ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0074.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Water Slope; Water Cliff; drowning; perceptual-motor development; affordances
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:28:13 CEST)
Despite the popularity of infant swimming programs, no evidence exists to determine whether they influence infants’ judgements and behavior when confronted with bodies of water. In the current study we examined whether the total number of swimming sessions an infant had participated in predicted whether they avoided a body of water they could enter via an edge (n = 101 infants) or a slope (n = 77 infants). An initial regression analysis revealed no association between the number of sessions and avoidance of the water via either type of entry. However, a secondary analysis of infants who had participated in fewer or more than 10 sessions revealed a significant interaction between number of sessions and type of entry into the water. Infants who participated in more than 10 sessions were more likely to avoid the water if they could access it via an edge but significantly more likely to enter the water if they could access it via a slope. Because we tested the two groups of infants in different countries, further research is warranted to determine if cultural differences in child rearing practices or variations in the content and/or teaching of the swimming programs might explain these intriguing findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0056.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water-reuse; governance capacity; water management; water scarcity
Online: 3 May 2018 (08:36:07 CEST)
The world will experience an estimated 40% freshwater supply shortage by 2030, converting water scarcity into one of the principal global challenges that modern society face. Urban water-reuse is recognized as a promising and necessary measure to alleviate the growing water stress in many regions. The transformation to widespread application of water-reuse systems requires major changes in the way water is governed, and countries such as Spain already find themselves involved in this process. Through the systematic assessment of the city of Sabadell (Spain), we aim to identify the main barriers, opportunities and transferable lessons that can enhance governance capacity to implement systems for non-potable reuse of treated wastewater in cities. It was found that continuous learning, the availability and quality of information and level of knowledge and strong agents of change are the main capacity-building priorities. On the other hand, awareness, multilevel network potential and implementing capacity are already well-established. It is concluded that in order to undertake a widespread application of water-reuse practices, criteria examining water quality according to its use need to be developed, independently of the water’s origin. The development and implementation of such a legislative frame should be based on the experience of local water-reuse practices and continuous evaluation. Finally, the need for public engagement and adequate pricing mechanisms are emphasized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0368.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Water Stress; Precision Irrigation; Non-Water-Stressed Baseline; Soil Moisture; Infra-Red Sensor.
Online: 23 September 2022 (09:29:44 CEST)
So that the levels of water stress are not harmful to the development of the crop and affect its productivity, its detection and monitoring are necessary, and it can occur in different ways. One of them is through the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI). This index quantifies water stress through the normalization of leaf temperature between the maximum and minimum plant temperatures as a function of evaporation conditions. The responses of a low-cost infrared (IR) sensor were crossed with image processing through segmentation by the Excess Green model to develop a water stress detection system using CWSI. A soil/plant temperature map was generated through a point-to-point scan of the IR sensor. And when it overlaid with a segmented image of the experimental area, only points identified as plants had their temperature values maintained. The Non-Water-Stressed Baseline (NWSB) equation was parameterized for the same conditions of the experiment and external environmental. The experimental area was divided into three different treatments, maintained under stable water conditions throughout the experiment and the system was able to identify stably different stress values between treatments. Although the relationship between crop and environment affected the results, this work showed that using an irrigation system based on CWSI is possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1079.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Malpighia emarginata; water salinity; fertilization management
Online: 16 May 2023 (04:37:27 CEST)
In the semi-arid region of Brazil, it is common to use saline or brackish water for crop production. However, this practice can negatively affect the soil, nutrient balance, and fruit quality and production. From this perspective, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of fertilization combinations with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) on the production and quality of West Indian cherry grown under salt stress in the second year of production. The study was conducted in a protected environment following a randomized block design with treatments distributed in a 2 x 10 factorial arrangement referring to two levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (ECw) (0.6 and 4.0 dS m-1) and 10 NPK fertilization combinations (80-100-100; 100-100-100; 120-100-100; 140-100-100; 100-80-100; 100-120-100; 100-140-100; 100-100-80; 100-100-120 e 100-100-140% of the recommendation in the second year of production), with three replicates and one plant per lysimeter. The results indicate that irrigation of West Indian cherry crop irrigation at the water salinity of 4.0 dS m-1 negatively affected all fruit production variables. The interaction between the ECw of 0.6 dS m-1 and the 100-80-120 NPK fertilization combination increased the total number of fruits and the total fruit weight of West Indian cherry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0616.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: abiotic stress; crop improvement; drought; nitric oxide; S-nitrosylation; signaling molecule; water deficit
Online: 29 January 2021 (12:14:53 CET)
Water deficit caused by drought is a significant threat to crop growth and production. Nitric oxide (NO), a water- and lipid-soluble free radical, plays an important role in cytoprotection. Apart from a few studies supporting the role of NO in drought responses, little is known about this pivotal molecular amendment in the regulation of abiotic stress signaling. In this review, we highlight the knowledge gaps in NO roles under drought stress and the technical challenges underlying NO detection and measurements, and we provide recommendations regarding potential avenues for future investigation. The modulation of NO production to alleviate abiotic stress disturbances in higher plants highlights the potential of genetic manipulation to influence NO metabolism as a tool with which plant fitness can be improved under adverse growth conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0083.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Adaptive mechanisms; antioxidative metabolism; chloroplast; osmotic regulation; oxidative stress; photosynthesis; salinity; water relations
Online: 24 February 2017 (10:21:50 CET)
This review deals with the adaptive mechanisms that plants can implement to cope with the challenge of salt stress. Plants tolerant to NaCl implement a series of adaptations to acclimate to salinity, including morphological, physiological and biochemical changes. These changes include increases in the root/canopy ratio and in the chlorophyll content in addition to changes in the leaf anatomy that ultimately lead to preventing leaf ion toxicity, thus maintaining the water status in order to limit water loss and protect the photosynthesis process. Furthermore, we deal with the effect of salt stress on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence and some of the mechanisms thought to protect the photosynthetic machinery, including the xanthophyll cycle, photorespiration pathway and water-water cycle. Finally, we also provide an updated discussion on salt-induced oxidative stress at the subcellular level and its effect on the antioxidant machinery in both salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive plants. The aim is to extend our understanding of how salinity may affect the physiological characteristics of plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0193.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Flowering; Gene expression; Pod elongation; Soybean; Water deficit
Online: 10 November 2022 (08:34:45 CET)
Drought stress on soybean is a research-demanding matter for negative influence that agricultural drought brings about. This study was designated to evaluate the effect of drought stress on some gene expression in flowering and pod elongation stages in soybean. This experiment was carried out in split-plot format with RCBD design with four replicates. Drought stress as the main factor included three levels (irrigation after 50, 100, and 150 millimeters evaporation from the A-class evaporation pot) of which 50 millimeters evaporation is considered as control. The sub-factor included a factorial combination of 3 varieties (DPX, Sari and WE6) and two sampling stages (flowering and pod elongation). The gene expression analysis was carried out by using the QRT-PCR technique. According to our results, all genes have shown overexpression in drought stress despite this result was not the same for all genotypes and stress levels. Some genes have up-regulated in mediate stress (treatment 100) level (like as Gmdreb 2, Gmdreb 5, GmRD20A, GmaxACD2) and other genes up-regulated in serve stress (treatment 150) level. Between genotypes, DPX cultivar and WE6 line were better than of the sari cultivar for all genes up-regulated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0359.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Abiotic stress; Melatonin; Water stress; Drought; Waterlogging; Antioxidants; Stress signalling, phytohormones
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:19:52 CEST)
Water stress (drought and waterlogging) is drastic abiotic stress to plant growth and development. Melatonin, bioactive plant hormone, has been widely tested in drought situations in diverse plant species, while a few studies on the role of melatonin in waterlogging stress conditions have been published. In the current review, we analyze the bio-stimulatory functions of melatonin on plants under both drought and waterlogging stress. Melatonin controls the levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and positively changes the molecular defense to improve plant tolerance against drought and waterlogging stress. Moreover, the crosstalk of melatonin and other phytohormones is a key element on plant survival under drought stress, while this relationship needs further investigation under waterlogging stress. In this review, we draw the complete story of water stress on both sides: drought and waterlogging through discussing the previous critical studies under both conditions. Moreover, we suggest several research directions, especially for waterlogging, which remains a big vague piece of melatonin and water stress puzzle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0485.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: blackberry; berries; boysenberry; functional food; nano silver; nano particles; water stress.
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:28:02 CEST)
Drought is one of the leading abiotic factors limiting morphological and physiological activities in blackberry cultivation. We investigated the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on morphological and physiological processes in the boysenberry crop (Rubus ursinus Chamisso & Schlenhtendal) under drought stress. The experiment was performed with three drought stress levels (0% PEG, 4% PEG and 8% PEG) and three AgNPs treatments (0, 0.1, 0.2 mg L−1) invitro conditions. The results showed that drought stress induced by PEG, reduced root and shoot development of boysenberry plants grown invitro. The addition of AgNPs is significantly alleviated the adverse effect of drought stress and increased the plant growth parameters. Antioxidant activity of SOD and CAT enzymes increased in boysenberry leaves when treated with AgNPs under drought conditions, while the amount of MDA decreased. Therefore, the results obtained in this study suggest that 0.1 mg L-1 AgNPs added to the medium improve the growth and development of invitro boysenberry plants under drought stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0139.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: drought; water management; thermal remote sensing; habitats protection; land surface temperature; CWSI
Online: 12 December 2018 (05:27:14 CET)
The research carried out concerned the laboratory assessment of the applicability of the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) as a practical tool for assessing the risk of desiccation for selected wetland habitats: transition mires and quaking bogs as well as alkaline fens. The analysis was carried out on 3 soil samples with a vegetation cover (with the dimensions of 40×40×30 cm) collected during the full vegetation season for each mentioned habitat, with a characteristic species composition. Experimental research was carried out between 17th May 2018 and 19th June 2018. Thermal, RGB and multispectral images, chlorophyll content, volumetric soil moisture, air temperature and relative humidity measurements were taken for each sample every two days. The obtained results clearly indicate the dependence between CWSI and plant condition parameters in the first phase of desiccation. At the same time, as a result of the observations taken, thresholds have been set, indicating different desiccation phases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0165.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: aerobic rice; high temperature; water limitation; yield component; seed quality; amylose content
Online: 12 October 2022 (07:28:25 CEST)
Drought and high temperature often occur simultaneously will eventually affect rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield and seed quality. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of high temperature (HT) and water limitation (WL) during seed development and maturation on yield component, seed quality, and amylose content in aerobic rice cv. MRIA. Two experiments were conducted concurrently in greenhouse with ⁓35/26℃ subjected to elevated HT and/or WL; 5 days 38/28°C at 10, 15, 29 DAA and/or HT; 7 days at 40/28℃ at 8 and 21 DAA with 12h photoperiod in control environment growth chamber. Both experiments were respectively harvested at physiological maturity of 31 and 35 DAA. Grain yielded from the irrigated plant declined from over 27% to below 18% between 15 and 29 DAA. Combination stresses resulted in greater reduction of grain yield than single stress. Late seed development (29 DAA) had no effect either on yield component or seed quality as well as produce a high concentration in amylase content (16.7%) with greater germination capacity (91%). The non-stress plant harvested at 21 DAA resulted the highest percentage of germinated seeds (97%) whereas the vigour index (VI) was reduced to 70.3% and 58.9% at 8 and 21 DAA respectively. Extended plant stress to 7 consecutive days incurred the highest VI with low concentration of amylose content. There was a linear relationship incurred between seed amylase content with germination capacity and VI, however, there was an inverse relationship (R2 = 0.19) between amylase content with VI from plant treated with (HT and/or WL) for 7 days. The present results confirmed that the avoidance HT and WL during early (10 DAA) and mid (15 DAA) seed development with short duration of stress (5 days) obtained better in yield component, enhanced the seed quality and amylose concentration. The combined HT and WL damaged seeds’ quality were more than each stress alone. Therefore, avoiding HT and WL can be practically applied by farmers by irrigating throughout the rice plant during histodifferentiation to save water usage during seed maturation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0165.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Zea Mays; abiotic stress; microorganisms; salinity; water deficit
Online: 10 April 2023 (10:15:50 CEST)
The use of plant growth-promoting bacteria can be one option for mitigating the impact of abiotic constraints on different cropping systems in the tropical semi-arid region. The aim of this study was to evaluate growth, leaf gas exchange and yield in maize inoculated with Bacillus aryabhattai, and subjected to water and salt stress. The experiment followed a randomised block design, in a split plot arrangement, with six repetitions. The plots comprised two levels of electrical conductivity for the irrigation water (ECw): 0.3 dS m-1 and 3.0 dS m-1; the subplots consisted of three irrigation depths (ID1: 50%, ID2: 75%, and ID3: 100% of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc)); while the sub-subplots included the presence or absence of Bacillus aryabhattai inoculant. A water deficit of 50% of the ETc resulted in the principal negative effects on growth, reducing the leaf area and stem diameter. The use of Bacillus aryabhattai mitigated salt stress and promoted better leaf gas exchange by increasing the CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, and internal CO2 concentration. However, irrigation with brackish water (3.0 dS m-1) reduced the instantaneous water use efficiency of the maize. Inoculation partially reduced the effects of abiotic stress due to morpho-physiological traits, and increased yield potential under water deficit with no salt stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0333.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: peroxiporins; oxidative stress; hydrogen peroxide; water channels; Sigma1 receptors; Sigma1 receptor modulators; neurodegenerative diseases
Online: 12 November 2020 (09:33:34 CET)
Specific aquaporins (AQP), called peroxyporins, play a relevant role in controlling H2O2 permeability and ensure reactive oxygen species wasting during oxidative stress. Another target involved in oxidative stress is the Sigma1 Receptor (S1R), since its activation is triggered by oxidative or endoplasmic reticulum stress. Herein we evaluated the effect of S1R modulators on AQP-dependent water permeability in the presence and in the absence of oxidative stress. Applying stopped-flow light scattering and fluorescent probe methods, water and hydrogen peroxide permeability in Hela cells have been studied. Results evidenced that S1R agonists can restore water permeability in heat-stressed cells and the co-administration with a S1R antagonist totally counteracted the ability to restore the water permeability. All compounds except one were able to counteract the oxidative stress of HeLa cells specifically knocked down for S1R. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that the investigated compounds act as dual aquaporin and Sigma1 receptor (DAS) modulators. The finding that small molecules can modulate both AQP and S1R opens a new direction toward the identification of innovative drugs able to regulate cell survival during oxidative stress in pathologic conditions, like cancer and degenerative diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0118.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Anisotropic Triaxial test; Initial shear stress; Pore water pressure ratio; Static liquefaction; Ramsar sand
