REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; animals; veterinary
Online: 4 January 2021 (08:27:33 CET)
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a well-known group of viruses in veterinary medicine. We currently know four genera of Coronavirus, alfa, beta, gamma and delta. Wild, farmed and pet animals are infected with CoVs belonging to all four genera. Seven human respiratory coronaviruses have still been identified, four of which cause upper respiratory tract diseases, specifically, the common cold, and the last three that have emerged cause severe acute respiratory syndromes, SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. In this review we briefly describe animal coronaviruses and what we actually know about SARS-CoV-2 infection in farm and domestic animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0255.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Antimicrobial stewardship; veterinary; complex intervention
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:49:09 CET)
Antimicrobial use in agriculture has been identified as an area of focus for reducing overall antimicrobial use and improving stewardship. In this paper, we outline the design of a complex antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) intervention aimed at developing a national Veterinary Prescribing Champion programme for Welsh farm animal veterinary practices. We describe the process by which participants were encouraged to design and deliver bespoke individualised AMS activities at practice level by forging participant ‘champion’ identities and Communities of Practice through participatory and educational online activities. We describe the key phases identified as important when designing this complex intervention, namely (i) involving key collaborators in government and industry to stimulate project engagement; (ii) grounding the design in the literature, the results of stakeholder engagement, expert panel input and veterinary clinician feedback to promote contextual relevance and appropriateness; and (iii) taking a theoretical approach to implementing intervention design to foster critical psychological needs for participant motivation and scheme involvement. With recruitment of over 80% of all farm animal practices in Wales to the programme, we also describe demographic data of the participating Welsh Veterinary Prescribing Champions in order to inform recruitment and design of future AMS programmes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: shelter medicine; animal sheltering; shelter surgery; veterinary medical education; veterinary student training; population medicine; biosecurity
Online: 24 October 2017 (03:47:43 CEST)
While referral-level medicine is important in the veterinary curriculum, students also need a solid base knowledge of clinically relevant routine surgery and diagnostic skills. Veterinary hospitals must maintain a steady caseload that provides wellness cases and commonly encountered conditions. Shelter Medicine programs can create the opportunities to meet these challenges. Students can gain quantifiable surgical experience in spay/neuter with measured growth in surgical efficiency and competency while providing needed community service for animal shelters. Students can directly interact with shelter animals by performing examinations, diagnostic testing, and development of treatment protocols and recommendations for commonly encountered problems. Furthermore, students can obtain a working knowledge of biosecurity on a population level to minimize risk of infectious diseases spreading to healthy populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0130.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: academic performance; COVID-19; veterinary; online learning
Online: 21 August 2020 (02:25:37 CEST)
Many universities and colleges worldwide suspended classroom teaching due to the novel coronavirus pandemic and switched to online teaching. The current cross-sectional study was carried out to analyze the impact of lockdown due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the academic performance of veterinary medical students and researchers. Veterinary medical students and researchers were invited to answer an online google form questionnaire. A total of 1398 participants were from 92 different countries answered the questionnaire with response rate of 94.52%. The data showed that COVID-19 pandemic lockdown affected the academic performance of most participants (96.7%) with varying degrees. The mean evaluation scores for the online education in general was 5.06 ± 2.43 while that for the practical parts was 3.62± 2.56. Although online education provides an opportunity for self-study. The main challenge online education faces in veterinary medical science is how to give practical lessons. Since most of the subjects are practical; therefore, it is not easy to learn it online. Students think that it is difficult to fulfill the veterinary competencies only with online education system. Online education can be improved by making it more interactive, showing medical procedures in real situations, giving concise information, and providing 3D virtual tools to mimic the real situation.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: information behavior; veterinary information needs; online survey
Online: 20 March 2020 (05:22:05 CET)
