ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0226.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: vertical farming; zero acreage farming; university; sustainability; economics; climate change
Online: 11 October 2018 (04:05:17 CEST)
The world is facing several global issues such as food and energy crisis, climate change and greenhouse gases emissions. To subdue these issues, many entities from academia and industries have innovated alternate techniques of performing regular activities which cause such problems. One of these innovations is the introduction of vertical and zero acreage farming in the field of sustainability. These carry the potential to solve one of the most important affairs of food security in most countries of the world. But, this technology has been in its nascent stage for many years. This paper uses a comprehensive framework proving the feasibility of initiating vertical farming on university campuses to feed the staff and students, which could also set an example to the rest of the world into using this technique on a wider scale. The study chose Huazhong University of science and technology (HUST) in Wuhan city, China for accessing the return on investment and food sufficiency if vertical farming is implemented. Using Central Limit Theorem, a statistical model was developed, and various scenarios were analyzed. The results indicated that if a separate vertical farm is constructed, the breakeven can be achieved in a range of 10-20 depending on parameters such as type of operation, number of floors and amount of vegetation. The study has shown that the use of vertical farming cannot only bring in revenue for the campus but also aid in mitigating climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0153.v1
Subject: Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment; Urban agriculture; Wheat; Controlled environment agriculture, Vertical garden
Online: 11 October 2021 (10:14:56 CEST)
Main purposes and research question: Wheat is the second largest grain crop by tonnage in the world and the largest in Denmark. Given the observed, adverse impacts on wheat yields of climate change and the importance of wheat in the human diet, the purpose of this study was to use life cycle assessment to compare conventional wheat farming with indoor vertical farming using hydroponics. Methods: Life Cycle Assessment was used to assess the base case systems up to the “farm gate” for 1 tonne of wheat grain. The processes contributing most of the impacts were identified, and scenarios were assessed to determine how much the impacts could be reduced. Results: The conventional system outperformed the base case vertical system in every impact category, due to the electricity consumption in the lighting system. The scenarios included increasing the efficiency of the LED lighting and using 100% wind energy, but the conventional system still outperformed the vertical system by significant margins in all impact categories. This was due to the low photosynthetic conversion efficiency and the high energy density of wheat. Conclusions: Until significant improvements are made to lighting efficiency, the photosynthesis conversion efficiency of wheat, new wheat variants designed for vertical gardens and the sustainability of electricity supply, conventional wheat production will be environmentally preferable and vertical gardens would be advised to focus on food products with low energy densities.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: vertical farming; controlled environment agriculture; plant factories; biostimulant; microbiome; hydroponics; aeroponics
Online: 28 May 2021 (11:07:33 CEST)
Vertical farming (VF) is a potential solution for the production of high-quality, accessible, and climate-friendly nutrition for growing urban populations. However, to realize VF’s potential as a sustainable food source, innovative technologies are required to ensure that VF can be industrialized on a massive scale and extended beyond leafy greens and fruits into the production of food staples or row crops. A major obstacle to the economic and environmental sustainability of VF is the lighting energy consumed. While technological advances have improved the energy efficiency of VF lighting systems, there has been insufficient research into biostimulation as an approach to reduce energy needs. We conducted a controlled trial to investigate the application of a phycocyanin-rich Spirulina extract (PRSE) as a biostimulant in hydroponically grown, vertically farmed lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Salanova®). PRSE application reduced the time from seeding to harvest by 6 days, increased yield by 12.5%, and improved quality including color, taste, texture, antioxidant flavonoid levels and shelf life. Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community of the nutrient solution indicated that PRSE increased the overall bacterial diversity including raising the abundance of Actinobacteria and Firmicutes and reducing the abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria. This preliminary study demonstrates that microalgae-derived biostimulants may play an important role in improving the economic and environmental sustainability of VF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0092.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: hyporheic zone; Darcian flux; channel bend; vertical hydraulic conductivity; stream topography; grain size; porosity
Online: 26 February 2017 (10:07:31 CET)
Channel bends are one of the most important characteristic features of natural streams. These bends often create the conditions for a hyporheic zone, which has been recognized as a critical component of stream ecosystems. The streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv), vertical hydraulic gradient (VHG) and Darcian flux (DF) in the hyporheic zone were estimated at 61 locations along a channel bend of the Beiluo River during July 2015 and January 2016. All the streambed attributes showed great spatial variability along the channel bend. Both upward fluxes and downward fluxes occurred during the two test periods, most of studied stream sections were controlled by downwelling, indicating stream water discharge into the subsurface. The average downward flux was higher at the downstream side than at the upstream side of the channel bend, especially in July 2015. The distribution of streambed sediment grain size has a significant influence on the variability of Kv; high percentages of silt and clay sediments generally lead to low Kv values. Higher Kv at the depositional left bank at the upstream site shifted toward the erosional right bank at the downstream site, with Kv values positively correlated with the water depth. This study suggested that the variabilities of Kv and VHG were influenced by the stream geomorphology and that the distribution of Kv was inversely related, to a certain extent, to the distribution of VHG across the channel bend. Kv and VHG were found to have opposite effects on the DF, and the close relationship between Kv and DF indicated that the water fluxes were mainly controlled by Kv.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: COVID19; preterm neonate; pneumonia; vertical transmission
Online: 31 May 2020 (16:39:43 CEST)
We report the first case of COVID 19 pneumonia in a preterm neonate in Mayotte, an overseas department of France. The respiratory distress with typical thoracic imaging lesions appears at 14 days of life. This case-report emphasizes the need for a cautious and close up follow-up for asymptomatic neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 infection. Vertical transmission cannot be excluded in this case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0244.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: magnetic field compensation; vertical cryostat; FREIA
Online: 17 February 2020 (14:57:39 CET)
We describe the design and construction of coils to compensate the earth's magnetic field in the vertical cryostat GERSEMI in the FREIA laboratory at Uppsala University.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0476.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: female; HIV infections; breastfeeding; vertical transmission; patient’s autonomy.