Online: 5 September 2020 (05:01:41 CEST)
Liquefaction risk assessment is critical for the safety and economics of structures. As the soil strata of Ramsar area in north Iran is mostly composed of poorly graded clean sand and the ground water table is found at shallow depths, it is highly susceptible to liquefaction. In this study, a series of isotropic and anisotropic consolidated undrained triaxial tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Ramsar sand to identify the liquefaction potential of the area. The specimens are consolidated isotropically to simulate the level ground condition, and anisotropically to simulate the soil condition on a slope and/ or under a structure. The various states of soil behavior are studied by preparing specimens at different initial relative densities and applying different levels of effective stress. The critical state soil mechanics approach for identifying the liquefaction susceptibility is adopted and the observed phenomena are further explained in relation to the micro-mechanical behavior. As only four among the 27 conducted tests did not exhibit liquefactive behavior, Ramsar sand can be qualified as strongly susceptible to liquefaction. Furthermore, it is observed that the pore pressure ratio is a good indication of the liquefaction susceptibility
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0083.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: evapotranspiration; green infrastructure; HYDRUS; leaf water potential; low impact development; optimization; overdesign; stomatal conductance; simulated runoff test; static sizing; stormwater control measure; tree trench
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:28:40 CET)
Green infrastructure systems are often overdesigned. This may be a byproduct of static sizing (e.g., accounting for a design storm’s runoff volume but not exfiltration rates) or may be deliberate (e.g., buffering against performance loss through time). Regardless, overdesign may compromise plants’ access to water in systems where soil pits are embedded in infiltration beds. It could raise the storm size required for water to reach soil pits, reducing water availability between storms, which could ultimately induce plant physiological stress. This study investigated the hydrological dynamics and water relations of a tree trench system suspected to have been overbuilt and identified factors contributing to, compounding, and mitigating the risk of plant stress. Results provided strong evidence that the abovementioned processes played out. Water in the infiltration bed reached soil pits only once in three years, with that event occurring during a hydrant release. Moreover, minimal water was retained in the soil pit during the event due to the hydraulic properties of the soil media. Through a growing season, one of the two tree types frequently experienced water stress, while the other did so only rarely. These contrasting responses can likely be attributed to roots either being largely confined to the soil pits or reaching a deeper water source. Implications of these results for green infrastructure design are considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0281.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Water channel; Abiotic stresses; Wheat genes; Post-translation modification; Gene expression
Online: 15 December 2022 (10:07:52 CET)
During the response of plants to adverse stresses, aquaporin (AQP) plays a prominent role in membrane water transport based on received upstream signals. In addition, they have various physical parts for dealing with environmental stresses. Due to the importance of the AQP gene family, studies have been conducted investigating the function and regulatory system of these genes. However, many of their molecular aspects are still unknown. This study aims to carry out a genomic-wide investigation of the AQP gene family in durum wheat using bioinformatics tools and to investigate the expression patterns of some members in response to salt stress. Our results showed that there are 80 TtAQP genes in durum wheat, which are classified into four main groups based on phylogenetic analysis. Many duplications were observed between the members of the TtAQP gene family, and high diversity in response to post-translational modifications was observed between TtAQP family members. The expression pattern of TtAQP genes disclosed that these genes are primarily upregulated in response to salt stress. Besides, qPCR data revealed that TtAQPs are more induced in delayed responses to salinity stress. Overall, our findings illustrate that TtAQP members are diverse in terms of their structure, regulatory systems and expression levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0286.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: water jet peening; multifunction cavitation; Hot corrosion; Thermal stress cycle; Cr-Mo steel; embedding test; coating test
Online: 17 September 2018 (08:02:10 CEST)
This research investigated high-temperature corrosion (500 °C) of Cr-Mo steel processed using water jet peening or multifunction cavitation (MFC), and the suitability of such steel for high-temperature boilers and reaction vessels. High-temperature corrosion was induced using an embedment test and a coating test using sulfide-type K2SO4-Na2SO4 powder. To measure the relaxation of the residual stress due to the decrease in work hardening caused by an increase in specimen temperature and the difference in thermal shrinkage between the surface and interior of the specimen, a thermal cycling test was conducted. For the MFC-processed specimen, the oxide film that formed on the surface suppressed mass loss, prevented crack formation, and reduced the compressive residual stress caused by high-temperature corrosion. MFC-processed Cr-Mo steel is thus suitable for a high-temperature corrosion environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0307.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: antioxidant activity; cross-tolerance; glycine max; heat stress; proteomics; water stress
Online: 31 October 2019 (05:23:35 CET)
Water stress (WS) and heat stress (HS) have a negative effect on soybean plant growth and crop productivity. During WS, soybean plants opt for survival through ion homeostasis and the conformations of proteins are disconcerted as plant cells lose water while HS leads to difficulties in flowering and fruiting. Some of these changes include oxidative stress leading to the destruction of photosynthetic apparatus, macromolecules within cells and the onset of complex signaling cascades. Changes in the physiological characteristics, proteome, and certain metabolites investigated on molecular and cellular functions were studied in two soybean cultivars exposed to different heat and water stress conditions independently and in combination. Leaf protein composition was studied using 2-DE and complemented with MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. While two cultivars displayed genetic variation in response to water and heat stress, thirty-nine proteins were significantly altered in their relative abundance in response to WS, HS and combined WS+HS in both cultivars; a majority of them involved in metabolism, response to heat and photosynthesis showing significant cross-tolerance mechanisms. Functional analysis revealing a majority of heat responsive-proteins were more abundant during HS and combined stress (WS+HS) whereas these proteins were low to WS in cultivar PI 471938 and heat shock proteins were in low abundance to water, heat and combined stresses in cultivar R95-1705. Most protein abundances were not correlated with their expression at mRNA levels in PI cultivar, however, in cultivar R 95, the expression levels of transcript follow their relative abundance in proteins. Our systems bioinformatics analyses revealed that MED37C, a probable mediator of RNA polymerase transcription II protein showed potential interacting partners in Arabidopsis and our studies signifies the marked impact of this protein in PI cultivar. Elevated activities in antioxidant enzymes indicate that the PI-371938 cultivar has the ability to restore the oxidation levels and sustain the plant during the stress. Our study hypothesizes the plant’s development of cross-stress tolerance which will help foster the ongoing ventures in genetic modifications in stress tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0081.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: draw-down; slope stability; LEM; FEM; FOS; permeability; horizontal filter; pore water pressure
Online: 2 November 2023 (01:24:41 CET)
Rapid draw-down in an earthfill dam has serious implications for dam safety regarding slope stability. The evaluation of reservoir draw-down impact on slope stability was carried out considering the case study of 8 hours of rapid draw-down of the Middle Marsyangdi Hydroelectric Power Project (MMHPP) rock-fill dam using the Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM) and stress-based Finite Element Method (FEM). The time-dependent factor of safety (FOS) was evaluated and found that the 8 hours of rapid draw-down undertaken in October 2012 for reservoir flushing was unsafe with a draw-down rate of 1.91m/h. The resulting FOS of 1.28 and 1.27 using LEM and FEM was classified as unsafe as per the US Army Corps of Engineers’ guideline, the minimum required factors of safety should be greater than 1.3. The minimum safe allowable draw-down rate of 0.76m/h for 20 hours was identified. Applying three layers of horizontal filter materials and increasing the upstream dam’s permeability provided adequate FOS results for all cases by increasing seepage discharge to reduce the destabilizing excess pore water pressure. Several gradual draw-down rates were also tested and found that FOS increases with decreased draw-down rates, as it reduces the excess pore water pressure controlled with stabilizing existing water load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0009.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: co-expression network, water deprivation, drought, systems biology, network centrality, computational simulation, Arabidopsis, transcriptional regulation
Online: 1 July 2022 (08:15:36 CEST)
Drought is one of the most serious abiotic stressors in the environment, restricting agricultural production by reducing plant growth, development, and productivity. To investigate such a complex and multifaceted stressor and its effects on the plants, a systems biology-based approach is necessitated, entailing the generation of co-expression networks, identification of highly-priority transcription factors (TFs) dynamic mathematical modeling, and computational simulations. Here, we studied a high-resolution drought transcriptome of Arabidopsis. We revealed distinct temporal transcriptional signatures and demonstrated the involvement of specific biological pathways. Generation of a large-scale co-expression network followed by network centrality analyses identified 117 TFs that possess critical properties of hubs, bottlenecks, and high clustering coefficients nodes. Dynamic transcriptional regulatory modeling on integrated TF-target and transcriptome datasets uncovered major transcriptional events during the course of drought stress. Mathematical transcriptional simulations allowed us to ascertain the activation status of major TFs as well as the transcriptional intensity and amplitude of their target genes. Finally, we validated our predictions by providing experimental evidence of gene expression under drought stress for a set of four TFs and their major target genes using qRT-PCR. Taken together, we provided a systems-level perspective on the dynamic transcriptional regulation during drought stress in Arabidopsis and uncovered numerous novel TFs that can potentially be used in future genetic crop engineering programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0286.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: elevated CO2; drought; photosynthesis; transpiration rate; stomatal conductance; C4 enzymes; malate; water deficit stress; abscisic acid
Online: 4 July 2022 (08:21:01 CEST)
The changing dynamics in climate is the primary and important determinant of agriculture productivity. The effects of this changing climate on overall productivity in agriculture can be understood when we study the effects of individual components contributing to the changing climate on plants and crops. Elevated CO2 (eCO2) and drought due to high variability in rainfall is one of the important manifestations of the changing climate. There is a considerable amount of literature that addresses climate effects on plant systems from molecules to ecosystems. Of particular interest is the effect of increased CO2 on plants in relation to drought and water stress. As it is known that one of the consistent effects of increased CO2 in the atmosphere is increased photosynthesis, especially in C3 plants, it will be interesting to know the effect of drought in relation to elevated CO2. The potential of elevated CO2 ameliorating the effects of water deficit stress is evident from literature suggesting that these two are agents are brothers in arms protecting the plant from stress rather than partnering in crime, specifically water deficit when in isolation. The possible mechanisms by which this occurs will be discussed in this minireview. Interpreting the effects of short-term and long-term exposure of plants to elevated CO2 in the context of ameliorating the negative impacts of drought will show us the possible ways by which there can be effective adaption to crops in the changing climate scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0058.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: water rights; robustness; water governance; water scarcity; water allocation; water accounting; water trading; water sharing
Online: 6 November 2019 (10:43:15 CET)
A framework for the review of existing water management systems and their transformation into robust water sharing systems is offered. The framework focuses on the need to develop efficient and equitable ways to manage water scarcity and plan to deal with the tensions scarcity imposes on any community. The framework identifies a way to bring together traditional community-managed systems with those typically used to allocate water to large water users and more commonly found in developed countries. So that use can be kept within sustainable limits while optimizing use, the framework includes mechanisms that enable the reallocation of water as demand and supply conditions change. Non-consumptive uses are recognized and environmental objectives can be delivered efficiently. Compliance with well-established accounting and hydro-logical concepts. Ways to increase the value of existing entitlements, encourage innovation and protect investments are included as options. It is recognized that the governance and legal arrangements necessary to underpin successful implantation are context specific.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0132.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: water management; water paradigm; water governability; water conflicts; Cochabamba
Online: 19 December 2017 (07:22:15 CET)
Through the process of paradigm change (water as a resource towards water as a common), the authors examine, from a theoretic point of view, the water governability proposed by Agenda del Agua Cochabamba (AdA) – Cochabamba Water Agenda – in the Cochabamba Valley (Bolivia), identifying barriers and drivers to the process that could take place. The rise of Evo Morales in Government in 2006 suggested that policy making would somehow take a fundamental turn resulting in more poor environmental-oriented water policies. However, if that was indeed the case, the implementation of these policies remain controversial as strong power asymmetries still exist at a local level that interfere with national policies shaping the political area. The Cochabamba Water Agenda echoes this debate on the political arena and contributes a politically contested water management through a paradigm change envisaging the difficulties through its implementation. The question remains if this “political” solution to paradigm change in water management may reduce water conflicts.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0709.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Water shortages; Irrigation Water; water Use; Water Harvesting; Aquifers storage
Online: 30 July 2021 (23:38:55 CEST)
Water scarcity is a significant challenge facing Jordan today. It is a challenge in all areas that use water, and it has become certain that water is the critical factor in the population/resources equation. The water resources in Jordan have become limited with the noticeable increase in the population, mostly resulting from forced migrations in neighboring countries because of the wars and until our time. The rising natural population growth rate, along with the massive influx of refugees, has turned into a state of disproportion between the daily consumption of the population and the amount of water available. That Jordan shares most of its surface water resources with neighboring countries has exacerbated the situation. The current use of water already exceeds its renewable supply. Excessive withdrawal from aquifers, which leads to a lowering of the water table and deterioration in water quality, covered the deficit. This paper focuses on assessing the water situation in Jordan, mainly evaluating this problem and the solution being considered, the true basis for a sustainable water solution requires awareness by the population, and several governmental and non-governmental organizations are actively involved in educating residents about water shortages. The most important and 'actionable' elements of comprehensive water solutions are discussed in this paper, and these elements exist, develop extra water supplies, water harvesting, water desalination, proper wastewater reuse in the agricultural sector, and reduce the demand for drinking water. This research provides specific recommendations to address the shortage of water resources in the Kingdom and highlights the importance of water conservation and optimal use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: water management; planning; water resources; water sustainability policies; water laws
Online: 4 September 2019 (03:37:23 CEST)
The growing need for water has pressured society and governments to focus more on preservation, planning and management of this natural resource, in which is fundamental to ecosystems and especially to humans. In this sense, the goal of this study was to analyze the national policy of water resources in Brazil and Italy, figuring out aspects that could promote its improvement, aiming at the preservation of water sources, guaranteeing satisfactory quantity and quality. They were carried out in 2019 by the environmental agencies of both countries, listing the main disciplinary regulations. The results show that although they are countries with different realities, they resemble similarities in managerial aspects of water resources, with legislation addressing qualitative and quantitative aspects of water, with guiding principles, instruments and actions aimed at the defence of this natural resource.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0129.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Water Sensitive City; Water Sensitive Urban Design; Water Cycle; Water Utilities
