ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0282.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: reproductive coercion; intimate partner violence; sexual violence; reproductive autonomy; women; family violence
Online: 13 September 2020 (12:00:14 CEST)
Background: Reproductive coercion and abuse (RCA) is a hidden form of violence against women. It includes behaviours intended to control or dictate a woman’s reproductive autonomy, for the purpose of either preventing or promoting pregnancy. Main text: In this commentary, we argue that there is a lack of conceptual clarity around RCA that is a barrier to developing a robust evidence base. Furthermore, we suggest that there is a poor understanding of the way that RCA intersects with other types of violence (intimate partner violence; sexual violence) and – as a result – inconsistent definition and measurement in research and practice. To address this, we propose a new way of understanding RCA that centres perpetrator intent and the presence of fear and control. Recommendations for future research are also discussed. Conclusion: We suggest that IPV and SV are the mechanisms through which RCA is perpetrated. In other words, RCA cannot exist without some other form of co-occurring violence in a relationship. This has important implications for research, policy and practice including for screening and identification of women in reproductive healthcare settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0291.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: reproductive coercion; intimate partner violence; sexual violence; women
Online: 6 November 2023 (07:36:38 CET)
Reproductive coercion and abuse is a hidden and poorly recognised form of violence against women. It refers broadly to behaviours that interfere with or undermine a person’s reproductive autonomy, specifically to promote or prevent pregnancy. Reproductive coercion and abuse can involve physical, sexual, financial or psychological abuse in order to achieve these aims, and is overwhelmingly perpetrated by men against women. As an emerging field of scholarship, conceptual understanding of reproductive coercion and abuse is still in its infancy; however, it is often described as being linked to coercive control. In this article, we seek to highlight the complexity of this relationship through qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 30 victim/survivors in Australia recruited from the community, focusing on their perceptions of the perpetrator’s motivations. Our analysis suggests that perpetrator motivations can range from entitlement and self-interest to a deep desire for domination and entrapment. Pregnancy preventing behaviour was more likely to be linked with entitlement and self-interest, whereas pregnancy promoting behaviour tended to be described by participants in relationships where there was a broader pattern of ongoing control and entrapment. Thus, we suggest that coercive control is a motivating factor for some, but not all men who perpetrate reproductive coercion and abuse. A greater understanding perpetrator motivations may be important for practitioners, particularly those working in sexual and reproductive health services, since it could be relevant to women’s level of risk for coercive controlling behaviour or more extreme forms of physical or sexual violence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0762.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Domestic Violence; Francoism; Historical Memory; Qualitative research; Repression; Spain; Violence against Women
Online: 12 October 2023 (04:38:57 CEST)
(1) Background: Franco’s dictatorship was an authoritarian regime in Europe in the twentieth century. The political and historical context has a significant influence on the socio-cultural make-up of each era, having consequences on equality and violence against women. The objec-tive of our study is to explore and understand women’s experiences of violence against women during the Franco regime and how it affects them today; (2) Methods: This qualitative study ex-plores violence against women in Francoist Spain. Data was colleted between January and march 2022 through twenty-one interviews were carried out with female survivors of Francoism; (3) Results: Three themes emerged from the analysis: underlying social conditions that allow for vio-lence against women; forms of violence against women: from punishment to forced silence; dif-ferent standpoints about violence against women: the feminist struggle versus denial; (4) Conclu-sions: We concluded that the imposed patriarchy during Francoist repression was harmful for Spanish women for decades. Women suffered violence against women and they are still bearing the consequences, passing on attitudes that could contribute to the persistence of violence against women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1334.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: victimizing and perpetrating violence; interpersonal and intimate violence; harmful alcohol and drug use; mental health symptoms; paths of violence; gender
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:46:13 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic may have increased interpersonal and intimate violence, harmful use of alcohol and other drugs (AOD), and mental health problems. The present study uses a valid path model to describe relationships between these conditions of young Mexicans during the second year of the pandemic. A sample of 7,420 young Mexicans ages 18 to 24—two-thirds of whom were women—completed the Life Events Checklist, the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test, the Major-Depressive-Episode Checklist, the Generalized Anxiety Scale, and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist. Young Mexicans reported higher rates of victimization and perpetration of interpersonal and intimate violence and mental health symptomatology than those noted pre-pandemic and in the first year of the pandemic. Harmful use of AOD rates were like those reported by adolescents before. Findings suggested asymmetric victimization and perpetration of intimate violence by gender (with women being at a higher risk than men, p≤.05). More men than women engaged in the harmful use of AOD (except for sedatives, which more women abuse). In contrast, more women than men were at risk of all mental health conditions. The path model indicates that being a victim of intimate violence predicts harmful use of tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, and sedatives, depression, anxiety, and specific PTSD symptoms (such as re-experimentation and avoidance symptoms). Being a victim of interpersonal violence resulted in severe PTSD symptoms (including avoidance, negative alterations in cognition-mood, and hyperarousal signs). Harmful use of sedatives predicted depressive symptoms. Men´s victimizing intimate violence model contrasted with that of women, which also included being the victim of interpersonal violence and severe PTSD symptoms. The high school youth model had three paths -victimizing-intimate violence, victimizing-interpersonal abuse, and sedative use, which predicted depression. The findings of this study could serve as the basis for future studies exploring mechanisms that predict violence patterns to develop the most cost-effective preventive programs and public policies and to address mental health conditions during community emergencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0129.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: violence; crime; informal settlements; women; Kenya
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:38:04 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to identify potential causes of violence and crime in informal settlements and residents’ strategies for response and prevention to these issues, as perceived by women living in Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. A total of 55 in-depth interviews were conducted with women living in the informal settlement in 2015-2016. A modified grounded theory approach was used to guide data collection and analysis. The most common contributor to violence and crime identified by women in Mathare informal settlement was idle youth, but leadership and government challenges, corruption and/or inadequacy of police, community barriers, tribalism, and lack of protective infrastructure also emerged as contributing factors. Despite facing many economic, environmental, and day-to-day challenges, women in Mathare identified violence and crime as predominant issues; thus, developing effective response and prevention strategies to these issues in informal settlements is paramount. Women suggest there are many strategies and initiatives to reduce and prevent violence and crime in informal settlements, but also identified barriers to implementing them. Findings suggest there is a need for trust-building between formal and informal organizations and institutions, systems of accountability, and long-term investment to foster sustainable and effective violence and crime response and interventions in these settlements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0419.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Intimate partner violence; Domestic violence; Prevalence rates, forms of IPV (physical, sexual, emotional, economic); Risk factors; cultural attitudes towards violence and gender roles, GCC, Arab, Khaliji
Online: 17 April 2023 (07:22:16 CEST)
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), locally known as Khaliji, is a group of six Arab nations, including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health concern in the GCC region, but the research that synthesized the trend has received scant attention. The present narrative review examines existing research on the prevalence and frequency of IPV among Khaliji women in GCC nations. This review synthesized studies on physical violence, sexual violence, emotional abuse, and controlling behaviors perpetrated by an intimate partner. The prevalence rates of IPV among Khaliji women are observed to be high: women reported facing different types of abuse from their partners, namely physical (7% - 71%), sexual (3.7% - 81%), financial (21.3% - 26%) and psychological (7.5% - 89%), which is a culmination of controlling behavior (36.8%), emotional (22% - 69%) and social violence (34%). The extant studies in the GCC suggest that the most endorsed IPV was psychological abuse (89%) followed by sexual violence (81%). Qualitative content analysis of the associated factors resulted in four meaningful descriptors such as demographics of the victim, sociocultural factors, socioeconomic, and perpetrator-related issues. The study on IPV is still nascent and few. The way forward will require developing culturally appropriate interventions that address unique risk factors for IPV among Khaliji populations, strengthening institutional responses, and increasing awareness and social support for the victim of IPV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1117.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Depression; Anxiety; Sexual orientation; Violence; Mental health