Online: 25 November 2021 (12:55:13 CET)
Background: Vertical transmission of HIV infection can occur during pregnancy, during childbirth or through breastfeeding. The recommendations issued by the various international guidelines (WHO 2010, EACS 2017, DHHS 2017) on the safety of breastfeeding of HIV-infected women in effective antiretroviral treatment do not provide univocal indications referring to individual countries the choice to advise or advise against such procedure. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in a small cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women who, despite the information received, decided to breastfeed their children. The observation was carried out in the period between March 2017 and June 2021. In all newborns, prophylaxis therapy was initiated at birth, according to the treatment guidelines, the scheme adopted involved the administration of zidovudine (AZT) orally for 4 weeks, started immediately after the childbirth. Breastfeeding time was, on average, 5 months. Results: No contagion was diagnosed. All infants were tested for HIV-RNA at birth, 1, 3, and 6 months after birth, and 1, 3 and 3 months after stopping breastfeeding. Conclusions: The data obtained represent, in our opinion, a solicitation to discuss and re-evaluate scientific evidence that starting from "Undetectable Equals Untransmittable" (U = U) can open a scientific and cultural review of breastfeeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0360.v1
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:21:31 CEST)
The most important issue in integrated next generation wireless systems (NGWS) by fourth generation networks which consists of various wireless architectures extending from cellular networks to satellite networks is to allow everyone around the world to connect seamlessly to applications anywhere at any time through the best network. Heterogeneous networks have created many challenges such as mobility management, handoff, resource management. For always best connectivity the selection of parameters plays an important role in the decision of vertical handoff, some of parameters are depend upon MT and some are depend upon the network conditions . In this paper we designed Intelligent Vertical Handoff based on Fuzzy Logic Decision model ( IVH-FL), IVH-FL model which has five parameters for vertical handoff decision : Received Signal Strength (RSS), Available bandwidth (B), Users Preference (UP), Mobile Speed (SM) and Power Consumption (PC), with the help of Fuzzy Logic tool box and concept of fuzzy linguistic variables. The results confirmed improvement performance , and reduced the number of unnecessary handover .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0149.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: endosymbiosis, germline, vertical transmission, cell-to-cell transfer
Online: 15 January 2019 (09:55:25 CET)
Microbial symbioses exhibit astounding adaptations, yet all symbionts face the problem of how to reliably associate with host offspring every generation. A common strategy is vertical transmission, in which symbionts are directly transmitted from the female to her offspring. The diversity of symbionts and vertical transmission mechanisms is as expansive as the diversity of eukaryotic host taxa that house them. However, there are several common themes among these mechanisms based on the degree to which symbionts associate with the host germline during transmission. In this review, we detail three distinct vertical transmission strategies, starting with associations that are transmitted from host somatic cells to offspring somatic cells, either due to lacking a germline or avoiding it. A second strategy involves somatically-localized symbionts that migrate into the germline during host development. The third strategy we discuss is one in which the symbiont maintains continuous association with the germline throughout development. Unexpectedly, the vast majority of documented vertically inherited symbionts rely on the second strategy: soma-to-germline migration. Given that not all eukaryotes contain a sequestered germline and instead produce offspring from somatic stem cell lineages, this soma-to-germline migration is discussed in the context of multicellular evolution. Lastly, as recent genomics data have revealed an abundance of horizontal gene transfer events from symbiotic and non-symbiotic bacteria to host genomes, we discuss their impact on eukaryotic host evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0180.v2
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: American grapevine rootstocks; vertical garden; offshoot growth; footprint
Online: 16 July 2018 (05:23:00 CEST)
In this study, grapevine was used as the research material. This plant which epitomizes the opinion that vertical gardens can have a positive influence on human psychology with their beautiful view, e.g., the hanging gardens of Babylon about 2500 years ago. The study in question was conducted in 2016 at Bingol University, Faculty of Agriculture, the Department of Garden Plants research and application area. The offshoot growth was measured in a fertilizer experiment that formed the control, first application (200 g/100 L water, leaf) and second application (100 g/100 L water + 20% leaf + root). Moreover, the plant’s footprint in the vertical area was determined. The average offshoot growth of 1103 P American grapevine rootstock in the first and second applications was measured as 61.5 cm and 39.5 cm respectively, and it was 43.0 cm and 51.0 for C American grapevine rootstock. The average growth of 1103 P and 1616 C American grapevine in the control group was determined as 30.6 cm and 32.1 cm. The average growth of both American grapevine rootstocks used in the experiment was determined to be higher for the first and second applications than the controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0083.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: particulate matter; AOD; planetary vertical corrections; humidity corrections
Online: 10 January 2018 (03:16:02 CET)
Satellite-based monitoring can retrieve ground-level PM2.5 concentrations with higher-resolution and continuous spatial coverage to assist in making management strategies and estimating health exposures. The Sichuan Basin has a complex terrain and several city clusters that differ from other regions in China: it has an enclosed air basin with a unique planetary boundary layer dynamic which accumulates air pollution. The spatiotemporal distribution of 1-km resolution Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) in the Sichuan Basin was retrieved using the improved dark pixel method and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data in this study. The retrieved seasonal AOD reached its highest values in spring and had the lowest values in autumn. The higher correlation (r = 0.84, N = 171) between the ground-based Lidar AOD and 1-km resolution MODIS AOD indicated that the high-resolution MODIS AOD could be used to retrieve the ground-level PM2.5 concentration. The Lidar-measured annual average extinction coefficient increased linearly with the Planetary Boundary Layer Height (PBLH) in the range of 100 ~ 670 m, but exponentially decreased between the heights of 670 ~ 1800 m. Both the correlation and the variation tendency of simulated PBLH from WRF_SHIN/CALMET were closer to the Lidar observation than that of three other Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) schemes (the Grenier-Bretherton-McCaa (GBM) scheme, the he Total Energy-Mass Flux (TEMF) scheme and the University of Washington (UW) scheme), which suggested that the simulated PBLH could be used in the vertical correction of retrieval PM2.5. Four seasonal fitting functions were also obtained for further humidity correction. The correlation coefficient between the aerosol extinction coefficient and the fitted surface-level PM2.5 concentration at the benchmark station of Southwest Jiao-tong University was enhanced significantly from 0.62 to 0.76 after vertical and humidity corrections during a whole year. During the evaluation of the retrieved ground-level PM2.5 with observed values from three cities, Yibin (YB), Dazhou (DZ), and Deyang (DY), our algorithm performed well, resulting in higher correlation coefficients of 0.78 (N = 177), 0.77 (N = 178), and 0.81 (N = 181), respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0462.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Raindrop size distributions (DSD) from Doppler radar; Removing vertical air motion from radar Doppler spectra; Vertical pointing Doppler rain observations
Online: 26 April 2021 (14:09:33 CEST)
It is important to understand the statistical-physical structure of the rain in the vertical so that observations aloft can be translated meaningfully into what will occur at the surface. In order to achieve this understanding, it is necessary to gather high temporal and spatial resolution observations of rain in the vertical. This can only be accomplished using radars. It can be achieved by translating radar Doppler spectra into drop size distributions which can then be integrated to calculate variables such as the rain fall rate. A long-standing difficulty in using such measurements, however, is the problem of vertical air motion which can shift the Doppler spectra, and, therefore, significantly alter the deduced drop size distributions and integrated variables. In this work, we illustrate the improvement in measured rain structures using a new approach for removing the effect of mean vertical air motion. It is demonstrated that the new approach proposed here not only produces what appear to be better estimates of the rainfall rates, but, also as a consequence, provides estimates of the temporal and spatial regionally coherent updraft and downdrafts occurring in the precipitation. Furthermore, the technique is readily applicable to other radars especially those operating at non-attenuating frequencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0350.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: magnetic susceptibility; soil magnetometry; vertical profiles; soil contamination; Krakow
