental disorders at high rates – a problem likely to have worsened since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We echo the calls of researchers and policymakers for urgent action to support paramedic mental health in Canada.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0209.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Urban green areas; health; urban health; emotional health; physical health; well-being; nature; environmental medicine; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; Vienna; Austria, environmental perception; pandemic; human nature relationship; recreation; age
Online: 14 September 2022 (12:08:02 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic drew public attention back to the living conditions related to housing, access to green areas in close neighbourhood and nearby recreation. Several studies confirm that visiting green spaces improved the health and wellbeing in times of crisis. This representative study for the metropolitan area of Vienna, Austria’s capital, confirms the high relevance of contact with nature, particularly for citizens to cope with the negative consequences and perceived stress, anxiety, nervousness and many other negative symptoms experienced during the health crisis. It highlights the importance of nearby smaller but also medium to large scale green areas in cities for health and wellbeing of the population. Moreover, it specifically adds novel insights on age effects in use and perception of urban green spaces during COVID-19 pandemic. The online panel survey (n=1012) was conducted in summer 2021. In order to obtain a representative sample reflective of the population’s characteristics, a (stratified) random sample was selected by applying the quota method. The objective was to obtain a sample which represented gender, age and regional distribution of the population of the City of Vienna as well as the immediately surrounding local communities. Interestingly, particularly young people spent more time outside in green areas during the pandemic, discovered novel spaces for the first time and stated a high relevance of contact with nature for their wellbeing. Elderly people above sixty five, on the contrary, stayed more frequently at home. Significant differences are visible between the age groups also with regard to negative symptoms experienced in case of restricted access to green areas due to strict pandemic measures such as lockdowns and quarantine. All age groups, however, similarly acknowledged the importance of green areas for their physical, mental and emotional health in general during the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0294.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: crystallization; crystal, hexagonal close packed, face center cubic, body center cubic, hexagonal crystal, square lattice, honeycomb lattice, trigonal lattice, Monte Carlo, crystallography, crystallographic elements, symmetry, entropy, hard sphere, polymer, square well, local structure, dense packing, thin film
Online: 14 October 2020 (10:05:22 CEST)
In the present work we revise and extend the Characteristic Crystallographic Element (CCE) norm, an algorithm used to simultaneously detect radial and orientational similarity of computer-generated structures with respect to specific reference crystals and local symmetries. Based on the identification of point group symmetry elements, the CCE descriptor is able to gauge local structure with high precision and finely distinguish between competing morphologies. As test cases we use computer-generated monomeric and polymer systems of spherical particles interacting with the hard-sphere and square-well attractive potentials. We demonstrate that the CCE norm is able to detect and differentiate, between others, among: hexagonal close packed (HCP), face centered cubic (FCC), hexagonal (HEX) and body centered cubic (BCC) crystals as well as non-crystallographic fivefold (FIV) local symmetry in bulk 3-D systems; triangular (TRI), square (SQU) and honeycomb (HON) crystals, as well as pentagonal (PEN) local symmetry in thin films of one-layer thickness (2-D systems). The descriptor is general and can be applied to identify the symmetry elements of any point group for arbitrary atomic or particulate system in two or three dimensions, in the bulk or under confinement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0242.v1
Subject: Keywords: Lorentzian SRT-transformation factors as solutions of oscillation-equations Holger Döring IQ-Berlin-Spandau Germany e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.orgAbstract:Shown is the derivation of Lorentz-Einstein k-factor in SRT as an amplitude-term of oscillation-differential equations of second order.This case is shown for classical Lorentz-factor as solution of an equation for undamped oscillation as well as the developed theorem as a second solution for advanced SRT of fourth order with an equation for damped oscillation-states.This advanced term allows a calculation for any velocities by real rest mass.key-words: undamped oscillation; SRT; k-factor; Differential-equation of second order; Einstein-Lorentz; Amplitude-analogy; damped oscillation; developed SRT of fourth order
Online: 11 May 2021 (11:16:44 CEST)
Abstract:Shown is the derivation of Lorentz-Einstein k-factor in SRT as an amplitude-term of oscillation-differential equations of second order.This case is shown for classical Lorentz-factor as solution of an equation for undamped oscillation as well as the developed theorem as a second solution for advanced SRT of fourth order with an equation for damped oscillation-states.This advanced term allows a calculation for any velocities by real rest mass