During 2010, at the Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (fmvz-unam) we analyzed the influence of metadata over its website according to the search engines used by the academic community. This document serves only the second specific objective of the research: to know the academic profile, the informative behavior and the veterinary information needs of the academic community of the fmvz-unam. The methodological tool was the design and implementation of an online survey. We received 215 responses, two thirds answered academic staff, the rest, undergraduate and postgraduate students. In relation to information behavior, an Internet-usage index was developed, with which it was determined that 64 % of this community uses four or five information services on the Internet, This means that the network is widely used to seek information and as communication media. This community search for more veterinary information related to dogs, dairy cattle and sheep, compared to other animal species; while animal welfare, zoonosis and molecular biology are the topics of greatest interest.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0151.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: efficacy; ethno-veterinary; livestock; medicine; smallholder farmer
Online: 9 March 2020 (10:03:51 CET)
Often touted as an ancient and sustainable practice among indigenous livestock farmers in developing countries, the use of ethno-veterinary medicine is examined within the context of its efficacy. While there are undoubtedly positive implications for adopting knowledge and practice that align with nature, there is both prevalence and ambivalence to the adoption of indigenous plant knowledge and resources for the treatment of livestock infections and diseases. This situation is due to the lack of validation and standardization of the practice in low-income countries, requiring scholarly efforts in developing this indigenous knowledge system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: veterinary; allergic dermatitis; low level laser therapy
Online: 24 March 2017 (10:32:49 CET)
Background: The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in domestic animals is one of the problems of modern veterinary. Treating with standard techniques using chemotherapeutic agents not always leads to a positive result of therapy; moreover, many drugs produce adverse side effects. Methods: Low level laser therapy, in particular, intravenous laser blood illumination (ILBI) has a pronounced and long-lasting impact on the immune system of animals. The combined technique including ILBI-635 (635 nm, 2 mW, 5 min) and LUVBI® (365 nm, 2 mW, 3 min) every other day provides a positive change in clinical status of cats with allergic dermatitis after the 3rd-4th treatment session. Results: The increased level of erythrocytes and hemoglobin was identified in the course of treatment, and it indirectly indicates increased blood transport activity, which improves trophic provision and microcirculation. A double reduction of leukocytes and a significant decrease of neutrophil cells indicate the immunomodulatory effect of LILI (low-intensity laser illumination). The increase in the percentage of lymphocytes and the decrease of eosinophils and monocytes against the background of basophil concentrations deviations within physiological concentration result in the reduction of inflammatory mediators expression that induce itching. The reduction of total IgE concentration 32 times against control on the 7th day of treatment correlates with the decrease in the quantitative content of peripheral blood eosinophils, indicating the decrease in severity of an allergic process. Conclusion: LLLT is recommended against the background of standard drug therapy to achieve quick clinical outcome together with a long-lasting prolonged effect.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0265.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Viscum album; Paolo Pelini; veterinary medicine; hypertension,diabetes
Online: 5 October 2023 (08:27:01 CEST)
Viscum album L., also known as “Mistletoe”, is a hemiparasitic plant native to the European continent that grows on various host trees. This plant contains a wide variety of active compounds that can be used for treat various diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, as an anti- inflammatory and antioxidant. However, it is most indicated in human medicine for the adjuvant treatment of cancer patients. Both for its properties directed against neoplastic cells and for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In Veterinary Medicine, I am very few studies are recorded for animals, although formulations are available for commercial use in oral and injectable form, mostly for homeopathic use. Many studies have been conducted on a large scale by groups of independent researchers and doctors in several countries, such as Switzerland, Germany and Brazil. Therefore, this review aimed to collect data on the use of Viscum album in Veterinary Medicine in order to encourage research in this sector not only in oncological diseases but in other directions in which Viscum can find use as an anti-pretensive and anti-diabetic agent. Introduction: Lectins, flavonoids, phenols such as phenylpropanoids, coumarins, sterols, lignans, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, fatty acids and viscotoxins are among the main active ingredients present in the phytocomplexes of the Viscum album plant. In particular, Attention should be given to specific oligoproteins in consideration of their activity biological . present in The foliage and fruits of V. album, as in other related species, contain low-weight proteins molecular type of thionin, called viscotoxins, as well as characteristic lectins, called viscolectins, both can contribute to its system defense and can be found in extracts and related products. These classes of Viscum microproteins have received considerable attention due to their contribution to effects cytotoxics and immunostimulants of mistletoe extracts used in medicine, as discussed later, including their mechanism of action [ 2–3] viscotoxins can increase the number of cells circulating naturalkillers and consequently improve the response host antitumor immunity [ 8]. Likewise, the a viscotoxin has an effective immunomodulatory impact on human and animal granulocytes [ 9, 10] and also acts on cellular apoptosis . The cytotoxic action of viscotoxin is comparable to that of conventional chemotherapeutic agents [ 12].