Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: quantum mechanics; quantum probability; de Broglie wavelength; Compton wavelength; gravity; quantum gravity
Online: 24 December 2020 (11:45:05 CET)
In this paper we will show that standard physics to a large degree consists of derivatives of a deeper reality. This means standard physics is both overly complex and also incomplete. Modern physics has typically started from working with first understanding the surface of the world, that is typically the macroscopic world, and then forming theories about the atomic and subatomic world. And we did not have much of a choice, as the subatomic world is very hard to observe directly, if not impossible to observe directly at the deepest level. Despite the enormous success of modern physics, it is therefore no big surprise that we at some point have possibly taken a step in the wrong direction. We will claim that one such step came when one thought that the de Broglie wavelength represented a real matter wavelength. We will claim that the Compton wavelength is the real matter wavelength. Based on such a view we will see that many equations in modern physics are only derivatives of much simpler relations. Second, we will claim that in today’s physics one uses two different mass definitions, one mass definition that is complete or at least more complete, embedded in gravity equations without being aware of it, as it is concealed in GM, and the standard, but incomplete, kg mass definition in non-gravitational physics. First, when this is understood, and one uses the more complete mass definition that is embedded in gravity physics, not only in gravity physics, but in all of physics, then one has a chance to unify gravity and quantum mechanics. Our new theory shows that most physical phenomena when observed over a very short timescale are probabilistic for masses smaller than a Planck mass and dominated by determinism at or above Planck mass size. Our findings have many implications. For example, we show that the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is rooted in a foundation not valid for rest-mass particles, so the Heisenberg uncertainty principle can say nothing about rest-masses. When re-formulated based on a foundation compatible with a new momentum that is also compatible with rest-masses, we obtain a re-defined Heisenberg principle that seems to become a certainty principle in the special case of a Planck mass particle. Furthermore, we show that the Planck mass particle is linked to gravity and that we can easily detect the Planck scale from gravity observations. The Planck mass particle is unique as it only lasts the Planck time, and in that very short time period it can only be observed directly from itself, and it therefore closely linked to absolute rest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0150.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: laser diode; wavelength; stimulated emission; temperature effect
Online: 16 June 2019 (16:53:46 CEST)
The present work is a theoretical and experimental study of temperature effect on wavelength and threshold current. Since Semiconductor lasers are the type of lasers which uses semiconductor material as a gain medium to achieve stimulated emission of radiation. In this module, the type of semiconductor lasers use is VCSEL and laser diode. Temperature change cause Semiconductor lasers to shift its threshold current, this variation also causes a shift in output wavelength. The experimental results highly agreement with the theoretical calculations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0094.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: laser wavelength; polysilicon; laser damage; thermal shock
Online: 27 February 2017 (06:56:01 CET)
Based on PVDF (piezoelectric sensing techniques), this paper attempts to study the propagation law of shock waves in brittle materials during the process of three-wavelength laser irradiation of polysilicon, and discusses the formation mechanism of thermal shock failure. The experimental results show that the vapor pressure effect and the plasma pressure effect in the process of pulsed laser irradiation lead to the splashing of high temperature and high density melt. With the decrease of the laser wavelength, the laser breakdown threshold decreases and the shock wave is weakened. Because of pressure effect of the laser shock, the brittle fracture zone is at the edge of the irradiated area. The surface tension gradient and surface shear wave caused by the surface wave are the result of coherent coupling between optical and thermodynamics. The average propagation velocity of laser shock wave in polysilicon is 8.47×103m/s, and the experiment has reached the conclusion that the laser shock wave pressure peak exponentially distributes attenuation in the polysilicon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0498.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: photonic crystal fiber, demultiplexer, dense wavelength division multiplexing