Online: 25 July 2022 (05:36:35 CEST)
The paper concerns the distribution of apparent magnetic susceptibility in soil profiles located in the areas of topsoil magnetic susceptibility anomalies in Krakow. The type of land use, possible sources of magnetic carriers, and the type of soil were taken into account. Additionally, at each soil profile, a comparison between soil magnetic susceptibility and the results of geochemical analyzes of soil samples was made. The study shows very characteristic changes in magnetic susceptibility with depth, reflecting the interdependencies between natural and anthropogenic factors. A visible magnetic susceptibility maximum at the depth of 10-30 cm is observed at each soil profile. The maximum is associated mainly with the deposition of atmospheric dust and its vertical range depends on the level of anthropopression and natural conditions of soils. At the depth above 40 cm in the eastern part of Krakow, a correlation between the magnetic susceptibility and the soil type (chernozems de-veloped on loess) was found. All indicates that the thicknesses of contaminated upper horizons are not accidental and they depend on human interactions with the environment and the type of soil. An attempt at template establishment with the sources of magnetic particle carriers for different places in the city was made. As the result, in high urbanized sites, the extreme values of magnet-ic susceptibility rapidly change in short vertical distances can identify the richness of anthropo-genic layers with various types of anthropogenic ferrous material and/or additionally Fe-carrying objects buried in soils. In industrialized sites, anthropogenic input plays the most important role in the creation of soil magnetic characteristics. What is more, industrial pollution hides the natural magnetic properties of chernozems. In opposite, the studies at the sites under low anthropopression (mainly located in forests) allow for better insight into magnetic proper-ties arising during pedogenic processes, indirectly giving information about soil conditions. In the forest areas, the lowest values of soil magnetic susceptibility were measured. Additionally, the influence of pedogenic and lithogenic factors on forest soils is manifested in the results. Among the sites concerned, particular attention should be paid to the vicinity of the steel plant because of the agricultural land in the surroundings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Vertical Axis Wind Turbine; Wind Energy; Helical Blade; CFD
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:00:17 CET)
The global energy crisis has lead researchers explore other sources of energy like wind, resulting in a wide acceptance of wind turbines. Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) more suitable for small scale application in urban conditions than their horizontal-axis counterparts. A Helical bladed VAWT would reduce the ripple effect when compared to Straight bladed VAWT. The effect of the blade helix angle on the aerodynamic performance of VAWT using 3D numerical simulations is studied. Turbulence modelled using 4-Equation transition SST k-w model. Three different helix angles of 60, 90 and 120 of a 3 bladed VAWT operating across different tip speed ratios were studied. The 60 helical bladed VAWT was found to perform better than all other helical bladed and straight bladed VAWT. Standard deviation of the moment coefficient generated by a blade plotted against 360 of azimuth rotation revealed that the ripple effect on the shaft produced by cyclic loading of the straight blade is considerably reduced upon introduction of helix angle, with 120 helical blade giving lowest standard deviation. The analysis has been done for the percentage of power generated by each quartile of flow and the contribution of each section of the blade. A comparative study was also conducted between different helical bladed VAWT and straight bladed VAWT. Flow feature analysis also revealed the reasons behind secondary peaks and the performance improvement when tip speed ratio increases. Wake structure analysis and flow contours were also studied for a better understanding of the flow field.
Online: 25 February 2020 (11:38:47 CET)
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new viral respiratory disease and whether pregnant women are at increased risk of infection is unknown. Viral pneumonia is an important indirect cause of maternal death. Little is known about the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during pregnancy. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy and their newborn infant, and we sought to explored whether the SARS-CoV-2 can be intrauterine vertically transmitted. Study Design: The study was a case series study conducted in the obstetric ward of Tongji Hospital affiliated to Huazhong University of science and technology, Wuhan, China. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological profiles of the SARS-CoV-2 infection case series. A systematic testing procedure for SARS-CoV-2 infection using oropharyngeal swab, placenta tissue, vaginal mucus, and breast milk of mothers. and oropharyngeal swab, umbilical cord blood, and serum of newborns was conducted. Results: We have conducted the most thorough virological assessment to date, and we include a longer clinical observation in mother-infant dyads during hospitalization. The clinical course and outcomes of three pregnant women who acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection late pregnancy are described in mother-infant dyads. Two had caesarean delivery in their third trimester. All patients showed an uneventful perinatal course, and a successful outcome. No infants became infected by vertical transmission or during delivery. Conclusion: No evidence to suggest the potential risk of intrauterine vertical transmission in the case series and further in-depth study is needed. Both the pregnancy woman and infant showed fewer adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0092.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Hepatitis B; Bangladesh; prevalence; vertical transmission; occult infection; genotypes.
Online: 5 September 2018 (09:24:31 CEST)
Despite a considerable body of published research on Hepatitis B in Bangladesh, researchers continue to lament the lack of reliable information about Hepatitis B epidemiology. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive survey of the literature with particular focus on a number of epidemiological questions, as well as a commentary on the trends of Hepatitis B research as it has taken place in Bangladesh. The key themes to emerge from this review are: first, beyond noting a declining trend, it is difficult to provide conclusive estimates about Hepatitis B prevalence in the general population of Bangladesh. The majority of the studies, even the ones conducted on apparently healthy populations, fail to be adequately representative for the reasons explored in the article. Secondly, Hepatitis B in Bangladesh is sharply stratified across sociodemographic lines, which speaks to the role of awareness and risk exposure in Hepatitis B prevalence. Third, more research on occult infection rates is required to estimate the extent of risk posed by the current blood donation screening program, which relies exclusively on Hepatitis B surface antigen as a biomarker. The same considerations apply for the comparative importance of vertical vs. horizontal transmission, and prevalence among particular risk groups like healthcare workers with high occupational exposure. Finally, while recent studies do allow us, albeit with some ambiguity, to draw conclusions about distribution of Hepatitis B genotypes in Bangladesh, there needs to be an added emphasis on molecular epidemiology. It is hoped that the present review, the first of its kind in Bangladesh, will serve as an up-to-date summary of the course Hepatitis B epidemiology research in Bangladesh has taken thus far, as well as crucial gaps to address going forward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0060.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Space Science Keywords: Ionosphere; vertical total electron content (VTEC); seismo-ionospheric anomaly
Online: 11 April 2017 (06:54:25 CEST)