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1819.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Veterinary antibiotics; translocation; phytotoxicity; bioconcentration factor; rice paddy
Online: 27 September 2023 (06:57:05 CEST)
Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) have been indiscriminately used in animal feed for the past five decades to increase and ensure profits with negligible environmental considerations. The VAs amoxicillin (AMX), chlortetracycline (CTC), and oxytetracycline (OTC), which can be unintentionally introduced by irrigation water during rice cultivation, were evaluated for their phytotoxic effects, absorption-translocation into plants, and soil residues using a randomized complete block design. It was found that exposure to VAs can severely affect the photosynthetic pathway of rice plants. The uptake and translocation of VAs by rice plants varied significantly. CTC and OTC translocated more easily than AMX, a member of the β-lactam class, which accumulated at the lowest concentration compared to CTC and OTC across all treatments. Rice yield was about 4.3 - 5.7% lower in the experimental plots that received fifty-fold the background levels of VAs compared to the control. The findings indicate that these widely used veterinary antibiotics can hamper crop production, leave residues in the soil, and constitute a risk to human health if introduced into the agro-ecosystem unintentionally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2207.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: antimicrobials; companion animals; veterinary electronic prescription; antimicrobial resistance
Online: 31 May 2023 (08:51:16 CEST)
Companion animals are increasingly being recognized as important contributors to the spreading of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. The present work aimed to measure the antimicrobial drug prescribing in dogs and cats in the Campania region, Italy by analyzing the Veterinary Electronic Prescriptions (VEPs) between 2019 and 2020. The medical records associated with antimicrobial drug prescription were collected considering the drug delivery (systemic or local) and the rationale for the treatment chosen. In the period under investigation, 166879 drugs were prescribed of which 129116 (73.37 %) were antimicrobial. A total of 83965 (65.03 %) antibiotics were prescribed to dogs, 40477 (31.35 %) to cats, and 4674 (3.62 %) to other companion animals. In dogs the 90.48 % of VEPs prescribed for systemic treatment included an antimicrobial Critically Important or Highly Important or Important for human medicine (WHO, 2018). The most widely commonly prescribed class were fluoroquinolones. The main prescribed antimicrobials were the metronidazole-spiramycin (29.71%), amoxicillin-clavulanic (19.58%), enrofloxacin and cephalexin in dogs (16.52 %) and enrofloxacin (22.64%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (21.37 %) in cats. Based on the results the wide use of broad-spectrum or second-line antibiotics is emerged together with the use of the critically important antimicrobials for human medicine.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: female dog; cell culture; mammary cancer; veterinary; oncology
Online: 15 April 2020 (07:59:18 CEST)
Mammary neoplasm affects a population of intact and elderly female dogs and 50% are malignant. In order to study this disease, cell culture is as a promising preclinical model, creating the opportunity to deposit cell lines at a cell bank, allowing a great reproducibility of the assays and making the validation of the results more reliable. Another important aspect is the possibility to establish models for better understanding tumour characteristics, such as vasculogenic mimicry. Due the importance of cancer cell lines in preclinical models, this study aimed to establish and characterize primary cell lines from canine mammary gland tumours according to immunophenotype and tumorigenicity, and with its ability to form vasculogenic mimicry-like structures in vitro and in vivo. Cell cultures were evaluated for morphology, phenotype, vasculogenic mimicry and tumorigenicity abilities. We collected 17 primary mammary carcinoma and 3 metastasis and had a satisfactory result in 10 of them. All cell lines presented spindle shape or polygonal morphology and expressed concomitant pan-cytokeratin and cytokeratin 8/18. Four cell lines had vasculogenic mimicry ability in vitro and two of them showed in vivo tumorigenic potential and forming VM in the xenotransplant tumour. Cell characterization of those lines will help to create a database for more knowledge of mammary carcinomas in dogs, including studies of tumour behaviour and new therapeutic targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1831.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: machine learning; veterinary medical education; random forest; medical education; artificial intelligence; Python; R; veterinary educators; educational data mining; learning analytics