Online: 29 August 2018 (13:29:52 CEST)
A novel 8-channel demux device based on multicore photonic crystal fiber (PCF) structures that operate at C-band range (1530-1565nm) has been demonstrated. The PCF demux design is based on replacing some air-holes areas with lithium niobate and silicon nitride materials over the PCF axis alongside with the appropriate optimizations of the PCF structure. The beam propagation method (BPM) combined with Matlab codes were used to modeled the demux device and to optimized the geometrical parameters of the PCF structure. Simulation results show that 8-channel can be demultiplexing after light propagation of 5 cm with large bandwidth (4.03-4.69nm) and crosstalk ((-16.88)-(-15.93) dB). Thus, the proposed device has a great potential to be integrated in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology for increasing performances in networking systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation; propagation; wavelength; low-level laser therapy LLLT
Online: 8 March 2020 (16:41:17 CET)
Nowadays, the uses of laser and optics in the medical areas are extremely vivid, especially low-level laser therapy. The light with the wavelength of 633 nm to 1200 nm could penetrate and propagate deep in biological tissue. To develop the low-level laser therapy device, optimizing light delivery is critical to accurately stimulate the biological effects inside the biological tissue. Nevertheless, each form of the tissues at each zone on the body had various refractive optic, absorption, scattering, and anisotropy coefficients. This paper describes the simulation results of low-level laser propagation from skin surface at the lower spine, the knee, the femur and the prostate gland with four wavelengths (633 nm, 780 nm, 850 nm, and 940 nm) by the Monte Carlo method. These simulation results are the base for developing the low-level laser therapy device, that could be used in clinical for treating the fracture, knee osteoarthritis, spinal degeneration, and benign prostatic hypertrophy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0010.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: millimeter-wavelength cloud radar; attenuation correction; dual-radar; data fusion
Online: 1 November 2016 (10:05:18 CET)
In order to correct attenuated millimeter-wavelength (Ka-band) radar data and address the problem of instability, an attenuation correction methodology (attenuation correction with variation trend constraint; VTC) was developed. Using synchronous observation conditions and multi-band radars, the VTC method adopts the variation trends of reflectivity in X-band radar data captured with wavelet transform as a constraint to adjust reflectivity factors of millimeter-wavelength radar. The correction was evaluated by comparing reflectivities obtained by millimeter-wavelength cloud radar and X-band weather radar. Experiments showed that attenuation was a major contributory factor in the different reflectivities of the two radars when relatively intense echoes exist, and the attenuation correction developed in this study significantly improved data quality for millimeter-wavelength radar. Reflectivity differences between the two radars were reduced and reflectivity correlations were enhanced. Errors caused by attenuation were eliminated, while variation details in the reflectivity factors were retained. The VTC method is superior to the bin-by-bin method in terms of correction amplitude and can be used for attenuation correction of shorter wavelength radar assisted by longer wavelength radar data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: kinetic model; 3-wavelength; photopolymerization; spatial confirmation; additive manufacturing; 3D printing
Online: 4 November 2019 (03:16:16 CET)
Detailed kinetics for a 3-wavelength photopolymerization confinement (PC) system is presented for both numerical solutions and analytic formulas. The dynamic profiles are simulated for oxygen, free radical, and conversion for various situations of: blue-light only, 2-light (red and UV), and 3-light (red, blue, UV). An effective PC requires two conditions: (i) a strong N-inhibition for uncured regime with a low conversion (triggered by the UV-light); and (ii) a weak S-inhibition (oxygen-induced) for high conversion under the blue-light or blue and red-light initiation. Good PC candidates are governed by collective factors of: (i) the double ratio of light-intensity and initiator-concentration, (ii) monomers rate-constant; and (iii) effective absorption constants at specific wavelength and initiators. A new reverse feature for the role of N-inhibition on the blue-conversion is found. Higher oxygen concentration leads to a lower conversion, which could be enhanced by reducing the S-inhibition via a red or blue-light pre-irradiation, having a pre-irradiation time TP=200 s for red-light only, and reduced to 150 s, when both red and blue-light. System under UV-only leads a conversion lower than that of blue-only. However, conversion could be improved by the dual-light (blue and UV), and further enhanced by the pre-irradiation of red-light. The two competing factors, N-inhibition and S-inhibition, could be independently and selectively tailored to achieve: (a) high conversion of blue-light (without UV-light), enhanced by red-light pre-irradiation for minimal S-inhibition; and (b) efficient PC initiated by UV-light produced N-inhibition for reduced confinement thickness and for high print speed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0196.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: kinetic model; dual-wavelength; photopolymerization; spatial confirmation; additive manufacturing; 3d printing
