ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0290.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: permanent magnet synchronous motor; sideband harmonic component; space vector pulse-width modulation; carrier frequency modulation; vibro-acoustic responses.
Online: 13 July 2021 (10:45:49 CEST)
In the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive system, the unwilling and ear-piercing vibro-acoustics caused by high-frequency sideband harmonics becomes unacceptable in the electric vehicle application. In this paper, a modified space vector pulse-width modulation (SVPWM) technique implemented with hybrid carrier frequency modulation (HCFM) is provided to reduce the sideband current harmonic components and vibro-acoustic responses. The principle and implementation of the proposed HCFM technique are firstly presented, in which the fixed carrier frequency is improved with the sawtooth and random signal-based coupling modulation based on the rotor position. For verification, the experiment tests are carried out on a prototype 12/10 PMSM and microcontroller unit. The effectiveness of the HCFM technique can hence be confirmed, in which the sideband vibro-acoustics reduction shows more effectively than that in conventional random PWM. The proposed approach may provide a new route in noise-cancelling and electromagnetic compatibility for the electric drive powertrain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0643.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: flexible rotating machinery; balancing method; speed-variant; acoustic feedback
Online: 23 April 2021 (13:18:55 CEST)
As rotary machines have become more complicated, balancing processes have been classified as a vital step in condition monitoring to ensure machines operate both reliably and safely. This is especially important for flexible machines which normally work at rotations speeds above critical limits. Imbalance is a common problem in flexible rotating machinery that can lead to extreme vibration and noise levels. This is one of the major reasons for studying various balancing methods applied to the vibration response of rotating machines. Recently, the relation between acoustic and vibration response during a rotary machine balancing process based on the Four-Run method has been presented for constant speed machines. This method cannot be applied to machines in start-up or shut-off. Hence, by considering the acoustic and vibration responses of a machine between its critical speeds, this research presents a new innovative speed-variant balancing method based on the original Four-Run method, named as "Peak to Peak for Critical Speeds (PPCS)". The proposed method consists of two major types of application: the first is in the Run-up of the machine and the second is in Shut-down. Experimental laboratory results show that the PPCS method can be implemented for speed-variant and flexible rotary machines during run-up or shut-down transient processes based on acoustic and vibration measurements. As a phase-less and a contactless method, the PPCS can be employed as an innovative and readily available method for condition monitoring in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: EEG; music therapy; acoustic features; machine learning; emotional-response predictions
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:12:19 CEST)
Music has the ability to evoke a wide variety of emotions in human listeners. Research has shown that treatment for depression and mental health disorders is significantly more effective when it is complemented by music therapy. However, because each human experiences music-induced emotions differently, there is no systematic way to accurately predict how people will respond to different types of music at an individual level. In this experiment, a model is created to predict humans’ emotional responses to music from both their electroencephalographic data (EEG) and the acoustic features of the music. By using recursive feature elimination (RFE) to extract the most relevant and performing features from the EEG and music, a regression model is fit and accurately correlates the patient’s actual music-induced emotional responses and model’s predicted responses. By reaching a mean correlation of r = 0.788, this model is significantly more accurate than previous works attempting to predict music-induced emotions (e.g. a 370% increase in accuracy as compared to Daly et al. (2015)). The results of this regression fit suggest that accurately predicting how people respond to music from brain activity is possible. Furthermore, by testing this model on specific features extracted from any musical clip, music that is most likely to evoke a happier and pleasant emotional state in an individual can be determined. This may allow music therapy practitioners, as well as music-listeners more broadly, to select music that will improve mood and mental health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0521.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: acoustic metamaterials; Sound attenuation; Air ventilation; Acoustic resonance
Online: 27 July 2020 (11:51:22 CEST)
In the past two decades, acoustic metamaterials have garnered much attention owing to their unique functional characteristics, which is difficult to be found in naturally available materials. The acoustic metamaterials have demonstrated to exhibit excellent acoustical characteristics that paved a new pathway for researchers to develop effective solutions for a wide variety of multifunctional applications such as low-frequency sound attenuation, sound wave manipulation, energy harvesting, acoustic focusing, acoustic cloaking, biomedical acoustics, and topological acoustics. This review provides an update on the acoustic metamaterials' recent progress for simultaneous sound attenuation and air ventilation performances. Several variants of acoustic metamaterials, such as locally resonant structures, space-coiling, holey and labyrinthine metamaterials, and Fano resonant materials, are discussed briefly. Finally, the current challenges and future outlook in this emerging field is discussed as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0309.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: Acoustic design; Reverberation time; Clarity; Lateral fraction; Acoustic measurements; Classical concert hall
Online: 22 May 2018 (13:49:31 CEST)
This study aims at an acoustic design of the classical concert hall and evaluation of the acoustic performance. In terms of three acoustic parameters (i.e., reverberation time (RT), clarity (C80), and lateral fraction (LF)), this study performed acoustic simulation modeling and site measurement with the K Art Hall located in South Korea as a case study. First, in order to meet the acoustic performance of the K Art Hall (target RT: 1.4~1.7 seconds, target C80: -2dB or more +2dB or less, and target LF: 10~35%), the finish materials and shape of the room as an interior acoustic design were determined. Second, the average values of the RT, C80, and LF using the acoustic simulation modeling were estimated at 1.4 second, 1.2~1.6 dB, and 29%, respectively. Third, the average values of the RT, C80, and LF through site measuring were measured at 1.5~1.64 second, 0.07~1.31dB, and 22.22~31.37%, respectively. Thus, the results of both the acoustic simulation modeling and site measuring were analyzed so as to satisfy the target acoustic performance. The results of this study will help the decision-makers (i.e., owner, construction managers, etc.) to plan the classical concert hall in terms of the RT, C80, and LF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0347.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Nodules detection, neuromorphic touch, polymeric phantom, sensory augmentation, tactile telepresence, teleoperation, tele-palpation, vibro-tactile stimulation
Online: 28 December 2018 (12:31:26 CET)
The advancements in the study of the human sense of touch are fueling the field of haptics. This is paving the way for augmenting the sensory perception during objects palpation in tele-surgery, and reproducing the information through tactile feedback. Here, we present a novel tele-palpation apparatus that enables the user to detect nodules with various distinct stiffness buried in an ad-hoc polymeric phantom. The contact force measured by the platform was encoded using a neuromorphic model and reproduced on the index fingertip of a remote user through a haptic glove embedding a piezoelectric disk. We assessed the effectiveness of this feedback in allowing nodule identification under two experimental conditions of real-time telepresence: In Line of Sight (ILS), where the platform was placed in the visible range of a user; and the more demanding Not In Line of Sight (NILS), with the platform being 50 km apart. We found that the entailed percentage of identification was higher for stiffer inclusions with respect to the softer ones (average of 74% within the duration of the task), in both telepresence conditions evaluated. These promising results call for further exploration of tactile augmentation technology for telepresence in medical interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0176.v1
Online: 15 November 2019 (08:42:23 CET)
Infant cry is evolutionarily, psychologically, and clinically significant. During the last 60 years, several researchers and clinicians assessed the possibility of investigating the acoustical properties of cry for medical purposes. However, there is a lack of standardization in conducting and reporting cry-based studies. In this work, methodologies and procedures employed in infant cry analysis are reviewed, and best practices for reporting studies are provided. First, available literature on vocal and audio acoustic analysis have been examined to identify critical aspects of participant information, data collection, methods, and data analysis. Then, 180 peer-reviewed research articles have been assessed to certify the presence of identified critical information. Results show a general lack of critical description. Researchers in the field of infant cry need to agree on a standard set of criteria to report experimental studies, to better demonstrate the validity of the methods and obtained results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0014.v4
Online: 29 December 2021 (12:39:03 CET)
The distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) has great potential for monitoring natural-resource reservoirs and borehole conditions. However, the large volume of data and complicated wavefield add challenges to processing and interpretation. In this study, we demonstrate that seismic interferometry based on deconvolution is a convenient tool for analyzing this complicated wavefield. We extract coherent wave from the observation of a borehole DAS system at the Brady geothermal field in Nevada. Then, we analyze the coherent reverberating waves, which are used for monitoring temporal changes of the system. These reverberations are tirelessly observed in the vertical borehole DAS data due to cable or casing ringing. The deconvolution method allows us to examine the wavefield at different boundary conditions. We interpret the deconvolved wavefields using a simple 1D string model. The velocity of this wave varies with depth, observation time, temperature, and pressure. We find the velocity is sensitive to disturbances in the borehole related to increasing operation intensity. The velocity decreases with rising temperature, which potentially suggests that the DAS cable or the casing are subjected to high temperature. This reverberation can be decomposed into distinct vibration modes in the spectrum. We find that the wave is dispersive, and the the fundamental mode propagate with a large velocity. The method can be useful for monitoring borehole conditions or reservoir property changes. For the later, we need better coupling than through only friction in the vertical borehole to obtain coherent energy from the formation.