Online: 26 July 2023 (14:02:31 CEST)
Machine learning (ML) offers potential opportunities to enhance the learning, teaching and assessments within veterinary medical education including but not limited to assisting with admissions processes as well as student progress evaluations. The purpose of this primer is to assist veterinary educators in appraising and potentially adopting these rapid upcoming advances in data science and technology. In the first section, we introduce ML concepts and highlight similarities/differences between ML and classical statistics. In the second section, we provide a step-by-step worked example using simulated veterinary student data to answer a hypothesis driven question. Python syntax with explanations is provided within the text to create a random forest ML prediction model and within each step, specific considerations such as how to manage incomplete student records are highlighted when applying ML algorithms within the veterinary education field. The results from the simulated data demonstrate how decisions by the veterinary educator during ML model creation may impact the most important features contributing to the model. These results highlight the need for the veterinary educator to be fully transparent during the creation of ML models and future research is needed to establish guidelines for handling data not missing at random in medical education, and preferred methods for model evaluation.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: broiler; feed additives; LC–MS/MS; meat legislation; meat safety; poultry meat; veterinary drugs
Online: 22 September 2021 (12:13:55 CEST)
Brazil chicken production is around 13 million tons and about a third is exported to over 150 countries, placing Brazil as the world largest chicken meat producer, and therefore it is crucial to follow the legislation of all importer markets. This study conducted a survey by chance in 45 meat industries able to export. Therefore, 2580 chicken meat samples were collected and submitted to 11 analyte extraction and chromatographic verification of compliance in an accredited laboratory. Ten chemical residues (amoxicillin, bacitracin, colistin, dinitolmide + zoalene, spectinomycin, roxarsone, tiamulin, tylosin, trenbolone acetate and virginiamycin) were investigated in chicken meat and one (halofuginone hydrobromide) in chicken liver. The results showed that no compound exceeded the maximum residue limits established by seven legislations. All residue concentrations found were below the method quantification limit, thereby confirming the capability of Brazilian chicken meat industries in complying to foreign markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0567.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship; barriers; perception; survey; veterinary practitioners
Online: 24 September 2020 (04:41:43 CEST)
Usage of antimicrobials in veterinary practices has always been under scrutiny due to the perceived risk of resulting in antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. This creates the necessity for understanding the role of the prescriber group. Hence, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among veterinary practitioners from August to November 2019 in the Chattogram district of Bangladesh, aiming to assess the practitioner’s perceptions regarding antimicrobial prescribing and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) issue. We collected responses from 100 veterinarians engaged in the treatment of the large animal, poultry, and pet animal through a self-administrated questionnaire. Proportions were calculated for categorical variables and the results are presented using visual aids. Our study revealed two key barriers - scarcity of enough information on antimicrobial used, and the lack of training in the proper prescription of antimicrobials. Participants recognized that prescribing too many varieties of antimicrobials and the use of an incomplete course of drugs as two very important causes for the development of antimicrobial resistance. In addition, prescription of inappropriate doses and incentives from pharmaceutical companies were dubbed as important causes. We also found that along with clinical features and types of organisms, the availability of drugs in the local market and the economic conditions of farmers have potential impacts on the antimicrobials prescribing decision of the veterinarians. However, all participants recognized the emerging threats of AMR. Results suggested that capacity building of veterinarians and the maintenance of strong coordination are crucial in ensuring the proper engagement of veterinarians as the front-line fighters for tackling the AMR issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0530.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: veterinary medicine; law; professional ethics; moral philosophy; code of ethics
Online: 10 July 2023 (03:45:11 CEST)