Online: 17 October 2019 (12:33:03 CEST)
The kinetics and modeling of dual-wavelength controlled photopolymerization confinement (PC) are presented and measured data are analyzed by analytic formulas and numerical data. The UV-light initiated inhibition effect is strongly monomer-dependent and different monomers have different C=C bond rate constants and conversion efficacy. Without the UV-light, for a given blue-light intensity, higher initiator concentration (C10) and rate constant (k’) lead to higher conversion, as also predicted by analytic formulas, in which the total conversion rate (RT) is an increasing function of k’R, which is proportional to k[gB1C1]0.5. However, the coupling factor b1 plays a different role that higher b1 leads to higher conversion only in the transient regime; whereas higher b1 leads lower steady-state conversion. For a fixed initiator concentration C10, higher inhibitor concentration (C20) leads to lower conversion due to stronger inhibition effect. However, same conversion reduction was found for the same H-factor of H0 = [b1C10 - b2C20]. Conversion of blue-only are much higher than that of UV-only and UV-blue combined, in which high C20 results a strong reduction of blue-only-conversion, such that the UV-light serves as the turn-off (trigger) mechanism for the purpose of spatial confirmation within the overlap area of UV and blue light. For example, UV-light controlled methacrylate conversion of a glycidyl dimethacrylate resin formulated with a tertiary amine co-initiator, and butyl nitrite, subject to a continuous exposure of a blue light, but an on-off exposure of a UV-light. Finally, we developed a theoretical new finding for the criterion of a good material/candidate governed by a double ratio of light-intensity and concentration, [I20C20.]/[I10C10].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0014.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: phototactic response; Mythimna separata; LED; wavelength; attraction rate; luminance intensity; sensitivity
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:18:56 CEST)
Recently, light traps using light-emitting diode (LED) lights have been applied to monitor or control insect pests. The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata Walker, is an important insect pest that has caused damage to several cereal crops, including corn, wheat and rice. The present study aims to seek out a sensitive wavelength causing high phototactic response in M. separata. The study evaluated the phototactic responses of M. separata moths to several LED lights of different wavelengths and luminance intensities under laboratory condition. Results showed that green (520 nm) LED light resulted in significant phototactic response of M. separata moths compared to LED lights of other wavelengths. Additionally, the highest attraction rate of the moths to green LED light appeared in luminance intensity group of 200 lux compared to the other intensities groups. Experiments under optimum conditions based on the above experiments revealed that the green LED light exhibited the strongest attraction rate (64.44%) among all experimental groups. An experiment performed in a net cage also showed that green LED light resulted in the highest phototactic response of M. separata moths, 1.7 times more than a commercial black light used as control. These findings clearly demonstrate that M. separata moths have a high sensitivity to the green LED light. Therefore, a light trap equipped with green LED light could be useful for monitoring and controlling M. separata moths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0449.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Planck constant; metrology; Compton scattering; natural units; Kibble balance; Compton wavelength; electron mass
Online: 26 August 2022 (04:57:41 CEST)
Measured values of the electron mass and Compton wavelength produce a value of Planck's constant with a relative standard uncertainty of 3 x 10-10. This is only slightly larger than the 1.3 x 10-10 relative standard uncertainty in measurements performed using the Kibble balance. Compton scattering represents an alternative pathway to improving the value of Planck's constant in the future. Natural units of length, mass, and time offer new pathways to improving the values of physical constants. While extensive values of the Planck units lie beyond the reach of present-day instrumentation, certain product and quotient pairs of Planck units such as the speed of light can be measured with relatively high precision. Better measurements of certain unit pairs will improve the value of the gravitational constant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0099.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy; multivariate analysis; partial least-squares regression; floor litter; optimal wavelength selection