Online: 25 April 2019 (15:09:38 CEST)
The subject of the research is to Development of laser ablation method for Fabrication of surface acoustic wave sensors on quartz wafer, the target of the GQW – is to design Acoustic wave sensor by using laser ablation method. By using the surface acoustic wave theory to sense by the signal and using this physical phenomenon, We will design the sensor which transduce an input electrical signal into a mechanical wave which unlike an electrical signal, can be easily influenced by physical phenomena. The device then transducers this wave back into an electrical signal on the secondary terminal of the sensor. Changes in amplitude, phase, frequency, or time-delay between the input and output electrical signals can be used to measure the presence of the desired Our work in this part, especially the practical part like temperature, vibration ,etc. we design a combs on the waver of quartz to make like an electrode primary electrode & secondary electrode by putting coats of cuppers & vanadium on the waver and then using the fiber optic laser regime to design this combs to can able transfer the signal by ablation the most important here to use the regime of fiber optic laser then we using this sensor in any electronic circuit How we will select the suitable kind of laser to design, this is the most important part, and what it will be the diameter of that combs of secondary and primary , how much the value of the wave length to select the micro distant combs to avoid any inductance and interference for transferred signal , also take the benefit of using MEMS theory in our project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0153.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: microwave filters; vibration sensitivity; acoustic noise
Online: 26 February 2018 (07:56:14 CET)
A novel characterization method for discrete saw filters vibrational sensitivity is presented. The proposed approach allows the characterization of filters under vibrations and the extraction of a behavioural model. Filters are assumed to be transducers so that external induced vibrational energy is partially transformed in a undesired simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation of the input RF signal. When the filter is mechanically excited with vibrations, it introduces spurious amplitude and phase modulation to the input signal that can potentially affect the link quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0297.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Acoustic black hole; vibration control; energy propagation
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:23:03 CEST)
The plate embedded with acoustic black hole (ABH) indentations is potential for structural vibration and noise control. This work focuses on the mid- and low-frequency performance of plates embedded with the array of ABH for energy focalization and vibration & noise suppression. Plates embedded with two-dimensional ABHs are modelled with detailed Finite Element (FE) models, and the power flow method is introduced to analyze the energy propagation characteristics arising from ABH effect. Then the distribution of average vibration power density along ABH radius is studied. Next, the energy dissipation effects of the plate model embedded with ABH array with two types of damping layers are investigated. Finally, the sound pressure levels of the ABH structure are calculated and discussed. This work is helpful to understand the characteristics of plates embedded with ABH array in reducing vibration and noise radiation. Results show the tremendous potential of ABH array for vibration and noise control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0413.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: infant cry; post-partum depression; acoustic analysis
Online: 31 December 2019 (15:55:20 CET)
Postpartum depression (PPD), a condition that affects up to the 15% of mothers in high-income countries, reduces attention toward the needs of the child and it is among the first causes of infanticide. PPD is usually identified using self-report measures and therefore the diagnosis may not always be valid. Previous studies highlighted the presence of significant differences in the acoustical properties of the vocalizations of children of depressed and healthy mothers. In this study, cry episodes of infants of depressed and non-depressed mothers are analyzed to investigate the possibility that a machine learning model can identify PPD in mothers from the acoustical properties of infants' vocalizations. Acoustic features (F0, F1-4, Intensity) are first extracted from recordings of crying infants, then novel cloud-based artificial intelligence models are employed to identify maternal depression versus non depression from estimated features. Trained model shows that commonly adopted acoustical features can be successfully used to individuate Post-Partum Depressed mothers with very high accuracy (89.5%).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0392.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: underwater acoustic communication; parametric technique; self-demodulation
Online: 28 May 2018 (09:42:15 CEST)
This paper presents a study of different types of parametric signals with application to underwater acoustic communications. In all the signals, the carrier frequency is 200 kHz, which corresponds to the resonance frequency of the transducer under study and different modulations are presented and compared. In this sense, we study modulations with parametric sine sweeps (4 to 40 kHz) that represent binary codes (zeros and ones), getting closer to the application in acoustic communications. The different properties of the transmitting signals in terms of bit rate, directivity, efficiency and power needed are discussed as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0086.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: surface acoustic wave; acoustofluidics; microfluidics; interdigitated transducers
Online: 22 November 2016 (09:41:32 CET)
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) is effective for the manipulation of fluids and particles in microscale. The current approach of integrating interdigitated transducers (IDTs) for SAW generation into microfluidic channels involves complex and laborious microfabrication steps. These steps often require the full access to clean room facilities and hours to align the transducers to the precise location. This work presents an affordable and innovative method for fabricating SAW-based microfluidic devices without the need of clean room facilities and alignment. The IDTs and microfluidic channels are fabricated in the same process and thus precisely self-aligned in accordance with the device design. With the use of the developed fabrication approach, a few types of different SAW-based microfluidic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated for particle separation and active droplet generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0046.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Information entropy; Correlation dimension; Acoustic emission; Rock instability
Online: 5 May 2022 (15:59:42 CEST)
The issue of monitoring and early warning of rock instability has received increasing critical attention in the study of rock engineering. To investigate the damage evolution process of granite under triaxial compression tests, acoustic emission (AE) tests were performed simultaneously. This study firstly introduced two novel parameters, i.e., the coefficient of variation (CoV) of the information entropy and correlation dimension of the amplitude data from the AE tests, to identify the precursor of the failure of granite. Then the relationship between the changes in these parameters and the stress-time curve was compared and analyzed. The results of this study show that: (1) There is a strong correlation between the CoV of the information entropy and the failure process of granite. The granite failed when the CoV curve raised to a plateau. (2) The fluctuation of the correlation dimension indicates the different stages of the loading process, i.e., the initial compaction stage, the linear elastic stage, the yield stage, and the failure stage. Each stage contains a descending and a rising process in the correlation dimension curve, which indicates that this parameter could be used to identify the precursor of the failure as well. (3) The combined analysis of the two can improve the accuracy of rock instability prediction. This study provides new insights into the prediction of rock instability, which has theoretical implications for the stability of subsurface engineering rock masses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0442.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: auditory; deafness; acoustic trauma; hair cells; antioxidant; otoprotection
Online: 17 November 2020 (09:40:53 CET)
Noise induces oxidative stress in the cochlea followed by sensory cell death and hearing loss. The proof of principle that injections of antioxidant vitamins and Mg2+ prevent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been established. However, effectiveness of oral administration remains controversial and otoprotection mechanisms unclear. Using auditory evoked potentials, quantitative PCR and immunocytochemistry, we explored effects of oral administration of vitamins A, C, E and Mg2+ (ACEMg) on auditory function and sensory cell survival following NIHL in rats. Oral ACEMg reduced auditory thresholds shifts after NIHL. Improved auditory function correlated with increased survival of sensory outer hair cells. In parallel, oral ACEMg modulated the expression timeline of antioxidant enzymes in the cochlea after NIHL. There was increased expression of Glutathione peroxidase-1 and Catalase at 1 and 10 days, respectively. Also, pro-apoptotic Caspase-3 and Bax levels were diminished in ACEMg-treated rats, at 10 and 30 days, respectively, following noise overstimulation, whereas, at day 10 after noise exposure, the levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, were significantly increased. Therefore, oral ACEMg improves auditory function by limiting sensory hair cell death in the auditory receptor following NIHL. Regulation of the expression of antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis-related proteins in cochlear structures is involved in such otoprotective mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Acoustic emissions, fracture process, failure prediction, q-statistics
Online: 9 January 2019 (16:35:10 CET)
In this paper we present experimental results concerning Acoustic Emission (AE) recorded during cyclic compression tests on two different kinds of brittle building materials, namely concrete and basalt. The AE inter-event times were investigated through a non-extensive statistical mechanics analysis which shows that their decumulative probability distributions follow q-exponential laws. The entropic index q and the relaxation parameter q 1=Tq, obtained by fitting the experimental data, exhibit systematic changes during the various stages of the failure process, namely (q; Tq) linearly align. The Tq = 0 point corresponds to the macroscopic breakdown of the material. The slope, including its sign, of the linear alignment appears to depend on the chemical and mechanical properties of the sample. These results provide an insight on the warning signs of the incipient failure of building materials and could therefore be used in monitoring the health of existing structures such as buildings and bridges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0584.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: salt rock; creep; damage; fractional derivative; acoustic emission
Online: 30 July 2018 (11:15:31 CEST)
The use of salt rock for underground radioactive waste disposal facilities requires a comprehensive analysis of creep-damage process in salt rock. A computer-controlled creep setup is employed to carry out a creep test of salt rock lasted as long as 359 days under a constant uniaxial stress. The AE space-time evolution and energy releasing characteristics during creep test are studied in the meantime. A new creep-damage model is proposed on the basis of fractional derivative by combining the AE statistical regularity. It indicates that the AE data in non-decay creep process of salt rock can be divided into three stages. Furthermore, the parameters of new creep-damage model are determined by Quasi-Newton method. The fitting analysis suggests that the creep-damage model based on fractional derivative in this paper provides a precise description of full creep regions in salt rock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0055.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: microphone array; wave field synthesis; acoustic holography; sampler; synthesizer
Online: 7 January 2020 (10:27:54 CET)