The practice of the veterinary profession is regulated by public law and corporate regulations. The most fundamental corporate regulations of veterinary associations, to which membership is a condition of practising the profession, are the codes of veterinary ethics. The codes of ethics contain five basic rules for practising veterinary responsibilities to animals, clients, the public, the veterinary team, and the veterinarians themselves. Veterinarians are often faced with dilemmas about whose interests to protect; this is due to the tasks the profession carries out while protecting the animals of their owners and the public. Ethical principles are a guideline for veterinarians in difficult situations. Depending on the hierarchy of values imposed by codes of ethics, different decisions can be made. In this article, we present the importance that the Polish code of veterinary ethics gives to animal welfare as an obligation of veterinarians towards animals and compare how animal welfare is positioned in the European, American, British and New Zealand codes of veterinary ethics. In contrast to other codes, the Polish code of veterinary ethics does not sufficiently recognise animal welfare as a value to be protected in the practice of the profession.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0579.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: stray dogs; Pasteur Institute; vaccination; colonial; British India; Civil Veterinary Department
Online: 24 September 2020 (11:13:30 CEST)
India bears the highest burden of global dog-mediated human rabies deaths. Despite this, rabies is not notifiable in India, and continues to be underprioritized in public health discussions. This review examines the historical treatment of rabies in British India, a disease which has received relatively less attention in the literature on Indian medical history. Human and animal rabies was widespread in British India and treatment of bite victims imposed a major financial burden on the colonial Government of India. It subsequently became a driver of Pasteurism in India and globally and a key component of British colonial scientific enterprise. Efforts to combat rabies led to the establishment of a wide network of research institutes in India and important breakthroughs in development of rabies vaccines. As a result of these efforts, rabies no longer posed a significant threat to the British and it declined in administrative and public health priorities in India towards the end of colonial rule; a decline that has yet to be reversed in modern-day India. The review also highlights features of the administrative, scientific and societal approaches to dealing with this disease in British India which persist to this day.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: vancomycin; broad view; veterinary use at a glance; rational use; alternatives
Online: 12 November 2016 (11:09:37 CET)
Vancomycin is one of the ‘last-line’ classes of antibiotics used in the treatment of life-threatening infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Even though vancomycin was discovered in 1950s it was widely used after 1980s for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococci as prevalence of such strains were increased. However, currently it is evident that vancomycin resistant Staphylococcusaureusandvancomycin-resistant Enterococci have been developed as a result of various reasons including use of avaparcin, which is an analog of vancomycin, as feed additive in livestock. In present day context, more attention should be paid on prevention of emergence of resistance for the antibiotics in order to keep antibiotics effective. In order to prevent emergence of resistance, proper guidance for the responsible use of antimicrobials is indispensable. Therefore, almost all stakeholders who use antibiotics should have in depth understanding on the antibiotic they use. As such, it is imperative to be aware of the important aspects of vancomycin. In the present review, efforts have been made to discussthe pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, indications, emergence of resistance, control of resistance, adverse effects and alternative therapy for vancomycin.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0379.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: animal nocardiosis; Nocardia; veterinary mycology; actinomycetes; Russian Federation; pet; dermatitis; Nocardia asteroides
Online: 3 December 2019 (12:15:22 CET)
Two cases of cutaneous nocardiosis in a cat and in a dog have been described. Diagnosis was made on basis of direct microscopy and cultural mycological analysis. Phenotypic characteristics of two indigenous Nocardia strains are presented. The strain isolated from cat was presumably identified as N. asteroids. There have been no reports of suchlike cases in pets in Russia so far.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: veterinary diagnostics; lateral flow tests; rapid tests; functionalized nanoparticles; signal enhancement; cow diseases
Online: 28 November 2019 (11:07:05 CET)
In this article, we describe an immunochromatographic test system developed for rapid serodiagnostics of cattle brucellosis using two markers: gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and quantum dots (QDs). The test system was compared with immunochromatographic serodiagnostics systems that use only one marker. The approbation of the test system was conducted on samples of cattle sera with low, but diagnostically significant titers of specific antibodies. We show that when two conjugates are used, the intensity of the detectable signal increases by 2–3 times compared with the test system using the QD conjugate and by more than 9 times compared with the system using the GNP conjugate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0455.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Flying-fox, disaster management, heat events, heat stress, roost management, physiology, veterinary management.