Online: 16 November 2023 (15:16:48 CET)
Background. Depression and anxiety and its association with sexual orientation in Latvia is un-derstudied. Outcomes. Kinsey scale, primary outcomes for mental health disturbances were defined as per-son`s subjective feeling of depression and anxiety. Materials and Methods. Participants aged 18-30 year old (n=503) was asked to do a self-administered anonymous web-based survey regarding social and family status, sexual iden-tification and behaviour, violence experience and mental health information. To describe person`s sexual orientation Kinsey scale was used. Prevalence of depression and anxiety, univariate and multivariate regression analysis was performed to measure relations between investigated fac-tors. Results. A total of 503 participants (i.e., 365 females, 133 males, 5 others) were included in the study. Mean (SD) age of participants was 23.0 (3.7) years. Mean (SD) value on the Kinsey scale was 1.4 (1.8) and median (IQR) value was 1.0 (0-2.0) where 1 is defined as ‘mostly heterosexual, only slightly homosexual’ person and 2 is ‘mostly heterosexual, but more than slightly homosexual’. Prevalence of persons reported violence experience was 20.3%, anxiety 56.3% and depression 37.6%. Logistic regression analysis showed that experience of violence was associated with higher odds of developing anxiety and depression (OR: 2.6 [95% CI: 1.7-4.0] and 2.4 [95% CI: 1.5-3.9], respectively). Being in relationship was associated with higher odds of developing anxiety (OR: 2.8[95% CI: 1.3-6.3]). Male sex and income 1001-2000 euros a month were associated with lower odds of developing anxiety (OR: 0.4 [95% CI: 0.2-0.5] and aOR: 0.3 [95% CI: 0.1-0.8], respectively). Sexual orientation showed no significant value in association with anxiety and depression (OR: 1.1 [95% CI: 1.0-1.2] and OR: 1.1 [95% CI: 1.02-1.2], respectively). Conclusions. In our study, the significant factors for developing depression and anxiety were experiencing violence, being female, being in a relationship, and having no income, while sexual orientation showed no significance in relation to depression and anxiety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: violence; depression; pregnancy; primary prevention; mental health
Online: 6 March 2023 (06:48:40 CET)
Violence can promote various mental complications such as depression, however, the type of violence that promotes it has not been estimated in detail. The purpose of this study was to assess whether depression is associated with domestic violence in pregnant women treated at a Peruvian health center, 2022. A quantitative, observational, cross-sectional analytical study. A total of 180 pregnant adults who attend the health facility in person were selected. Intrafamily violence was assessed using a questionnaire from the Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations of Peru and depression using the Beck Depression Inventory. The study has the approval of the ethics committee of the university and the permission of the head of the health establishment. 36.11% [95%CI: 29.39-43.43] of the pregnant women presented depression and 1.11% severe de-pression; likewise, 41.67% [95%CI: 36.64-49.05] reported having experienced domestic violence. It was identified that presenting domestic violence increases the probability of presenting depression during pregnancy (aPR: 9.89; p<0.001). The associated types of violence were psychological (aPR: 10.44; p<0.001) and physical (aPR: 1.78; p=0.007). There is an association between domestic violence and depression during pregnancy, the types of violence associated being psychological and physical.
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: gender-based violence, coping, abuse, survival, resilient
Online: 2 July 2021 (14:00:57 CEST)
Gender-based violence is considered a serious social and public health problem. Overcoming this situation implies a process that results in the favorable biopsychosocial rehabilitation, the resilient of women. The objective of this study was to analyze the tools, resources and personal and psychosocial mechanisms used by women survivors of gender-based violence. The design was an interpretative phenomenology. It carried out with 22 women who have overcome gender-based violence. Data was collected through personal interviews and narration. The results were grouped into four themes: "Process of violence", "Social resources for coping and overcoming GBV", "Personal tools for coping and overcoming GBV", and "Feelings identified, from the abuse stage to the survival stage". Several studies concluded that overcoming abuse is influenced by the women social network, and it can be the action of these people determining their survival to gender violence. Despite the recognized usefulness of these available resources, it would be desirable to strengthen them in order to be able to drive more women toward survival, assuming a strengthening of coping and overcoming, without forgetting the importance of other support mechanisms such as their family and group therapies.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0640.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Good Lives Model; Violence; Intervention; Interagency collaboration
Online: 28 June 2021 (10:45:42 CEST)
Violence is a complex and multifaceted problem requiring a holistic and individualized response. The Good Lives Model (GLM) suggests violence occurs when an individual experiences internal and external obstacles in the pursuit of universal human needs (termed primary goods). With a twin focus, GLM-consistent interventions aim to promote attainment of primary goods, whilst simultaneously reducing risk of reoffending. This is achieved by improving an individuals’ internal (i.e., skills and abilities) and external capacities (i.e., opportunities, environments, and resources). This paper proposes that collaborations between different agencies (e.g., psychological services, criminal justice systems, social services, education, community organizations and healthcare) can support the attainment of primary goods through the provision of specialized skills and resources. Recommendations for ensuring interagency collaborations are effective are outlined, including embedding a project lead, regular interagency meetings and training, establishing information sharing procedures, and defining the role each agency plays in client care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0328.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: family violence; self-control; meta-analysis; adolescence
Online: 18 September 2018 (05:39:34 CEST)
Theoretical studies propose an association between family violence and low self-control in adolescence, yet empirical findings of this association are inconclusive. The aim of the present research was to systematically summarize available findings on the relation between family violence and self-control across adolescence. We included 27 studies with 143 effect sizes, representing more than 25,000 participants of eight countries from early to late adolescence. Applying a multi-level meta-analyses, taking dependency between effect sizes into account while retaining statistical power, we examined the magnitude and direction of the overall effect size. Additionally, we investigated whether theoretical moderators (e.g., age, gender, country), and methodological moderators (cross-sectional/longitudinal, informant) influenced the magnitude of the association between family violence and self-control. Our results revealed that family violence and self-control have a small to moderate significant negative association (r = -.191). This association did not vary across gender, country, and informants. The strength of the association, however, decreased with age and in longitudinal studies. This finding provides evidence that researchers and clinicians may expect low self-control in the wake of family violence, especially in early adolescence. Recommendations for future research in the area are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1699.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: intimate partner violence; pregnancy; gestatinoal intimate partner violence; adverse outcomes; maternity staff; screening; domestic abuse; trauma; institutional support; teamwork
Online: 24 August 2023 (09:44:26 CEST)
Introduction: Intimate partner violence occurring during pregnancy has a similar prevalence as usual obstetrical disorders routinely screened for. Referenced publications insist on the importance of adequate screening but the proper course of action has yet to be defined. Aim of study: We qualitatively explored the different resources and concepts that emerge from the discourse of maternity staff across professions. Material and methods: We led a semi structured interview with professionals included following their involvement with preselected patients. Nine professionals provided a sample of 19 interviews. The data was analysed using IPA methodology. Results We highlight the investigative importance of navigating the patient’s initial demand or lack thereof and the baby’s importance within, mindful of mechanisms of maternal disqualification. Creating an atmosphere prone to patient empowerment was the final theme to emerge from the study as the most beneficial tactic both in the short and long term. Conclusion: HCPs need to enable patients’ trust on a personal and an institutional level. As well as empowering the patient in the moment and respecting their values and choices, HCPs also convey the stability of the institution that has to become a reference of refuge and assistance for patients from their pregnancy onwards.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: women's health; domestic violence; acculturation; attitudes; perspectives; behaviors
Online: 1 November 2023 (23:54:55 CET)