To date electric pianos and samplers tend to concentrate on authenticity in terms of temporal and spectral aspects of sound. They barely recreate the original sound radiation characteristics, contribute to the perception of width and depth, vividness and voice separation, especially for instrumentalists, who are located in the near field. This paper describes an operational procedure to measure, store, and synthesize the complete sound of a harpsichord, including its spatial sound radiation characteristics. First, actuators excite the instrument at the intersection point of each string with the bridge with an exponential sine-sweep. Then, the radiated sound field is recorded in the near and the far field with microphone arrays. The pressure distribution in the near field is propagated back to the soundboard of the instrument, using Minimum Energy Method. The vibration of each single string is captured with lightweight contact microphones. The soundboard is then replaced by an array of 128 loudspeakers. The loudspeaker signal is a convolution of the back-propagated sweep recording with the string recording to perform a wave field synthesis. Above the spatial Nyquist frequency, the Radiation Method is applied to perform a sound field synthesis which is valid for the listening region of the instrumentalist. The result is an electric harpsichord, that approximates the sound of a real harpsichord precisely in time, frequency, and space domain. Applications for such a radiation keyboard are music performance, instrument and synthesizer building and interactive psychoacoustic research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0131.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: carbon steel; pitting corrosion; acoustic emission; wavelets; pattern recognition
Online: 6 November 2018 (08:06:19 CET)
The acoustic emission (AE) technique was applied to monitor the pitting corrosion of carbon steel in NaHCO3 + NaCl solutions. The open circuit potential (OCP) measurement and the corrosion morphology in-situ capturing using optical microscope were conducted during AE monitoring. The corrosion micromorphology was characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The propagation behavior and AE features of natural pitting on carbon steel were investigated. After the performing of signal processing including pre-treatment, shape preserving interpolation and denoising for raw AE waveforms, three types of AE signals can be classified in the correlation diagrams of new waveform parameters. Finally, a 2D pattern recognition method was established to calculate the similarity of different continuous AE graphics, which is quite effective to distinguish the localized corrosion from uniform corrosion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0757.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: Acoustic emission, ceramic matrix composites, matrix cracking, fiber breakage
Online: 1 November 2018 (17:58:48 CET)
Acoustic emission (AE) has proven to be a very useful technique for determining damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). CMCs rely on various cracking mechanisms which enable non-linear stress-strain behavior with ultimate failure of the composite due to fiber failure. Since these damage mechanisms are all micro-fracture mechanisms, they emit stress waves ideal for AE monitoring. These are typically plate waves since for most specimens or applications one dimension is significantly smaller than the wavelength of the sound waves emitted. By utilizing the information of the sound waveforms captured on multiple channels from individual events, the location and identity of the sources can often be elucidated. The keys to the technique are the use of wide-band frequency sensors, digitization of the waveforms (modal AE), strategic placement of sensors to sort the data and acquire important contents of the waveforms pertinent for identification, and familiarity with the material as to the damage mechanisms occurring at prescribed points of the stress history. The AE information informs the damage progression in a unique way which adds to the understanding of the process of failure for these composites. The AE methodology was applied to composites tested in fatigue at different frequencies where identification of when and where AE occurred coupled with waveform analysis leads to source identification and failure progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0297.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: acoustic emission; sensor; transducer; gate turn-off thyristor; power electronics
Online: 7 June 2022 (08:49:51 CEST)
The article presents the results of tests related to failure analysis and finding ways to diagnose used semiconductor elements, among other, in power electronics converter systems on vessels and offshore facilities (drilling and production rigs, wind turbines). Diagnostic relationships were found between the temperature change in the above systems and the signals generated in form of elastic waves of acoustic emission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0013.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: sea water; bubbles; plankton; sound scattering; sound attenuation; acoustic spectroscopy
Online: 4 May 2022 (14:16:08 CEST)
The presence of bubbles near the sea surface under certain conditions leads to abnormal sound scattering and a significant change in the acoustic properties of the upper layer of the sea. The article presents some results of sound scattering studies under various sea conditions, up to stormy conditions, when extensive bubble clouds arise. By the method of unsteady acoustic spectroscopy, data on the size distribution of bubbles at various depths have been obtained, which can be described by a power function with exponential decay at small bubble sizes of the order of 10 microns. Estimates of the gas content in bubble clouds and their influence on the acoustic characteristics of the upper layer of the sea have been carried out. It is shown that at sufficiently high concentrations, sharp increases in absorption and dispersion of the sound velocity are observed. Modeling of sound propagation in the presence of a quasi-homogeneous bubble layer shows that it leads both to a change in the laws of the average decay of the sound field along the sound propagation path and to a change in the shallow spatial structure of the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0052.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: acoustic emission; long-range correlations; natural time analysis; heterogeneous materials
Online: 3 December 2021 (11:37:56 CET)
This work focuses on analyzing acoustic emission (AE) signals as a means to predict failure in structures. Two main approaches are considered: (i) long-range correlation analysis using both the Hurst (H) and the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) exponents, and (ii) natural time domain (NT) analysis. These methodologies are applied to the data collected from two application examples: a glass fiber reinforced polymeric plate and a spaghetti bridge model, where both structures were subjected to increasing loads until collapse. A traditional (AE) signal analysis is also performed to reference the study of the other methods. Results indicate that the proposed methods yield a reliable indication of failure in the studied structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0569.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: centrifugal fan; unsteady flow; vibroacoustics; fluid-structure-acoustic coupling; optimization
Online: 24 October 2018 (11:14:57 CEST)
Concerning fan systems with an air pipe connecting air intake and a closed outlet, aerodynamic noise cannot be directly transmitted from the fan inlet and outlet to the outside. At this moment, the volute vibrational radiation noise induced casing surface vibration is the major noise component. The main factors affecting the fan vibrational noise are analyzed through theoretical derivation, then a vibrational noise optimization control method for the volute casing is proposed that considered the influence of vibro-acoustic coupling, taking the panel thickness of the volute (front-panel thickness [FT], side-panel thickness [ST], and back-panel thickness [BT]) as design variables, and the acoustical power of the volute surface and the total mass of the volute as the optimal target function. The optimization method is mainly divided into three main parts: the first was based on the simulation of unsteady flow of the fan to obtain the vibrational noise source; the second, using the design of experimental (DOE) method and the proposed numerical simulation of fluid-structure-acoustic coupling method to obtain the designing space, then the radical-based function (RBF) method is used to construct the approximate surrogate model instead of the simulation model previously mentioned, which was used to provide the basic mathematical model for the optimization of the next part; the third part, implementing the low vibrational noise optimization for the fan volute, applied the single-target (taking volute radiated acoustical power as the target function) and the multi-target (taking the volute radiated acoustical power and volute total mass as the target function) methods. In addition, the fan aerodynamic performance, volute casing surface fluctuations, and vibration response were validated by experiments, showing good agreement. It is of utmost importance that the dynamic pressure measurements and vibrational tests on the volute casing verify the accuracy of the numerical calculation. The optimization results showed that the vibrational noise optimization method proposed in this study can effectively reduce the vibration noise of the fan, obtaining a maximum value of noise reduction of 7.3 dB. The optimization identified in this paper provides a significant reference for the design of a low-vibrational-noise volute.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0570.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: acoustic source localization; microphone arrays; deep learning; convolutional neural networks
Online: 30 July 2018 (09:37:37 CEST)
This paper presents a novel approach for indoor acoustic source localization using microphone arrays and based on a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The proposed solution is, to the best of our knowledge, the first published work in which the CNN is designed to directly estimate the three dimensional position of an acoustic source, using the raw audio signal as the input information avoiding the use of hand crafted audio features. Given the limited amount of available localization data, we propose in this paper a training strategy based on two steps. We first train our network using semi-synthetic data, generated from close talk speech recordings, and where we simulate the time delays and distortion suffered in the signal that propagates from the source to the array of microphones. We then fine tune this network using a small amount of real data. Our experimental results show that this strategy is able to produce networks that significantly improve existing localization methods based on SRP-PHAT strategies. In addition, our experiments show that our CNN method exhibits better resistance against varying gender of the speaker and different window sizes compared with the other methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0096.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Presence detection; passive localization; room impulse response; acoustic localization; indoor localization
Online: 3 June 2021 (09:57:13 CEST)
We discuss two methods to detect the presence and location of a person in a small-scale room and compare the performances. The first method is Direct Intersection, which determines a coordinate point based on the intersection of spheroids defined by observed distances of high-intensity reverberations. The second method, Sonogram analysis, overlays all channel’s room impulse responses to generate an intensity map for the observed environment. We demonstrate that the former method has lower computation complexity and higher accuracy for small numbers of channels, while the latter performs more robustly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0434.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: acoustic levitation; ultrasonic phased array; droplet; coalescence; lab-on-a-drop
Online: 28 February 2020 (13:02:22 CET)
The contactless coalescence of a droplet is of paramount importance for physical and industrial applications. This paper describes a coalescence method in mid-air via acoustic levitation using an ultrasonic phased array system. Acoustic levitation using ultrasonic phased arrays provides promising lab-on-a-drop applications, such as transportation, coalescence, mixing, separation, evaporation, and extraction in a continuous operation. The mechanism of droplet coalescence in mid-air may be better understood by experimentally and numerically exploring the droplet dynamics immediately before the coalescence. In this study, water droplets were experimentally levitated, transported, and coalesced by controlling acoustic fields. We observed that the edge of droplets deformed and attracted each other immediately before the coalescence. Through image processing, the radii of curvature of the droplets were quantified and the pressure difference between the inside and outside the droplet was simulated to obtain the pressure and velocity information on the droplet surface. The results revealed that the sound pressure acting on the droplet clearly decreased before the impact of the droplets. This pressure on the droplets was quantitatively analyzed from the experimental data. Our experimental and numerical results provide deeper physical insights into contactless droplet manipulation for futuristic lab-on-a-drop applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0437.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Fatigue; Delamination; Acoustic Emission; Failure Mechanisms; Composite Materials; Nanofibers, Marine Applications.