Online: 24 September 2018 (12:28:19 CEST)
Flying-fox populations are increasingly threatened by heat events, starvation events and other stressors due to habitat clearing and human/flying-fox conflict.These factors are unlikely to resolve, meaning that a well-coordinated and timely approach to flying-fox disasters is imperative for the mitigation of further flying-fox population impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0634.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: bovine TB; risk factors; disease control; animal health policy; veterinary epidemiology; evidence-based policy
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:25:31 CEST)
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreaks, caused by Mycobacterium bovis infection, are a costly animal health challenge. Understanding factors associated with the duration of outbreaks, known as breakdowns, could lead to better disease management policy development. We undertook a retrospective observational study (2012-2018) and employed Finite Mixture Models (FMM) to model the outcome parameter, and to investigate how factors were associated with duration for differing subpopulations identified. In addition to traditional risk factors (e.g. herd size, bTB history), we also explored farm geographic area, parcels/farm fragmentation, metrics of intensity via nitrogen loading, and whether herds were designated controlled beef finishing units (CBFU) as potential risk factors for increased duration. The final model fitted log-normal distributions, with two latent classes (k) which partitioned the population into a subpopulation around the central tendency of the distribution, and a second around the tails of the distribution. The latter subpopulation included longer breakdowns of policy interest. Increasing duration was positively associated with recent (<3 yrs) TB history and the number of reactors disclosed, (log) herd size, beef herd-type relative to other herd types, number of land parcels, area, and being designated a controlled finishing unit (“feedlot”), and having high annual inward cattle movements within the “tails” subpopulation. Breakdown length was negatively associated with year of commencement of breakdown (i.e. a decreasing trend) and non-significantly with the organic nitrogen produced on the farm (N kg/hectare), a measure of stocking density. The latter finding may be due to confounding effects with herd size and area. Most variables contributed only moderately to explaining variation in breakdown duration, that is, they had moderate size effects on duration. Herd-size and CBFU had greater effect sizes on the outcome. The findings contribute to evidence-based policy formation in Ireland.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0084.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: euthanasia; veterinary ethics; medical ethics; end-of-life; assisted suicide; palliative care; assisted dying
Online: 7 December 2017 (05:20:50 CET)
Not a lot is known about either death or the dying process. Politicians and many in the medical profession in the UK tend to shy away from interfering with it by not allowing euthanasia as an end of life option for the patient. This is the first paper in a series of two, comparing the situation in human medicine and veterinary medicine, in which euthanasia is well practiced for relieving suffering at the end of an animal’s life. This first part takes the form of a literature review including best practice around end of life care, its deficiencies and the need for assisted dying. Veterinary surgeons are well trained in the ethics of euthanasia and put it to good use in the best interest of their animal patients. In countries which have legalized physician assisted suicide for the terminally ill reporting indicates that it works well, without increases in involuntary euthanasia and most importantly without intimidation of the vulnerable. However, there is still an ever increasing tendency to overuse sedation and opioids at the end of life, which merits further investigation. With advances in medical science able to significantly prolong the dying process, patient autonomy demands a review of the law in the UK.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0094.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: euthanasia; veterinary ethics; medical ethics; end-of-life; assisted suicide; palliative care; assisted dying; moral stress
Online: 1 December 2017 (16:58:27 CET)
This is the second of a series of two papers comparing the end of life issues in human and veterinary medicine. We outline the main differences between human and animal patients such as patient communication, finance and ‘conflicts of interest’ between animal, owner and veterinarian. We discuss striking similarities between human and veterinary issues such as assessing quality of life and the primary role of the attending veterinarian or doctor being the welfare and care of the patient. This paper takes the form of an ethical argument in favour of allowing euthanasia in human medicine, by providing insights into end of life issues for humans from an independent veterinary perspective. Veterinary surgeons are well trained in the ethics of euthanasia and put it to good use in the best interest of their animal patients. Doctors in the UK are limited and unwilling to put forward a case for the option of euthanasia for those patients who face a slow and agonizing death. With advances in medical science being able to significantly prolong the dying process, autonomy for the patient demands a review of the law regarding patient choice in the UK.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0360.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; coronavirus; pets; companion animals; reverse zoonosis; veterinary; animal welfare; feline; One Health
Online: 4 August 2023 (14:48:06 CEST)