Domestic violence (DV) has been reported high in minorities across the US. Among minorities, refugees and immigrants encounter several barriers that may influence their responses and actions regarding DV. This scoping review examined three decades of literature (1980-2022) on resettled Afghan and Arab refugee women's attitudes and behaviors toward DV in their host countries, and to summarize research, practice, and policy recommendations. Based on Arksey and O'Malley model, our scoping review conducted extensive searches in SCOPUS, PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Web of Science, the Directory of Open Access Journals, and Embase databases. Searches identified articles that examined resettled Afghan and/or Arab refugees’ responses to DV in Western countries. The search identified 439 unique citations; 17 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Major themes included acculturative changes in refugee attitudes and behaviors and in stakeholders’ perspectives and roles. Significant acculturative attitudinal changes (acknowledgment, silence, justification, or disapproval of DV) contrasted with minimal behavioral changes (help-seeking behaviors, action plans, or barriers to actions) and with a resistance to change in stakeholders (cultural norms and beliefs, community patriarchal normalization of violence, service providers unfamiliarity with client diversity and refugee cultures) in supporting women decision-making regarding DV. Not a single article made explicit policy recommendations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1407.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Violence against women; Feminicide; Pre-Hospital Emergency Care
Online: 21 September 2023 (12:07:00 CEST)
The violence against women is a theme that extrapolates health issues, since after a victim seek for a health care, there is the notification of the act . In Brazil, many times, these women are first assisted by mobile urgency services (SAMU/SIATE) and, as far as we have concern, there are no other studies with specific data about these assistance. The present paper aimed to analyze SAMU/SIATE assistance to abused women. Qualitative and retrospective epidemiological study of assistance to assaulted women carried out by SIATE and SAMU Maringá/Norte Novo between 2011 and 2020. Women between 20 and 39 years old, non-pregnant, were the main victims, and 19,52% of them have used some kind of drug. The (ex)partner figured as the perpetrator in 17,35%, but there were no information about this variable in 73,75% of the records. The Qui-square test shows a mortality rate superior to 70% among the severe traumatized victims. This is one of the first studies to analyze this kind of care provided by SAMU/SIATE, and reveals some gaps in its “modus-operandi” that can limitate an extrapolation of the results to bigger spheres. More researches in mobile urgency care services, in other provinces also, are needed to propose strategies to fight against this epidemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0217.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: HIV; intimate partner violence; childbearing; infant feeding practices
Online: 5 September 2023 (09:27:58 CEST)
Intimate partner violence (IPV), particularly sexual and emotional violence, against Black mothers who acquire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during childbearing age is a significant health and social concern worldwide requiring targeted interventions and precautions. IPV against women increases the chances of early mixed feeding, putting infants at high risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and increased infant morbidities. Although violence complicates many Black mothers’ lives, there is limited research evidence about the critical intersections of violence, HIV, and Black motherhood. Women's fears associated with IPV make them less likely to disclose their positive HIV status to their partners which subsequently prevents them from using the recommended guidelines for safe infant feeding practices. This review aims to explore the critical intersections between IPV and HIV and the impact of both on the infant feeding practices of Black mothers living with HIV. Furthermore, the theme of IPV and how it overlaps with other factors such as HIV-positive status and gender dynamics to compromise the Black motherhood experience are the focus of this narrative review of existing literature. Understanding the intersection of IPV and other factors influencing infant feeding practices among women living with HIV will help inform programming and policy interventions for HIV-positive Black mothers who may be experiencing IPV during the perinatal period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0458.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental illness; homicide; violence; psychiatry; Penrose hypothesis; deinstitutionalization
Online: 26 August 2022 (10:00:36 CEST)
The association between mental illness and violent crimes such as homicide is complex. In 1939, Lionel Penrose hypothesized that the availability of psychiatric hospital beds was inversely related to the prison population, presumably due to the hospitalization of potential offenders with a mental illness. Subsequent studies have found evidence for this association, but questions remain about the contributions of confounding factors. Moreover, there has been a move towards deinstitutionalization and community care of the mentally ill over the past six decades. In this study, the association between national homicide rates and three measures of the availability of psychiatric care – the numbers of psychiatrists, general hospital psychiatric beds, and psychiatric hospital beds per 100,000 population – was examined using a time-lagged correlation analysis. Associations between homicide rates and socioeconomic factors associated with crime were also examined. It was found that the availability of psychiatrists and of general hospital psychiatric beds were both negatively correlated with homicide rates, and that the association with general hospital psychiatric beds remained significant even after correction for confounding factors. These results suggest the need for a more nuanced interpretation of Penrose’s original formulation, involving the interplay of social, economic factors and psychological factors rather than linear causality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0326.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: violence; young athletes; sport; self-report; questionnaire; magnitude
Online: 18 August 2022 (03:21:37 CEST)
Initiatives to safeguard athletes from interpersonal violence (IV) are rapidly growing. In Belgium, the knowledge on the magnitude of IV in sport is based on one retrospective prevalence study from 2016 (n=2.043 adults), who participated in organized sport before 18 years. Data on victimization rates in current youth sport populations are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the magnitude of IV in a sample of 769 athletes (13-21 years old), using the Violence Towards Athletes Questionnaire (VTAQ). All types of IV are prevalent in this sample, ranging from 27% (sexual violence) to 79% (psychological violence and neglect). Boys reported significantly more physical violence, while girls reported significantly more sexual violence. IV perpetrated by peer athletes was reported to the same degree as IV perpetrated by a coach (70%), while IV perpetrated by a parent in the context of sport was somewhat less common, but still prevalent (48%). These findings, including factors associated with elevated exposure rates, can serve as a baseline measurement to monitor and evaluate current and future safeguarding interventions in Belgian sport.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Non-cooperative Household Model; Domestic Violence; Maternal Health
Online: 11 July 2020 (03:49:45 CEST)
There is increasing evidence that the non-cooperative models describe household structures in developing countries more succinctly compared with the unitary model. Domestic violence against women, which is pervasive in Nigeria even though likely to be under-reported, will need to be understood within the framework of non-cooperative relationship between couples. In this study, we identify factors of domestic violence against women within couples who were currently in marital or cohabiting partnerships. Also, we investigate whether domestic violence influences the decision of women to terminate pregnancies. We use data from the 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to model the predictors of domestic violence, and its influence on the decision to terminate pregnancies among married women. Of the 8,910 married women interviewed for domestic violence, 35.33% had ever experienced a form of domestic violence. We discover that women: with higher education, that is not poor, and resides in urban areas have 44%, 18% and 15% reductions in the odds of experience domestic violence respectively. On the other hand, women who are employed, own land, having husbands/partners that are employed in the agricultural sector, and drink alcohol have 1.16, 1.2, 2.07, and 2.8 times increased odds of experiencing domestic violence accordingly. Also, we uncover that currently married women experiencing domestic violence have 1.25 times increased odds of terminating pregnancies compared with their counterparts that are not experiencing domestic violence. Effectively, poverty, low levels of education, residing in rural areas, drinking habit of husbands/partners, employment, marital capital, and land ownership status of women are risk factors of domestic violence against married women in Nigeria but can be affected by policies and programmes. Importantly, public actions to contain domestic violence in order to improve maternal health should be implemented in the context of the dynamics of a non-cooperative relationship existing between married couples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0147.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: domestic violence; religion; families; women; abuse; theology; language
Online: 19 May 2017 (09:56:02 CEST)