Online: 14 December 2018 (10:12:52 CET)
The use of high strength to weight ratio laminated composites is emerging in marine industry and applications as a very efficient solution for improving productivity. Nevertheless, delamination between the layers is a limiting factor for the wider application of laminated composites, as it reduces the stiffness and strengths of the structure. Interleaving nanofibrous mats between layers of composite laminates has been proved to be an effective method for improving composites delamination resistance. This paper aims to characterize the effect of interleaved nanofiber on mode I interlaminar properties and failure mechanisms when subjected to static and fatigue loadings. For this purpose, virgin and nanomodified woven laminates were subjected to Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimens. Static and fatigue tests were performed and the tests were monitored by acoustic emission technique. The mechanical results showed a 130% increase of delamination toughness for nanomodified specimens in the static loadings and more crack growth resistance in the fatigue loading. The AE results revealed that different type of failure mechanisms was the cause of these improvements for the modified specimens compared with the virgin ones.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0296.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: room-temperature superconductivity; graphene; alkane-wetting; fermi surface nesting; acoustic phonon
Online: 17 August 2018 (02:53:00 CEST)
Recently Kawashima has reported that, when wetted with alkanes, several forms of graphite and single-layer graphene exhibit superconductor-like properties above room temperature under ambient pressure [AIP Adv. 2013, 3, 052132; arXiv:1612.05294; arXiv:1801.09376]. Under the assumption that these seemingly unlikely properties arise from the presence of paired electrons brought about by the alkane-wetting, we explored their implications to arrive at a probable mechanism for strong electron-pairing driven by Fermi surface nesting and acoustic phonon. This mechanism explains why alkane-wetting is essential for the graphene systems to become “superconductor-like” above room temperature and why the “Tc” of alkane-wetted pitch-based graphite fibers increases almost linearly from ~363 to ~504 K with increasing the molecular weight of alkane from heptane to hexadecane. It also provides a number of experimentally-verifiable predictions, the confirmation of which will provide a strong support for the superconductivity driven by Fermi surface nesting and acoustic phonon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0391.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: acoustic communication; energy consumption; smart routing protocols; UWSN MAC; underwater mobility
Online: 28 May 2018 (09:02:31 CEST)
Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSN) have recently been proposed as a way to monitor and explore the water depths' environments. Efficiently delivering the data is still a challenging problem in these networks because of the weaknesses in the acoustic transmission. To tackle such a problem, we propose a novel algorithm provides controlling mechanisms for critical long-term data forwarding underwater sensor networks, called Hop by Hop Power-Efficient Routing Protocol (Hn-PERP). The proposed Hn-PERP is a centralized full-control model that enhances the network's throughput and energy efficiency by a set of solutions depend on power monitoring in UWSN nodes. In particular, the model provides a guaranteed mechanism for scheduling and processing data transmission based on number of nodes, hops between the nodes, energy level and congestion within each node to minimize energy levels or power consumption by avoiding disconnected probability for any node, which in turn maximizing the network lifetime. Simulation results show that our proposed model is consistent with energy level and congestion, and is more accurate for enabling routing and data transmission. Therefore, the data packet delivery ratio and overall throughput also achieves robust scenarios of very sparse or/and weak networks, to keep on Performance stability in UWSN via adjusting hop-by-hop delay and energy consumption during packages delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: acoustic emission; crack initiation; small crack growth; structural integrity; bayesian estimation
Online: 16 February 2017 (09:43:59 CET)
One of the major concerns in structural health management (SHM) is the early detection of a growing crack. Using this, future damage due to crack propagation can be mitigated or eliminated by implementing proper repair and maintenance. Acoustic Emission (AE) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method with potential applications for locating and monitoring fatigue cracks. The research presented in this paper focuses on SHM using AE. A novel AE signal analysis approach was proposed in order to detect crack initiation and assess small crack lengths. Experimental investigation indicated that initiation of a crack could be identified through the statistical analysis of the resulting features of the AE signals. A probabilistic AE-based model for small fatigue crack sizing was developed and the uncertainties of the model were estimated. In addition, a probabilistic model validation approach was implemented to confirm accurate estimation of the results. The outcome of this research can be used to evaluate the integrity of structures under fatigue loading. The proposed approach can also be applied as an approach to manage health and assess prognosis of structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0455.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Shock waves; Acoustic cavitation; Gene expression; Aspergillus niger; Cell permeabilization; Fungal germination
Online: 26 August 2022 (09:34:23 CEST)
Shock waves, as used in medicine, can induce cell permeabilization, genetically transforming filamentous fungi; however, little is known on the interaction of shock waves with the cell wall. Because of this, the selection of parameters has been empirical. We studied the influence of shock waves on the germination of Aspergillus niger, to understand their effect on the modulation of four genes related to the growth of conidia. Parameters were varied in the range reported in protocols for genetic transformation. Vials containing conidia in suspension were exposed to either 50, 100 or 200 single-pulse or tandem shock waves, with different peak pressures (approximately 42, 66 and 83 MPa). In the tandem mode, three delays were tested. To equalize the total energy, the number of tandem “events” was halved compared to the number of single-pulse shock waves. Our results demonstrate that shock waves do not generate severe cellular effects on the viability and germination of A. niger conidia. Nevertheless, increase in the aggressiveness of the treatment induced a modification in the four genes tested. Scanning electron microscopy revealed significant changes to the cell wall of the conidia. Under optimized conditions, shock waves could be used for several biotechnological applications, surpassing conventional techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0487.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Lab-On-Chip; Acoustic Microfluidics; Spheroid-On-Chip; Necrotic and hypoxic zones
Online: 18 June 2021 (15:25:21 CEST)
Microfluidic lab-on-chip devices are widely being developed for chemical and biological studies. One of the most commonly used types of these chips is perfusion microwells for culturing multicellular spheroids. The main challenge in such systems is the formation of substantial necrotic and hypoxic zones within the cultured spheroids. Herein, we propose a novel acoustofluidic integrated platform to tackle this bottleneck problem. We show that such an approach enhances cell viability and shrinks necrotic and hypoxic zones in these spheroid-on-a-chip platforms without the need to increase the flow rate, leading to a significant reduction in costly reagents' consumption. Proof-of-concept, designing procedures, and finite element numerical simulation are discussed in details. Also, the effects of acoustic and hydrodynamic parameters on the cultured cells are investigated. The results show that by increasing acoustic boundary displacement amplitude (d0), the spheroid’s proliferating zone enlarges greatly. Moreover, it is shown that by implementing d0=0.5 nm, the required flow rate to maintain the necrotic zone below 13% will be decreased 12 times compared to non-acoustic chips.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0096.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: metamaterials; aviation noise; aeroacoustics; noise absorption; noise reflection; noise trapping; acoustic cloaking
Online: 4 May 2018 (15:05:21 CEST)
Metamaterials, man-made composites scaled smaller than the wavelength, have demonstrated a huge potential in their applications in acoustics, opening up for sub--wavelength acoustic absorbers, acoustic invisibility, perfect acoustic mirrors and acoustic lenses for hyper focusing, acoustic illusions and enabling new degrees of freedom in the control of the acoustic field. The zero, or even negative, refractive sound index of metamaterials offers possibilities in control of the acoustic pattern and sound at sub--wavelength scales. Despite the tremendous growth of the research on acoustic metamaterials during the last decade, the potential of metamaterial-based technologies in aeronautics is still not fully explored and its utilization is still in its infancy. Thus the principal concepts mentioned above could very well provide means to develop devices that would allow the mitigation of the impact of the civil aviation noise on the community. This paper gives a review of the state of the art of the most relevant works on acoustic metamaterials, analyzing them against their potential applicability in aeronautics, and in this process identifying possible implementation areas and interesting metabehaviors. It also identifies some technical challenges and possible future directions for research with the goal of unveiling the potential of metamaterials technologies in aeronautics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0161.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: acoustic positioning system; three-dimensional assessment model; positioning accuracy; DOP; optimal configuration
Online: 19 March 2018 (11:43:18 CET)
This paper addresses the problem of assessing and optimizing acoustic positioning system for underwater target localization with range measurements only. We present a new three-dimensional assessment model to assess the optimal geometric beacon formation whether meet user needs. For the sake of mathematical tractability, it is assumed that the measurements of the range between the target and beacons are corrupted with white Gaussian noise with variance is distance-dependent. Then by adopting dilution of precision (DOP) parameters in the assessment model, the relationship between DOP parameters and positioning accuracy is derived. In addition, the optimal geometric beacon formation that will yield the best performance is achieved by minimizing the values of geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) on condition that the position of target is known and fixed. Next, in order to make sure whether the estimate positioning accuracy over interesting region satisfy the precision needed by the users, geometric positioning accuracy (GPA), horizonal positioning accuracy (HPA) and vertical positioning accuracy (VPA) are utilized to assess the optimal geometric beacon formation. Simulation examples are designed to illustrate the exactness of the conclusion. Unlike other work which only use GDOP to optimize the formation and cannot assess the performance of the specified dimensions, this new three-dimensional assessment model can assess the optimal geometric beacon formation in each dimension for any point in three-dimensional space, which can provide users with guidance advices to optimize performance of every specified dimension.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0011.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Verbal communication; Lombard effect; Cocktail party effect; Noise; Acoustic capacity; Universal design