Although domestic cats are susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV-2, the role of the virus in causing feline disease is less well defined. We conducted a large-scale study to identify SARS-CoV-2 infections in UK pet cats, using active and passive surveillance. Remnant feline respiratory swab samples, submitted for other pathogen testing between May 2021 and February 2023, were screened using RT-qPCR. In addition, we appealed to veterinarians for swab samples from cats suspected of having clinical SARS-CoV-2 infections. Bespoke testing for SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies was also performed, on request, in suspected cases. One RT-qPCR-positive cat was identified from the active surveillance (1/549, 0.18 %), during the Delta wave (1/175, 0.57 %). Passive surveillance detected one cat infected with the Alpha variant, and two of ten cats tested RT-qPCR-positive during the Delta wave. No cats tested RT-qPCR-positive after the emergence of Omicron BA.1 and its descendants although 374 were tested by active and eleven by passive surveillance. We describe four cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pet cats, identified by RT-qPCR and/or serology, that presented with a range of clinical signs, as well as their SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences. Our results demonstrate that, although uncommon, clinical infections in cats can and do occur.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Stress; fear; anxiety; aggression; veterinary visit; low-stress handling; counterconditioning; behaviour modification; anxiolytic medication; psychoactive drugs; dogs; cats
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:37:01 CET)
A high proportion of dogs and cats are fearful during veterinary visits, which in some cases may escalate into aggression. Here, we discuss factors that contribute to negative emotions in a veterinary setting and how these can be addressed. The set-up of the waiting area (e.g. spatial dividers; elevated places for cat carriers), tailoring the examination and the treatment to the individual, considerate handling (minimal restraint when possible, avoiding leaning over or cornering animals) and offering high-value food or toys throughout the visit can promote security and, ideally, positive associations. Desensitisation and counterconditioning are highly recommended both to prevent and address existing negative emotions. Some negative experiences such as short-term pain from injections can be minimised by using tactile and cognitive distractions. Preemptive analgesia is recommended for known painful procedures. Recommendations for handling fearful animals to minimise aggressive responses are discussed. However, anxiolytics or sedation should be used whenever there is a risk of traumatising an animal or for safety reasons. Stress-reducing measures can decrease stress and fear in patients and consequently their owners – thus strengthening the relationship with the clients as well as increasing the professional satisfaction of veterinary staff.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0050.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: antibiotics residue; antimicrobial resistance; ethno-veterinary practices; Herbal formulations; cattle health; dairy farmers; cost effective health care model
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:56:26 CET)
This study demonstrated that antibiotic residue in milk can be reduced when dairy farmers use Ethno-veterinary Practices (EVP) based on herbal alternatives to prevent and cure common clinical conditions in cattle instead of antibiotics. Of the 220 farmers selected for the study, 140 were trained and motivated to use validated herbal formulations, 80 were kept as control. Milk samples from the selected farmers (except Thirukanurpatti milk society) tested positive for antibiotic residue in the baseline survey. One year after interventions, the milk from 123 (87.86%) farmers out of 140, were without any detectable antibiotic residue, while samples from 11 farmers (7.85%) were low positive for either Beta-lactams or sulphonamides and 6 (4.29%) were positive for Beta lactams and/or sulphonamides. These 17 (11 + 6) farmers had used antibiotics along with herbal formulations. The milk samples from the control groups were positive for beta lactam and sulphonamide. There was suggestive significance of change in knowledge, attitude and practice of EVP among the farmers from Kerala and Tamil Nadu. A progressive reduction in the incidence of mastitis, enteritis, repeat breeding and cowpox were observed from 2016 to 2019 among the cows treated with EVP. Use of herbal alternative also resulted in a significant reduction in health care expenditure of cattle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: 3D printing; semi-solid extrusion 3D printing; additive manufacturing; extemporaneous manufacturing; drug delivery; personalized dosage forms; veterinary medicine; prednisolone
Online: 2 November 2020 (14:59:30 CET)
Currently, the number of approved veterinary medicines are limited, and human medications are used off-label. These approved human medications are of too high potencies for a cat or a small dog breed. Therefore, there is a dire demand for smaller doses of veterinary medicines. This study aims to investigate the use of three semi-solid extrusion 3D printers in a pharmacy or animal clinic setting for extemporaneous manufacturing of prednisolone containing orodispersible films for veterinary use. Orodispersible films with adequate content uniformity and acceptance values defined by the European Pharmacopoeia was produced with one of the studied printers, namely, the Allevi 2 bioprinter. Smooth and flexible films, with high mechanical strength, neutral pH, and low moisture content were produced with high correlation between prepared design and obtained drug amount, indicating that the Allevi 2 printer could successfully be used to extemporaneously manufacture personalized doses for animals at the point-of-care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0739.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Newcastle Disease virus; adenovirus vaccine; vaccine manufacturing; intranasal vaccination; mucosal protection; HEK293 suspension cells; bioreactor production; downstream processing; veterinary vaccine production platform