Carol Winkelmann, in her book ‘The Language of Battered Women’ describes not only the fact that domestic abuse is almost a daily occurrence in the lives of many women but that the language of religion and faith is often used by women in attempts to explain, understand and cope with such abuse . While religious belief and domestic violence may seem contradictory in terms of religious values of faith, virtue and love, research demonstrates that domestic violence in religious families and amidst religious congregations is prevalent. In fact, religious beliefs and practices are often embedded in cultural contexts and thus perpetuate patriarchal notions of dominance, power and submission. Abused Christian women, for example, are more likely to seek help from (male) ministers and others in positions of authority in their local church communities and are equally more likely to remain in or return to unsafe relationships, citing their religious beliefs to support their avoidance of ‘family break-ups’ because of abuse. What, then, is the response of ministers and church authorities to domestic abuse in their congregations? Despite recent calls for the training of pastors and other religious leaders in an understanding of domestic violence and in the recognition of appropriate, helpful responses, the language of some Christian churches can be seen to foster notions of submission so that women and pastors alike can appear confused concerning the experience of abuse. Religious congregations, while acting in love to help the poor and needy, for example, often fail to recognise domestic abuse amongst their own members and, indeed, such a topic can remain taboo in some church communities. Women, in turning to their pastors or other Christian leaders for help, can be silenced by the language of the religion itself, so that the role of wives and mothers may be seen to be submissive and the ‘keeper of the home’; to leave an abusive relationship may thus ‘break-up’ a home and imply failure of the woman to understand her role and fulfil her ‘maternal vocation’. On the other hand, religious beliefs offer victims of domestic violence both hope and comfort. Religious practices, such as prayer, liturgies and corporal (physical) works of mercy, can provide solace and practical assistance for women who suffer abuse. Domestic violence in religious congregations can be addressed within the context of the faith itself, with an emphasis on love and respect, helping women to understand their dignity with avenues of help so that the women can remove themselves and their children from abusive relationships, and the religious congregation and its leaders can call the partners to accountability. This paper seeks to outline a picture of domestic violence in religious congregations, specifically Christian church communities, by drawing on current research in the Western world. It then describes the language of some religious congregations that perpetuates domestic violence, with emphasis on contemporary studies in religious belief and domestic abuse. Finally, the paper makes some suggestions on how religious belief and practice can, in contrast to perpetuating abuse through norms, serve to assist women as victims of domestic violence, and how the connections between domestic violence and religious language or belief can be severed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1845.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: cognitive functions; machine learning; feature selection; violence risk assessment
Online: 28 September 2023 (03:08:34 CEST)
Machine Learning techniques can be used to identify whether deficits in cognitive functions contribute to antisocial and aggressive behavior. This paper initially presents the results of tests conducted on delinquent and non-delinquent youths to assess their cognitive functions. The dataset extracted from these assessments, consisting of 37 predictor variables and one target. was used to train three algorithms that aim to predict whether the data corresponds to that of a young offender or a non-offending youth. Prior to this, statistical tests were conducted on the data to identify characteristics that exhibited significant differences in order to select the most relevant features and optimize the prediction results. Additionally, other feature selection methods, such as Boruta, RFE, and Filter, were applied, and their effects on the accuracy of each of the three machine learning models used (SVM, RF, and KNN) were compared. 80% of the data were utilized for training, while the remaining 20% were used for validation. The best result was achieved by the K-NN model trained with 19 features selected by the Boruta method, followed by the SVM model trained with 24 features selected by the filter method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0105.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Rwanda; stunting; children; poor; household; factors; intimate partner violence
Online: 7 December 2022 (01:30:54 CET)
We assessed the prevalence and correlates of stunting among children aged 6-23 months from poor households in Rwanda. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 817 mother-child dyads living in poor households from five districts with a high prevalence of stunting. We used descriptive statistics to determine the prevalence of stunting, bivariate analysis, and a multivariate logistic re-gression model to measure the strength of the Association between childhood stunting and exposure variables. Stunting was at 34.1%. Children aged 19-23 months (AOR = 4.410, 95% CI: [1.911-10.173], p-value=0.01), children aged 13-18 months (AOR=2.788, 95% CI: [1.302-5.968], p-value=0.08), children from households that do not have a vegetable garden (AOR=2.165, 95% CI: [1.201-3.905], p-value<0.01) were more likely to be stunted. On the other hand, children whose mothers were not exposed to physical violence (AOR= 0.145, 95% CI: [0.074-0.287], p-value<0.001), children whose fathers were working (AOR=0.036, 95% CI: [0.005-0.242], p-value=0.001), children whose both parents were working (AOR=0.208, 95% CI: [0.051-0.851], p-value=0.029) and children whose mothers had good hand-washing practice (AOR=0.181, 95% CI: [0.091-0.362], p-value<0.001) were less likely to be stunted. Our findings underscore the importance of integrating the promotion of hand-washing practices, owning vegetable gardens, and intimate partner violence prevention in the interventions to fight stunting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0385.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Obstetric Violence; Midwives; Mistreatment and Abuse; Childbirth; Women; Ghana
Online: 25 October 2022 (09:40:35 CEST)
Obstetric violence has been recognized as a major impediment to facility-based delivery, increasing the risk of preventable complications and maternal mortality. In Ghana, studies on women’s birth experiences reveal enormous and brutal acts of violence during delivery; but inquiries into why midwives abuse women have largely been unexplored. This study explored the perspectives of midwives on the drivers of obstetric violence in the Western and Ashante Regions of Ghana. A qualitative study was conducted involving 30 in-depth interviews with midwives in eight health facilities. The data were analyzed thematically using NVivo 12. The results of the study reveal a normalization of violence in the delivery room and the intensity of violence is heightened during the second stage of labor. Midwives reported perpetrating or witnessing physical violence, abandonment of women, stigmatization of HIV women, verbal abuses such as shouting, and the detention of women in the health facilities. Obstetric violence occurs as a result of the pressures of the midwifery profession, poor maternal efforts of women, disrespect of midwives, women’s disobedience, and uncooperative attitudes. The culture of acceptability of obstetric violence is a major driver, contributing to its normalization. Midwives do not consider obstetric violence as abuse, but rather, as a delivery strategy which aids a successful delivery. It is therefore justified and viewed as a necessary part of the delivery process. There is a critical need for retraining midwives on alternative birthing strategies devoid of violence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0279.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Paramedic; Violence; Qualitative Research; Operational Stress Injury; Mental Health
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:04:48 CET)
Purpose Violence against paramedics is a complex – but underreported – problem. Extant research suggests organizational culture may play a role in sustaining cultural norms that downplay the significance and limit reporting. Our objective was to qualitatively explore paramedics’ experience with violence, with particular emphasis on understanding how organizational culture contributes to under-reporting. Approach We surveyed paramedics from a single, large, urban service in Ontario, Canada, asking participants to describe their experiences with violence, including whether – and why or why not – the incidents were reported. Within a constructivist epistemology, we used inductive thematic analysis with successive rounds of coding to identify and then define features of organizational culture that limit reporting. Findings A total of 196 (33% of eligible) paramedics completed the survey. Fully 98% of participants disclosed having experienced some form of violence; however only a minority (40%) reported the incidents to management, or the police (21%). We defined a framework within which a lack of support from management, and consequences for offenders, implicitly positions the ability of paramedics to “brush off” violent encounters as an expected professional competency. Disclosing emotional or psychological distress in response to violent encounters invited questions as to whether the individual is personally suited to paramedic work. Originality While the extant research has indicated that underreporting is a problem, our findings shed light on why – a critical first step in addressing what has been described as a serious public health problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0343.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Family violence; Machine Learning; Classification; ROC; Accuracy; COVID-19
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:51:20 CEST)
In Southern Asia, Bangladesh is a well-known developing country. Because of COVID-19, we continuously face challenges. Not only can these issues occur beyond economic or health concerns, but they also generate dangerous social problems, such as family abuse. Since the inception of this epidemic, multiple social crimes are looming. Remaining home during the lockout period enhances divorce rates. This research presents a customized forecast of family violence during the COVID-19 outbreak by using machine learning methods. In this paper, we have applied Random Forest, Logistic Regression, and Naive Bayes machine learning classifiers to predict family violence and discovered the feature importance. The performance of the classifiers is evaluated based on accuracy, precision, recall, and F-score. We have employed an oversampling strategy named synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) to solve the imbalance problem of our data. Even, we have tried to compare three machine learning model performances before and after balancing of normalization data. Finally, ROC analyses and confusion matrices were developed and analyzed by using data augmentation. Our proposed system with the random forest classifier performed better with 77% accuracy in comparison with other two machine learning classifiers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: self-harm; dual harm; violence; childhood adversity; substance misuse
Online: 18 November 2020 (23:47:07 CET)