Online: 4 February 2021 (09:34:58 CET)
Mexico is currently facing important water management challenges. Cities in the country are facing water scarcity and at the same time, they struggle with floods during the raining season. The water sensitive urban design (WSUD) approach has proved to be helpful in tackling urban water challenges such as floods and water scarcity and it is being implemented in cities around the world. The WSUD approach highlights the role of both the water cycle and the water utilities systems, when transitioning towards a water sensitive stage. Therefore, the objective of this research is to analyse the current situation of the water cycle and the water utility (SIAPA). To do so, we have selected the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara (MAG) and proposes a case study approach. Within our case of study, we answer two questions: 1) What are the causes of water scarcity and flooding in the MAG? and 2) What are the proposals to solve these problems under a WSUD approach? By answering these questions, we identified that the water management in the MAG corresponds to a single purpose infrastructure. This type of management does not contribute to solve the problems of water scarcity and floods. The water supply policy is based only on the construction of large dams disregarding the storage and use of rainwater, and reuse of greywater, and water-conservation devices. In order to transition towards a water sensitive stage, a WSUD approach that includes multi-purpose infrastructure should be considered. Such as green roofs, swales, rainwater gardens, infiltration trenches, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0269.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: L.pneumophila, well water, tap water, ice cubes, hospital water, hotel water
Online: 14 September 2018 (14:24:40 CEST)
Background Legionella pneumophila is one of the causes of legionellosis. Water environments serve as the natural habitat and the main sources of Legionella pneumophila. Objectives The aims of this study was to understand the differences of Legionella pneumophila serogroups distribution in well water, tap water, ice cubes, hospital and hotel water in East Java-Indonesia. Methods a total of 60 water samples in east java-Indonesia; from well water (n=25), tap water (n=5), ice cubes (n=5), water from the hospital (n=16), and hotel water (n=9) were detected using polymerase chain reaction with mip gene spesific primers and then it was analyzed by phylogenetic tree. Results For the 60 water samples collected in East Java, 12% of the samples (7/60) were positively contaminated by L. pneumophila. In details, there was 8% of the well water samples (2/25), 2% of the tap water samples (1/5), 2% of the ice cubes samples (1/5), 0% of the hospital water samples (0/16) and 33.33% of the hotel water samples (3/9). The phylogenetic tree showed that Legionella pneumophila contaminating well water isolate 1 from Surabaya and tap water isolate from Sidoarjo was closer to L.pneumophila serogroup 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, isolates from Brazil, China, Spain and Australia. L.pneumophila contaminating the ice cubes from Sidoarjo was closer to serogroup 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, while the bacteria contaminating well water isolate 2 from Sidoarjo as well as water in hotel of Surabaya (hotel water isolate 1, 2 and 3) classified into their own group. Conclusion There is a difference in the distribution of L. pneumophila serogroups between well water, tap water, ice cubes, and hotels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Mungbean; low phosphorus; drought stress; organic acid exudation; photosynthetic rate; relative water content; membrane stability index; stress susceptibility index; principal component analysis ranking
Online: 1 December 2020 (08:05:27 CET)
To understand the physiological basis of tolerance to combined stresses to low phosphorus (P) and drought in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek), a core set of 100 accessions were evaluated in hydroponics at sufficient (250 μM) and low (3 μM) P, and exposed to drought (dehydration) stress. The principal component analysis and ranking of accessions based on relative values revealed that IC280489, EC397142, IC76415, IC333090, IC507340 and IC121316 performed superior while IC119005, IC73401, IC488526 and IC325853 performed poorly in all treatments. Selected accessions were evaluated in soil under control (sufficient P, irrigated), low P (without P, irrigated), drought (sufficient P, withholding irrigation) and combined stress (low P, withholding irrigation). Under combined stress, a significant reduction in gas exchange traits (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, instantaneous water use efficiency), P uptake in seed and shoot was observed under combined stress as compared to individual stresses. Among accessions, IC488526 was most sensitive while IC333090 and IC507340 exhibited tolerance to individual or combined stress. The water balance and low P adaptation traits like membrane stability index, relative water content, specific leaf weight, organic acid exudation, biomass, grain yield and P uptake can be used as physiological markers to evaluate for agronomic performance. Accessions with considerable resilience to low P and drought stress can be either used as ‘donors’ in Vigna breeding program or cultivated in areas with limited P and water availability or both.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0440.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change; drought; water deficit index; infrared observations; satellite; remote sensing; surface temperature; air temperature; humidity; dew point temperature
Online: 29 July 2022 (02:36:22 CEST)
The boreal Hemisphere has been experiencing increasing extreme hot and dry conditions over the past few decades, consistent with anthropogenic climate change expectations. The continental extension of the phenomenon calls for tools and techniques capable of monitoring the global to regional scales. In this context, the satellite is the only system that can satisfy the need for global coverage. The main objective we have addressed in the present paper is the capability of infrared satellite observations helping to monitor the vegetation stress due to increasing drought and heatwaves in summer. We have designed and implemented a new water deficit index (wdi) that exploits satellite observations in the infrared to retrieve humidity, air temperature, and surface temperature simultaneously. These three parameters are combined to provide the water deficit index. The index has been developed based on the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer or IASI, which covers the infrared spectral range 645 to 2760 cm-1 with a sampling of 0.25 cm-1. The index has been used to study the 2017 heatwave, which hit Continental Europe from May to October. In particular, we have examined Southern Italy, where Mediterranean forests suffer from climate change. We have computed the index's time series and show that it can be used to indicate the atmospheric background conditions associated with meteorological drought. We have also found a good agreement with soil moisture, which suggests that the persistence of anomalously high water deficit index was an essential driver of the rapid development and evolution of the exceptionally severe 2017 droughts.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: conservation tillage; water potential; water potential gradient; water transfer resistance; water use efficiency
Online: 9 August 2019 (04:11:21 CEST)
Water availability is a major constraint for spring wheat production on the western Loess Plateau of China. The impact of tillage practices on water potential, water potential gradient, water transfer resistance, yield, and water use efficiency (WUEg) of spring wheat was monitored on the western Loess Plateau in 2016 and 2017. Six tillage practices were assessed, including conventional tillage with no straw (T), no-till with straw cover (NTS), no-till with no straw (NT), conventional tillage with straw incorporated (TS), conventional tillage with plastic mulch (TP), and no-till with plastic mulch (NTP). No-till with straw cover, TP, and NTP significantly improved soil water potential and root water potential at the seedling stage and leaf water potential at the seedling, tillering, jointing, and flowering stages, compared to T. These treatments also significantly reduced the soil-leaf water potential gradient at the 0-10 cm soil layer at the seedling stage and at the 30-50 cm soil layer at flowering, compared to T. Thus, NTS, TP, and NTP reduced soil-leaf water transfer resistance and enhanced transpiration. Compared to T, the NTS, TP, and NTP treatments significantly increased biomass yield (BY) by 18, 36, and 40%, respectively, and grain yield (GY) by 28, 22, and 24%, respectively, with corresponding increases in WUEg of 24, 26, and 24%, respectively. These results demonstrate that NTS, TP, and NTP improved GY and WUEg of spring wheat by decreasing the soil-leaf water potential gradient and soil-leaf water transfer resistance and enhancing transpiration, and are suitable tillage practices for sustainable intensification of wheat production in semi-arid areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1660.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: water; water accessibility; water system; resilient; coping strategies; households.
Online: 25 September 2023 (08:15:25 CEST)
Calabar is a city where 65 per cent of people are living in poverty in informal settlements with low and decreasing access to improved water. In the low-income informal areas of the city, residents are being made responsible for securing their own water supply through several coping strategies. This paper explores the decreasing access to water and coping strategies to shortage in Calabar, Nigeria. It analyses two complementary pieces of data: (i) the households’ coping strategies and (ii) satisfaction with improved water services. A mixed method was introduced and data was collected via fieldwork at three settlements in Calabar. A household survey of 360 respondents, 27 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups were conducted. Findings show that households engaged in different coping strategies to access water, including conservation (changing routine/reusing), purchasing (spent a significant proportion of their income on buying water) and pumping as a coping strategy. The household's tenure, socioeconomic status and water accessibility determines their decision to move if services are not provided. A crucial differentiation exists between a larger population being granted less access to water versus certain individuals receiving access to a greater quantity of water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0076.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: water consumption; drinking water; consumer preference; water usage purposes
Online: 5 July 2022 (13:45:20 CEST)
The aim were to determine the drinking water preferences of people applied to a family health center. This cross-sectional study was carried out from April 01st to May 31st, 2022. The data were evaluated using the chi-square test and percent ratios with a significant of P < 0.05. The mean age of all 432 respondents was 48.03±15.86. It was determined that those aged 31-45 had drunk more bottled water (p<0.01) and more spring water (p<0.001), that those aged 65 and over more purified water (p<0.001), that women more tap water (p<0.001), that married people had drunk more demijohn and tap water (p<0.001, each one), that divorced/widows had drunk more packaged and purified water (p<0.001, each one), that the illiterate/literate bottled water (p<0.001, per one), that those who had no income/people who lived on the state or municipal assistance only carboy water (p<0.001). This study suggests that the biggest factor that positively affected the drinking water preference was the packaging of the water. However, the drinking rates of mains water and spring water were quite low. Convincing the authorities to make the mains water drinkable is of great importance in terms of overcoming the public's distrust of mains water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Sustainability model; SDGs; Clean water; Drinking water; Water security.
Online: 24 January 2022 (02:08:49 CET)
Water resources are under pressure because of human activities. Its management faces the challenge of enhancing long-term water security while minimizing undesirable economic, social, and environmental impacts along with its production chain. Since water and wastewater treatment plants are designed to maintain and conserve freshwater provisioning services, it is paramount to understand how it operates before proposing options for sustainability. At this point, the diagnosis phase claims for methods scientifically-based, systemic, and more objective to provide information for decision-makers towards strategic management of water resources. This work applies the five-sector sustainability model (5SenSu) to assess Brazil's twenty major water and wastewater treatment companies (WWTC) to quantify their sustainability levels that allow ranking procedures and the establishment of benchmarks for improvements. Under comparative basis, results identified the top-three sustainable companies, CORSAN, CASAN, and SANEPAR, which should be considered examples of best practices. Specifically, the following best-ranked companies in each sector within 5SenSu should be used as benchmark patterns for more oriented best practices: SANEAGO, sector 1; AGESISA, sector 2; CORSAN, sector 3; CASAL, sector 4; MA, sector 5. This work contributes to the advancement in modeling sustainability assessment of human-managed systems (applied in WWTCs in this present study) from a systemic and epistemologically rooted approach, avoiding shortcomings and misleading discussions on the sustainability issue. Quantifying sustainability of WWTCS from 5SenSu allows the identification of those sectors/indicators that requires immediate cleaner production practices by decision-makers to improve overall sustainability, besides identifying those companies more aligned with the requirements of UN SDGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0509.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Hygiene; Cleanliness; Water; Rural water facility; Water shortage; Uganda
Online: 30 September 2021 (11:02:14 CEST)
This research contributes to the detailed discussion about the approach to secure, hygienic water and cleanliness in Uganda and its pastoral regions. The relationship between the sanitation and clean water access with destitution is also discussed. Although this document is not leading towards the policy recommendation but it is an overall idea of how Uganda progressed because of the provisions adopted by the government, local and international organizations, and NGOs, and how the country lacked before these steps taken. Most of the data mentioned is taken from the house surveys of a decade 2002-2013 alongside the qualitative data. Literature review is also considered and is divided in two sections: first included researches related to water accessibility and usage, while the second section included researches related to work done and progress for diarrheal diseases and sanitation. Afterwards, methodologies were discussed where, firstly, trends and then the limitations in access to the basic necessities of life that is clean water and hygiene are mentioned. At last, the implementations and how they affected the rural Ugandans was discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Water Demand; Water Supply; Performance; Hydraulic Modeling; Water GEMSV8i
Online: 11 February 2020 (14:52:17 CET)
This study was conducted generally by aiming assessment of the hydraulic performance of water distribution systems of Addis Ababa Science and Technology University (AASTU). In line with the main objective, this study addressed, (1) pinpointing problems of existing water supply versus demand deficit (2) evaluating the hydraulic performance of water distribution system using water GEMS and (3) recommended alternative methods for improving water demand scenarios. The University’s water supply distribution network layout was a looped system and the flow of water derived by both gravity and pressurized system. The gravity flow served for the academic and administrative staffs whereas the pressurized system of the network fed the students dormitories, cafeteria’s etc. The study revealed the existence of unmet minimum pressure requirement around the student dormitories which accounts 25.64% below the country’s building code standard during the peak hour consumption. The result of the water demand projection showed an increment of 2.5 liter per capita demand (LPCD) in every five years. Hence, first, the university’s water demand was projected and then hydraulic parameters such as; pressure, head loss and velocity were modeled for both the existing and the improved water supply distribution. The finding of the study was recommended to the university’s water supply project and institutional development offices for its future modification and rehabilitation works.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0497.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: leaf water content; hyperspectral spectroscopy; leaf water potential; drought; diurnal cycle; plant water status; relative water content; equivalent water thickness; Dracaena marginate; water stress; leaf water variation
Online: 25 August 2021 (15:00:37 CEST)
Water plays a crucial role in maintaining plant functionality and drives many ecophysiological processes. The distribution of water resources is in a continuous change due to global warming affecting the productivity of ecosystems around the globe, but there is a lack of non-destructive methods capable of continuous monitoring of plant and leaf water content that would help us in understanding the consequences of the redistribution of water. We studied the utilization of novel small hyperspectral sensors in the 1350-2450 nm spectral range in non-destructive estimation of leaf water content in laboratory and field conditions. We found that the sensors captured up to 96% of the variation in equivalent water thickness (EWT, g/m2) and up to 90% of the variation in relative water content (RWC). These laboratory findings were supported by field measurements, where repeated leaf spectra measurements were in good agreement (R2=0.79) with a time-lagged change of tree xylem diameter. Further tests were done with an indoor plant (Dracaena marginate Lem.) by continuously measuring leaf spectra while drought conditions developed, which revealed detailed diurnal dynamics of leaf water content. We conclude that close-range hyperspectral spectroscopy can provide a novel tool for continuous measurement of leaf water content at the single leaf level and help us to better understand plant responses to varying environmental conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0369.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Sachet water; water quality; bacteriological quality; public health; drinking water