Online: 21 September 2017 (04:36:21 CEST)
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was implemented to monitor the moisture content of broadleaf litters. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models, incorporating optimal wavelength selection techniques, have been proposed to better predict the litter moisture of forest floor. Three broadleaf litters were used to sample the reflection spectra corresponding the different degrees of litter moisture. Maximum normalization preprocessing technique was successfully applied to remove unwanted noise from the reflectance spectra of litters. Four variable selection methods were also employed to extract the optimal subset of measured spectra for establishing the best prediction model. The results showed that the PLSR model with the peak of beta coefficients method was the best predictor among all candidate models. The proposed NIRS procedure is thought to be a suitable technique for on-the-spot evaluation of litter moisture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0200.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Planck scale; Machian universe; Speed of light; Galactic dark matter; Galactic visible mass; Galactic visible mass density; Cosmic anisotropy; Galactic internal acceleration; Cosmic graviton wavelength
Online: 12 July 2020 (14:20:12 CEST)
We present a Machian model of Quantum Cosmology with full dark matter and light speed expansion and rotation. During galaxy formation and evolution, fraction of dark matter transforms to visual matter with a relation of the form, m_vis = constant * (m_dark)^2/3. Using this relation and replacing MOND’s ‘critical acceleration’ with “current cosmic maximum angular acceleration”, galactic flat rotation speed range of (50 to 500) km/sec can be fitted well. Estimated flat rotation speeds of DD168, Milky Way and UGC12591 are 49.96 km/sec, 199.66 km/sec and 521.75 km/sec respectively. Based on these striking coincidences, it is possible to say that, MOND’s approach is implicitly connected with cosmological estimation of 95% invisible matter. Considering galactic total matter and current cosmic maximum angular acceleration, galactic working radii, angular velocity and visual matter density can be estimated. Even though, this model is free from ‘big bang’, ‘inflation’, ‘dark energy’, ‘flatness’ and ‘red shift’ issues, at 2.722 K, estimated present Hubble parameter is 66.24 km/sec/Mpc, cosmic radius is 146.3 times the Hubble radius, angular velocity is 146.3 times lower than the Hubble parameter and cosmic age is 146.3 times the Hubble age. With future observations and advanced telescopes, it may be possible to see far distant galaxies and very old stars far beyond the current observable cosmic radius.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0004.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: fast switchable wavelength-selective elements, autostereoscopic image splitter, color filter barrier array, Fabry-Pérot color filter, on-off filter mode
Online: 1 February 2017 (16:52:44 CET)
A time-sequential working, spatially multiplexed autostereoscopic 3D display design consisting of a fast switchable RGB-color filter array is presented. The wavelength-selective filter barrier emits the light from a display over a larger active area than common autostereoscopic barrier displays. An optical modelling of wavelength-selective barriers has been used for instance to calculate the light ray distribution properties of that arrangement. To find well working display designs, automated searches by simulation and computational evaluation has been proceeded. Wavelength-selective filter barrier arrangements exhibit characteristics different from common barrier displays with similar barrier pitch and ascent. In particular, these constructions show strong angular luminance dependency under barrier inclination specified by correspondent slant angle. In time-sequential implementation it is important to avoid that quick eye or eyelid movement lead to visible color artifacts. In the millisecond regime tunable liquid crystal Fabry-Pérot color filters for the colors red, green and blue are presented. They consist of a sub-micrometer thick nematic layer sandwiched between dielectric mirrors and ITO-electrodes. These cells shall switch narrow-banding light of red, green or blue. An array for a glasses-free 3D display has to be equipped with several thousand switchable filter elements having different color apertures. The newly introduced design is usable as a multi user display as well as a single user system with user adaptive control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0299.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: dispersion management; mid-span spectral inversion; dispersion map; optical phase conjugator; residual dispersion per span; random distribution; chromatic dispersion; nonlinear Kerr effect; wavelength division multiplexed