Online: 13 November 2023 (14:21:24 CET)
Newcastle Disease (ND) remains a critical disease affecting poultry in sub-Saharan Africa. In some countries, repeated outbreaks have a major impact on local economies and food security. Recently, we developed an adenovirus-vectored vaccine encoding the Fusion protein from an Ethiopian isolate of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). The adenoviral vector was designed and a manufacturing process developed in the context of the Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund initia-tive funded by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada. The industrial-ly-relevant recombinant vaccine technology platform is being transferred to the National Veteri-nary Institute (Ethiopia) for veterinary applications. Here, we demonstrate that the instillation of the adenoviral vector through the nasal cavity can confer protection to chickens against a lethal challenge with NDV. A manufacturing process using HEK293 suspension cells cultured in stirred-tank bioreactor for the vaccine production is proposed. Taking into consideration supply chain limitations, options for serum-free media selection have been evaluated. A streamlined downstream process including a filtration, an ultrafiltration and a concentration step was de-veloped. With high volumetric yields (infectious titers up to 5 x 109 TCID50/mL) in the culture su-pernatant, the final formulations were prepared at 1010 TCID50/mL, either in liquid or lyophi-lized forms. The liquid formulation was suitable and safe for mucosal vaccination and was sta-ble for 1 week at 37˚C. Both liquid and lyophilized formulations were stable after 6 months of storage at 4˚C. Overall, a manufacturing process for adenovirus vectored vaccine was developed and protective doses were determined using a convenient route of delivery. Formulation and storage conditions were established, and quality control protocols were implemented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0010.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: infrared thermal imaging; infrared thermography; veterinary thermal imaging; pain assessment; osteoarthritis; canine back pain; canine brief pain inventory; photobiomodulation therapy; laser therapy
Online: 17 December 2021 (14:32:16 CET)
Historically, the evaluation and assessment of the clinical response to treatment for canine back pain is subjective and relies on owner and clinician assessment of pain. This study evaluated the use of sequential infrared thermal images as a measure of the response of canine patients with back pain to a prescribed series of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) treatments. Qualifying participants had histories of pain and dysfunction associated with spinal osteoarthritis or intervertebral disk disease, or of non-specific uni- or bilateral back pain along the paravertebral epaxial muscles. Each patient was initially thermally imaged prior to PBMT treatment and then received multiple PBMT treatments delivered to the appropriate spinal area on days 1, 2, 3, and 4. Participants were reimaged on day 7. Thermal images provided an objective measure of superficial temperature changes over the area of PBMT treatment of each patient after the PBMT regimen. The temperature correlated with statistically significant changes in Colorado State University Canine Chronic Pain Scale scoring (CPS) and owner assessment using the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI), which includes a Pain Severity Score (PSS) and Pain Interference Score (PIS). The correlation of objective thermal imaging data with more subjective outcome measures suggests thermal imaging may be a valuable additional tool in monitoring therapy outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0504.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, attitudinal loyalty, behavioral loyalty, relationship between satisfaction and loyalty, communication, trust, commitment, perceived value, value co-creation, veterinarian, veterinary medicine, pet-owner
Online: 26 September 2018 (09:27:13 CEST)
Loyalty is one of the greatest intangible assets that any organization can possess and improving client loyalty is a primary marketing goal that can have a significant financial impact on any business. This quantitative study examined the mediating role of communication on the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty (attitudinal and behavioral) in veterinary clinics, along with the moderating roles of trust, commitment, perceived value, and relational characteristics. Responses collected from 351 pet-owners through social media were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that attitudinal loyalty (AL) has a strong positive relationship with communication at multiple points in a veterinary clinic whereas the relationship with behavioral loyalty was not as clear. Additional findings suggest that AL, which is influenced by trust in the veterinarian, communication from staff members and commitment, has a strong positive relationship with behavioral intentions, increases the number of products and services that a pet-owner consumes at his or her primary veterinary clinic, and attenuates the role of cost in receiving veterinary care. These findings can help veterinary clinic owners and managers in developing and implementing relationship strategies that improve pet-owner loyalty. The article that follows is a synopsis of the author’s dissertation.