Online: 21 March 2023 (06:14:26 CET)
Sachet water (SW) is a major source of drinking water in most Nigerian homes, thus making it a possible conveyance medium for health risks due to contamination rather than for replenishment of the body. This study collected SW from three busy neighborhoods and investigated for the presence of indicator bacteria – Escherichia coli (E. coli), Total Coliform (TC), Total Heterophilic Bacteria (THB), and Staphylococcus – and some physio-chemical parameters – total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and salinity. Multi-variable and exploratory statistical methods were applied to the results to determine correlations between bacterial contamination levels and perceived brand reputation. Bacteriological test with raw SW samples appeared too numerous to count (TNC) and thus required serial dilutions. After seven dilutions, results obtained revealed that SW brands with good reputation had no TC and E. coli and was statistically significant with groupings of other SW brands (χ2 = 12.28; p < 0.05 and χ2 = 37.96; p < 0.05) respectively. Additionally, SW brands with poor reputation had mean values of TC (19.7X10^8 cfu/ml;14X10^8 cfu/ml1.15X10^8 cfu/ml) and E.coli (18.2X10^8 cfu/ml;38.7X10^8 cfu/ml,32.4X10^8 cfu/ml) exceeding threshold value of zero set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Only one sample from poor reputation brand tested positive for Staphylococcus and was not statistically significant (χ2 =5.2191; p = 0.074). Principal Component Analysis (PCA)/ Factor Analysis (FA) revealed that most of the SW had fecal contamination in an alarming magnitude. Therefore, this study suggests that periodic cleaning of distribution lines, location specific treatment, QC and QA measures should be taken to reduce water security risk for SW consumption in the region.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0049.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: diarrhoeal cases; drinking water; water sources; water pollution; Darbandikhan Lake
Online: 2 August 2020 (17:41:51 CEST)
Water pollution in Iraq has been extended disaster edge; this pollution is caused by wastes and sewages into soil and rivers, pollutant water sources influence the outbreak and serious epidemic status among the population.. The aim of this study is to determine the bacteriological quality of drinking water sources and characteristics of water-borne diseases especially diarrheal cases in Darbandikhan city. 166 water samples, collected from the different sources and areas, were tested for the presences of coliform bacteria as an indicator for pathogen contamination. Most probable number index was used for coliform enumeration. 161 diarrheal cases were taken as a sample from the patients were admitted to the general hospital in Darbandikhan district.. The questionnaire form was planned to view characteristics of diarrheal cases and patients were interviewed directly, the data was analyzed by STATA software application. 46% of the diarrheal cases used tap water for drinking. On the other hand, the reminder (54%) used other sources for the same purpose. All the risk factor such as type of water source, sufficiency of the water, duration of water storage and chlorination were associated with diarrhea. Almost half of the cases were children and three quarters were single. The data was analyzed by STATA version 13.1.This study indicated that the majority of drinking water sources in Darbandikhan city are not suitable for drinking, although net pipe system supplied chlorine significantly it has been proven that the tap water from the homes is not suitable for consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0054.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Shanghai; water quality; eutrophication; conventional water treatment; secondary water pollution
Online: 5 September 2019 (07:47:59 CEST)
Shanghai is experiencing water supply problems caused by heavy pollution of its raw water supply, deficiencies in its treatment processes and water quality deteoriation in the distribution system. However, little attention has been paid these problems of water quality in raw water, water treatment and household drinking water. Based on water quality data we show that the raw water sources of the Huangpu River and the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary are polluted by microbes (TBC), eutrophication (TP, TN and NH3-N), heavy metals (Fe, Mn and Hg) and organic contamination (chemical oxygen demand [COD], detergent and volatile phenols [VP]). The average concentrations of these contaminants in the Huangpu River are almost double that of the Changjiang estuary forcing a rapid shift to the Changjiang estuary for raw water. In spite of filtering and treatment, TN, NH3-N, Fe, COD and chlorine maxima of the treated water and drinking water still exceed the Chinese National Standard (GB5749). We determine that the relevant threats from water source to household water in Shanghai are: 1) eutrophication arising from highly concentrated TN, TP, COD and algal density in the raw water; 2) increasing salinity in the river estuary, especially at the Qingcaosha Reservoir (currently the major freshwater source for Shanghai); 3) more than 50% of organic constituents and by-products remain in treated water; 4) bacteria and turbidity increase in the course of water delivery to users. The analysis presents an holistic assessment of the water quality threats to metropolitan Shanghai in relation to the city’s rapid development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0734.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: wind energy; weibull distributions; water abstraction; water stress; water pumping
Online: 31 October 2018 (06:54:36 CET)
Wind energy powered pumps could be an alternative to conventional fuel powered pumps for water abstraction because they rely on a free energy and they are environmentally friendly. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of wind energy to operate water abstraction systems in Teso sub-region of Uganda for livestock watering Daily mean wind speeds recorded at a height of 10 m for a period of ten years (2005–2015) were collected from Amuria and Soroti Meteorological stations in the study area. Data were analyzed using Weibull distribution to evaluate the annual wind speed frequency distributions and consequently assess their potential for water abstraction. The results indicated that warmer months (January, February and March) have higher mean wind speeds than the cold months (August, September and October). High wind speeds in the dry seasons corresponded to the periods of high water demand. The highest shape parameter (k) of 3.07 was registered in 2009 and scale parameter (c) of 3.78 in 2012. The highest wind power density of 43 W/m2 was obtained the year 2012 while the lowest wind power density of 15.47 W/m2 was obtained for Soroti district in the year 2009. The maximum power extractable in Amuria in 2012 was 324 W/m2 which is potentially enough for water abstraction. Maximum discharges of 1.86 m3/s and 1.52 m3/s were obtained for Amuria and Soroti districts respectively at mean wind speeds of 5 m/s. Therefore, Teso sub region winds have potential for water abstraction and Amuria district better sites for livestock watering using wind energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0427.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Water recycle; upscaling; water governance; water availability; climate change adaptation
Online: 18 October 2018 (16:34:29 CEST)
Cleaning wastewater and using it again for secondary purposes is a measure to address water scarcity in urban areas. However, upscaling of recycled water schemes is challenging due to the possible emergence of various barriers. Based on a review of the governance literature we suggest that a set of five governance conditions is necessary for a successful upscaling of recycled water schemes; (1) policy leadership, (2) policy coordination, (3) availability of financial resources, (4) awareness of a problem, and (5) the presence of a public forum. In order to elaborate on the practical relevance of these conditions we studied a recycled water scheme currently being upscaled in Sabadell, Spain. We reviewed policy documents, conducted a set of 21 semi-structured interviews, and attended two policy meetings about the subject. Our results suggest that Sabadell meets the required conditions for upscaling reused water to a certain extent. However, the presence of a public forum is lacking. We discuss the implications of the absence of the venue and procedures for public participation in Sabadell and how it could be strengthened. Following this discussion, we conclude with some lessons for other cities that plan to upscale their recycled water schemes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0059.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water footprint; bottled water; groundwater; Africa; water resource management; urban
Online: 10 December 2016 (08:41:51 CET)
Packaged water consumption has grown rapidly in urban areas of many low and middle income countries, but particularly in Ghana. However, the sources of water used by this growing packaged water industry and its implications for water resource management and transport-related environmental impacts have not been described. This study aimed to assess the spatial distribution of regulated packaged water production in Ghana, both in relation to demand and for natural mineral water, to hydrogeological characteristics. 764 addresses for premises licenced to produce packaged water from 2009-2015 were mapped and compared to regional sachet water consumption and beverage import/export data examined. We find evidence to suggest packaged water is transported shorter distances in Ghana than in developed countries. For natural mineral waters, producers should be able to address the most widespread water quality hazards (including high salinity, iron and nitrates) in aquifers used for production through reverse osmosis treatment. The study suggests there is scope to integrate beverage product and groundwater regulatory databases to support groundwater management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: water supply; crisis situation; safety of water supply; flood; water decontamination; water filtration; flexible tanks
Online: 17 February 2021 (07:56:01 CET)
Various methods of water purification, the aim of which is to obtain such a purity class that makes it suitable for consumption are presented in the article. It is a review of solutions, ranging from methods known and used for over 100 years, through research and experiments underway, to those that are only a concept. Some of the solutions are so effective that they should also be combined with the possibility of safe storage of purified water. Flexible tanks are used for this, which significantly improve logistics and provide a supply of water in all places where it is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0510.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: membrane potential; water; adsorption; structured water
Online: 30 August 2022 (06:00:56 CEST)
The occurrence of potential spikes in a cell is a sign of life, and it is called action potential. There is a common notion that neuron signal conduction is the conduction of action potential. Hence, action potential is a typical and essential life activity. However, such potential spikes occur even in simple nonliving systems. According to the experimental observations by Pollack, structured water molecules can generate a negative potential environment. From this observation, the potential spike generation process for both living and nonliving systems caused by ion and water molecule adsorption-desorption process could be explained in this paper. So, taking into consideration the electrically neutral water molecules,the action potential generation mechanism could be explained. It is a fully inanimate model. Hence, the action potential may not be a life activity. Here, the role of water molecules in life is investigated further. It was found that the phase transition of the membrane is involved in the neuron signal conduction, but the membrane phase transition could be due to the change of state of the water molecules, which forms a large-scale structure in the cavities created by a number of lipids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0191.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: water data management; urban water system; strategic planning; integrated water management
Online: 20 June 2019 (04:02:14 CEST)
Rapid technological advancements in information communication technologies have enabled water resource data collection at greater spatial and temporal scale. However, this water data is often limited to the purposes of its primary collection, and limits decisions made by stakeholders towards sustainable urban water management. This empirically focused research paper examines how water practitioners involved in strategic planning can capture additional values from integrating different water data. Furthermore, the perception of 22 urban water practitioners across Australia are presented, regarding the importance of and difficulty in using water data for strategic planning, and the necessary steps for achieving integrated water management practices. Interviewees perception revealed gaps in available water resource data (i.e. water quality, ground water, stormwater, and urban water use), and limitations of industry guidelines for operating within existing governance frameworks. Overall, the research highlights the Australian urban water sector’s perception of water data’s crucial role in representing stakeholders interest; however, changes made in water data’s collection are required for an integrated water management approach. Implications for future open water data standard are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0275.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water scarcity; water withdrawal; food security; water management; climate change; adaptation
Online: 16 September 2018 (07:38:53 CEST)
Water scarcity is significantly increasing water stress in Africa and some parts of the world. This is due to human induced factors such as climate change, increase of human population that raises demand which outstrips food availability, and put great changes of land use which results in changes of hydrological mechanics and water availability as whole. The investigation was through literature review and it tries to examine the criticality of water scarcity in Africa regions, and the major factors that mastermind this menace. Also possible strategies that can be promptly used to manage water scarcity at domestic level and in agriculture are described in this paper, not with standing the fact that agriculture sectors in Africa and the rest of the world remain the utmost vulnerable enterprise to water scarcity and withdrawal on the planet earth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0199.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Water Security, Groundwater assessment, Groundwater quality, India
Online: 31 May 2018 (16:47:27 CEST)
Achieving water security and availability for all is among the principle agenda of the UN-Sustainable Development Goals. To achieve the goal of water security, particularly in rapidly expanding cities, identification of safe and sustainable water resources is an absolute necessity. The paper conducts an exploratory investigation in the hydro geochemical characteristics of groundwater and thereby, assess the suitability of groundwater as an alternative and reliable resource for public water supply in the Indian city of Surat. A total of 33-groundwater samples, selected on the basis of aquifer depth, land use signatures, were collected from open, bore, dug wells and hand pumps. After the hydrogeochemical analysis, the study evaluated the present state of the groundwater quality and determined the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as hardness, electrical conductivity, Cl −, pH, SO42-, and NO3 − concentrations. An interpolation technique, known as ordinary kriging, was used to acquire the spatial distribution of parameters of groundwater quality parameters. Based on the permeability index, result showed that 80% of the sampled groundwater quality falls under excellent class i.e. category I with PI value ranging from 1-24%, whereas the rest 20% of the samples has fallen under good class i.e. category II with PI value ranging from 25 to 75% on the suitability of water for irrigation. The results of this study outlines the unsustainability of groundwater for direct consumption, especially without any improved onsite water treatment, but it is appropriate for the irrigation purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0277.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainability; water recycling; grey water reuse; soil biodiversity; climate change; water scarcity
Online: 16 February 2023 (07:37:06 CET)
Fresh water is an increasingly scarce resource in both urban and rural developments. As a response to this challenge, non-potable water reuse is on the rise. This research explored a potential off-grid system for water purification, consisting of a staircase wetland with terracotta pot plants working as a filter for greywater. The study further investigated the physicochemical properties of the greywater and the soil before and after the wetland purification. Results showed that the filtered water satisfied all requirements for water reuse, e.g., pH, turbidity, and total coliforms. The research then uniquely investigated the effect of greywater on the soil biodiversity and soil biomass using soil DNA extraction and the tea bag index testing method. The filtered greywater absorbed by soil decomposed the soil faster and stabilized it better compared to tap water-absorbed soil or unfiltered greywater. The DNA generation sequencing revealed no significant differences in alpha diversity between control and treatment samples. The beta diversity differences were significant. This nature-based solution can lead to reduced load on the sewage system, resulting in less wastewater generation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0223.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Behavioral nudges; water conservation; technology; water efficiency
Online: 11 August 2022 (13:37:12 CEST)