This paper studies ionospheric vertical total electron content (VTEC) variations before the 2014 Mw8.2 Chile earthquake. VTEC derived from 14 GPS (Global Positioning System) stations and GIM (Global Ionospheric Map) were used to analyze ionospheric variations before the earthquake using the sliding interquartile range method, and results showed that significant positive VTEC anomalies occurred on 28 March. To explore possible causes of these anomalies, effects of solar and geomagnetic activities were examined, and VTEC variations during 17 March to 31 March in 2009-2013 were cross-compared. Also, VTEC for a full year before the earthquake was investigated. Results indicated that these anomalies were weakly associated with high solar activities and geomagnetic storms and that these anomalies were not normal seasonal and diurnal variations. An analysis of the spatial distribution of the observed anomalies was also presented, and it demonstrated that anomalies specifically appeared around the epicenter on 28 March. It suggests that observed anomalies may be associated with the subsequent Chile earthquake. Equatorial anomaly variations were analyzed to discuss the possible physical mechanism, and results showed that the equatorial anomaly unusually increased on 28 March, which indicates that anomalous electric fields generated in the earthquake preparation area and the meridional wind are possible causes of the observed ionospheric anomalies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0628.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Titanium-Aluminum-Niobium; Phase Diagram; Vertical Section; Equilibrium Relation; CALPHAD
Online: 25 June 2021 (16:02:10 CEST)
The 8Nb isopleth section of a Ti-Al-Nb system is experimentally determined based on thermal analysis and thermodynamic calculation methods to obtain the phase transformation and equilibrium relations required for material design and fabrication. The phase transus and relations for the 8Nb-TiAl system show some deviations from the calculated thermodynamic results. The ordered βo phase transforms from the disordered β/α phases at 1200–1400 °C over a large Al concentration range, and this transformation is considered to be an intermediate type between the first- and second-order phase transitions. Moreover, the βo phases are retained at the ambient temperature in the 8Nb-TiAl microstructures. The ωo phase transforms from the highly ordered βo phase, rather than from α2 or βo with low degree of atom ordering B2 (LOB2) structure, with Al concentration of 32–43 at.% at approximately 850 °C. From the experimental detection, the transition of the ωo phase from the βo phase is considered to be a further ordering process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: quinolone; decoquinate; Toxoplasma gondii; tachyzoites; bradyzoites; oocysts; vertical transmission; proliferation; resistance
Online: 16 September 2021 (16:41:28 CEST)
The quinolone decoquinate (DCQ) is widely used in veterinary practice for the treatment of bacte-rial and parasitic infections, most notably coccidiosis in poultry and in ruminants. We have in-vestigated the effects of treatment of Toxoplasma gondii in infected human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) with DCQ. It induced distinct alterations in the parasite mitochondrion within 24h, which persisted even after long-term (500 nM, 52 days) treatment, although there was no parasiticidal effect. Based on the low half-maximal effective concentration (IC50) of 1.1 nM and the high selec-tivity index of >5000, the efficacy of oral treatment of pregnant mice experimentally infected with T. gondii oocysts with DCQ at 10 mg/kg/day for 5 days was assessed. However, the treatment had detrimental effects, induced higher neonatal mortality than T. gondii infection alone, and did not prevent vertical transmission. Thus, three quinoline-O-carbamate derivatives of DCQ antici-pated to have better physicochemical properties than DCQ were assessed in vitro. One such com-pound RMB060 displayed an exceedingly low IC50 of 0.07 nM when applied concomitantly with infection of host cells and had no impact on HFF viability at 10 µM. As was the case for DCQ, RMB060 treatment resulted in alteration of the mitochondrial matrix and loss of cristae, but the changes became apparent at just 6h after commencement of treatment. After 48h, RMB060 induced the expression of the bradyzoite antigen BAG1, but TEM did not reveal any other features remi-niscent of bradyzoites. Exposure of infected cultures to 300 nM RMB060 for 52 days did not re-sult in complete killing of all tachyzoites, although mitochondria remained ultrastructurally damaged and there was a slower proliferation rate. Treatment of mice infected with T. gondii oocysts with RMB060 did reduce parasite burden in non-pregnant mice and dams, but vertical transmission to pups could not be prevented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0163.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: black carbon aerosol; aerosol layer; vertical distribution; numerical simulation; WRF-Chem
Online: 13 February 2020 (10:13:31 CET)
Studies on the detection of layers with elevated black carbon aerosol (BC) concentrations and the formation conditions of these layers help understand the vertical distribution of BC concentrations, which will provide a basis for the assessment of climate effects and early BC pollution warnings. By using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) numerical model, we performed a numerical simulation analysis on the authenticity of strong elevated BC concentration layers that were detected by an aircraft in the mixing layer over Harbin, China, which is a high-emission area, on a clear sunny afternoon in the early heating period of 2016. We then discuss possible problems and solutions when non-vertical paths are used to detect the vertical distribution of BC concentrations. Finally, we discuss the favorable conditions for the formation of elevated BC concentration layers by weak vertical flow. The results show that the horizontal variability of BC concentration in the mixing layer in the observation area in Harbin was sufficiently large during the measurement. This produced a false elevated layer, as detected by the aircraft during one round of spiral flight in the mixing layer. The root mean square of the horizontal distribution of BC concentration did not change with height in the mixing layer during the daytime, but it decreased with the thickness of the mixing layer and was higher in the mixing layer than in the free atmosphere. Therefore, the thinner the mixing layer, in which the vertical distribution of the BC concentration is detected in an inclined path, the stronger interference of the horizontal variability on the detected results. When a spiral flight detection path is used, the aircraft should fly at least two rounds in the mixing layer. In the daytime, due to strong turbulence in the mixing layer, weak vertical uplift is not favorable for the occurrence of elevated BC concentration layers in the mixing layer. In the nighttime, if weak vertical uplift is well matched with the BC concentration or its vertical gradient, elevated BC concentration layers can be formed in the atmosphere. Compared with upper layers far from the ground, nighttime elevated layers are easier to form in lower layers near the ground because high BC concentrations or large vertical gradients are more likely to occur in the lower layers. Both cases facilitate the occurrence of large vertical upward transport rates of BC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0171.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: groundwater; hydrogeological structures; remote sensing; aeromagnetic survey; radial vertical electrical sounding
Online: 30 September 2017 (12:29:44 CEST)
Aeromagnetic data coupled with Landsat ETM+ data and SRTM DEM have been processed in order to map regional hydrogeological structures in the basement complex region of Paiko, north-central Nigeria. Lineaments were extracted from derivative maps from aeromagnetic, Landsat ETM+ and SRTM DEM datasets. Ground geophysical investigation utilizing Radial Vertical Electrical Sounding (RVES) was established in nine transects comprising of four sounding stations which are oriented in three azimuths. Source Parameter Imaging (SPI) was employed to map the average depths structures from aeromagnetic dataset. Selected thematic layers which included lineaments density, lithologic, slope, drainage density and geomorphologic maps were integrated and modelled using ArcGIS to generate groundwater potential map of the area. Groundwater zones were classified into four categories: very good, good, moderate and poor according to their potential to yield sustainable water to drilled wells. Results from RVES survey reveal a close correlation to lineaments delineated from surface structural mapping and remotely sensed datasets. Hydrogeological significance of these orientations suggest that aeromagnetic data can be used to map relatively deep-seated fractures which are likely to be open groundwater conduits while remotely sensed lineaments and orientations delineated from the RVES survey may indicate areas of recharge. Regions with high lineament density have relatively better groundwater potential. This is attributable to areas having deep weathering profiles associated with intrusive bodies that have resulted in intense fracturing in the area. Drill depths in this area should target a minimum of 80 m to ensure sufficient and sustainable supplies to drilled wells. The outcome of this study should act as information framework that would guide the siting of productive water wells and while providing needed information for relevant agencies in need of data for the development of groundwater resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0060.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: vertical air velocity; millimeter-wave cloud radar; convective cloud; Tibetan Plateau