Online: 17 August 2022 (04:17:45 CEST)
The weakness of the dispersion-managed link combined with optical phase conjugation to compensate for optical signal distortion caused by chromatic dispersion and nonlinear Kerr effect of standard single mode fiber is its limited structural flexibility. We propose dispersion map that can simultaneously compensate for the distorted wavelength division multiplexed signal while increasing the configurational flexibility. Each residual dispersion per span (RDPS) in the former half of the proposed link is randomly determined, and in the latter half, the arrangement order of RDPS is the same as or inverted in the former half. We confirm that the dispersion maps in which the RDPS distribution pattern in the latter half is opposite to the arrangement order in the former half are more effective in compensation, and rather, the compensation effect is better than in the dispersion map of the conventional scheme. The notable result of this paper is that the increase of flexibility can be achieved through random arrangement of RDPS in the former half, and the compensation improvement can be achieved by through inverse arrangement in the latter half which make the distribution profile of each half link roughly symmetric with respect to the midway optical phase conjugator.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0150.v2
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: silicon photonics; evanescent optical field sensor; label-free SOI biosensor; Mach-Zehnder interferometer; ring resonator; photonic crystal; Bragg grating; sub-wavelength grating; lab-on-a-chip; microfluidics
Online: 10 October 2018 (08:45:49 CEST)
Thanks to advanced semiconductor microfabrication technology, chip-scale integration and miniaturization of lab-on-a-chip components, silicon-based optical biosensors have made significant progress for the purpose of point-of-care diagnosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art in evanescent field biosensing technologies including interferometer, microcavity, photonic crystal, and Bragg grating waveguide-based sensors. Their sensing mechanisms and sensor performances, as well as real biomarkers for label-free detection, are exhibited and compared. We also review the development of chip-level integration for lab-on-a-chip photonic sensing platforms, which consist of the optical sensing device, flow delivery system, optical input and readout equipment. At last, some advanced system-level CMOS-chip packaging examples are presented, indicating the commercialization potential for the low cost, high yield, portable biosensing platform leveraging CMOS processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0163.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: optical metamaterials; fundamental concepts in photonics; light-matter interactions at the subwavelength and nanoscale; fundamental understanding of linear and nonlinear optical processes in novel metamaterials underpinning photonic devices and components; advancing the frontier of nanophotonics with the associated nanoscience and nanotechnology; nanostructures that can serve as building blocks for nano-optical systems; use of nanotechnology in photonics; nonlinear nanophotonics, plasmonics and excitonics; subwavelength components and negative index materials; slowing, store, and processing light pulses; materials with such capabilities that could be used for optical sensing, tunable optical delay lines, optical buffers, high extinction optical switches, novel image processing hardware, and highly-efficient wavelength converters
Online: 26 February 2018 (11:24:39 CET)
Backward electromagnetic waves are extraordinary waves with contra-directed phase velocity and energy flux. Unusual properties of the coherent nonlinear optical coupling of the phase-matched ordinary and backward electromagnetic waves with contra-directed energy fluxes are described which enable greatly-enhanced frequency and propagation direction conversion, parametrical amplification, as well as control of shape of the light pulses. Extraordinary transient processes that emerge in such metamaterials in pulsed regimes are described. The results of the numerical simulation of particular plasmonic metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion are presented, which prove the possibility to match phases of such coupled guided ordinary and backward electromagnetic waves. Particular properties of the outlined processes in the proposed metamaterial are demonstrated through numerical simulations. Potential applications include ultra-miniature amplifiers, frequency changing reflectors, modulators, pulse shapers, and remotely actuated sensors.