Growing water shortages for large regions of the arid regions of the world, are likely to become more recurrent as climate change impacts grow. Countries across the world are facing water security difficulties that stem from population growth, urbanization, and rapid industrialization. The use of behavioral nudges methods implemented to encourage a socially desired behavior at a low to zero cost, has been an effective method at reducing water consumption in places where they have been deployed. For example, studies in California USA, Barcelona Spain, and Australia indicate that adoption of nudges give significant positive results in water consumption reduction. We describe some of the barriers that make it difficult to implement behavioral nudges to address the water crises in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We investigate the literature available in Sub-Saharan Africa and discover that the application of behavioral nudges has been sparingly used for reasons that are not obvious at first glance. Second, we find that the potential impediments to the use of behavioral nudges in SSA to be awareness, inadequate access to science and technology, political systems that are poorly suited for implementing nudging, abundance of multiple ethnic groups that speak different languages, along with other barriers that could challenge implementation of behavioral nudges. In light of those barriers, we present a conceptual model with a potential to address these barriers to behavioral nudging a workable solution in SSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0237.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: crop diversification; resilience; water management; water efficiency
Online: 15 July 2022 (14:54:43 CEST)
The specialisation and intensification in agriculture have increased the productivity but have also led to the spread of monocultural systems, simplifying production and reducing genetic diversity. The purpose of this study was to propose crop diversification as a tool to increase biodiversity and achieve sustainable and resilient intensive agriculture, particularly in areas with water scarcity. In this paper, a combined Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) was applied to evaluate the environmental and economic sustainability of a differentiated system of cultivation (pomegranate, almond and olive), according to modern intensive and superintensive cropping systems. Based upon the results obtained, it is deduced that pomegranate cultivation generated the highest environmental load, followed by almond and olive. From the financial analysis, it emerged that almond is the most profitable, followed by pomegranate and olive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0230.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: National Water Model; Water Management; Total Inflow
Online: 10 September 2020 (09:04:18 CEST)
This work investigates the utility of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Water Model (NWM) for water management operations by assessing the total inflow into a select number of reservoirs across the Central and Western U.S. Total inflow is generally an unmeasured quantity, though critically important for anticipating both floods and shortages in supply over a short-term (hourly) to sub-seasonal (monthly) time horizon. The NWM offers such information at over 5,000 reservoirs across the U.S., however, its skill at representing inflow processes is largely unknown. The goal of this work is to understand the drivers for both well performing and poor performing NWM inflows such that managers can get a sense of the capability of NWM to capture natural hydrologic processes and in some cases, the effects of upstream management. We analyzed the inflows for a subset of Bureau of Reclamation (BoR) reservoirs within the NWM over the long-term simulations (retrospectively, seven years) and for short, medium and long-range operational forecast cycles over a one-year period. We utilize ancillary reservoir characteristics (e.g. physical and operational) to explain variation in inflow performance across the selected reservoirs. In general, we find that NWM inflows in snow-driven basins outperform those in rain-driven, and that assimilated basin area, upstream management, and calibrated basin area all influence the NWM’s ability to reproduce daily reservoir inflows. The final outcome of this work proposes a framework for how the NWM reservoir inflows can be useful for reservoir management, linking reservoir purposes with the forecast cycles and retrospective simulations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0634.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Recreational water, spa, thermal water, innovative treatment
Online: 26 October 2018 (15:09:47 CEST)
Natural spa springs are diffused all over the world and their use in pools is known since ancient times. This review underlines the cultural and social spa context focusing on hygiene issues, public health guidelines and emerging concerns regarding water management in wellness or recreational settings. The question of the "untouchability" of therapeutic natural waters and their incompatibility with traditional disinfection processes is addressed considering the demand for effective treatments that would respect the natural properties. Available strategies and innovative treatments are reviewed, highlighting potentials and limits for a sustainable management. Alternative approaches comprise nanotechnologies, photocatalysis systems, advanced filtration. State of the art and promising perspectives are reported considering the chemical-physical component and the biological natural complexity of the spa water microbiota.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0019.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: community-owned water supply organization (COWSO); domestic water management strategy; water quality; water supply and sanitation authority (WSSA)
Online: 1 July 2019 (15:07:50 CEST)
Water supply is a mandatory service for Tanzanians from respective legal public water utilities, and their sustainability reflects implementations of best management strategies at a local level. The objective of this study was to assess current approaches used in water quality and quantity management in Tanzania. This was achieved through secondary water data tends, on-site water quality assessments, visits of respective water supply and sanitation authorities, and assessment of their performances. It was observed that water supplied in rural-based authorities was quite different from that supplied in an urban setting as far as quality and quantity is concerned, urban-based supplies being of assistance to users over rural ones. A new strategy on water management is presented for sustainable water supply in Tanzania; it is based on controlling groundwater abstractions and preference of surface water in public water supplies. Rural water supply management must learn several practices realized at urban supplies for the betterment of respective majority water users.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0489.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: water management; remote sensing; lake; water quality; optically active; water quality parame-ters
Online: 7 September 2023 (10:32:43 CEST)
Remote sensing methods have the potential to improve lake water quality monitoring and deci-sion-making in water management. This reviews introduces novel findings in the field of opti-cally active water quality parameters using remote sensing. It summarizes existing retrieval methods (analytical, semi-analytical, empirical, semi-empirical, and artificial intelli-gence/machine learning (AI/ML)), examines measurement methods used to determine concen-tration of specific water quality parameters, summarizes satellite systems that enable temporal data for understanding the state of the lake with focus on water quality parameters, and pro-poses enhancements for future research of lake water quality using remote sensing. As part of this review, eight optically active biological and physical water quality parameters were ana-lyzed, including chlorophyll-α (chl-α), transparency (Secchi disk depth (SDD)), colored dis-solved organic matters (CDOM), turbidity (TUR), electrical conductivity (EC), surface salinity (SS), total suspended matter (TSM), and water temperature (WT). The research proposes a shift from point-based data representation to a more reliable raster representation and encourages optimizing grid selection for in situ measurements by combining hydrodynamic model with re-mote sensing methods. This review presents a comprehensive summary of the bands, band combinations, and band equations per sensor for eight optically active water quality parameters as listed in Tables A1-A8. The review’s findings indicate that use of remotely sensed data is an effective method for estimating water quality parameters in lakes, with a significant increase in global utilization. The review highlights potential solutions and limitations to the challenges of remote sensing water quality determination in lakes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0318.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Drinking water management; drinking water criteria; groundwater; reverse osmosis; sustainable development; water aesthetics
Online: 17 August 2022 (10:08:44 CEST)
A Water demand per capita will rise in the Arab world as a result of climate change and population expansion. One of the most important aims in coping with population increase around the world is to conserve water supplies. As a result, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia constructed Al Wajeed Water Treatment System to meet the demands of the southern population. This research aims to assess the drinking water quality produced from the AlWajeed Water Treatment System. Monthly water samples were collected (January 2018 to January 2021) from the Al Wajeed Water Treatment Framework (4sites), extending to governorates; Bishah`s distribution system (5sites) and Tathleeth`s distribution system (7sites). Water quality criteria, such as physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters, revealed that the majority of water samples collected from the Al Wajeed Water Framework and its environs are of a good quality matched the national and international standards. Few sites showed water quality criteria, such turbidity, fluoride and total coliform did not comply with national and global standards. The obtained results explained the importance of monitoring and follow-up programs for drinking water criteria. In addition, they can help the authorities and stakeholders in the sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0436.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Water Framework Directive; River Basin Management Plan; Water Resource Management; Water Governance; Stakeholders
Online: 16 June 2021 (10:29:51 CEST)
The River Basin Management Plan (RBMP) is an essential component of the European Union Water Framework Directive that details an integrated approach required to protect, improve and sustainably manage water resources. RBMP were intended to be produced for the periods 2009-2015, 2016-2021 and 2022-2027. However, after two years of delays in the development processes, the Republic of Ireland produced its first RBMP in 2010. The second RBMP cycle was also implemented in 2018 and is expected to run until the end of 2021 to give way to the third RBMP, whose consultation processes have been ongoing since December 2019. This paper contributes to the forthcoming RBMP by assessing stakeholders’ perspectives on the second RBMP through a desk-based review and by conducting interviews with nine institutions (14 interviewees). The qualitatively analysed interviews reveal a broad spectrum of actors associated with water management and governance in the Republic of Ireland through a three-tier governance structure that has been delivered (with amendment) through the first two RBMPs. Organisations such as the An Fóram Uisce|The Water Forum, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Local Authority Waters, and the Agricultural Sustainability Support and Advisory Programme have responsibilities designated in the RBMPs to deliver improved water quality, integrated catchment management, community engagement and awareness-raising. Trust has also been building up among these organisations and other agencies in the water sector. Despite these responsibilities and progress, the interviews identified communication lapses, ineffective collaboration and coordination among stakeholders and late implementation to be hampering the successful delivery of the second RBMP, in addition to significant pressures acting on water bodies from agricultural activities and urban wastewater treatment. Towards the third RBMP, the paper concludes that optimised water sector finance, enhanced and well-resourced communications, and improved stakeholder collaboration are needed to foster effective and efficient water services delivery and quality. More so, given the cross-cutting impact of the Sustainable Development Goals on water resources and the interconnected relations among the goals, the paper further recommends the integration of the SDGs in the various plans of actions and a co-benefits approach to derive the triple benefits from biodiversity, climate change initiatives and water quality measures.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Water Conservation; Customer Segmentation; Pro-Environmental Behaviour; Smart Water Meters; Water-use Feedback
Online: 7 May 2021 (09:41:56 CEST)
In response to droughts, various media campaigns and water saving instructions are released, often however, with only temporary water conservation effects. A promising development is this regard are Digital Water Meters (DWM) that provide near real-time water-use feedback. Despite extensive DWM experience in some water-stressed regions, a profound understanding of the initial attitude towards DWM and message tailoring opportunities are rarely empirically explored. Therefore, we aim to obtain insights into the attitude towards the introduction of DWM and explore opportunities for message tailoring, a topic of extra relevance as we may be on the threshold of a large-scale implementation in many world regions. Messages tailored to (i) normative beliefs and attitudes on drinking water, (ii) water-use activity and (iii) phase of decision-making, seem particularly compatible with DWM. Through a survey (n=1037) in the Netherlands, we observe that 93% of respondents have no objections utility investments in DWM and that 78% would accept a free DWM because of improved leakage detection, lower costs and environmental considerations. Finally, instead of sociodemographic factors, we observed that an attitude-based customer segmentation approach proved an especially useful predictor of respondent’s motivation to endorse DWM and forms a promising basis for water conservation message-tailoring strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1242.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Water Scarcity; Irrigation water; Roof Catchment; CROPWAT; Germany
Online: 30 November 2023 (15:00:50 CET)
The sustainable management of water scarcity is a global crucial issue. Germany has es- tablished efficient water management systems, but the agricultural sector still struggles with water scarcity as the demand surpasses the available water supply. The primary aim is to establish a framework for making water accessible for irrigation and additional use on households through the effective utilization of recycled water from wastewater treatment facilities. The research inquiries are focused on evaluating the changes in the agricultural irrigation model in CROPWAT, determining the spatial distribution of zonal severity, estimating the capacity of urban roof catchments, and evaluating the reduction volume of efficient water required from the existing wastewater treatment plant supply. According to the findings, the annual amount of water required for agriculture in the designated study location is approximately 2.9 million m3. Although there is no initial need for irrigation water, yet the demand for irrigation water increases during the development, active growth, and mature stages of maize, winter wheat, and wine grapes, reaching around 189mm, 225mm, and 62mm, respectively. According to our observation, the annual water supply in Weinstadt is around 4 million m3. On the other hand, the amount of water calculated from urban roof rainfall is estimated 0.8 million m3, which is considered valuable from an economic standpoint. This economically efficient volume of water would reduce the current treated water supply passes an opportunity for enhanced agricultural irrigation
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0189.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: water partitioning system; water towers; fountains; Pompeian Regiones
Online: 13 July 2022 (04:41:28 CEST)
Pompeii was connected to the great Serino aqueduct under the principate of Augustus. From that moment on, water became not only a precious resource for the inhabitants but also their true social indicator. It is no coincidence, in fact, that the concentration of sumptuous dwellings is in Regio VI, the district closest to the aqueduct reservoir (castellum aquae in Latin) and the one most equipped with piezometric towers, the first of the network, the ones that would never leave the decorative fountains of the peristyles dry. From this observation follows the original possibility of considering the water network a factor that contributed to designating the morphology of urban neighbourhoods and blocks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0281.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Sana’a Region; Rainfall; Surface Water; Groundwater; Water Crisis
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:07:08 CET)
Yemen is a water-scarce country with inadequate fresh water and considerable groundwater depletion, as well as a lack of adequate surface water. The study region is considered an arid region, and there is insufficient water to meet the needs of the region's yearly population growth rate of 4 %. This study aims to assess the water resources in the Sana'a region and to identify the current water situation and forecast for the future. Rainfall changes spatial and temporal in very few quantities and an annual average of 267 mm. Water harvesting facilities are entirely filled by 75% of the total water facilities in the rainy seasons. The groundwater level in Sana’a Basin decreases about 6-8 meters annually due to the increase in the number of wells, the abundance of abstraction, and the lack of recharge. The amount of abstraction exceeds 400% of the recharge in the Sana'a basin. The water per capita is 70 - 85 m³ annually. It is an abstraction from the aquifers by private wells. The crop cultivated area decreased from 184217 hectares in 2007 to 122583 hectares in 2018 due to lack of water. The sewage treatment plant treats 18.25 Mm³ annually, with less than 70 % efficiency. The water deficit is about 500 to 723 Mm³ annually; it is an abstraction from the aquifers by private wells. The current water situation in the Sana'a region is catastrophic, and the planning and management must ensure a water balance in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0217.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Legionella; water systems; risk; water safety plan; hotel
Online: 10 August 2021 (09:11:15 CEST)