Online: 21 July 2017 (04:58:56 CEST)
In the summertime, convections occur frequently over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) because of the large dynamic and thermal effects of the landmass. Measurements of vertical air velocity in convective cloud are useful for advancing our understanding of the dynamic and microphysical mechanisms of clouds and can be used to improve the parameterization of current numerical models. This paper presents a technique for retrieving high-resolution vertical air velocity from convective cloud over the TP, by using Doppler spectra from a vertically pointing Ka-band cloud radar. The method is based on the development of a “small-particle-traced” idea and the necessary data processing and uses three modes of radar. Spectral broadening corrections, uncertainty estimations, and result merging are used to ensure accurate results. Qualitative analysis of two typical convective cases shows that the retrievals are reliable and agree with the expectant results inferred from other radar measurements. A quantitative retrieval of vertical air motion from a ground-based optical disdrometer is used to preliminarily validate our radar-derived results. The comparison illustrates that while the data trends from the two methods of retrieval are similar, with the updrafts and downdrafts coinciding, cloud radar has a much higher resolution and can reveal the small-scale variation of vertical air motion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: two-phase flow; interfacial friction factor; vertical pipes; higher viscosity, pressure drop
Online: 6 April 2021 (10:10:47 CEST)
Selection of appropriate friction factors is paramount for accurate prediction of key flow characteristics in gas–liquid two-phase flows. In this work, experimental investigation of vertical air and oil (with viscosities up to 200 mPa s) flow in a 0.060-m ID pipe is reported. Superficial air and oil velocity ranges utilized are from 22.37 to 59.06 m/s and 0.05 to 0.16 m/s respectively. The influence of estimation of interfacial friction factor on accurate determination of film thickness, void fraction and pressure gradient was investigated using a two-fluid model. The results indicated that the two-fluid model is capable of accurately predicting flow characteristics. Further, it reveals that the best performing correlations are the Belt et al. and Ambrosini et al. correlations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0034.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: vertical accuracy; photogrammetric DTM; ASTER; SRTM; TanDEM-X; orthometric height; geoid height
Online: 2 September 2020 (08:30:48 CEST)
The quality of photogrammetric-based derived products like orthophotos, digital terrain models (DTMs) and digital line maps as well as the global digital elevation models (DEM) are rigorously dependent on the accuracy of image orientation. This paper evaluates the vertical accuracy of aerial photogrammetric Digital Terrain Model (DTM), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER), and TerraSAR-X's twin satellite of TanDEM-X (TDX) datasets against in-situ orthometric heights computed from ellipsoidal heights and the 2008 Earth Gravitational Model (EGM2008) derived geoid heights in Ethiopia. The quality of the four global digital elevation models was also validated against the aerial photogrammetric DTM measurements. Besides, the accuracies of the photogrammetric DTM and the four DEM products were checked for their compliance to the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) standards as well as the Ethiopian national vertical data evaluation standards. The study showed that the photogrammetric DTM is in a good agreement with the reference orthometric heights compared to SRTM, ASTER and TDX datasets. More precisely, the result has an absolute accuracy of 1.67 m at Linear Error (LE) 95% confidence level, while the absolute accuracy of SRTM3 arc seconds (SRTM3) at LE 90% (11.91 m) is better than its product specification (16 m). The absolute accuracy of SRTM1 arc second (SRTM1) (7.70 m at LE 90%) surpasses that of SRTM3, whereas the absolute accuracy of ASTER DEM is somehow below its product specification. TDX also has the same vertical accuracy (10.29 m at LE 90%) compared to its product specification (10 m). Furthermore, the vertical accuracy of the photogrammetric DTM meets the100 cm vertical accuracy of the 2015 ASPRS standard. However, it does not meet the Ethiopian national vertical data accuracy requirement standard, i.e., RMSEz of ± 0.45 m. In general, the photogrammetric DTM, SRTM1, and TDX have been proven a superior product over the SRTM3 and ASTER DEMs, and better to use these products for high-level precision and accuracy required applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0558.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: digital terrain models; DTM vertical accuracy; DTM comparison; hydrologeomorphological Modelling; Mediterranean catchments
Online: 24 October 2018 (08:27:47 CEST)
Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) are currently a fundamental source of information in Earth Sciences. However, DTM-based studies can contain remarkable biases if limitations and inaccuracies of these models are disregarded. In this work, four freely available datasets such as SRTM C-SAR DEM, ASTER GDEM V2 and two airborne LiDAR derived DTMs (at 5 and 1 m spatial resolution, respectively) were analysed in a comparative study in three geomorphologically contrasted catchments located in Mediterranean geoecosystems under intensive human land use influence. Vertical accuracy as well as the influence of each dataset characteristics on hydrological and geomorphological modelling applicability were assessed by using classic geometric and morphometric parameters and the more recently proposed index of sediment connectivity. Overall vertical accuracy – expressed as Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and Normalized Median Deviation (NMAD) – revealed the highest accuracy in the cases of the 1 m (RMSE = 1.55 m; NMAD = 0.44 m) and 5 m LiDAR DTMs (RMSE = 1.73 m; NMAD = 0.84 m). Vertical accuracy of SRTM was lower (RMSE = 6.98 m; NMAD = 5.27 m) but considerably higher than in the case of ASTER (RMSE = 16.10 m; NMAD = 11.23 m). All datasets were affected by systematic distortions. As a consequence, propagation of these errors caused negative impacts on flow routing, stream network and catchment delineation and, to a lower extent, on the distribution of slope values. These limitations should be carefully considered when applying DTMs for hydrogeomorphological modelling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0365.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: bound; sine; cosine; horizontal straight line; vertical straight line; complex plane; slope
Online: 19 September 2018 (06:24:07 CEST)
In the paper, the author discusses and computes bounds of the sine and cosine along straight lines on the complex plane.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0021.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: vertical farming; controlled environment; lettuce cultivars; anthocyanin; light quality; LEDs; light recipe; stomata
Online: 1 June 2022 (13:17:55 CEST)
Indoor crop cultivation systems such as vertical farms or plant factories necessitate artificial lighting. Light spectral quality can affect plant growth and metabolism and, consequently, the amount of biomass produced and the value of the produce. Conflicting results on the effects of light spectrum in different plant species and cultivars make it critical to implement a singular lighting solution. In this study we explored the response of green and red leaf lettuce cultivars (’Aquino’, CVg, or ‘Barlach’, CVr, respectively) to long-term blue-enriched light application (WB). Plants were grown for 30 days in a growth chamber with optimal environmental condi-tions (temperature: 20°C, relative humidity: 60%, ambient CO2, Photon Flux Density (PFD) of 260 µmol m-2 s-1 over an 18-h photoperiod). At 15 days after sowing (DAS) white spectrum LEDs (WW) were compared to WB (λPeak = 423 nm) maintaining the same PFD of 260 µmol m-2 s-1. At 30 DAS, both lettuce cultivars resulted adapted to the blue light variant, though the adaptive re-sponse was specific to the variety. Rosette weight, light use efficiency and maximum operating efficiency of PSII photochemistry in the light, Fv/Fm’, were comparable between the two light treatments. Significant light quality effect was detected on stomatal density and conductance (20% and 17% increase under WB, respectively, in CVg) and, on the modified anthocyanin re-flectance index (mARI) (40% increase under WB, in CVr). Net photosynthesis response was gen-erally stronger in CVg compared to CVr; e.g. net photosynthetic rate, Pn, at 1000 µmol m-2 s-1 PPFD increased from WW to WB by 23% in CVg, compared to 18% in CVr. Results obtained suggest the occurrence of distinct physiological adaptive strategies in green and red pigmented lettuce cultivars to adapt to the higher proportion of blue light environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0041.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: building remodeling; concentrated loads; FRP reinforcement; FRP strips; shear capacity, vertical concrete cantilever
Online: 5 January 2022 (13:01:16 CET)