Online: 1 December 2017 (18:22:36 CET)
A well-known but also very complicated problem in room acoustics is the ambient noise when many people are gathered for a reception or in a restaurant, a bar, a canteen or a similar place. In such social gatherings, people want to speak with each other, but for the same reason the place can be very noisy, and verbal communication can be difficult or even impossible, especially for people with reduced hearing capacity. The noise depends on at least the following parameters; the volume, the reverberation time, the number of people, and the type gathering. Verbal communication in a noisy environment is a complicated feed-back situation, which implies two interesting phenomena; the Lombard effect and the cocktail-party effect. Solutions are presented both as a simplified model assuming a diffuse sound field and as an advanced computer simulation model. The concept ‘Acoustic Capacity’ of a facility is introduced, defined as the maximum number of persons in order to achieve a sufficient quality of verbal communication. In order to avoid poor acoustics in restaurants and similar places, it is necessary to design with bigger volume and more absorption material than usual in current building design practice.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: exponential atmosphere; acoustic wave; diagnostics; projection operators; artificial periodic irregularities; neutral temperature; density
Online: 26 July 2021 (18:04:42 CEST)
The main result of this work is the estimation of the entropy mode accompanying a wave disturbance, observed at the atmosphere heights range of 90-120km. The study is the direct continuation and development of recent results on diagnosis of the acoustic wave with the separation on direction of propagation. The estimation of the entropy mode contribution relies upon the measurements of the three dynamic variables (the temperature, density and vertical velocity perturbations) of the neutral atmosphere measured by the method of the resonant scattering of radio waves on the artificial periodic irregularities of the ionospheric plasma. The measurement of the atmosphere dynamic parameters has been carried out on the SURA heating facility. The mathematical foundation of the mode separation algorithm is based on the dynamic projecting operator technique. The operators are constructed via the eigenvectors of the coordinate evolution operator of the transformed system of balance equations of the hydro-thermodynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0140.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: RF polarimetry; acoustic wave; aqueous electrolyte solution; Debye ionic vibration potential; relaxation time
Online: 4 June 2021 (11:52:35 CEST)
The present work is an effort to explain theoretically the physics of some processes we have observed in our previous experiments. They occur under any mechanical excitation in solutions of strong electrolytes. We assume that the occurrence of the low-frequency Debye ionic vibration potential (IVP) and the deviation of the RF polarization vector are conjugated, but only in the sense that the power flux density of some physical process "X" responsible for the rotation of the polarization vector is proportional to the square of the electric potential voltage. While the independence of the RF anisotropy appearance from the applied voltage and from the Debye potential in particular has been proved experimentally. An equivalent electrical circuit that simulates the observed effects within the solution excited by an acoustic wave is proposed and tested for physical feasibility. Special attention is paid to the basic theory of the ionic vibrational potential, namely, its predictions in the low-frequency range, which contradict both experiment and the energy conservation law. Given the futility of describing the "memory" effect as a process of electrical or molecular origin, several arguments are presented in favor of the fluid-gyroscopic mechanism. It was suggested that the rotation of the polarization vector of the RF signal is due to a change in the electric moment of the liquid atoms and/or the nuclear moment of ions having an odd mass number. The applications of the research are also supplemented. The results of new experiments show that the RF anisotropy of the solution is transported by the carrier. Accordingly, it is possible to create a completely contactless unitary sensor of velocity and inhomogeneities of the liquid, moreover, the experimental setup has previously confirmed the affordability of the idea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0345.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: surface water runoff; acoustic sensor array; reflected sound wave; reflection from rough surfaces
Online: 15 August 2020 (09:31:37 CEST)
Irrigation is a useful crop enhancement procedure up to the point where free surface water appears. Thereafter, water can begin to flow into waterways, leaching nutrients and giving rise to environmental damage, as well as being a waste of a precious resource. The current work addresses the problem of measuring free water on the surface of agricultural soils by a real-time acoustic remote sensing method. Directional acoustic transmitter and receiver arrays are used to define a ‘footprint’ on the ground from which changes in reflectance are sensed. These arrays are mounted on a moving irrigator. Chirp signals are used to provide along-path resolution and to ensure robustness against unwanted acoustic background noise from farm machinery and the irrigator. Field measurements have been conducted above a well-defined ‘quadrat’ with controlled and measured water content, and also with the instrument mounted on an operational irrigator. A structured light camera mounted above the footprint is used to validate surface water fraction. It is found that the areal fraction of free water on the soil surface can be reliably estimated from changes in the amplitude of the reflected sound waves. The mechanism giving rise to the observed acoustic reflectivity changes is discussed and a model is developed which agrees with normalized intensity observations with a coefficient of determination R2 between 0.65 and 0.83. The rms error between model predictions and observations is comparable to the rms variation of the measurements, indicating that there is insignificant error due to the choice of model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0092.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: heat exchangers, heat transfer enhancement, acoustic fields, vibrations, thermo-fluid dynamics, fouling mitigation.
Online: 11 February 2019 (16:14:51 CET)
The aim of this paper is to expose the main involved physical phenomena underlying the alteration of convective heat transfer in a heat exchanger subjected to imposed vibrations. This technique seems to have interesting features and industrial applications, such as efficiency increase, heat transfer rate control and cleanliness action. However, a clear description and comprehension of how vibrations may alter the convective heat transfer coefficient in a heat exchanger is no still reached due to the complexity of the involved physical mechanisms. For this reason, after a presentation and a schematisation of the analyzed thermodynamic system, the fundamental alterations of the thermo-fluid dynamics fields are described. Then, the main involved physical phenomena are exposed for the three cases of gaseous, monophasic liquid and boiling liquid mediums. Finally, on the basis of the characteristics of these described phenomena, some considerations and indications of general validity are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0374.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: titanium; strain hardening; anisotropy; strain heterogeneity; acoustic emission; statistical analysis; collective dislocation dynamics
Online: 25 May 2018 (15:41:14 CEST)
Current progress in the prediction of mechanical behavior of solids requires understanding of spatiotemporal complexity of plastic flow caused by self-organization of crystal defects. It may be particularly important in hexagonal materials because of their strong anisotropy and combination of different mechanisms of plasticity, such as dislocation glide and twinning. These materials often display complex behavior even on the macroscopic scale of deformation curves, e.g., a peculiar three-stage elastoplastic transition, the origin of which is a matter of debates. The present work is devoted to a multiscale study of plastic flow in α-Ti, based on simultaneous recording of deformation curves, 1D local strain field, and acoustic emission (AE). It is found that the average AE activity also reveals three-stage behavior, but in a qualitatively different way depending on the crystallographic orientation of the sample axis. On the finer scale, the statistical analysis of AE events and local strain rates testifies to an avalanche-like character of dislocation processes, reflected in power-law probability distribution functions. The results are discussed from the viewpoint of collective dislocation dynamics and are confronted to predictions of a recent micromechanical model of Ti strain hardening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0097.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: acoustic emission; atmospheric corrosion; aluminum; aircraft structure; pitting corrosion; hydrogen bubbles; structural health monitoring
Online: 4 August 2022 (03:55:40 CEST)
Atmospheric corrosion of aluminum aircraft structures occurs due to numerous reasons. A typical phenomenon leading to corrosion is the deliquescence of contaminants such as salts due to changes in relative humidity (RH) caused by aircraft operation at different altitudes and climate zones. Currently, corrosion of aircrafts is controlled by scheduled inspections. In contrast, the present contribution aims for a continuous monitoring approach by using the acoustic emission (AE) method to detect and further evaluate atmospheric corrosion. The AE method is frequently used for corrosion detection at typically immersion-like conditions or for corrosion types where stress-induced cracking is involved. However, it has not yet been demonstrated for atmospheric corrosion at unloaded aluminum structures. To address this question, the present investigation uses small droplets of a corrosive sodium chloride (NaCl) solution to induce atmospheric corrosion on aluminum alloy AA2024-T351. Operating conditions of an aircraft are simulated by a controlled variation in RH. In addition, videos of the corrosion site are recorded to visually observe the corrosion process. Pitting corrosion is generated and clearly measurable AE signals are detected. An automatic video processing algorithm looking for sudden changes on the corrosion site mainly detects hydrogen bubbles formed when aluminum reacts with aqueous solutions. A clear correlation between the observed pitting corrosion, the AE and the hydrogen bubble activity and the RH, i.e., the electrolyte present at the aluminum surface, is found. Thus, the findings demonstrate the applicability of the AE method for monitoring atmospheric corrosion of aluminum aircraft structures by today’s measurement equipment. Numerous potential effects that can cause measurable AE signals are investigated and discussed. Among these, bubble activity is clearly considered to be the most emissive one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0102.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: accelerometer; process monitoring; natural frequencies; ball burnishing; ultrasonic; piezoelectric; acoustic emission; operational deflection shape.