Hotel water systems colonized with Legionella spp. have been the source of travel-associated Legionnaires’ disease and cases, clusters or outbreaks continue to be reported worldwide each year. A total of 132 hotels linked with travel-associated Legionnaires’ disease, as reported through the European Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance Network, were inspected and tested for Legionella spp. during 2000–2019 by the public health authorities of the island of Crete (Greece). A total of 3,311 samples were collected: 1,885 (56.93%) from cold water supply systems, 1,387 (41.89%) from hot water supply systems, 37 (1.12%) were swab samples and two (0.06%) were soil. Of those, 685 (20.69%), were collected from 83 (62.89%) hotels, testing positive (≥ 50CFU/L) for Legionella pneumophila) serogroups 1-10, 12-14 and non-pneumophila species (L. anisa, L. erythra, L. tusconensis, L. taurinensis, L. birminghamensis, L. rubrilucens, L. londiniesis, L. oakridgensis, L. santicrusis, L. brunensis, L. maceacherii). The most frequently isolated L. pneumophila serogroups were 1 (27.92%) and 3 (17.08%). Significantly higher isolation rates were obtained from hot water supply systems (25.96%) versus cold water systems (16.98%) and swab samples (13.51%). A Relative Risk (R.R.) > 1 (p < 0.0001) was calculated for hot water temperature <55 °C (R.R.: 4.43), chlorine concentrations <0.2 mg/L (R.R.: 2.69), star rating <4 (R.R.: 1.73) and absence of Water Safety Plan implementation (R.R.: 1.57).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0252.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Water saving; Irrigation; Water productivity; Grain yield; Rice
Online: 11 September 2020 (09:22:02 CEST)
Tanzania with 945 million hectares of land area and annual rainfall of 300 mm on 67% of its territorial land is considered as a semi-dry region in the world. Rice production in Tanzania needs to be increased to feed a growing population, whereas water for irrigation is getting scarce. One way to decrease water consumption in paddy fields is to change the irrigation regime for rice production and to replace continuous flooding with alternate wetting and drying. In order to investigate the effect of different regimes of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and water productivity of hybrid rice, two greenhouse pot experiments comprising soils from upland and lowland production ecologies were conducted at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania during crop seasons of 2019. The experiment was arranged in split plots based on randomized completely block design with 3 replications. Water regimes were the main factor comparing continuous flooding (CF) and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) with nitrogen fertilizer levels as the sub-factor including absolute control , 0, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg/ha. Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) improved water productivity in both upland and lowland production ecologies compared to CF. AWD increased yield under lowland production by 13.3% while in upland there was 18.5% decrease in yield. The average water use varied from 31.5 to 84 L pot-1 under upland trials, while in lowland trials it was 36 to 82.3 L. Higher yield and lower water application led to an increase in WP varying from 1.2 to 1.8 kg cm-3 under upland trials, and 0.6 to 1.5 kg cm-3 under lowland trials. The variation in water productivity among treatments was mainly due to the differences in the yield, water and nitrogen levels used in the production process. Both sets of trials recorded water saving up to 34.3% and 17.3% under lowland and upland trials, respectively. Under upland trials, the yield varied from 39.9 to 124.1 g pot-1 and in lowland trials yield ranged from 20.6 to 118.2 g pot-1 representing paddy rice. The measurements showed that less water can be used to produce more crops under alternative rice growing practices. The results are important for water-scarce areas, providing useful information to policy makers, farmers, agricultural departments, and water management boards in devising future climate-smart adaptation and mitigation strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0339.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Water Quality Index; irrigation water quality; Tabriz Aquifer
Online: 9 September 2019 (08:42:20 CEST)
The key goal of the current study was to determine suitable areas of water pumping for drinking and agricultural harvest in Tabriz aquifer, located in East Azerbaijan province, northwest Iran. In the study area, groundwater is the key foundation of water for drinking and farming requirements. Groundwater compatibility study was conducted by analyzing Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Chloride (Cl), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Sulfate (SO4), Total hardness (TH), Bicarbonate (HCO3), pH, carbonate (CO3) and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) obtained from 39 wells in the period of 2003 to 2014. For this purpose, the Water Quality Index (WQI) and irrigation water quality (IWQ) index were utilized. The WQI index zoning exposed that the groundwater of the study area for drinking purposes is categorized as excellent, good and poor water. Most drinking water harvested for urban and rural areas are in the class of 'excellent water'. The results revealed that about 37 percent (296 km2) of groundwater has high compatibility, and 63 percent of the study area (495 km2) has average compatibility for agricultural purposes. The trend of IWQ and WQI indexes demonstrates that the groundwater is getting worse over the time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0200.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water availability; shale gas; water sustainability; Weiyuan play
Online: 21 January 2019 (08:59:29 CET)
Innovations and improvements in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal well technologies have contributed to the success of the shale gas industry; however, the industry is also challenged by freshwater use and environmental health issues. Increasing water impact makes precise quantification of water consumption important. The objective in this study was to better understand water sustainability and availability of the projected shale gas from 2018 to 2030 in the Weiyuan play, China. The water footprint framework was used to quantify the potential water use and environmental impacts on different time scales. The results showed that the water use per well ranged from 11351.3 to 60664.73 m3, with a median of 36013.94 m3, totaling ~3.44 Mm3 for 97 wells. Yearly evaluation results showed that the gray water footprint was the main contributor and accounted for 83.82% to 96.76%, which was dependent on different scenarios of treatment percentages. The monthly environmental impact results indicated that the annual streamflow statistics were more likely to prevent water withdrawal. Water quality issues may be alleviated through recycling and retreatment measures that improve current waste water management strategies. Resource regulators should manage their water resources by matching water demand to water availability or replenishment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0279.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: reservoirs; water allocation; water scarcity; alert volume; governance
Online: 15 October 2018 (05:13:54 CEST)
The Brazilian water legislation advocates that some uses have priority over others, but this aspect has never been clearly addressed, generating conflicts. Water authorities usually refer to hydrological models to justify their decisions on water allocation. However, a significant group of stakeholders does not feel qualified to discuss these models and is, therefore, excluded from the decision process. We hereby propose a hydrologically robust method to correlate water uses with their respective reservoir alert volumes, which should empower the less formally educated stakeholders. The method consists of: (i) generating the water discharge versus reliability curve, using a stochastic approach; (ii) generating the withdrawal discharge versus alert volume family of curves, using a water-balance approach; (iii) calibrating the key parameter T using field data; and (iv) associating each water use with its alert volume. We have applied the method to four of the largest reservoirs (2.10³ - 2.10² hm³) in the semi-arid Ceará State. The results indicate that low-priority water uses should be rationalized when the reservoir volume is below 20%; whereas uses with very high priority should start rationalization when it is below 11%. These hydrological guidelines should help enhance water governance among non-specialist stakeholders in water-scarce and reservoir-dependent regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Virtual water; Agriculture; Staples; Water resources per capita
Online: 8 June 2017 (18:06:51 CEST)
Lack of water resources in Iran, especially in recent years, has faced the agricultural sector as the most important consumer of water resources, with serious challenges. In Iran, the agricultural sector accounted for more than 90% of water consumption. However, the focus on domestic production and self-sufficiency policy in staples (wheat, barley, maize and rice) has been emphasized in general agriculture's policy. This study was conducted to estimate the imported virtual water from the imports of basic products in Iran using defined indicators during 1961-2013. Also this study investigated the possibility of achieving self-sufficiency due to the limited water resources in Iran. The results of this study showed with the increase in cereal imports, virtual water imports from 0.28 billion cubic meters in 1961 increased to 17.6 billion cubic meters in 2013 and on average about 60% of virtual water imports in strategic products is related to wheat imports during the past 53 years. Other products in cereal (barley, maize and rice) are also indicative of the general trend of increasing imports of virtual water in development plans. The estimated long-run elasticity of virtual water imports in the cereal group compared with the country's water resources also showed that with a one percent reduction in renewable water resources of the country, the virtual water import in the main cereal group will increase equivalent to 2.89 percent and the determination coefficient more than 90 percent also confirms this negative relationship. According to this result and the emphasis on the fact that renewable water resources per capita in the country is falling increasingly, it cannot be expected that domestic production could compensate for the imports of the cereal group and virtual water imports with current technology, without increasing the water productivity and without additional harm to water resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1721.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Water scarcity; water conservation-ICI sector; Pittenger SLIDE formula; landscape irrigation; outdoor water savings technologies; scenario analysis water and climate types
Online: 25 July 2023 (13:11:37 CEST)
In times of water scarcity, water conservation measures from authorities are primarily directed to the residential sector—homeowners and renters who engage in individual activities to reduce water consumption. Business owners, manufacturers, and institutional workers—the ICI sector, generally, do not receive targeted information and education on water savings measures, and when they do, the information, typically, refers to indoor technologies, and behavior choice. In answer to this shortfall, this research illustrates how the ICI sector might engage in outdoor water conservation and, thus, realize water savings using the well-established Pittenger’s Simplified Landscape Irrigation Design Estimation (SLIDE) formula that estimates outdoor water conservation/savings for the lesser studied industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) sector. We applied the SLIDE formula five diverse climate areas in Texas to demonstrate the potential water savings in each, as well as identifying the type of water technology measures that yielded the greatest water savings for outdoor ICI landscapes. Overall, the greatest water savings for outdoor ICI landscapes was realized through smartscape design with soil moisture sensors-SMS technology, second best. Our findings will provide ICI facility owners/managers with knowledge and examples of a simplified system for quantitative decision making when considering choices among technologies and/or practices toward outdoor water conservation for their own facilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1493.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Institutional Analysis and Development Framework (IADF); Hydropolitics; Water management; Water governance; Colonial period; Water conflicts
Online: 21 July 2023 (12:48:47 CEST)
The number of disputes related to water that reach courts in Chile has increased in the last decades, the topics of these disputes have become more complex, and the current conflict resolution system has not been able to adjust to this situation. This study analyses colonial texts from water-related conflicts that were addressed at the Royal Hearings in Santiago (1691-1800) and from the Cabildo gatherings (1541-1802), using an adaptation of the Institutional Analysis and Development framework. The research shows a strong institutional system surrounding conflict resolution during colonial times, with nested schemes and empowered figures appointed in leading roles. However, a lack of equity and inclusion of all actors is also visible, reducing its legitimacy. At present, the increasing value of water and a sense of distrust in the institutional system have led to longer and more complex conflict resolution processes. Here, learning from past times about the empowerment of the institutional system for solving water disputes could be useful. An increased support towards initial conflict resolution mechanisms, giving space for local knowledge and generating stronger participation in these initial steps, could also be a lesson for the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0403.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Water saving; Energy consumption; Partial root drying; organic mulch; Water productivity; Water stress; Climate change
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:05:09 CEST)
Many techniques have been and are being made to find alternatives to water-saving practices. Among them, Partial root drying (PRD), one of the effective approaches, plays a major role in reducing the harmful effects of water deficit stress. An experiment was carried out using irrigation strategies [I1 (100% full irrigation “FI”), I2 (75%FI), I3 (50%FI), and I4 (PRD (50%FI)] and soil organic mulch [L0 (Zero layer organic soil mulch” control”), L1 (Single layer organic soil mulch), L2 (Two layers of organic soil mulch), and L3 (Three layers of organic soil mulch)] to inspect the impact of those treatments for increasing yield, water productivity and saving energy under arid region conditions. To meet the study's objective, two field experiments were carried out at a private farm. Our results demonstrated a general decrease in water stress and salt accumulation inside root-zone area with PRD with L3. The PRD strategy increased fruit yields by 3.7 and 7.3% and water productivity by 51.9 and 53.1% compared with I1 during 2020/2021 and 2021/2022, respectively, while reducing the applied irrigation water by 50 %. The PRD strategy showed superior results in increasing mango yield and water productivity. In general, PRD can be used as good technique to save water and energy up to 50% and enhance productivity along with using organic mulching, ultimately improving mango yield under arid climatic regions. It may prove a good adaptation strategy for current and future water shortage scenarios of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0001.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: hyperspectral remote sensing; water absorption feature; vegetation water content; 970 nm; CVWI; vegetation water indices
Online: 2 January 2017 (10:23:30 CET)
Although the water absorption feature (WAF) at 970 nm is not very well-defined, it may be used alongside other indices to estimate the canopy water content. The individual performance of a number of existing vegetation water content (VWC) indices against the WAF is assessed using linear regression model. We developed a new Combined Vegetation Water Index (CVWI) by merging indices to boost the weak absorption feature. CVWI showed a promise in assessing the vegetation water status derived from the 970 nm absorption wavelength. CVWI was able to differentiate two groups of dataset when regressed against the absorption feature. CVWI could be seen as an easy and robust method for vegetation water content studies using hyperspectral field data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0719.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Water quality; Farming system; Water Framework Directive; Agricultural watershed
Online: 10 November 2023 (14:42:23 CET)
Despite much published literature on the impacts of agriculture on water quality, knowledge gaps persist regarding which farming systems are of most concern for these relationships, which could help water resource planners better target water management efforts. This study addresses these subjects, seeking to understand how this relationship varies across different farming systems. We used data on water quality status in watersheds of an agricultural region in southern Portugal and crossed it with a map of farming systems for the same region provided by a previous study. By overlaying both data layers, we characterized the areal shares of the farming systems in the watersheds and inspected how these shares relate with water quality status through logistic regression. Results support that the impact of agriculture on water quality is mostly related with specific farming systems. We believe this type of information can be of high interest for agricultural planners and policymakers interested in meeting water quality standards, and we conclude by suggesting innovative policy options based on payments to farmers operating selected farming systems, as a cost-effective way to reconcile agricultural and environmental policy objectives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1506.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: agricultural water management; crop water requirements; evapotranspiration; Japanese plums
Online: 24 October 2023 (10:56:46 CEST)
Japanese plums form part of a multi-billion rand deciduous fruit industry in South Africa. Despite this, there is a paucity of knowledge on the seasonal water requirements of plum orchards. In a time of changing climatic conditions and diminishing water resources, this gap in literature poses an imminent threat to the long-term sustainability and global competitiveness of the South African plum industry. Therefore, this paper aimed to provide a review of the available literature on the crop water requirements of full-bearing well-irrigated Japanese plum orchards for improved agricultural water management. Full-year water requirements for well-watered full-bearing Japanese orchards ranged between 921 and 1 211 mm a-1 with a mean value of 1 084 ±140 mm a-1. Canopy growth and pruning appeared to be the most common causes of differences in water requirement estimates. Growing season length also plays a role with late-season maturing orchards having higher water requirements than their early and mid-maturing counterparts. The knowledge review provided benchmark figures for the annual water requirements of Japanese plums. However further research is required to determine the water requirement of plums from planting to full-bearing age and the response of plum trees to water stress, in a South African context.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1631.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Aquatic ecosystems; Aquatic environment; Pisciculture; Water pollution; Water resources
Online: 22 June 2023 (12:54:18 CEST)