The etiology of ‘dual harm’ (the co-occurrence of self-harm and externalized violence in the same individual) is under-researched. Risk factors have mostly been investigated for each behavior separately. We aimed to examine adversities experienced between birth and age 15 years among adolescents and young adults with histories of self-harm and violent criminality, with a specific focus on dual harm. Three nested case-control studies were delineated using national interlinked Danish registers; 58,409 cases in total aged 15-35 were identified: 28,956 with a history of violent criminality (but not self-harm), 25,826 with a history of self-harm (but not violent criminality), and 3987 with dual harm history. Each case was matched by date of birth and gender to 20 controls who had not engaged in either behavior. We estimated exposure prevalence for cases vs. controls for each of the three behavior groups, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Experiencing 5 or more childhood adversities was more prevalent among individuals with dual harm history (19.3%; 95% CI 18.0, 20.8%) versus self-harm (10.9%; 10.5, 11.3%) and violence (11.4%; 11.0%, 11.8%) histories. The highest IRRs for dual harm were linked with parental unemployment (5.15; 95% CI 4.71, 5.64), parental hospitalization following self-harm (4.91; 4.40, 5.48) or assault (5.90; 5.07, 6.86), and parental violent criminality (6.11; 5.57, 6.70). Growing up in environments that are characterized by poverty, violence and substance misuse, and experiencing multiple adversities in childhood, appear to be especially strongly linked with elevated dual harm risk. These novel findings indicate potential etiologic pathways to dual harm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0462.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: adolescents; dating violence; school social climate; school social support
Online: 22 October 2020 (12:07:46 CEST)
(1) To analyse the potential association between school social support CECSCE and school social climate CASSS and experiences of dating violence among adolescents in Europe; (2) Cross-sectional design. We recruited 1,555 participants age 13-16 from secondary schools in Spain, Italy, Romania, Portugal, Poland and UK. The analysis in this text concerns student with dating experience (n=993) (57.2% of girls and 66.5% of boys). The association of the exposure to physical and/ or sexual dating violence, control dating violence and fear was measured by calculating the prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI), estimated by Poisson regression models with robust variance. All the models were adjusted by country and by sociodemografic variables; (3) The results show that the average values of all types of social support are significantly lower in young people who have suffered any type of dating violence or were scared of their partner. The likelihood of suffering physical and/or sexual dating violence decreased when CECSCE increased [PR (CI95%): 0.96 (0.92; 0.99)]. In the same way, the likelihood of fear decreased when CASSS classmates increased [PR (CI95%): 0.98 (0.96; 0.99)]; (4) There is an association between school social support and school social climate and experiences of dating violence among adolescents in Europe. Our results suggest that in the prevention of dating violence, building a supportive climate at schools and building / using the support of peers and teachers should be important.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: sexual violence; migrants; refugees; asylum seekers; Europe; prevalence; Belgium
Online: 2 July 2018 (07:41:45 CEST)
1) Background: Sexual violence (SV) is a major public health issue with negative socio-economic and physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health consequences. Migrants, applicants for international protection and refugees (MAR) are identified as a vulnerable group for SV. Since many European countries have been confronted with high migratory pressure, developing prevention strategies and care paths focusing on those MAR affected by SV is needed. To this end, this study reviews evidence on the prevalence of SV among MAR groups in Belgium. 2) Methods: A critical interpretive synthesis was applied to 25 peer-reviewed articles and 22 grey literature documents based on the socio-ecological model. 3) Results: The evidence shows that prevalence rates of SV are high among MAR in Belgium, but comparable prevalence data are lacking. Several challenges for conducting prevalence studies SV in this population are identified and discussed. 4) Conclusions: Sexual violence in MAR in Europe is probably more frequent than in the general population, however representative studies confirming this hypothesis are lacking. Future research should start with a clear definition of the concerned population and acts of SV to generate comparable data. Participatory qualitative research approaches should be applied to fully grasp the complexity of interplaying determinants of SV in MAR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1100.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: higher education; students; domestic abuse; stalking; gender-based violence; survey
Online: 15 August 2023 (08:27:55 CEST)
Domestic abuse and stalking in higher education (HE) have been overlooked in research in comparison to sexual harassment and sexual violence. This article reports on survey data from 725 students at a UK university using measures of ‘dating violence’ – physical and psychological violence from an intimate partner – and stalking from a US survey instrument (the Administrator Researcher Campus Climate Collaborative (ARC3) survey). According to this measure, 26% of respondents had been subjected to ‘dating violence’ and 16% to stalking behaviours. However, these findings need to be contextualised within a critical discussion of the use of the ARC3 survey tool in the UK context. The ARC3 questions on ‘dating violence’ focus on physical and ‘psychological violence’; the questions therefore omit further types of domestic abuse under UK definitions. In relation to stalking, US definitions – as captured in the ARC3 survey instrument – define specific behaviours. By contrast, in the UK stalking involves behaviours that engender fear or distress in a pattern of behaviour over time. These differences mean that the ARC3 modules on stalking and ‘dating violence’ would need to be significantly adapted to be suitable for use in the UK context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0669.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Antenatal depression; Adverse childhood experiences; intimate partner violence; social support
Online: 26 March 2021 (14:18:14 CET)
Background: Few studies examined the contributions of childhood adversities, intimate partner violence and social support to antenatal depression (AD). This study aims to 1) evaluate association of these psychosocial factors with AD symptoms in early pregnancy; and 2) examine the mediating effect of social support on the relationship between psychosocial stressors and AD symptoms.Methods: Participants were 120 pregnant women aged from 18 to 49 in less than 16 gestational weeks and attending at Antenatal Care Center at Khon Kaen hospital, Thailand. AD symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Childhood adversities, intimate partner violence and social support were measured using the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire (ACE questionnaire), Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Results: We found that the EPDS score was significantly and positively associated with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and negatively with social support. Partial Least Square analysis showed that 49.1% of the variance in the depressive subdomain of the EPDS score was predicted by ACEs, namely psychological and physical abuse and neglect, emotional or physical abuse by the partner, unplanned pregnancy, and no satisfaction with their relationship. The effects of adverse childhood experience due to neglect on the EDPS score was mediated by social support by friends. Limitations: ACEs were assessed retrospectively and, therefore, may be susceptible to recall bias.Conclusion: Prenatal depression scores are to a large extent predicted by psychological distress as indicated by early lifetime trauma, abuse by partner, relation satisfaction, and implications of unintended pregnancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0304.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: physical suicide attempt; self-harm; health condition; bullying; violence; adolescent
Online: 1 December 2020 (09:49:11 CET)
Background and objectives: Suicide is a topical issue in Lithuania and all around the world. It is the second most common cause of death among young people. There is a lack of research studies on the psychosocial aspects of adolescent suicide in Lithuania. This study aimed to evaluate demographics, life circumstances, and health conditions as factors related to suicide attempt in adolescents. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed at the Children’s Hospital (Vilnius University Santara Clinics). Medical documentation of adolescents treated in this hospital after suicide attempts from January 2011 to April 2018 were analyzed. Results: There were 117 cases of hospitalization due to suicide attempts during this period, and 102 cases were included in the study. There were 83.8% female and 16.2% male patients with an average age of 15.02 ± 1.9 years (p = 0.405); 40.6% of patients lived in divorced families, 17.7% lived in orphanages, 4.2% lived in foster care, 36.4% suffered from parental alcoholism, and 17.2% experienced suicide in their close surroundings. They had comorbidities (girls 72.5%, boys 68.8%), mostly depression (31.3%), were suffering from bullying (54.1%) or violence (26.0%), and 85.4% showed signs of other types of self-harm (girls more often (p < 0.001)). Most of them chose to cut for suicide attempts (86.0% girls, 56.2% boys). In 52.8% of cases, the attempt was spontaneous and 34% relapsed. Thirty-four events occurred in March (18.9%) (p = 0.688). Conclusions: Our study revealed the possible circumstances related to adolescent suicide attempt. Female gender was more common overall and males were more likely to carry out more potentially lethal methods. Other common associated factors were a lack of prosperity in family life, experience of bullying, violence, comorbidities, and the early spring period. Signs of any self-harm could be an indicator of later suicide attempt.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: respectful maternity care; disrepectful maternity care; violence; obsteteric; rural; kenya
Online: 17 September 2020 (11:21:16 CEST)
