ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0750.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: obesity; overweight; morbid obesity; veterans; underdiagnosis; BMI
Online: 23 April 2023 (03:44:35 CEST)
Background: This paper examined the gap between obesity and its diagnosis for cohorts of patients with overweight, obesity, and morbid obesity in the Veterans Administration (VA) population. Using the risk adjustment models, it also identified factors associated with the underdiagnosis of obesity. Methods: Analysis was performed on a VA data set. We identified diagnosed patients and undiag-nosed patients (identified through BMI but not diagnosed by ICD-10 codes). The groups’ de-mographics were compared using nonparametric chi-square tests. We used logistic regression analysis to predict the likelihood of the omission of diagnosis. Results: Of the 2,900,067 veterans with excess weight, 46% were overweight, 46% had obesity, and 8% of them had morbid obesity. The overweight patients were the most underdiagnosed (96%), followed by the obese (75%) and morbidly obese cohorts (69%). Older, male, and White patients were more likely to be undiagnosed as overweight and obese; younger males were more likely to be undiagnosed as morbidly obese. (p<.05) Comorbidities significantly contributed to diagnosis. Conclusion: Underdiagnosis of obesity continues to be a significant problem despite its prevalence. Diagnosing obesity accurately is necessary to provide effective management and treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0133.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: military; veterans; anger; aggression; PTSD; mental health
Online: 8 June 2018 (12:40:42 CEST)
Prevalence rates of anger and aggression are often higher in military personnel, so it is important to understand more about why this is and factors with which they are associated. Despite this, there is little evidence relating to anger and aggression in UK veterans who are seeking treatment for mental health difficulties such as PTSD. This study investigated the prevalence rates of anger and aggression in this population, as well as the associations between anger and aggression, and various sociodemographic, functioning and mental health variables. A cross-sectional design was used, with participants completing a battery of self-report questionnaires. Prevalence rates for significant anger and aggression were 74% and 28% respectively. Both women and those over 55 were less likely to report difficulties. Those with high levels of PTSD and other mental health difficulties were more likely to report anger and aggression. Other factors related to anger and aggression included childhood adversity; unemployment due to ill health; and a perceived lack of family support. Findings show that veterans who are seeking support for mental health are likely to experiencing significant difficulties with anger and aggression, especially if they have co-morbid mental health difficulties. The associations between anger and aggression and other variables has implications for the assessment and treatment of military veterans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0395.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: autonomous shuttle; autonomous vehicle acceptance; intention to use; veterans
Online: 7 September 2023 (03:29:37 CEST)
Veterans face difficulties accessing vital health and community services, especially in rural areas. Autonomous vehicles (AVs) can revolutionize transportation by enhancing access, safety and efficiency. Yet, there is limited knowledge about how Veterans perceive AVs. This study fills this gap by assessing Veterans' AV perceptions before and after exposure to an autonomous shuttle (AS). Using a multi-method approach, 23 participants completed pre- and post-AS Autonomous Vehicle User Perception Survey (AVUPS), with 10 participants also taking part in post-AS focus groups. Following exposure to the AS, differences were observed for three out of the four AVUPS domains: an increase in Intention to Use (p < 0.01), a decrease in Perceived Barriers (p < 0.05), and an increase in Total Acceptance (p = 0.01); Well-being remained unchanged (p = 0.81). Feedback from focus groups uncovered six qualitative themes: Perceived Benefits (n=70), Safety (n=66), Shuttle Experience (n=47), AV Adoption (n=44), Experience with AVs (n=17), and Perception Change (n=10). This study underscores AVs' potential to alleviate transportation challenges faced by Veterans, contributing to more inclusive transportation solutions. The research offers insights for future policies and interventions aimed at integrating AV technology into the transportation system, particularly for mobility-vulnerable Veterans in rural and urban settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: 3MDR; treatment-resistant PTSD; military; veterans; mental health; emotional regulation
Online: 26 October 2021 (09:51:46 CEST)
Multi-modal Motion-assisted Memory Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy (3MDR), an interactive, virtual-reality assisted, exposure-based intervention for PTSD, has shown promising results for treatment-resistant Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (TR-PTSD) among military members (MMs) and Veterans in Randomized Controlled Trials. Previous research has suggested that emotional regulation (ER) and emotional dysregulation (ED) may be factors which are correlated with symptom severity and maintenance of TR-PTSD. This embedded mixed-methods pilot study (n=9) sought to explore the impact of 3MDR on ER and ED of MMs and Veterans. Difficulties in Emotional Regulation Scale (DERS-18) data was collected at baseline, prior to each session, and at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months post-intervention and analyzed using a Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Qualitative data collected from sessions, debriefs, and follow-up interviews were transcribed and descriptively analyzed. Results demonstrated statistically significant decreases in DERS-18 scores from pre-intervention to post-intervention at each timepoint. Qualitatively, participants perceived improvements in ER within specified DERS-18 domains. We describe how 3MDR’s unique and novel approach may address ED through cognitive-motor stimulation, narration, divergent thinking, reappraisal of aversive stimuli, dual-task processing, and reconsolidation of traumatic memories. Further investigation is underway to better understand the underlying neurobiological mechanisms by which 3MDR addresses ER and PTSD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Veterans; psychiatric disorders; equine-assisted services; PTSD; psychotherapy incorporating horses; military sexual trauma
Online: 6 May 2023 (05:14:12 CEST)
Equine-assisted services (EAS) are being increasingly used as complementary interventions for military veterans who have experienced trauma. However, there is limited evidence of benefit for this population and almost no literature describing desired potential outcomes and possible mechanisms of action. The aim of this article is to address these gaps by reviewing the extant literature of animal-assisted interventions in general, and equine-assisted services in particular, with the goal of providing guidance for future investigations in the field. Currently, the field is in the early stage of scientific development, but published results are promising. Interventions that enhance treatment compliance and/or outcomes could benefit this population. Preliminary results, reviewed herein, indicate that EAS interventions might benefit the military veteran population by enhancing treatment engagement and therapeutic alliance, as well as contributing to symptom reduction and resulting in various transdiagnostic benefits. It is recommended that future studies include exploration of potential beneficial outcomes discussed herein as well as investigate suggested mechanisms of action.