This review evaluates the trajectory and sustainability of the global and Mexican aquaculture industry. Globally, the sector is experiencing rapid growth, catalyzed by evolving consumption patterns and technological advancements. Notwithstanding the benefits, environmental concerns necessitate an urgent shift towards sustainable practices. The focus then narrows to Mexico's aquaculture, tracing its history from the late 19th century. With an emphasis on species diversification, the country's sector demonstrates resilience and potential, with an impressive yield of 249,613.71 tons in 2021 despite regional consolidation. However, persistent challenges such as technological limitations, funding shortages, and access to quality seeds hinder progress. Risks, including disease outbreaks, negative environmental impact, economic volatility, regulatory compliance, and climate change, further underscore the need for sustainable strategies. With government support and unique geographical and climatic advantages, Mexico shows promise for a significant % growth projection of 25% over the next five years. This review underscores the importance of embracing technological innovation, implementing sustainable practices, and enacting supportive legislation for the long-term success of the aquaculture sector worldwide, with a particular focus on Mexico.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0096.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: bipolar membrane; mathematical modelling; water dissociation; water-splitting kinetics
Online: 6 December 2022 (09:39:51 CET)
A model is proposed that describes the transfer of ions and the process of water dissociation in a system with a bipolar membrane and adjacent diffusion layers. The model considers the transfer of four types of ions: the cation and anion of salt and the products of water dissociation – hydrogen and hydroxyl ions. To describe the process of water dissociation, a model for accelerating the dissociation reaction with the participation of ionogenic groups of the membrane is adopted. The boundary value problem is solved numerically using COMSOL® Multiphysics 5.5 software. An analysis of the results of a numerical experiment shows that, at least in a symmetric electromembrane system, there is a kinetic limitation of the water dissociation process, apparently associated with the occurrence of water recombination reaction at the of the bipolar region. An interpretation of the entropy factor (β) is given as a characteristic length which shows the possibility of an ion that appeared as a result of the water dissociation reaction to be removed from the reaction zone without participating in recombination reactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0157.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Adsorption; Cane Papyrus; Oily water; Produced water; Isotherm; Kinetic
Online: 11 October 2021 (11:53:37 CEST)
High quantities of wastewater produced from producing natural gas and oil from the aquifer, which called produced water. The produced water was comprised of dissolved solids, suspended solids, emulsified oil, and organic and inorganic compounds. That should be treated it's before disposal because it causes harm to the environment. This study takes the produced water from the southern Iraqi oilfield drilling company to adsorption by the Cane papyrus as natural and low-cost adsorbent. The analysis completed by using Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, EDX spectra and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) for Cane papyrus. Investigating the effect of many parameters such as adsorbent dosage, temperature, solution pH, mixer speed and contact time. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Harkins-Henderson isotherm models were tested, the results were 0.998,0.966, 0.931 and 0.966 respectively. The Langmuir model was more suitable described the adsorption process than the other models. The kinetics results were, 0.984 for Pseudo-first-order, 0.938 for Pseudo-second order is, 0.979 for Intra particle diffusion study and 0.912 for the Elovich model, the Pseudo-first-order kinetic equation best described the kinetics of the reaction. The thermodynamics study effect temperature changes on the thermodynamic parameters such as standard free energy change (∆G°), standard enthalpy change (∆H°) and standard entropy change (∆S°). The experimental data obtained demonstrated that Cane papyrus is a suitable adsorbent for removing oil from produced water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0500.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: water vapour; bound water; diffusion; adsorption; wood; sorption experiment
Online: 19 November 2020 (10:34:08 CET)
The paper presents a model of moisture transport in wood taking into account diffusion and the accompanying adsorption of water vapour through the skeleton. A two-parameter form of the source term was proposed, depending on the distance of the current mass concentration of bound water from the equilibrium state. The tests on cubic samples with a side of 2 cm were carried out which allowed to determine the coefficients of the proposed model on the basis of the reverse method. The tests were performed for pine, larch, oak and ash in all directions of orthotropy. Also the tests on thin samples were performed to verify the source term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0691.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: water allocation; planning; river/reservoir systems; water availability modeling
Online: 28 September 2020 (16:55:27 CEST)
Effective water resources management requires assessments of water availability within a framework of complex institutions and infrastructure employed to manage extremely variable stream flow shared by numerous often competing water users and diverse types of use. The Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP) modeling system is fundamental to water allocation and planning in the state of Texas in the United States. Integration of environmental flow standards into both the modeling system and comprehensive statewide water management is a high priority for continuing research and development. The public domain WRAP software and documentation are generalized for application any place in the world. Lessons learned in developing and implementing the modeling system in Texas are relevant worldwide. The modeling system combines: (1) detailed simulation of water right systems, interstate compacts, international treaties, federal/state/local agreements, and operations of storage and conveyance facilities; (2) simulation of river system hydrology; and (3) statistical frequency and reliability analyses. The continually evolving modeling system has been implemented in Texas by a water management community that includes the state legislature, planning and regulatory agencies, river authorities, water districts, cities, industries, engineering consulting firms, and university researchers. The shared modeling system contributes significantly to integration of water allocation, planning, system operations, and research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0012.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: diabetes; water intake; mineral water; magnesium; bicarbonate; review; prevention
Online: 6 July 2017 (18:12:04 CEST)
To address the question whether there is evidence that drinking water in general or mineral water in particular is effective in preventing diabetes; we performed a literature search of randomized controlled trials (PubMed). The search resulted in very few trials (N = 9) investigating this topic: one trial investigates the effect of increasing water consumption on glycemic control in diabetic patients; two trials investigate the effect of drinking water with a meal in diabetic patients; while six trials compare the effect of mineral rich water with that of low mineralized water on glucose metabolism in healthy subjects. There is evidence that increasing water consumption can improve glucose metabolism and randomized controlled trials with mineral water suggest that waters containing relevant amounts of magnesium can exert an additional effect. The role of bicarbonate; which is present in all the mineral waters used in the trials; will be discussed. Future research needs to investigate the effect of mineral water in prediabetic individuals or individuals with impaired glycemic control.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0236.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: goods and services; water-limited area; plant-water relationship; Soil water resource use limit by plants; Soil Water Carrying Capacity for Vegetation
Online: 9 February 2021 (11:49:54 CET)
The goods and services produced by forest and vegetation ecology system is the power by which human society can be promoted fast in high-quality and sustainable way. With the increase of population and economic development in water-limited regions, there is an increasing demand for the quantity and variety of forest vegetation ecosystem products and services. To meet the demands of this situation, most of the original forest has changed into farmland, non-native forest and grass land. As a result, water-plant relationship changed from equilibrium to non-equilibrium, which led to soil drought, soil degradation and vegetation decline in dry years or waste of soil water in rainy years in most of water-limited regions. In order to solve the questions and realize the sustainable utilization of soil water resources and the high quality and sustainable development of social economy, it is necessary to apply the utilization limit theory of soil water resources by plants and the theory of soil water carrying capacity for vegetation to adjust the relationship between plant growth and soil moisture to obtain the maximum yield and benefit of vegetation and serve high-quality and sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0195.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Urban Water Metabolism; City of Puebla; Urban Sustainability; Human Right to Water and Sanitation; Water Governance.
Online: 5 July 2023 (02:44:38 CEST)
Abstract: Urban population growth and the expansion of the built environment, pollution, overexploitation of water, inequality in water distribution, and the impacts of climate change in future availability of water, are all elements that jeopardize urban water security. Due to the complexity of urban water systems and their relevance for urban life, a holistic and integrative perspective is therefore needed to address such challenges. In this paper, Urban Water Metabolism (UWM) has been used for comprehensively understanding water (in)security in the City of Puebla (Mexico) and its metropolitan area. Water inflows and outflows have been estimated using a Material Flow Analysis (MFA) method with data either obtained from official sources or simulated with the Monte Carlo method. Our findings show that the UWM configuration in the City of Puebla and its metropolitan area is effective for generating profits to service providers and water related business, yet ineffective to guarantee citizens’ Human Right to Water and Sanitation (HRWS), a right recognized in the Constitution of Mexico. We conclude that to advance towards an inclusive and sustainable provision of water, economic interests must be reconsidered and therefore adjusted so they can be in line with such aspirational socioecological goals. UWM accounting can therefore inform new water governance arrangements, those based on both the best available knowledge and a vibrant participation of all relevant stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0464.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Adsorption water movement; adsorption hypothesis; plant long-distance water transport; thermodynamic water movement; not-hydraulic movement
Online: 26 January 2023 (03:02:38 CET)
Ad- and desorption forces move water in living xylem/wood from the root to the leaf thermodynamically. The doctrine of plant water transport, the so-called cohesion- or cohesion-tension theory, postulates however that the process is physically based on a hydraulic fluid flow with negative pressure in water conducting tubes originating from the leaves. Lower pressure (suction) driven volume flow is physically a branch of mechanics. Moisture absorbed from the soil via the root is thought to be pulled up the stem by the leaves in continuous and tensioned threads of water. It is assumed that the hydraulic Hagen/Poiseuille flow law, derived for tubes, applies in the xylem. In a textbook of botany you can find the opinion: "Just as the pipes of a water pipe supply necessary water to each household, leaf nerves supply water and nutrient salts to each individual cell.” (Translated from German). Many plant physiologists consider this hydraulic principle to be correct, but it does not remain unchallenged. Doubts are repeatedly expressed. The question arises: How does water transport actually take place? It is shown how the diffusive/adsorption transport principle works. The partial dehydration (desorption) of the plant, driven by the diffusive process of transpiration, forms a combined concentration and adsorption-site gradient for water in the xylem matrix. Especially with open stomata the lowest moisture concentration and the highest number of adsorption-sites for water (sites with free van der Waals forces), can be found in the mesophyll cell walls at the liquid/vapor boundary in the leaf. The water taken up by the root moves spontaneously in the direction of this boundary and can thus partially or completely compensate for the existing concentration- and adsorption-site- differences for water. Thus, a thermodynamic overlapping diffusive/adsorptive movement of moisture along the stationary xylem/wood takes place. After the introduction and a review of some controversies with cohesion theory, the physiology of the processes associated with long-distance water displacement is mentioned below. A thermodynamic adsorption hypothesis of the natural water transport in plants, based on known facts, is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: decentralized water systems; cluster approach; intra-cluster homogeneity; Water Supply Systems (WSS); Urban Water Systems (UWS)
Online: 14 September 2019 (19:33:09 CEST)
Abstract: Current models in design of urban water management systems and their corresponding infrastructure using centralized designs have commonly failed from the perspective of cost effectiveness and inability to adapt to the future changes. These challenges are driving cities towards using decentralized systems. While there is great consensus on the benefits of decentralization; currently no methods exist which guide decision-makers to define the optimal boundaries of decentralized water systems. A new clustering methodology and tool to decentralize water supply systems (WSS) into small and adaptable units is presented. The tool includes two major components: (i) minimization of the distance from source to consumer by assigning demand to the closest water source, and (ii) maximization of the intra-cluster homogeneity by defining the cluster boundaries such that the variation in population density, land use, socio-economic level, and topography within the cluster is minimized. The methodology and tool are applied to Arua Town in Uganda. Four random cluster scenarios and a centralized system were created and compared with the optimal clustered WSS. It was observed that the operational cost of the four cluster scenarios is up to 13.9 % higher than the optimal, and the centralized system is 26.6% higher than the optimal clustered WSS, consequently verifying the efficacy of the proposed method to determine an optimal cluster boundary for WSS. In addition, optimal homogeneous clusters improve efficiency by encouraging reuse of wastewater and stormwater within a cluster and by minimizing leakage through reduced pressure variations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0222.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: water consumption; water metabolism; tourism destination; resilience; non-conventional water resources; sustainable tourism; overtourism; shortage; Spain
Online: 22 June 2019 (11:52:42 CEST)
Tourism, and particularly residential tourism, has led to a change in the urban and demographic model of towns along the European Mediterranean coastline. Water as a limited and limiting resource for the growth of tourism is a popular topic in the scientific literature. However, the incorporation of non-conventional resources (desalination) has meant, in theory, that this limitation has been overcome. The aims of this paper are: a) to identify the different tourism models implanted in this territory and describe them from the point of view of their consumption of water in the demand cycle from 2002 to 2017; b) analyse the hydrosocial cycle, highlighting the measures aimed at satisfying water demand; and c) identify the limitations associated with these hydrosocial systems. To this end, different types of information will be processed, and various complex indicators produced. The results show the importance that demand management and the use of desalinated water in increasing the resilience of this territory to aridity. However, this has generated other problems associated with a tsunami of construction and the continuity of a non-sustainable territorial model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0923.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: soil amendments; zeolite; available water content; irrigation; water use efficiency
Online: 16 October 2023 (10:00:27 CEST)
The use of zeolite in agriculture as a soil conditioner is becoming an important field of research in crop growth. To study the effect of synthetic zeolite and deficit irrigation on sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivation, an experiment in a controlled environment was conducted. In particular, sweet pepper was cultivated in a glasshouse using polypropylene pots filled with sandy-loam soil to which 2% of zeolite was added. The zeolite employed in the experiments was obtained using coal fly ash as raw material. The experiment was planned in order to have two main treatments consisting of a) soil with zeolite at 2% (Z) and b) soil without zeolite, as control (C), and three subplot treatments consisting of 1) full irrigation at 100% of available water content (AWC) (100); 2) deficit irrigation at 70% of AWC (70); 3) deficit irrigation at 50% of AWC (50). Sweet pepper cultivation started on the 24th April 2023 and lasted until the 23th June 2023 and during the trial environmental data, such as soil humidity, air temperature and relative humidity, and some crop parameters, such as plant height, leaf number, SPAD index, were monitored. At the end of the trial, fresh and dry plant weight, dry matter content, and leaf water potential were measured. Results showed that for plant fresh weight and dry matter content, no significant differences were observed by treatments and their interactions whereas for the other parameters the statistical analysis returned significant differences. The study suggests that the soil structural benefits, resulting from the zeolite application, are not followed by an equal positive effect in terms of sweet pepper growth under deficit irrigation conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0214.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Drinking water; potable water; public health surveillance; quality control; government.