While disrespectful treatment of pregnant women attending health care facilities occurs globally, it is more prevalent in low resource countries. In Kenya, a large body of research studies or has studied disrespectful maternity care (DMC) from the perspective of the service users. This paper examines the perspective of health care workers (HWCs) on factors that influence DMC experienced by pregnant women at health care facilities in rural Kisii and Kilifi counties in Kenya. We conducted 24 in-depth interviews with health care workers (HCWs) in these two sites. Data were analyzed deductively and inductively using NVIVO 12. Findings from HCWs reflective narratives identify four areas connected to the delivery of disrespectful care including poor infrastructure, understaffing, service users’ socio–cultural beliefs, and health care workers’ attitudes toward marginalized women. Investments are needed to address health systems influences on DMC including poor health infrastructure and understaffing. Additionally, it is important to reduce cultural barriers through training on HCWs interpersonal communication skills. Further, strategies are needed to affect positive behavior changes among HCWs directed at addressing stigma and discrimination of pregnant women due to socio-economic standing. To develop evidence-informed strategies to address DMC, a holistic understanding of the factors associated with pregnant women’s poor experiences of facility based maternity care is needed. This may best be achieved through an intersectional approach to address DMC by identifying systemic, cultural, and socio-economic inequities as well as the structural and policy features that contribute and determine peoples’ behaviors and choices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1037.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Gender-Based Violence; Iraq; Married women; Safety; Women Empowerment; Social Factors
Online: 17 October 2023 (09:23:59 CEST)
Women's attitudes towards domestic violence play an important role in shaping the social acceptance of domestic violence, acting as both a known predictor of victimization and an indicator of disclosure and help-seeking behavior. Therefore, the study objectives were 1) to conduct a nationwide analysis to explore the factors associated with the acceptance of domestic violence among Iraqi women according to the social-ecological framework, and 2) to identify the most vulnerable women according to the spatial distribution of Iraqi governorates. This cross-sectional study was conducted using secondary data analysis from the 2018 Iraq Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 6), which included 19,443 married Iraqi women. Logistic regression was employed to examine the factors associated with acceptance of domestic violence. In this study, the analyses were performed according to the Social Ecological Model (SEM). This study revealed that 48.4% of married Iraqi women accepted domestic violence. Yet, women living in South/Central regions of Iraq showed a higher prevalence of domestic violence acceptance namely Anbar, Salahaddin Thiqar, and Misan where the prevalence was (62%-73%). Several factors across the social-ecological model were associated with a higher likelihood of women accepting such behavior, including experiencing functional difficulty, having lower educational attainment, being married to a blood-related husband, and being married to a husband who has multiple wives/partners, living in poverty, residing in rural areas, living in the south and central regions of Iraq, and feeling unsafe in the neighborhood. Conversely, factors that were associated with a lower likelihood of women accepting such behavior were owning a mobile phone and using a computer or tablet. This study provides policymakers with valuable insights to comprehensively assess indicators of attitudes toward domestic violence against women. It also addresses the scarcity of information on the acceptance of domestic violence in Iraq on national and governorate levels, emphasizing the need for urgent national-level policy discussions to achieve key Sustainable Development Goals related to gender equity and good health and well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1854.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: obstetrics labor; obstetric violence; surveys and questionnaires; validation Studies as topic
Online: 28 August 2023 (10:02:28 CEST)
Obstetric Violence refers to dehumanized or derogative treatment of women in their pregnancy, childbirth or postpartum periods and may be manifested through the attitudes of health professionals or the performance of unjustified or outdated practices without maternal consent. Currently, there is no tool validated in Spain to measure women’s perception of obstetric violence. The objective of this study was to carry out the cultural adaption and validation of an existing 14-item Obstetric Violence Scale to the Spanish context, and to evaluate its psychometric properties. The research was conducted in two phases: first, a methodological study designed to evaluate content validity, through assessments by 8 experts (calculating the Aiken V coefficient) and face validity in a sample of 20 women; second, a cross-sectional study to evaluate construct validity (through confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis), divergent validity against a scale of birth satisfaction, known groups validity and reliability. In Phase 1, Aiken V values higher than 0.71 were obtained for all items. Phase 2 was conducted on a sample of 256 women and the fit values for the unidimensional model were RMSEA: 0.070 [95%CI: 0.059-0.105] and GFI: 0.982 [95%CI: 0.823-0.990]. The Rasch analysis indicated poor performance of item 2, which was removed. The Omega and Cronbach's Alpha coefficients were 0.863 and 0.860, respectively. A final 13-item version of the Obstetric Violence scale was produced, with total score ranging from 0 (no obstetric violence perception) to 52 (maximum obstetric violence perception). The Obstetric Violence Scale is a reliable and useful tool to measure women's perception of obstetric violence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1171.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: domestic violence; primary healthcare; general practitioners; female victims; nurses and midwives
Online: 16 August 2023 (10:35:03 CEST)
Despite the Australian Government’s attempts to reduce domestic violence (DV) incidences, impediments that exist within the social and health systems and interventions designed to identify DV victims may contribute to female victims’ reluctance to disclose DV experiences to their primary healthcare providers. This scoping review aimed to provide the state of evidence about reasons for such reluctance to reveal DV, symptoms and comorbidities patients present to healthcare providers, detection and interventions in the clinical setting, and recommendations to generate more effective responses to DV. Female victims are reluctant to reveal DV because they do not trust or believe that general practitioners can help them to solve the issue, they do not acknowledge they are in an abusive relationship or are unaware that they are, or had been, victims of DV. The most common symptoms and comorbidities victims present with are sleep difficulties and fear. DV screening programs are the most prominent intervention type within Australian primary health services. This scoping review provides formative evidence that further research and interventions are required to increase professional skills, knowledge, sensitivity and referral processes among primary healthcare professionals treating patients experiencing DV in Australia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1627.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Health providers; female adolescents; slums; sexual and gender-based violence; barriers
Online: 25 July 2023 (08:56:28 CEST)
Survivors of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) are often hindered in their quest to access quality healthcare. This could complicate the achievement of the laudable SDG Target 3.7. The study used an ethnographic approach to solicit information from health providers, adolescents, and young women (AYW) in 10 communities from Lagos and Ibadan; two major cities in Nigeria. Findings indicated that the structural system of services provided in the health services at the primary healthcare level was limited, which posed a great challenge in AYW’s utilization of services for sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). Some of the challenges identified by health providers included non-existing counseling services, rehabilitation centers, referral problems, and a lack of training for health providers in handling victims of SGBV. The study provided the context of the health providers’ inadequacy and structural problem of health services in providing comprehensive support services to victims of SGBV like adolescents and young women in the slum setting. This poses a barrier to the utilization of services by the survivors. Necessary inclusive services that will meet the need of the victims of SGBV should be in place at primary healthcare centers close to the people in the community for accessibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1037.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Paramedics; Emergency Medical Services; Violence; Occupational Health and Safety; Mental Health
Online: 17 July 2023 (02:33:59 CEST)
Violence against paramedics has been described as a ‘serious public health problem’ but one that remains ‘vastly underreported’, owing to an organizational culture that stigmatizes reporting – hindering efforts at risk mitigation in addition to creating a gap in research. Leveraging a novel reporting process developed after extensive stakeholder consultation and embedded within the electronic patient care record, our objective was to provide a descriptive profile of violence against paramedics in a single paramedic service in Ontario, Canada. Between February 1, 2021, through January 31, 2023, a total of 374 paramedics in Peel Region (48% of the workforce) generated 941 violence reports, of which 40% documented physical (n=364) or sexual (n=19) assault. The violence was typically perpetrated by patients (78%) and primarily took place at the scene of the 9-1-1 call (47%); however, violent behavior frequently persisted or recurred while in transit to hospital and after arrival. Collectively, mental health, alcohol, or drug use were listed as contributing circumstances in 83% of violence reports. In all, 81 paramedics were physically harmed because of an assault. On average, our data correspond to a paramedic filing a violence report every 18 hours, being physically assaulted every 46 hours, and injured every 9 days.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0059.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: psychosis; delusion; over valued idea; terrorism; mass shootings; violence; forensic psychiatry
Online: 23 January 2018 (02:41:33 CET)
Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly-held, shared beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity and obedience to authority. Religious cults such as: The People’s Temple, Heaven’s Gate, Aum Shinrikyo, Islamic State (ISIS) and conspiracy beliefs such as assassinations, moon-hoax and vaccine-induced autism beliefs are discussed using this construct. Finally, some concluding thoughts on countering violent extremism, including its online presence is discussed utilizing information learned from online eating disorder and consumer experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0059.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: fear of victimization, violence, crime, geography of crime, women, informal settlements, Kenya
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:58:56 CEST)
Around one billion people live in informal settlements, globally, including over half of Nairobi, Kenya’s three million residents. The purpose of this study was to explore women’s fear of victimization within Mathare, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya and how fear of victimization influences behavior. Fifty-five in-depth interviews were conducted with women in 2016. A modified grounded theory approach guided data collection and analysis. Findings suggest fear of victimization is a serious concern in informal settlements. Women have found ways to adopt their behaviors that allow them to continue to function and protect their children despite fearing victimization, but at a potential cost to their health and well-being. Thus, there is a critical need for more research focused on social, economic, structural, community, infrastructure, technological, and individual strategies to prevent violence, enhance residents’ sense of safety, and, subsequently, minimize women’s fear of victimization in informal settlements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0083.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: urbanism; surrealism; literary devices; maps and plans; violence; harassment; cities; gender; painting; architecture
Online: 6 March 2023 (02:39:27 CET)
The purpose of this study is to analyse the ways of visualization of hidden violence through a map of the city of violence called La Manada City, in its transformation from defensive to artistic strategies. For this analysis, firstly we propose the contextualization of the artwork and its authorship, and later, the research about the artistic and visual resources of the 257 items that make up the map and its guide street, in a sort of rustic hypertext of the emotions linked to the violence in the territory. The main findings of this study demonstrate the strength of the strategy used as a survival method in cases of bullying. As a conclusion, in spite of the therapeutic effects, this work cannot be understood as Art Therapy, but as combat art: it provides an understanding of the emotional city, of the disadvantaged groups that inhabit it, from the most local (as a transcript of the city of Seville) to global and universal effects on community life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0355.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Scale; youth violent extremism; Arab countries; exclusion; intolerance; rigidity; social pessimism; grievances; violence; jihad
Online: 10 April 2023 (09:43:21 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to examine the problem of violent extremism among young people. Additionally, a youth violent extremism scale (YVES) was developed that takes into account the differences between and within Arab cultures. The goal was to produce a scale that could be used and tested within an Arab country or between Arab countries. The scale was developed in three stages: generation, refinement, and validation. A literature review and nomological network were utilized to show the scale's dimensions, correlations to those dimensions, and other relevant variables (such as the LSC, LSE, and criminality scale). A sample of 6726 young students from fifteen Arab countries and the authorities involved were selected. Findings showed that six factors were obtained through principal component factor analysis using Varimax and Kaiser normalization (29 items). A significant positive association was found (r=.651, p = 0.000), supporting the scale's validity. Using Cronbach's alpha, the scale reliability was strong and assessed at 0.98. The scale's construct validity was estimated by assessing the correlation between the Youth Violent Extremism scale and low self-control. A significant positive correlation (r=.651, p = 0.000) indicates the scale's validity. Findings showed significant differences between males and females in youth violent extremism (F = 13.678, α ≤0.000). Descriptive results showed, however, that females have a slightly higher mean of violent extremism than males (M =85.2 vs. 87.6), with a close variation (26 vs. 27) for males and females, respectively. In this study, a measurement tool was provided that can be used as a knowledge base for security strategies. The scale can be applied to identify legal, social, and educational policies and applications of violent extremism. Future research is needed to test the scale on different professions like teachers, police officers, and parents. Also, a need to test the scale on different age groups, settings, and cultures. A need for atheoretical and empirical framework for understanding and preventing youth violent extremism through promoting a more cohesive and resilient youth society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0044.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: child maltreatment; administrative data; domestic violence/abuse; physical abuse; burns; neglect; emotional abuse; poverty
Online: 5 May 2022 (15:47:14 CEST)
Good child protection systems and processes require reliable and accurate data. A retrospective study of the case records of 452 children referred to a major UK children’s tertiary centre for suspected child maltreatment was undertaken to determine whether routinely collected data on a child’s journey through the child protection system, together with a study of related multidimensional factors, can be used to develop an enhanced dataset to protect children in the UK and in other countries. Child maltreatment was substantiated in 65% of referred cases, with the vast majority of referrals coming from children living in the most deprived neighbourhoods in the country. Domestic violence and abuse, and the child’s previous involvement with statutory bodies was associated with case substantiation. Physical abuse predominated, with soft tissue injuries, including dog bites, and burns. Burns were related almost exclusively to supervisory neglect. There were also cases of medical neglect. Emotional abuse was associated with exposure to domestic violence and abuse, and to self-harm. The strengths and weaknesses for single centre data systems were explored, concluding with a recommendation to establish an agreed national and international minimum data set to protect children from maltreatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1578.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Internalizing Mental Health Problems; Externalizing Mental Health Problems Adolescence; Educational setting; Violence prevention; Gender issues
Online: 22 September 2023 (13:15:23 CEST)
Background/aim: Sexual harassment has become a serious social and public health problem in adolescence, causing adverse effects on mental health. Nevertheless, some behaviours arise that, due to their characteristics, might be misinterpreted as sexual harassment. A field study, a survey with a non-probabilistic accidental sampling, was designed in order to estimate the prevalence of sexual harassment victimization in the Spanish adolescent population, as well as to quantify the harms. Method: 1028 Spanish adolescents, 54.3% females and 45.7% males, aged 13-17 years (M = 15.21, SD = 1.03), responded to a diagnostic measure of sexual harassment victimization and an inventory measure of internalizing and externalizing Mental Health Problems (MHPs). Results: The results showed a significant prevalence of diagnosed sexual harassment victimization of school-aged adolescents, 24.1%, 95% [.215, 267], with adverse effects on internalizing and externalizing MHPs. As for the internalizing MHPs, the results showed moderate adverse effects on depression, anxiety, somatic burns, posttraumatic symptoms, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms; and mild adverse effects on social anxiety. With regard to externalizing MHPs, the results revealed moderate adverse effects on hyperactivity-impulsivity, anger control and antisocial behaviour; and mild adverse effects on attention problems, aggression and defiant behaviour. In addition, it was corroborated that sexual harassment victimization affects adolescent females to a greater extent, with the effect being significantly greater in internalizing than in externalizing MHPs. Conclusions: The results obtained are discussed and future lines of research and intervention are proposed to promote the implementation of prevention and intervention programs that address this phenomenon and, in turn, improve the physical, psychological, and social well-being of adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Thai START; Forensic psychiatric inpatients; Confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data; Violence risk assessment; forensic psychology; Psychometrics
Online: 13 January 2022 (15:57:05 CET)
The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) is deemed the most appropriate instrument for assessing violence risks and management because of its balanced approach between dynamic risk and protective factors. Although several facets of reliability and predictive validity of this tool were strong, its inter-rater reliability, construct validity, and implementation in Asian population were under-investigated. The objective of this research was to examine the inter-rater reliability and construct validity of the START: Thai version within forensic psychiatric inpatients. The participants consisted of 118 forensic psychiatric inpatients hospitalized at Galya Rajanagarindra Institute in Thailand. Trained mental health professionals (i.e., psychiatrists, forensic nurses, clinical psychologists, social workers, and occupational therapists) assessed each participant across twenty domains of the Thai START. The inter-rater reliability was examined using the intraclass correlation coefficient and a confirmatory factor analysis for ordinal data was used to test the construct validity of the scale. The main finding showed a good-to-excellent inter-rater reliability and supported two relational constructs (i.e., strength vs vulnerability subscales) of the Thai START. The Thai START is a promising tool for using in Thai forensic psychiatric setting but some items were not significant in contributing to the scale. This study also provides the guideline for implementing the tool in non-Western forensic psychiatric populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0695.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Domestic violence, crimes against women, the impact of Corona on the family, male domination, women in Jordanian culture