Renovation, restoration, remodeling, refurbishment, and retrofitting of build-ings often imply modifying the behavior of the structural system. Modification sometimes includes applying forces (i.e., concentrated loads) to beams that before were subjected to distributed loads only. For a reinforced concrete structure, the new condition causes a beam to bear a concentrated load with the crack pattern that was produced by the distributed loads that acted in the past. If the concentrated load is applied at or near the beam’s midspan, the new shear demand reaches the maximum around the midspan. But around the midspan, the cracks are vertical or quasi-vertical, and no inclined bar is present. So, the actual shear capacity around the midspan not only is low, but also can be substantially lower than the new demand. In order to bring the beam capacity up to the demand, fiber-reinforced-polymer composites can be used. This paper presents a design method to increase the concentrated load-carrying capacity of reinforced concrete beams whose load distribution has to be changed from distributed to concentrated, and an analytical model to pre-dict the concentrated load-carrying capacity of a beam in the strengthened state.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: 3D Doppler Wind Lidar; planetary boundary layer; vertical wind; wind speed; wind direction
Online: 29 April 2021 (10:33:39 CEST)
The accuracy of wind field simulation and prediction is one of the most significant parameters in the field of atmospheric science and wind energy. Limited by the observation data, there are few researches on wind energy development. A 3D Doppler wind lidar (DWL) providing the high-vertical-resolution wind data over the urban complex underlying surface in February 2018 was employed to evaluated the accuracy of vertical wind field simulation systematically for the first time. 11 PBL schemes of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) were employed in simulation. The model results were evaluated in groups separated by weather (sunny days, haze days and windy days), observation height layers, and various observation wind speeds. The test results presented that the vertical layer altitude of the observation point position was the most important factor. The simulation is fairly well at a height of 1000-2000m, as most of the relative mean bias of wind speed and wind direction are less than 20% and 6% respectively. Below 1000 m, the wind speed and direction biases are about 30%-150% m.s-1 and 6%-30% respectively. Moreover, when the observed wind speed was lower than 5 m.s-1, the bias were usually large, and the wind speed relative mean bias is up to 50-300%. In addition, the accuracy of simulated wind profile is better in 10-15m.s-1 than other speed ranges, and is better up 1000m than below 1000m in the boundary layer. We see that the WRF boundary layer schemes have different applicability to different weather conditions. The WRF boundary layer schemes have significant differences in wind field simulation with larger error under the complex topography. A PBL scheme is not likely to maintain its advantages in the long term under different conditions including altitude and weather conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0013.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: organic permeable dual-base transistors; vertical channel; logic circuits; threshold voltage; TCAD simulation
Online: 2 May 2020 (13:29:45 CEST)
Vertical-channel organic dual-gate/base transistors would be highly interesting since vertical organic transistors are the fastest organic transistors demonstrated today. However, incorporating a dual gate/base structure into an ultra-short channel vertical architecture represents a substantial challenge. Here, we successfully realize a new device concept of vertical organic permeable dual-base transistors (OPDBTs), where either of both base electrodes can be used to change the on-currents and tune the threshold voltages. The optimized devices yield a high on-current density of 1.54 A cm-2 and a large current gain of 9.2×105, corresponding to a high transmission value of 99.998%. The detailed operation mechanisms are investigated by calibrated TCAD simulations with the Poole-Frenkel mobility model, Gaussian density of states and tunneling model. Finally, high-performance logic circuits, e.g. inverter, NAND/AND computation functions are demonstrated with one single OPDBT operating at supply voltages of < 2.0 V. We believe that OPDBTs offer a compact and technologically simple hardware platform with excellent application potential for vertical-channel organic transistors in complex logic circuits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0167.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: air-sea interface; wind–waves; turbulent currents; Reynolds stress; vertical mixing; eddy viscosity
Online: 18 June 2019 (05:44:29 CEST)
The aim of work is to derive an explicit expression for a function of vertical mixing induced by wind-waves. To this end, in the Navier-Stokes equations, a current is decomposed into four constituents: the mean flow, the wave-orbital motion, the wave-induced turbulent and the background turbulent currents. This decomposition allows separating the wave-induced Reynolds stress, Rw, from the background one, Rb. To make a statistical closure for Rw, the Prandtl approach for the background turbulent fluctuations is used that results in an implicit expression for the wave-induced vertical mixing function, Bv. Expression for Bv is specified based on the author’s results for the eddy viscosity found earlier in the frame of the three-layer concept for a wavy air–sea interface, used for modelling wind-drift currents . Finally, the explicit parameterization for Bv(a, u*, z) is found as a linear function in both the wave amplitude at depth z, a(z), and the friction velocity in the air, u*. The linear dependence of function Bv(a) on the wave amplitude provides the enhanced vertical mixing induced by wind–waves in comparison with function Bv(a) having the cubic dependence found in , as far as the wind-wave amplitude a(z) decays exponentially with depth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0114.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: directional encoding mask; selective attention network; supervised learning; horizontal and vertical text recognition
Online: 11 December 2018 (07:24:04 CET)
Recent state-of-the-art scene text recognition methods have primarily focused on horizontal text in images. However, in several Asian countries, including China, large amounts of text in signs, books, and TV commercials are vertically directed. Because the horizontal and vertical texts exhibit different characteristics, developing an algorithm that can simultaneously recognize both types of text in real environments is necessary. To address this problem, we adopted the direction encoding mask (DEM) and selective attention network (SAN) methods based on supervised learning. DEM contains directional information to compensate in cases that lack text direction; therefore, our network is trained using this information to handle the vertical text. The SAN method is designed to work individually for both types of text. To train the network to recognize both types of text and to evaluate the effectiveness of the designed model, we prepared a new synthetic vertical text dataset and collected an actual vertical text dataset (VTD142) from the Web. Using these datasets, we proved that our proposed model can accurately recognize both vertical and horizontal text and can achieve state-of-the-art results in experiments using benchmark datasets, including the street view test (SVT), IIIT-5k, and ICDAR. Although our model is relatively simple as compared to its predecessors, it maintains the accuracy and is trained in an end-to-end manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0136.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine; CST parameterization; NSGA-II; airfoil; optimization; multiple streamtube model
Online: 13 August 2016 (09:15:42 CEST)
Optimizing the NACA0015 airfoil which is widely applied in small-scale vertical axis wind turbine to make it has a better aerodynamic performance. In the optimization process, using CST parameterization method to perturb the airfoil geometry, the thickness and camber of the airfoil are selected as the constraint, and the value of the maximum tangential force coefficient is chosen as the objective function, the genetic algorithm based on non-dominated sorting (NSGA-II)is selected as an optimization method, calculates the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil by applying the approach of combining XFOIL program and Viterna-Corrigan post-stall mode ,and establishes the optimizing process by the optimization software modefrontier for NACA0015 airfoil’s muti-point optimization, validate the airfoil’s performance with CFD finally. The result illustrates that, by comparing with the NACA0015 airfoil, the optimized airfoil’s lift to drag ratio is improved over a wide range of attack angles, the stall performance is more gentle. The maximum lift coefficient, the maximum lift-drag ratio and the maximum tangential force coefficient are increased by 7.5%,9 and 8.87%, respectively. The optimized airfoil has a wide variable condition performance, more suitable for the operating conditions of a vertical axis wind turbine. Finally, predict the rotor efficiency with optimized airfoil and NACA0015 airfoil for different tip speed ratios and different solidities with multiple streamtube model, the result shows the rotor with optimized airfoil has a higher efficiency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0100.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: submerged speleothem; phreatic speleothem; sea level change; sea caves; vertical tectonic movements; Ustica; Favignana