Online: 15 September 2022 (02:17:24 CEST)
This study identified and mapped worldwide surveillance actions and initiatives of drinking water quality implemented by government agencies or public health services. The scoping review was conducted between July 2021 and August 2022 based on the Joanna Briggs Institute. The search was performed in relevant databases and grey literature; 49 studies were obtained. Quantitative variables were presented as absolute and relative frequencies, while qualitative variables were analyzed using the IRaMuTeQ software. The actions developed worldwide and their impacts and results provided four thematic classes: (1) assessment of coverage, accessibility, quantity, and drinking water quality in routine and emergency situations; (2) analysis of physical-chemical and microbiological parameters in public supply networks or alternative water supply solutions; (3) identification of household water contamination, communication, and education with the community; (4) and investigation of water-borne disease outbreaks. Preliminary results were shared with stakeholders to favor early knowledge dissemination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0378.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: water quality; outdoor sports; dissolved oxygen; stagnant water; cable ski
Online: 16 July 2021 (14:36:47 CEST)
Abstract: The concept of sustainability applied to sports activities means ensuring that the economic benefits brought about by their development are not obtained at the expense of causing ecological damage or interference in local cultural habits. A cable-ski is a nautical ski system whereby a motorboat is substituted by a cable traction system powered by an electric motor. The effect on the quality of the water in those places that can boast cable-ski facilities has been described in cold freshwater lakes. Objective: Our purpose was to study the evolution of water quality in a ten-year period after the installation of a cable-ski facility in a warm, salted, semi-stagnant pond. Material and Method: Review of the data gathered from the routine test carried out by the Laboratory of the Council of Alcúdia from 2010 to 2019 Results: The levels of dissolved oxygen have increased, being significantly higher in the period 2016 – 2019 than in that of 2010 – 2015. The turbidity of the water has also seen a reduction in the second period with respect to the first. Conclusion: It seems that cable-ski improves the quality of water even warm, high-conductivity, semi-stagnant conditions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0230.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: water framework directive; European Union; The Netherlands; water law; politics
Online: 12 October 2020 (11:41:08 CEST)
This article discusses the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the Netherlands and intends to show how law and politics combine in river basin management. Initially, the implementation of the WFD in the Netherlands was approached as a technical and administrative issue, handled by water quality and ecology experts, but in 2003 this approach was broken open by the agricultural sector, who were worried about stricter regulation. Subsequently, the environmental objectives of the WFD were set as low as possible and they are not used in authorising individual projects. Yet, in 2015 of the European Court of Justice determined that the environmental objectives have binding effect and that Member States have to refuse authorisation for projects that endanger the achievement of these objectives. In the future, the European Court of Justice and national courts may force the Dutch government to change its approach. They may only do so because and as long as they enjoy sufficient social and political support and function relatively independently. The article concludes that, to understand river basin management fully, one has to open up the black box of water law and become a kind of water lawyer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0721.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: COVID-19; Dilla; Emergency water demand; Ethiopia; Rain Water Harvesting
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:15:32 CEST)
Rainwater harvesting could be an optional water source to fulfil the emergency water demand in different setups. The aim was to assess if the rainwater harvesting potential for households and selected institutions were sufficient to satisfy the emergency water demand for the prevention of COVID-19 in Dilla town, Southern, Ethiopia. Rain water harvesting potential for households and selected institutions were quantified using 17 years’ worth of rainfall data from Ethiopian Metrology Agency. With an average annual rainfall of 1464 mm, households with 40 and 100 m2 roof sizes have a potential to harvest between 15.71-31.15 m3 and 41.73-82.73 m3 of water using Maximum Error Estimate. Meanwhile 7.2-39.7 m3 and 19.11-105.35 m3 of water can be harvested from the same roof sizes using Coefficient of Variation for calculation. Considering mean monthly rainfall, the health centres and Dilla University can attain 45.7% and 77% of their emergency water demand, while the rest of the selected institutions in Dilla Town can attain more than 100 % of their demand using only rainwater. Rain water can be an alternative water source for the town in the fight against COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0173.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: capacitive level sensor; water level monitoring; maintaining constant water level
Online: 15 April 2019 (12:57:40 CEST)
This paper presents a device for measuring and maintaining the constant water level in a tank. The device uses a capacity sensor to measure the water level. The sensor has a DC voltage output proportional to the water level in the tank. This voltage can be used in other automation too. The water level, in percentages, is displayed on a vu meter with 8 LEDs. The circuit for maintaining the constant level consists in a comparator with hysteresis. The level of the water is adjustable, using a reference voltage from a potentiometer (marked in percentages). The level of the water is compared with the prescribed level and the difference between them commands the start/stop of the water pump which supplies the tank through a relay. The device is powered by 220 V and is isolated from the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0393.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: water-rich area; water rights transaction; trading need; Taihu Basin
Online: 16 November 2018 (09:24:58 CET)
To alleviate the contradiction between the increasing demand for water and the shortage of resources and to provide a favorable institutional environment for water rights trading, the Chinese government has strengthened the top-level design of water management system. However, the water-rich regions (southern regions of China) have good water resource endowment and a surplus of total water consumption indicators. Does this mean that there is no incentive and no need to conduct water rights trading in these regions? Through the investigation of water rights circulation cases in the Taihu Basin, a typical water-rich region of China, we established the existence of trading demand and some difficulties in conducting transactions. This paper argues that the needs of trading include alleviating the water gap in regional development, solving the water demand for large new projects, coordinating trans-jurisdiction water disputes. The plight of trading includes the lack of awareness, irregular process, excessive administrative intervention, and imperfect trading system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1234.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Water-related ecosystem services; Sediment retention; Riparian vegetation; Brazilian Forest Code; Water management; Water-Energy-Food nexus
Online: 16 June 2023 (11:24:13 CEST)
The concept of ecosystem services (ESs) provides a valuable approach to communicate societies' dependence on natural ecosystems, assisting in the evaluation of measures to protect vegetation in watersheds that promote water-related ESs. Vegetation cover and land use are important factors related to the capacity of ecosystems to provide soil loss regulation and sediment retention services, which are highly relevant for sediment management in watersheds draining into reservoirs with multiple water uses. This study aims to assess the relationship between potential changes in land use and land cover and the sediment retention service provided by riparian vegetation in a watershed draining into a hydroelectric reservoir in the Brazilian Cerrado. Sediment load was selected as a physical variable that affects different water uses in reservoirs, with these uses being dependent on the quality or quantity of stored water. Scenarios were analyzed to represent landscape reconfigurations from a baseline condition in order to account for the recovery of riparian vegetation by the agricultural sector, as foreseen in the Brazilian Forest Code. To map and quantify variations in annual sediment retention, the InVEST model was used, which allows estimating an integrated response of the drainage basin to large-scale land use changes over time and space. The results show that for the drainage basin of the Corumbá IV Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP), the recovery of riparian areas occupied by annual crops has the potential to generate greater benefits to water use in the reservoir. In the studied catchment area, 14% of the total vegetation deficit in riparian areas is occupied by crops, while 86% is occupied by pastures. This highlights the buffering role of riparian vegetation as an effective practice for managing sediment flows originating from sheet erosion in agricultural landscapes. The methodology employed in this study allows for the quantification and mapping of the effects of soil and water conservation measures in river basins. This enables the prioritization of sectoral efforts for the restoration of native vegetation, considering the highest returns in benefits perceived by water users affected by sediment input in reservoirs. The study's results reinforce the importance of conserving vegetation in riparian areas and their surroundings for sediment retention, highlighting the role of these areas as assets in providing water-related ecosystem services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1165.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: machine learning; groundwater table; ground water level; sustainable irrigation; drinking water; water-scarcity regions; AI; gradient boosting regression
Online: 18 September 2023 (14:50:59 CEST)
In water scarcity regions, using data-driven approaches to predict groundwater level is challenging due to limited data availability. However, these regions have substantial water needs and require cost-effective groundwater utilization strategies. In this study, we use artificial intelligence to predict groundwater levels to provide guidance for drilling shallow boreholes for subsistence irrigation. The Bilate watershed, which is located in southern Ethiopia, was selected as the study area. This is typical of areas in Africa with high demand for water and limited availability of well data. Using a non-time-series database of 75 boreholes, machine learning models including multiple linear regression, multivariate adaptive regression spline, artificial neural networks, random forest regression, and gradient boosting regression (GBR) were constructed to predict the depth to the water table. 20 independent variables were considered in the models. GBR performed the best of the approaches with an average 0.77 R-squared value on testing data. Finally, a map of predicted water levels in the Bilate watershed was created based on the best model with water levels ranging from 1.6 to 245.9 meters. With the limited set of borehole data, the results show a clear signal that can provide guidance for borehole drilling decisions for sustainable irrigation with additional implications for drinking water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0025.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: plasma-liquid interactions; water electrospray; aerosol microdroplet; bulk water, plasma-activated water; Henry’s law solubility; ozone; hydrogen peroxide
Online: 1 December 2020 (13:16:22 CET)
Production and transport of reactive species through plasma-liquid interactions plays a significant role in multiple applications in biomedicine, environment, and agriculture. We experimentally investigated the transport mechanisms of hydrogen peroxide H2O2 and ozone O3, as the typical plasma species, into water. We measured the solvation of gaseous H2O2 and O3 in airflow into water bulk vs. electrosprayed microdroplets while changing the gas and water flow rates, applied voltage that determines the gas-liquid interface area, and treatment time. The solvation rate of H2O2 and O3 increased with the treatment time and the gas-liquid interface area. The total surface area of the electrosprayed microdroplets was larger than that of the bulk, but their lifetime was much shorter. We estimated that only microdroplets with diameters below ~ 40 µm could achieve the saturation by O3 during their lifetime, while the saturation by H2O2 was impossible due to its depletion from air. Besides the short-lived flying microdroplets, the longer-lived bottom microdroplets substantially contributed to H2O2 and O3 solvation in water electrospray. This study contributes to a better understanding of the gaseous H2O2 and O3 transport into water as a function of different parameters and will lead to design optimization of the plasma-liquid interaction systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0062.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: goods and services; water-limited area; plant water relationship; Soil water resource use limit by plants; Soil Water Carrying Capacity for Vegetation; critical period of plant-water relationship regulation; high-quality Sustainable development
Online: 6 October 2022 (10:03:29 CEST)
The goods and services produced by forest vegetation ecosystem are the driving force for the rapid, high-quality and sustainable development of human society. In history, with the increase of population and economic development, there is an increasing demand for the quantity and variety of forest vegetation ecosystem products and services in a country or a region. To meet the demands, most of the original forest has become farmland, plantation and grass and crops land. As a result, the plant water relationship changed from equilibrium to non-equilibrium, which easily led to soil drought, soil degradation and vegetation decline in dry years or waste of soil water in rainy years in most of water-limited regions. In order to solve the question and realize the sustainable utilization of soil water resources and the high-quality sustainable development of forest, it is necessary to apply the limit theory of plant utilization of soil water resources and the vegetation carrying capacity theory in the critical period of plant-water relationship regulation to adjust the relationship between plant growth and soil moisture to obtain the maximum yield and benefit and realize high-quality and sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1639.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Air conditioning unit; AC condensate; Drinking water quality; Drinking water scarcity
Online: 26 October 2023 (03:19:40 CEST)
The increasing demand for water resources in urban areas, such as Bangladesh, due to population growth is a significant concern. One potential solution under consideration is the use of air conditioning (AC) condensate water. A study conducted at the European University of Bangladesh (EUB) focused on assessing the quality and quantity of AC condensate water from various systems. The results indicate that the collected water generally adhered to the quality standards established for drinking and household use in Bangladesh. Parameters such as pH (averaging 6.8), turbidity (1.08 NTU), total dissolved solids (TDS) (averaging 219 mg/L), iron content (0 mg/L), alkalinity (averaging 41.67 mg/L), arsenic (0 mg/L), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (averaging 3.67 mg/L), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (averaging 1.33 mg/L), chloride content (averaging 30.77 mg/L), and other factors were evaluated. Moreover, the AC units at EUB, varying in cooling capacity (1 ton, 2 tons, and 4 tons), produced substantial monthly volumes of 96, 177, and 354 liters of condensate water, respectively. This underscores the potential of AC condensate water as a valuable resource for addressing urban water scarcity. As a result, there is a pressing need for local decision-makers and policymakers to establish well-defined guidelines for the effective utilization of AC condensate water to mitigate water scarcity issues in urban areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1651.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: microbiology of water; water quality assessment; culture methods; flow cytometry; luminometry
Online: 25 October 2023 (11:51:15 CEST)
A very important role in determining the quality of water is the assessment of its microbiological quality. Water quality control, which could pose a direct threat to human health and life, is performed in the case of water produced at the water treatment plants, tap water or water in swimming pools. However, these traditional methods used to assess its quality are laborious and time consuming. In emergency and incidental situations, in the era of terrorist threats, the need for quick, reliable and reproducible microbiological determinations seems to be essential. In this study, an attempt was made to compare various methods of assessing the microbiological quality of water. The assessment was carried out for waters with different microbiological characteristics: surface waters, rainwater, groundwater, and water supply. The evaluation was carried out using traditional culture methods and high-speed methods: flow cytometry and luminometry. The analysis of microbiological parameters were the basis for the statistical analysis. The conducted microbiological analysis of various types of water, along with their statistical evaluation, showed different dependencies for each of the analysed waters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1283.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: soil hydraulic properties; spatial variation; soil water simulation; soil water flow
Online: 20 October 2023 (06:12:48 CEST)
Knowledge of water availability in terms of spatial (i.e., depth) and temporal variability of soil water is essential to describe soil water infiltration and storage processes accurately. Therefore, performing simulations of soil water dynamics can be a valuable tool to evaluate different land uses and their impact on water availability. Consequently, this study aimed to model the volumetric soil water content (θ, cm3 cm-3) under agroforestry systems (AFS) with cocoa. For this purpose, the θ was monitored at different depths (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100 cm) in the soil profile of four plots (20 × 50 m) of cocoa under agroforestry systems. Environmental conditions significantly influenced the water balance of the cocoa crop. There were seven moments when evapotranspiration (ET0) was higher than 5 mm d-1. During those moments, the environment exhibited higher PAR values of 1041 µmol m-2 s-1, very low atmospheric relative humidity (RHa) levels (around 45%), higher ambient temperatures of 32.2 ºC and a vapor pressure deficit of 1.6 kPa whose θ levels reached 0.32 cm3 cm-3 and a water balance of -5.7 mm, which presented negative values during most of the study period. The θ obtained from the HYDRUS-1D model presented a slight bias as a high level of coherence between the observed values, based on the model's goodness-of-fit estimators. The above provides accurate simulations of soil water content at various depths, much-needed information for management schemes for cocoa cultivation under agroforestry systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0555.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Filtration, Water Treatment, Water Management, Machine Learning, Run-to-Run Control
Online: 7 June 2023 (13:07:38 CEST)
Within this paper, a machine learning algorithm is used to investigate the importance of certain setpoints and parameters in the filtration processes of a large-scale water treatment facility. Previously, a model for the filtration process based on Run-to-Run Control was proposed and tested against sample data from the treatment plant, but it was quickly found that such a model was incompatible for successfully computing setpoints of operation which minimize the energy cost of running the filtration systems. The machine learning model described herein is an attempt to elucidate the importance of the available data on the filtration systems and to identify the most important variables that influence the filtration run time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0915.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: water accumulation in permafrost; thermal surface boundary; water temperature; heat exchange
Online: 12 May 2023 (09:43:19 CEST)
With permafrost degenerating caused by climate change, water accumulation increases in permafrost regions during last decades. Water accumulation will deteriorate existing status of engineering in cold regions. Water accumulation can make a thermal effect on permafrost under construction, even result in failure of the subgrade. Moreover, the thermal effect is related to water temperature. However, temperature variation of water accumulation is complex, and its influence factors include air temperature, environment, scope of water accumulation and so on. In order to make analysis of the damage mechanism of water accumulation on permafrost, it is necessary to explore the internal temperature change of water accumulation. This paper proposes a review about temperature calculation method of water accumulation in cold environment. The thermal calculation method between air and water boundary of water accumulation is summarized. Water temperature change of water accumulation with various type is analyzed. The thermal calculation considering phase transformation in water accumulation is discussed, and heat transfer from the bottom of water accumulation to the underlying soil is further studied. Finally, the key factors which are advantageous to make research about the thermal effect of water accumulation in permafrost is proposed to optimize calculation method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0456.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Chagga; water infrastructures; water management; sustainable farming; social complexity; community collaboration
Online: 23 December 2022 (09:00:41 CET)
Since the second half of the second millennium AD, water management among the Chagga people of Kilimanjaro in Tanzania has involved community collaboration in the construction, ownership and management of water infrastructure. Chagga settlement on the lower slopes of Kilimanjaro transformed the landscape significantly to reflect an agrarian society characterised by decentralised forms of socio-political and economic organisation. Such organization involved conception, construction, and post-construction management of water distribution systems, constituting high-level socio-political complexity. The study employs ethnography, archaeological surveys and GIS to document water infrastructures on the lower slopes of Kilimanjaro. We conclude that community collaboration was key in management of the water infrastructure and by extension, agriculture, which sustained Chagga and chiefdoms for centuries.