Online: 5 July 2021 (14:04:48 CEST)
In this paper, a resonant system that produces a movement of low amplitude and ultrasonic frequency is used to achieve the vibration assistance in a ball-burnishing process. A full vibration characterization of this process performed in a lathe was done. It is carried out by a new tool designed in the research group of the authors. Its purpose is to demonstrate that the machine and the tool do not have any resonance problem during the process and to prevent possible failures. The analysis of this dynamic behaviour permits to validate the suitability of the tool when it is anchored to a numerical control lathe. This is very important for its future industrial implementation. It is also intended to confirm that the system adequately transmits vibrations through the material. To do this, a methodology to validate the dynamic tool behaviour was developed. Several techniques that combine the usual and ultrasonic vibration ranges through static and dynamic measurements were merged: vibration and acoustic emission measurements. An operational deflection shape (ODS) exercise has been also performed. Results show the suitability of the tool used to transmit the assistance vibrations, and that no damage is produced in the material in any case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0210.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: eNose; gas sensor, SAW; Surface Acoustic Wave, Love wave, diabetes, breath, VOC, ZIF, Zeolite
Online: 8 November 2018 (11:18:23 CET)
In the present work a novel, portable and innovative eNose composed of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array based ZIF-8, and ZIF-67 nanocrystals (pure and combined with gold nanoparticles) as sensitive layers has been tested as a non-invasive system to detect and differentiate disease markers, such as acetone, ethanol and ammonia, related with early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus through exhaled breath. The sensors have been prepared by spin coating, achieving continuous and homogenous sensitive layers. Low concentrations (5 ppm, 10 ppm and 25ppm) of the marker analytes were measured, obtaining high sensitivities, good reproducibility, short time response and fast signal recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0032.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: inverse acoustic problem; helicopter rotor; Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation; aerodynamic constraint; Thikhonov method
Online: 5 February 2018 (11:34:30 CET)
An inverse aeroacoustic problem for a helicopter rotor combined with aerodynamic constraint is proposed based on Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation in subsonic. The rotor noise includes thickness noise and loading noise when quadrupole noise is neglected. Thickness noise is related to geometry and motion conditions. Loading noise is related to the pressure on the wall. Therefore, the equation between pressure on the wall and far-field noise can be established, thus the pressure on the wall can be obtained by solving this equation. Since this equation is an ill-posed, the singular value decomposition combined with the regulation method is applied and the aerodynamic constraint is taken into account. The direct noise prediction is verify firstly and then the inverse problem is solved. The reconstruction pressure is compared to the input data. The result is in good agreement with the input value. At the same time, the influence of interference noise is also considered. Under low signal-to-noise ratio, the reconstruction result is also reasonable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0414.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Fiber optics sensors; Microwave photonics; Interferometry; Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS); optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR)
Online: 23 September 2021 (17:22:27 CEST)
A microwave-photonics method has been developed for measuring distributed acoustic signals. This method uses microwave-modulated low coherence light as a probe to interrogate distributed in-fiber interferometers, which are used to measure acoustic-induced strain. By sweeping the microwave frequency at a constant rate, the acoustic signals are encoded into the complex microwave spectrum. The microwave spectrum is transformed into the joint time-frequency domain and further processed to obtain the distributed acoustic signals. The method is first evaluated using an intrinsic Fabry Perot interferometer (IFPI). Acoustic signals of frequency up to 15.6 kHz were detected. The method was further demonstrated using an array of in-fiber weak reflectors and an external Michelson interferometer. Two piezo-ceramic cylinders (PCCs) driven at frequencies of 1700 Hz and 3430 Hz were used as acoustic sources. The experiment results show that the sensing system can locate multiple acoustic sources. The system resolves 20 nε when the spatial resolution is 5 cm. The recovered acoustic signals match the excitation signals in frequency, amplitude, and phase, indicating an excellent potential for distributed acoustic sensing (DAS).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN); Routing Protocols; Acoustic Communication; Multi-hop communication; Energy-Efficient; Reliable
Online: 10 March 2020 (10:44:22 CET)
Water covers a greater part of the earth's surface. Even though we know very little about the underwater world as most parts of it remain unexplored. Oceans including other water bodies hold huge natural resources and also the aquatic lives. These are mostly unexplored and very few of those are known due to unsuited and hazardous environments for the human to explore. This vast underwater world can be monitored remotely from a distant location with much ease and less risk. To monitor water-bodies remotely in real-time, sensor networking has been playing a great role. It is needed to deploy a wireless sensor network over the volume which we want to surveil. For vast water bodies like oceans, rivers and large lakes, data is collected from the different heights of the water level which is sent to the surface sink. Unlike terrestrial communication, radio waves and other conventional mediums can't serve the purpose of underwater communication as they pose high attenuation and very reduced transmission range. Rather an acoustic medium can transmit data more efficiently and reliably in comparison to other mediums. To transmit data reliably from the bottom of the sea to the sinks at the surface, multi-hop communication is needed which must involve a certain scheme. For seabed to surface sink communication, leading researchers have proposed different routing protocols. The goal of these routing protocols is to make underwater communication more reliable, energy-efficient and delay efficient thus to improve the performance of the overall communication. This paper surveys the advancement and applications of the routing protocols which eventually helps in finding the most efficient routing protocol for the Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0051.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Nature Inspired Algorithms; Swarm Optimization; Elephant Search Algorithm; Energy-based Localization; Acoustic Positioning; Wireless Sensor Networks.
Online: 3 July 2018 (13:54:19 CEST)
This work addresses the energy-based source localization problem in wireless sensors networks. Instead of circumventing the maximum likelihood (ML) problem by applying convex relaxations and approximations (like all existing approaches do), we here tackle it directly by the use of metaheuristics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the ﬁrst time that metaheuristics is applied to this type of problems. More speciﬁcally an elephant herding optimization (EHO) algorithm is applied. Through extensive simulations, the key parameters of the EHO algorithm are optimized such that they match the energy decay model between two sensor nodes. A detailed analysis of the computational complexity is presented, as well as performance comparison between the proposed algorithm and existing non-metaheuristic ones. Simulation results show that the new approach signiﬁcantly outperforms the existing solutions in noisy environments, encouraging further improvement and testing of metaheuristic methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0115.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Lagrangian approach; Lagrangian acoustic perturbation equations; computational acoustics; meshfree method; smoothed particle hydrodynamics; generalized finite difference method
Online: 25 January 2017 (11:42:54 CET)
Although Eulerian approaches are standard in computational acoustics, they are less effective for certain classes of problems like bubble acoustics and combustion noise. A different approach for solving acoustic problems is to compute with individual particles following particle motion. In this paper, a Lagrangian approach to model sound propagation in moving fluid is presented and implemented numerically, using three meshfree methods to solve the Lagrangian acoustic perturbation equations (LAPE) in the time domain. The LAPE split the fluid dynamic equations into a set of hydrodynamic equations for the motion of fluid particles and perturbation equations for the acoustic quantities corresponding to each fluid particle. Then, three meshfree methods, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, the corrective smoothed particle (CSP) method, and the generalized finite difference (GFD) method, are introduced to solve the LAPE and the linearized LAPE (LLAPE). The SPH and CSP methods are widely used meshfree methods, while the GFD method based on the Taylor series expansion can be easily extended to higher orders. Applications to modeling sound propagation in steady or unsteady fluids in motion are outlined, treating a number of different cases in one and two space dimensions. A comparison of the LAPE and the LLAPE using the three meshfree methods is also presented. The Lagrangian approach shows good agreement with exact solutions. The comparison indicates that the CSP and GFD method exhibit convergence in cases with different background flow. The GFD method is more accurate, while the CSP method can handle higher Courant numbers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: PET additives; recycled concrete; concrete porosity; polymeric resins; porosimetry of nitrogen (N2) gas adsorption; acoustic resonance spectroscopy
Online: 16 December 2016 (11:01:40 CET)
In the field of construction, materials referred to as sustainable are currently undergoing a process of technological development. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the behavior of the fundamental properties of concretes prepared with recycled coarse aggregates that incorporate in their matrix a polyethylene terephthalate-based additive in an attempt to reduce their high porosity. Techniques to measure the gas adsorption, water porosity and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate the effect of the additive on the physical, mechanical and microstructural properties of these concretes. Porosity reductions of up to 30.60% are achieved with the addition of 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9% of the additive, defining a new state in the behavioral model of the additive (the overdosage point) in the concrete matrix; in addition, the porous network of these concretes and their correlation whit other physical and mechanical properties are also explained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0766.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: PAM; Passive acoustic monitoring; audio classiﬁcation; texture classiﬁcation; PAM- 16 ﬁlter; experimental protocols for audio classiﬁcation; statistical tests.
