Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; hand washing; hygiene; behaviour change; communications
Online: 3 June 2020 (05:12:23 CEST)
Whilst large-scale changes in population behaviour are required to reduce the transmission of the SARS-COV-2 virus, the emergency context is not conducive to the sort of careful communications planning that would normally be required to meet such a task. Rapid strategic communications planning in a pandemic by governments is, however, possible and necessary. Steps include setting up a dedicated communications task force, mobilising partners and resources, developing a creative brief and theory of change and overseeing the creation, testing, roll out and revision of content. In this short guide we argue that a minimum of strategic planning can be undertaken rapidly, and that good use can be made of simple principles of behaviour change, even during pandemics. Our aim here is to provide a blueprint that governments and their partners, especially in low-income settings, can follow to design, coordinate and resource national communications efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic immediately and for the longer term.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0060.v3
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-Cov-2; soap; hand washing; WHO
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:30:53 CEST)
The greatest pandemic of the century, COVID-19, is an ongoing global public health problem. With a clinically approved treatment available only for those who are acutely ill and are hospitalized, the control of this disease in the general population is still largely dependent on the preventive measures issued by the World Health Organization. Among the general control measures other than immunization with the COVID-19 vaccines, handwashing with soap and water has been emphasized the most because it is cost-effective and easily accessible to the general public. Studies have reported that soaps offer unique chemical properties that can completely destroy enveloped viruses. However, the general public seems to be still uncertain about whether soaps can shield us from a highly contagious disease such as COVID-19. In an attempt to help eliminate the uncertainty, we analyzed the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of soap and its prospect for preventing the spread of COVID-19. In this paper, we provide an overview of the history and characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the current global COVID-19 situation, the possible mechanisms of the deactivation of viruses by soaps, and the potential effectiveness of soap in eliminating coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0412.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: tidying compulsion; washing compulsion; ordring/arranging compulsion; difficulty in stopping; incompleteness feelings
Online: 23 January 2023 (10:42:34 CET)
The dominant view of cleaning compulsion as a dimension of OCD is that it is motivated by contamination anxiety. However, in daily life, much cleaning is undertaken as part of tidying one’s home. Such cleaning as well as the other tidying chores may equally assume obsessive-compulsive proportions. However, empirical interest in this phenomenon has remained sparse so far. This article aims to increase awareness of this ill-acknowledged symptom cluster among OCD researchers and to invite them to investigate it. After the introduction, clinical evidence for this OCD dimension is dealt with. Next, empirical studies with OCD inventories, which contain items referring to compulsive tidying, are discussed. Two of these made use of an OCD-inventory, devised by the present author. These also provide the data for the main investigation to be discussed in this paper. In that latter study, six OCD-item clusters, among which tidying compulsion, are predicted. These predictions are tested by evaluating and comparing the item-cluster correlations of all six clusters. These also offer a basis to optimize the clusters toward more homogeneous and distinct ones. By comparing predicted with final clusters, the items can be qualified as either hits, false positives, or false negatives. This output provides the details for revising the predictions, but also allows for calculating the values of two global “goodness-of-fit” measures for each predicted cluster. Though the results do not completely endorse the predicted composition of part of the clusters in the second sample, tidying compulsion is doing rather well. To determine the incidence of tidying compulsion based on the cluster scores, decisions had to be made about what constitute a cluster score, how its gravity can be estimated, and what should be the cut-off per cluster to divide the sample into clinical and subclinical cases on each cluster. If these ‒ unavoidably arbitrary ‒ decisions are accepted, both samples show an incidence of tidying compulsion of around 25%. After a brief critical evaluation of all discussed studies, it is concluded that the evidence presented, though modest, is solid enough to warrant further research into tidying compulsion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0055.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: acid washing; nickel foam; hydrogen evolution reaction; alkaline water electrolysis; electrode preparation
Online: 4 January 2023 (03:25:42 CET)
Nickel foam substrates are frequently utilised for renewable energy applications as porous 3D-substrates. Preparation of these substrates usually includes an acid washing step, however the degree to which this step affects the final electrochemical performance after spray coating a catalyst ink is unreported. Herein, we report the effect of acid washing through physicochemical and electrochemical characterisation. The electrochemical performance was determined by repeated measurements of catalyst-coated nickel foam substrates both with and without the initial step of acid washing. Acid washing increased current density by 17.9% for the acid treated, MoS2-coated nickel foam electrode. This increment was affiliated with an electrochemically active surface area which increased by 87.1%, where Tafel analysis indicated that the acid treated, MoS2-coated electrodes facilitates the initial water dissociation step of the hydrogen evolution reaction with greater ease. Similar effects were also discovered for acid treated PtIr(1:3)/C-coated nickel foam substrates, albeit with less pronounced effects. Stability was also improved where the degradation rate was reduced by 18.9% for the acid treated, MoS2-coated electrodes. This proves the utility of acid washing nickel foam electrodes.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0311.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: vessel cargo holds; tank washing; gas-freeing; aerating; atmosphere composition; assessment of safe atmosphere
Online: 26 January 2020 (07:43:21 CET)
Paper discussed the problem of proper process of gas-freeing and ventilation of vessel cargo tank after washing process in aim to the entrance into the tank and its inspection. Correct assessment of atmosphere composition into the cargo tank is a basic condition of safe entrance and work of a crew. It should be done following actions: assessment of flammability hazard, the presence of other toxic gases for human and oxygen concentration. In the aim ship-owner should prepare adequate procedures: before entrance, during work and on emergency situations. On a vessel the assessment performs responsibility (entitled) officer whose decisions are crucial for the safety of prosecuting operations. The one of primary problem is proper (adequate) assessment of oxygen concentration in the air into the tank (enclosed spaces) after the measurement which should be properly interpreted. It concerns basically such situations when the oxygen concentration into the tank after measure leads the value over 22% or below 20.6% of volume (mole) contribution (v/v).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0549.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: childhood education; Hygiene; COVID-19; preventive behaviours; staying at home; mask wearing; hand washing; public goods
Online: 30 January 2023 (09:21:57 CET)
Childhood hygiene education has resulted in individuals engaging in hand washing and mask wearing to cope with COVID-19. Individuals can form sustainable development-related habits through childhood education.