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:11:18 CEST)
This study presents a world review as well as new additional data in form of submerged speleothems that are used for paleo sea level reconstructions. Speleothems significantly contributed to the understanding of the global and regional sea level variations during the Middle and Late Quaternary. The studied speleothems cover the last 1.4 Myr and are focused mainly on Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1, 2, 3, 5.1, 5.3, 5.5, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 and 7.5. Results reveal that submerged speleothems represent extraordinary archives providing detailed information on former sea level changes. We present also new results from stalactites collected in central Mediterranean sea, at Favignana and Ustica islands (Sicily, Italy), both characterized by continental, phreatic or marine layers. The study and analysis of the latter speleothems provide results of great interest for relative sea level changes over the last 1000 years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: : microstrip antenna, vertical slots , adaptive network-based fuzzy Inference system , resonant frequency, artificial neural networks
Online: 2 October 2017 (09:16:02 CEST)
This paper attempts at applying adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for analysis of the resonant frequency of a microstrip rectangular patch antenna with two equal size slots which are placed on the patch vertically. The resonant frequency is calculated as the position of slots is shifted to the right and left sides on the patch. As a result , the antenna resonates at more than one frequency . Commonly, machine algorithms based on artificial neural networks are employed to recognize the whole resonant frequencies. However ,they fail to estimate the resonant frequencies correctly as in some cases variations are not very sensible and the resonant frequencies overlap each other . It can be concluded that artificial neural networks could be replaced in such designs by the adaptive network-based fuzzy Inference system due to its high approximation capability and much faster convergence rate.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: residual dizziness; labyrintholithiasis; cupololithiasis; otocones; BPPV; liberating maneuvers; utricle; VEMPs objective vertical visual VVS; bucket test
Online: 22 July 2022 (08:19:45 CEST)
Residual dizziness after a liberating maneuver is often referred to by patients as a more disabling set of symptoms than the positional vertigo itself. This situation seems to involve more than half of subjects with labyrintholithiasis. The authors examine the hypothesis according to which residual dizziness involves subjects with labyrintholithiasis on the basis of otoconia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0219.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: archaeological landscapes; Iron Age; Medieval period; agriculture; pastoralism; vertical zonation, Issyk-Kul Lake; archaeobotany; GIS mapping
Online: 17 May 2022 (03:29:22 CEST)
The main goal of this paper is to present results of preliminary archaeological research on the south side of Lake Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan. We test the hypothesis that agropastoral land use changed over four millennia from the Bronze Age through the ethnographic Kirghiz period due to economic, socio-political, and religious changes in the prehistoric and historic societies of this region. Our research objectives are to: (1) describe and analyze survey results from Lower Kizil Suu Valley; (2) discuss the results of radiometric and archaeobotanical samples taken from three stratigraphic profiles from three settlements from the Juuku Valley, including these chronological periods: the Wusun period (200 to 400 CE), the Qarakhanid period (1100 to 1200 CE), and the ethnographic Kirghiz period (1700 to 1900 CE); and (3) conduct preliminary GIS spatial analyses on the Iron Age mortuary remains (Saka and Wusun period). This research emerges out of the first archaeological surveys conducted in 2019 - 2021 and includes the Lower Kizil Suu alluvial fan; it is an initial step toward developing a model for agropastoral land use for upland valleys of the Inner Tian Shan Mountains.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: marine hydrokinetic turbine; wind energy; floating offshore wind turbine; mooring lines; floating platform; vertical axis turbine
Online: 4 November 2019 (05:13:32 CET)
In April 2019, a team of Keio University and Bucknell University students was assembled to participate in Ericsson Innovation Awards with a novel concept for generating renewable energy. This conceptual system consists of a vertical axis wind turbine, a crossflow marine hydrokinetic turbine, a floating platform integrated with a quadcopter system, and three to four temporary mooring lines with ship-type anchors. The proposed designed aims to offer solutions to two current problems of floating offshore wind energy: high construction cost of floating platforms and difficulties in maintenance of mooring lines. The combination of two vertical-axis turbines into a single floating platform would enable the system, namely ESwift, to extract energy from both wind and current resources. Additionally, due to the utilization of vertical axis turbines, the center of gravity of the proposed concept is significantly lower with respect to water level, compared to that of existing floating horizontal axis wind turbines, which would potentially reduce the floater's size and construction cost. Lastly, the integrated quadcopter mechanism would assist the floater in terms of stability and mobility, and enables an array of ESwifts to automatically rearrange for maximal energy generation. The authors hope that readers would find the idea described in this open access letter worth pursuing and would further develop and commercialize the ESwift concept.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: anderson-vertical-axis-wind-turbine; actual-power; aerodynamic-power; blockage-factor; power-coefficient; tip-speed-ratio
Online: 11 October 2019 (11:10:59 CEST)
The basic equation for estimating the aerodynamic power captured by an Anderson Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (AVAWT) is a solution of the Navier-Stokes(N-S) equations for a baroclinic, inviscid flow. In a nutshell, the pressure difference across the AVAWT is derived from Bernoulli’s equation; an upshot of the integration of the N-S momentum equation for a baroclinic inviscid flow, Euler’s momentum equation. The resulting expression for the pressure difference across the AVAWT rotor is plotted as a function of freestream speed. Experimentally determined airstream speeds at the AVAWT inlet and outlet, coupled with corresponding freestream speeds are used in estimating the aerodynamic power captured. The aerodynamic power is subsequently used in calculating the aerodynamic power coefficient of the AVAWT. The actual power coefficient is calculated from the power generated by the AVAWT at various free stream speeds and plotted as a function of the latter. Experimental results show that, at all free stream speeds and tip speed ratios, the aerodynamic power coefficient is higher than the actual power coefficient of the AVAWT. Consequently, the power generated by the AVAWT prototype is lower than the aerodynamic power captured, given the same inflow wind condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0141.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Vertical coal bunker; Coal given chamber; Floor heave; Wall-mounted coal bunker; Reinforcement; Self-bearing system
Online: 20 October 2017 (15:31:57 CEST)
Serious damage caused by floor heave in the coal given chamber of a vertical coal bunker is one of the challenges faced in underground coal mines. Engineering practice shows that it is more difficult to maintain the coal given chamber (CGC) than a roadway. More importantly, repairing the CGC during mining practice will pose major safety risks and reduce production. Based on the case of the serious collapse that occurred in the bearing structure of the CGC at the lower part of the 214# coal bunker in Xiashijie mine, China, this work analysed (i) the main factors influencing floor heave and (ii) the failure mechanism of the load-bearing structure in the CGC using FLAC2D numerical models and expansion experiment. The analysis results indicate that: the floor heave, caused mainly by mine water, is the basic reason leading to the instability and repeated failure of the CGC in the 214# coal bunker. Then a new coal bunker, without building the CGC, is proposed and put into practice to replace the 214# coal bunker. The FLAC3D software program is adopted to establish the numerical model of the wall-mounted coal bunker (WMCB), and the stability of the rock surrounding the WMCB is simulated and analysed. The results show that: (1) the rock surrounding the sandstone segment is basically stable. (2) The surrounding rock in the coal seam segment, which moves into the inside of the bunker, is the main zone of deformation for the entire rock mass surrounding the bunker. Then the surrounding rock is controlled effectively by means of high-strength bolt–cable combined supporting technology. According to the geological conditions of the WMCB, the self-bearing system, which includes (i) H-steel beams, (ii) H-steel brackets, and (iii) self-locking anchor cables, is established and serves as a substitute for the CGC to transfer the whole weight of the bunker to stable surrounding rock. The stability of the new coal bunker has been verified by field testing, and the coal mine has gained economic benefit to a value of 158.026174 million RMB over three years. The new WMCB thus made production more effective and can provide helpful references for construction of vertical bunkers under similar geological conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0527.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind energy; vertical axis wind turbine; computational fluid dynamics; dynamic interaction; closely spaced arrangements; phase synchronization; wind farm; dryland