Online: 29 April 2021 (07:55:09 CEST)
Abstract: Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is a non-invasive technique to supervise the wildlife. Acoustic surveillance is preferable in some situation such as in the case of marine mammals, when the animals spend most of their time underwater, making it hard to obtain their images. Machine learning is very useful for PAM, for example, to identify species based on audio recordings. But some care should be taken to evaluate the capability of a system. We deﬁne PAM-ﬁlters as the creation of the experimental protocols according to the dates and locations of the recordings, aiming to avoid the use of the same individuals, noise and recording devices in both training and test sets. A random division of a database present accuracies much higher than accuracies obtained with protocols generated with PAM-ﬁlter. Although we use the animal vocalizations, in our method we convert the audio into spectrogram images, after that, we describe the images using the texture. Those are well-known techniques for audio classiﬁcation, and they have already been used for species classiﬁcation. Also, we perform statistical tests to demonstrate the signiﬁcant difference between accuracies generated with and without PAM-ﬁlters with several well-known classiﬁers. The conﬁguration of our experimental protocols and the database were made available online.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0267.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Scanning acoustic microscopy; speed of sound; attenuation of sound; anticancer drugs; tannic acid; acetic acid; microwave; Computer Imaging
Online: 11 March 2021 (11:25:34 CET)
Cells receive external stimuli to incur structural and functional damages. On scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), speed-of-sound (SOS), attenuation-of-sound (AOS), and thickness values are plotted on the screen to create cellular images, which are related to stiffness, viscosity, and cell size, respectively. The obtained digital data compared using statistical analysis. We aimed to investigate the effects of anticancer drugs, acidic fluids, and heat effects on the cells by using SAM. Anticancer drug cisplatin induced cancer cell apoptosis/necrosis and regeneration in culture, causing elevated SOS, reduced AOS, and thickness. During a more prolonged incubation, the SAM values fluctuated differently between the cisplatin-treated and untreated cells. The tannic and acetic acid and microwave stimuli induced SOS and AOS elevations. These stimuli altered the cell size, number, differentiation, viscosity, and stiffness, which corresponded well to the fluctuation of the SOS and AOS values after incubation. Different anticancer drugs interacted with cancer cells to induce the characteristic alterations of the SAM values. These structural and mechanical alterations induced in cells was difficult to observe on light microscopy. Cellular damages were statistically compared between different stimuli and time-lapse cellular changes were observed using a SAM analysis. SAM is a useful modality to evaluate cellular damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0279.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: acoustic based SHM; orthotropic polymeric composites; Lamb waves; horizontally polarized SH waves; angle-beam wedge transducer; waves directivity
Online: 10 February 2020 (10:29:43 CET)
This paper addresses investigation of guided-wave excitation by angle-beam wedge piezoelectric transducers in multi-layered composite plate structure with orthotropic symmetry of the material. The aim of the present study is to determine the capability of such actuators to provide the controlled generation of an acoustic wave of a desirable type with the necessary wavelength, propagation distance and directivity. The studied CFRP panel is considered as homogenous with effective elastic moduli and anisotropic structural damping, whose parameters were determined experimentally. According to the results of dispersion analysis and taking into account the data of wave attenuation in a highly damping CFRP composite, the two types of propagating waves A0 and S0 were considered theoretically and experimentally in the frequency range 10 - 100 kHz. Using the results of a previous study, the structure of the wedge actuator was reconstructed to develop its finite element (FE) model, and a modal analysis was carried out, which revealed the most intense natural vibration modes and their eigenfrequencies within the used frequency range. Both experimental and numerical studies of the generation, propagation, directivity and attenuation of waves in the orthotropic composite panel under study revealed the influence of the angular orientation of the actuator on the formation of wave patterns and allowed to determine the capabilities of the wave's directivity control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0750.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Underwater Communication; Wireless Communication; Acoustic Communication; Ultrasound Acoustics; Digital Signal Processing; Chirp Modulation; Chirp Slope Keying; Chirp Spread Spectrum
Online: 30 March 2021 (14:25:50 CEST)
We propose an asynchronous acoustic chirp slope keying to map bit sequences on single or multiple bands without preamble or error correction coding on the physical layer. Details of the implementation are disclosed and discussed, the performance verified on laboratory scale in a pool measurement, as well as simulated for a channel containing Rayleigh fading and Additive White Gaussian Noise. For time-bandwidth products of 50 in single band mode, a raw data rate of 100~bit/s is simulated to achieve bit error rates below 0.001 for signal-to-noise ratios above -6~dB. In dual-band mode and a data rate of 200~bit/s, this bit error level was achieved for signal-to-noise ratios above 0~dB for time-bandwidth product of 25. The packet error rates follow this behavior with an offset of 1~dB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0273.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: acoustic based SHM; plastics and polymeric composites; Lamb waves; horizontally polarized SH waves; angle-beam wedge transducer; waves directivity
Online: 26 August 2019 (15:56:17 CEST)
The paper is aimed to develop an improved acoustic-based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques, which provide the waves directivity emitting by the angle-beam wedge actuators in the thin-walled structures made of plastic materials and polymeric composites. Our investigation includes the dispersive analysis of the waves that can be excited in the studied plastic panel. Its results allowed to find two kinds of the generated acoustic waves - anti-symmetric Lamb waves A0 and shear horizontally polarized SH waves SS0. The bounds of the chosen frequency range for the experimental and numerical studies were accepted as a compromise between the desire to obtain high defects resolution by generating short waves, their adjustable directivity and maximum propagation length. The finite element model for the transducer was built by using the results of actuator structure experimental study. The frequency response functions for the actuator current and oscillation amplitude of the footprint surface demonstrated good agreement. The found eigenfrequencies of actuator's structure were used for the numerical and experimental study of the Lamb and SH wave generation and propagation in a thin-walled plastic panel. Our results convincingly demonstrated the satisfactory directivity of the actuated waves at their excitation on the frequencies that corresponded to the natural modes of the actuator oscillation. The authors assume that an efficient use of the proposed technique for other analyzed quasi-isotropic materials and applied actuators can be provided by a preliminary research using the similar approach and methods presented in this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: nasal function; validation; software; nasal resistance; rhinomanometry; acoustic rhinometry; peak nasal inspiratory flow meter; practice patterns; objective measurement outcomes; parameters
Online: 9 September 2022 (09:41:14 CEST)
Background: The Davidson Airway Function & Nasal Evaluation (DAFNE) Scoring System was developed as an intuitive and research-based scoring system that could be validated through beta testing and easily introduced to healthcare providers of several subspecialties who treat nasal obstruction and breathing disorders (MDs, PAs, PTs, APRNs, DDSs, and DCs). This scoring system was shown to increase the knowledge of airway function, nasal measurement parameters, and identification of proper treatment options for sleep and breathing disorders. The basis for the DAFNE score was developed from a systematic review of nasal measurement data. Methods: Electronic searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE Cochrane Library, and Scopus of publications between 1988-2022 were used to identify studies validating nasal function measurement parameters to create the algorithm for the DAFNE Score™. The systematic review was accomplished using the 2020 ‘Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews’ (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria for systematic review. Primary outcomes measurements demonstrated reliability, repeatability and validity of the DAFNE measurement technologies, data and output. Conclusions: The data analysis and systematic review uncovered a need and framework to develop and validate a web-based software algorithm for global access to improve the understanding of data interpretation of nasal measurements from three nasal measurement technologies. DAFNE Scoring should be used as an adjunct tool in routine clinical practice and research to further understand the technology data output and how to collaborate with other healthcare providers to improve patient outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0112.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: biosensing; biomechanics; cellular viscoelasticity; vibrations; nonlinear acoustics; acousto-optics; gas bubbles; acoustic frequency combs; artificial intelligence; physics-informed neural networks
Online: 7 July 2022 (05:48:59 CEST)
Gas bubbles present in liquids underpin many natural phenomena and human-developed technologies that improve the quality of life. Since all living organisms are predominantly made of water, they may also contain gas bubbles—introduced both naturally and artificially—that can serve as biomechanical sensors operating in hard-to-reach places inside a living body and emitting signals that can be detected by common equipment used in ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging procedures. This kind of biosensors is the focus of the present article, where we critically review the emergent sensing technologies based on acoustically driven oscillations of gas bubbles in liquids and bodily fluids. This review is intended for a broad biosensing community and transdisciplinary researchers translating novel ideas from theory to experiment and then to practice. To this end, all discussions in this review are written in a language that is accessible to non-experts in specific fields of acoustics, fluid dynamics and acousto-optics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0396.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: ensemble modelling; seafloor mapping; sediment change analysis; seafloor sediment distribution; North Sea; seafloor classification; acoustic mapping; small sample size; ensemble map