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:59:09 CEST)
Objectives: The study aimed to uncover the percentages of battered women in Jordan, its causes, forms, and relationship to several social factors. Methodology: The study was conducted on a random, targeted sample of (1308) women based on social sample survey method and electronic questionnaire tool for data collection, the Descriptive statistical method and chi-square test were used to examine statistically significant differences. Results: The study found that the percentage of battered women reached 17.1% during Corona pandemic in 2020, and the increase in men's violence against women during this period of was in large and medium degrees according to the sample. Husbands were the most practicing violence against their wives at 37.5%, followed by fathers against daughters at 28.6%, and brothers against sisters at 26.8%. The causes of male violence are due to social factors represented by male domination culture, interference by family and relatives, and economic factors represented by the high cost of living, low household income and poverty. The most common forms of violence are verbal, physical, and psychological. The study found that women in southern Jordan, who are poorer and less educated, and who live in a large family, are the most abused. The study recommended activating family and community service and reform offices, solving problems of deteriorating economic situation and individual poverty, and enlightening community awareness of the dangers of domestic violence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0110.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Human violence recognition; video surveillance; real-time; spatial attention; spatial motion extractor; short temporal extractor; global temporal extractor; VioPeru
Online: 2 November 2023 (04:06:10 CET)
Human violence recognition is an area of great interest in the scientific community, given its broad spectrum of applications, especially in video surveillance systems, since detecting violence in real-time could prevent criminal acts and save lives. Despite the number of existing proposals and research, most focus on the precision of results, leaving aside efficiency and its practical implementation. Thus, this work proposes a model that is effective and efficient in recognizing human violence in real-time. The proposed model consists of three modules: a first module called Spatial Motion Extractor (SME), in charge of extracting regions of interest from a frame; a second module called Short Temporal Extractor (STC), whose function is to extract temporal characteristics of rapid movements, finally the Global Temporal Extractor (GET) module, responsible for identifying long-lasting temporal features and fine-tuning the model. The proposal was evaluated regarding efficiency, effectiveness, and ability to operate in real-time. The results obtained on Hockey, Movies, and RWF-2000 datasets demonstrated that this approach is highly efficient compared to other alternatives. A VioPeru dataset was created to validate real-time applicability with violent and non-violent videos captured by real video surveillance cameras in Peru. The effectiveness results in this dataset outperformed the best existing proposal. Therefore, our proposal has contributions in efficiency, effectiveness, and real-time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0874.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: bullying; enabling environment; health promoting school; occupational health and safety; safe school; teaching and learning; workplace violence; employee assistance program
Online: 13 June 2023 (04:21:13 CEST)
Despite several studies on learner-to-teacher workplace violence and harassment, the problem persists in some South African schools. Learner-to-teacher violence and harassment is a form of workplace violence and harassment as schools are workplaces for teachers. Learner-to-teacher violence and harassment is therefore an important occupational health and safety issues for teachers. The employer is obliged to provide a safe working environment for the teachers to enable quality teaching and learning in the schools. The purpose of this interpretative phenomenological study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of high school teachers who have been targets of workplace violence and harassment perpetrated by learners at selected schools in Limpopo province of South Africa. Many teachers were willing to share their lived-experiences but due to data saturation, only eleven participated after being selected through purposive sampling from seven high schools under a particular circuit. Research ethics of voluntary participation, informed consent, ethical clearance and gatekeeper permission were observed. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews using an interview guide. Interviews were audio-taped, and field notes were also taken. Voice recordings were transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis into themes and sub-themes. Findings were confirmed by an independent coder to achieve trustworthiness. Teachers experienced physical workplace violence and harassment, verbal workplace violence and harassment as well as nonverbal workplace violence and harassment from learners. Learner-to-teacher workplace violence and harassment affects teachers emotionally and in turn affects quality teaching and learning in the schools. Some teachers propose involvement of community policing forum, strengthening of School Governing Bodies as well as reducing overcrowding in the classroom as possible solutions to deal with learner-to-teacher bullying.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0689.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Other Keywords: Japanese-American Internment Camps; Gaman bunka or culture of resignation; Art and violence; sustainability in hostile environments; redress to victims
Online: 21 April 2023 (08:32:43 CEST)
In this article, we have tried to answer the questions of how an entire city's fiction was created for the development of Japanese American internment camps and in which way contributions of sustainable crafts and even art could have interceded. To this aim, we have searched the literature and reviewed archives, primarily from the American West Coast. We have found that beyond adaptation to the circumstances, the visual representation of the city's settlement, founding, and daily activities, instead of typical panoptic or somber prisons’ imagery, are depicted in the selected images and that their use precisely fostered its sustainability. This leads us to deduce that a "city fiction" was necessary for such survival and endurance and that its artistic representation was primarily involved in the state's ideological apparatus. On the other hand, fissures subtly seethed the violence exerted in the camps by stealth and in a hidden fashion. We have concluded that artistic activity justified the city's fiction, together with other examples, highlighting the conditions of systemic violence and oppression for the inmates. In this framework, the artworks generated constitute a historical document of sustainability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: domestic violence during lockdown; healthcare denial; poor adherence to self-quarantine; natural Disasters amid Covid-19; repatriation of migrant workers; supply chain crisis
Online: 15 May 2020 (18:09:10 CEST)
COVID-19 has affected 212 countries around the world, killing nearly 300,000 and infecting more than 4.4 million by May 14, 2020. Bangladesh, a South Asian low-middle-income economy, has experienced a demographic and epidemiological transition with rapid urbanization and a gradual increase in life expectancy. It is the seventh most populous country in the world and population of the country is expected to be nearly double by 2050. The increasing burden of communicable diseases in Bangladesh can be attributable to rapid urbanization and nearly 50% of all slum dwellers of the country live in Dhaka division. In 2017, National Rapid Response Team of IEDCR investigated 26 incidents of disease outbreak. The joint survey of the Power and Participation Research Centre and BRAC Institute of Governance and Development reveals that per capita daily income of urban slum and rural poor drops by 80% due to present countrywide shutdown enforced by the government to halt the spread of Covid-19. 40%-50% of these population took loans to meet the daily expenses. However, the country has just 127,000 hospital beds, 91,000 of them in government-run hospitals. Researchers say, the country’s economy is economy is losing BDT 33 billion every day from its service and agriculture sectors during the nationwide shutdown.
REVIEW | doi:10.3390/sci2030068
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; pooling clinical trials; hyperinfection; steroids; treatment; targeted healthcare; population health management; cancer treatment; clinical research; clinical trials; developing vaccines; ranking and rating hospital quality; school closures; interventions for delirium; assessments of COVID-19 death inequities; regulatory safeguards; preventing child abuse and maltreatment; prevalence of health care worker burnout; nursing home ratings; challenging oncology practice; addressing racial; ethnic; social and economic divides; violence against sexual minority adolescents; primary tumors; metastasis; stages of cancer; reforming cancer clinical trials; supporting carers; protection and prevention; benign and malignant tumors; reforming cancer clinical trials; protection of healthcare personnel; comparing excess deaths in NYC; 1918 influenza pandemic; the possibility of full recovery from COVID-19; mental health impact of COVID-19 on young adults; ranking and rating nursing home quali
Online: 21 August 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the COVID-19 disease has wreaked havoc on the world community in terms of every imaginable parameter. The research output on COVID-19 has been nothing short of phenomenal, especially in the medical and biomedical sciences, where the search for a potential vaccine is being conducted in earnest. Much of the advanced research has been distributed in the leading medical journals, including the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), where the latest research is distributed on a daily basis. The purpose of this paper is to provide some perspectives on 44 interesting and highly topical research papers that have been published in JAMA, at the time of writing, within the past two weeks. The diverse topics include public health, general medicine, internal medicine, oncology, paediatrics, geriatrics, and biostatistics.