Online: 17 May 2021 (16:58:50 CEST)
Recent studies on seafloor mapping have presented different modelling methods for the automatic classification of seafloor sediments. However, most of these studies have applied these models to seafloor data with appropriate number of ground-truth samples, which raises the question whether these methods are applicable to studies with smaller numbers of ground-truth data. In this study, we aim to address this issue by conducting sediment class-specific predictions using ensemble modelling to map areas with limited or without ground-truth data and combined with hydro-acoustic datasets. The resulting class-specific maps were then assembled into one map, where the most probable class was assigned to the appropriate location. Our approach was able to predict sediment classes without bias to the class with more ground-truth data and produced reliable seafloor sediment distributions maps that can be used for seafloor monitoring. Sediment shifts of a heterogenous seafloor in the Sylt Outer Reef, German North Sea were also assessed to understand the sediment dynamics in the area. The analyses of sediment shifts showed that the western area of the Sylt Outer Reef is highly active, and the results of the analyses assisted in providing recommendations on future seafloor monitoring activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0231.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Sound insulation; partition walls; perforated studs; acoustic model; sound reduction index; finite element analysis; A-weighted pink noise; A-weighted urban noise
Online: 14 September 2021 (10:07:36 CEST)
Steels studs are an inevitable part of drywall construction as they are lightweight and offer the required structural stability. However, the studs act as sound bridges between the plasterboards reducing the overall sound insulation of the wall. Overcoming this often calls for wider cavity walls and complex stud decoupling fixtures that increase the installation cost while reducing the floor area. As an alternative approach, this research reveals the potential of perforated studs to improve the acoustic insulation of drywall partitions. The acoustic and structural performance is characterized using a validated finite element model that acted as a prediction tool in reducing the number of physical tests required. The results established that an acoustic numerical model featuring fluid-structure-interaction can predict the weighted sound reduction index of a stud wall assembly at an accuracy of ±1 dB. The model was used to analyze six perforated stud designs and found to outperform the sound insulation of non-perforated drywall partitions by reducing the sound bridging. Overall, the best performing perforated stud design was found to offer improvements in acoustic insulation of up to 4 dB, while being structurally compliant.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0003.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: acoustic frequency comb; phononic frequency comb; vibrations, nonlinear acoustics; acousto-optics; gas bubbles; liquid drops; Faraday waves; Brillouin light scattering; plasmonics; liquid metals
Online: 4 May 2022 (11:50:25 CEST)
Frequency combs (FCs)—spectra containing equidistant coherent peaks—have enabled researchers and engineers to measure the frequencies of complex signals with high precision thereby revolutionising the areas of sensing, metrology and communications and also benefiting the fundamental science. Although mostly optical FCs have found widespread applications thus far, in general FCs can be generated using waves other than light. Here, we review and summarise recent achievements in the emergent field of acoustic frequency combs (AFCs) including phononic FCs and relevant acousto-optical, Brillouin light scattering and Faraday wave-based techniques that have enabled the development of phonon lasers, quantum computers and advanced vibration sensors. In particular, our discussion is centred around potential applications of AFCs in precision measurements in various physical, chemical and biological systems in conditions, where using light, and hence optical FCs, faces technical and fundamental limitations, which is, for example, the case in underwater distance measurements and biomedical imaging applications. This review article will also be of interest to readers seeking a discussion of specific theoretical aspects of different classes of AFCs. To that end, we support the mainstream discussion by the results of our original analysis and numerical simulations that can be used to design the spectra of AFCs generated using oscillations of gas bubbles in liquids, vibrations of liquid drops and plasmonic enhancement of Brillouin light scattering in metal nanostructures. We also discuss the application of non-toxic room-temperature liquid-metal alloys in the field of AFC generation.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: piezoelectric materials; piezoelement; 1-3 piezocomposite; resonance and antiresonance frequencies; quality Q-factor; surface acoustic wave (SAW); interdigital transducer (IDT); mass load; SAW resonator
Online: 31 December 2019 (16:01:57 CET)
A novel effective vibrational mode was discovered in the conventional transducer with an array of orthogonal (square) regular piezoelectric rods in 1-3 piezocomposite, containing the damping backing and front matching layers. The operational resonance in the structure was determined as the Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) on the backing boundary excited by the adjacent piezo-rods, with its frequency typically near 3 times lower the fundamental half-lambda conventional piezocomposite resonance. Pulse-echo sensitivity and transmitting sound-pressure-level (SPL) in air showed that the signal strength is roughly comparable to the industrial similar air transducers at the frequency range 100…700 kHz, where at these frequencies the lateral and longitudinal piezoelement dimensions in the conventional transducer design are typically close to each other causing interference with unwanted coupling modes. As was determined theoretically and proved in experiments, the backing SAW resonance effect in the transducer performance is inherent just to the regular periodic 1-3 piezocomposite structure, and does occur neither with randomly located/oriented piezo-rods, nor in the homogeneous piezo-plate at least with the same lateral cross-section as the connected to it backing. The purpose of the article is to investigate a newly discovered operational vibrational mode of a SAW type in 1-3 regular piezocomposite, other than piezoelectric resonance. The investigated phenomena can improve the transceiver sensitivity, bandwidth, providing lower drive voltage, and smaller and lighter weight ultrasonic transducers. Based on the piezocomposites with thickness’ 1…1.5 mm (rod resonance near 2…3 MHz), pillar width 0.2…0.8 mm, kerf width 0.1…0.4 mm, the transceivers with an operating frequency from 140 kHz to 650 kHz were designed and fabricated with a conventional backing of a mixture of high-density tungsten powder and epoxy, and a matching layer of a mixture of low-density glass bubbles and epoxy. Experimental evaluation of their acoustical performance showed expected characteristics suitable for practical applications.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0350.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials; sp1-hybridized bonds; carbon atomic wires; ion-assisted pulsed-plasma deposition; nanocavities; cluster-assembling; vibration-assisted growing; acoustic activation; vibrational patterns; electromagnetic activation; self-organizing of the nanostructures; nano-cymatics; controlled patterning; synergistic effect
Online: 12 March 2021 (20:07:52 CET)
Structural self-organizing and pattern formation are universal and key phenomena observed during growth and cluster-assembling of the carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials at the ion-assisted pulse-plasma deposition. Fine tuning these universal phenomena opens access to designing the properties of the growing carbyne-enriched nano-matrix. The structure of bonds in the grown carbyne-enriched nano-matrices can be programmed by the processes of self-organization and auto-synchronization of nanostructures. We propose the innovative concept, connected with application of the universal Cymatics phenomena during the predictive growth of the carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials. We also propose the self-organization approach for increase stability of the long linear carbon chains. The main idea of suggested concept is manipulating by the self-organized wave patterns excitation phenomenon and their distribution by the spatial structure and properties of the nanostructured metamaterial grows region through the new synergistic effect. Mentioned effect will be provided through the vibration-assisted self-organized wave patterns excitation along with simultaneous manipulating by their properties through the electric field. We propose to use acoustic activation of the plasma zone of nano-matrix growing. Interaction between the inhomogeneous electric field distribution generated on the vibrating layer and the plasma ions will serve as the additional energizing factor controlling the local pattern formation and self-organizing of the nano-structures. Suggested concept makes it possible to provide precise predictive designing the spatial structure and properties of the advanced carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0347.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: structural health monitoring (SHM); acoustic emission, guided waves, Lamb waves, sensors, ultrasound, piezoelectric, composites, piezopolymers, PVDF, interdigital transducer (IDT), PWAS, C-MUT, CMUT, mems, analog electronic front end; analog signal processing, impact localization, impact detection, sensor node, wireless sensor networks (WSN), IoT, aerospace, automotive, infrastructure, condition monitoring.
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:03:14 CEST)
This review article is focused on the analysis of the state of the art of sensors for guided 9 ultrasonic waves for the detection and localization of impacts, therefore of interest for the structural 10 health monitoring (SHM). The recent developments in sensor technologies are then reported and 11 discussed through the many references in recent scientific literature. The physical phenomena re-12 lated to impact event and the main physical quantities are then introduced to discuss their im-13 portance in the development of the hardware and software components for SHM systems. An im-14 portant aspect of the article is the description of the different ultrasonic sensor technologies cur-15 rently present in the literature and what advantages and disadvantages they could bring, in relation 16 to the various phenomena investigated. In this context, the analysis of the front-end electronics is 17 deepened, the type of data transmission both in terms of wired and wireless technology and in terms 18 of online and offline signal processing. The integration aspects of sensors for the creation of net-19 works with autonomous nodes with the possibility of powering through energy harvesting devices 20 and the embedded processing capacity is also studied. Finally, the emerging sector of processing 21 techniques using deep learning and artificial intelligence concludes the review by indicating the 22 potential for the detection and autonomous characterization of the impacts.