Online: 22 March 2021 (12:05:53 CET)
To investigate the optimum layouts of small vertical axis wind turbines, a two-dimensional analysis of dynamic fluid body interaction is performed via computational fluid dynamics for a rotor pair in various configurations. The rotational speed of each turbine rotor (diameter: D = 50 mm) varies based on the equation of motion. First, the dependence of rotor performance on the gap distance (gap) between two rotors is investigated. For parallel layouts, counter-down (CD) layouts with blades moving downwind in the gap region yield a higher mean power than counter-up (CU) layouts with blades moving upwind in the gap region. CD layouts with gap/D = 0.5–1.0 yield a maximum average power that is 23% higher than that of an isolated single rotor. Assuming isotropic bidirectional wind speed, co-rotating (CO) layouts with the same rotational direction are superior to the combination of CD and CU layouts regardless of the gap distance. For tandem layouts, the inverse-rotating configuration (IR) shows an earlier wake recovery than the CO configuration. For 16-wind-direction layouts, both the IR and CO configurations indicate similar power distribution at gap/D = 2.0. For the first time, this study demonstrates the phase synchronization of two rotors via numerical simulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0191.v1
Subject: Keywords: ducted photovoltaic; buoyancy cooling; vertical shafts; energy generation; efficiency of photovoltaic; temperature of photovoltaic; CFD simulations of buoyancy; BIPV
Online: 16 April 2019 (13:10:55 CEST)
A ducted photovoltaic façade (DPV) unit Studied using experimental Prototype and simulated in a full scale Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD Model. The Study comes in two parts; This is Part I with the title detailed above and Part II titled ‘A Ducted Photovoltaic Façade Unit with Buoyancy Cooling: Part II CFD Simulation’.. The process adopted in the experimental study is replicated in the simulation Part. The aim was to optimize the duct width behind the solar cells to allow for maximum buoyancy-driven cooling for the cells during operation. Duct widths from 5 to 50 cm were tested in a Proto-type. A duct width of 45 cm had the maximum calculated heat removed from the duct; however, the lowest cell-operating temperature was reported for duct width of 50 cm. It was found that the DT between ducts' inlets and outlets range from 5.47 °C to 12.32 °C for duct widths of 5–50 cm, respectively. The ducted system enhanced module efficiency by 12.69% by reducing PV temperature by 27 °C from 100°C to 73 °C. The maximum calculated heat recovered from the ducted PV system is 422 W. This is 47.98% from the incident radiation in the test. Total summation of heat recovered and power enhanced by the ducted system is 61.67%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0159.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Raindrop size distributions (DSD) from Doppler radar; Computing radial power spectra using radar Doppler spectra; Vertical pointing Doppler rain observations.
Online: 10 June 2022 (10:21:15 CEST)
It has been shown that the Micro-Rain Radar (MRR) can be used to derive rainfall rates every 10 m over a depth of 1.28 km using the mean vertical air velocity corrected Doppler raindrop fall speed spectra. Furthermore, it has been shown that by assuming a reasonable advection velocity for the rain, these data can be analyzed to produce spatial radial power spectra often readily fit using a power function. Previous work has shown, however, that each spectrum applies only to each particular set of data and usually lacks the statistical qualifications necessary to be considered generally applicable. However, this limitation does not preclude the potential existence of other generalizations that can be used to explore the rainfall formation processes. The intent of this study, then, is to perform an initial look for such possible behaviors using time-height profiles of the rainfall rate. It is found that once the rainfall rate, R, exceeds about 20 mm h-1, there is, apparently, an associated flattening of the spectra with increasing R so that the smaller scales play an ever increasingly important role in such rain near the ground perhaps reflecting the increasing importance of such scales in the formation of pockets of more intense convective rain. The true generality of this finding needs additional scrutiny using more data particularly from two spatially separated MRR as is currently under preparation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0373.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: raindrop size distributions (DSD) from Doppler radar; computing radial power spectra using radar Doppler spectra; vertical pointing Doppler rain observations
Online: 29 March 2022 (04:04:49 CEST)
A realistic approach for gathering high-resolution observation of the rainfall rate, R, in the vertical plane is to use data from vertical pointing Doppler radars. After accounting for the vertical air velocity and attenuation, it is possible to determine the fine, spatially resolved drop size spectra and to calculate R for further statistical analyses. The first such results in a vertical plane are reported here. Specifically, we present results using MRR-Pro Doppler radar observations at resolutions of ten meters in height over the lowest 1.28 km as well as ten seconds in time over four sets of observations using two different radars at different locations. Both correlation functions and power spectra are useful for translating observations and numerical model outputs of R from on one scale down to other scales that may be more appropriate to particular applications such as flood warnings and soil erosion, for example. However, it was found in all cases that while locally applicable radial power spectra could be calculated, because of statistical heterogeneity, most of the power spectra lost all generality and proper correlation functions could not be computed in general except for one 17 minute interval. Nevertheless, these results are still useful since they could be combined to develop catalogs of power spectra over different meteorological conditions and in different climatological settings and locations. Furthermore, even within the limitations of these data, this approach is being used to gain a deeper understanding of rainfall to be reported in a forthcoming paper.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0016.v1
Subject: Keywords: Congenital Foot Deformities; Rigid Flatfoot; Congenital Convex Pes Valgus; Congenital Vertical Talus; Rocker-Bottom Foot; Resection Arthroplasty; Reverse Ponseti Technique
Online: 4 May 2021 (13:39:50 CEST)
We investigated the radioclinical outcomes of naviculectomy and limited/tailored soft-tissue releases in a short series of ambulatory children with complex/intractable congenital vertical talus subsets namely neglected, multiple operated and recurrent patients. We postulated that this technique will yield satisfactory radioclinical outcomes and minimal complications because it avoids extensive surgical release/trauma that is otherwise classically recommended for complex congenital vertical talus (CVT). The cohort consisted of five -four boys, one girl- complex CVT children with neglected, multiple operated and/or recurrent subsets. Patients were included if manipulative casting techniques were deemed unlikely to produce a plantigrade foot. Patients underwent naviculectomy with variable on-demand limited soft tissue releases. Two patients had bilateral affection and two had a non-idiopathic aetiology. The mean age was 5.2 years (4 to 6.25) and mean follow-up was 2.3 years (1 to 3). We reported satisfactory outcomes as per foot posture, function, overall parent satisfaction including pain and radiography per lateral views of talar-axis-first metatarsal base angle on the short/intermediate term. Whereas manipulative casting is unlikely to yield lasting outcomes in ambulatory children with complex subsets of CVT, extensive surgical soft-tissue releases have unfavourable long-term complications. As a substitute, naviculectomy as a form of resection arthroplasty created a practical and affordable third way between manipulative casting with minimally invasive surgery and the extensive surgical soft tissue releases on the short/intermediate term.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Horizontal East-west velocity; LOS; vertical velocity; InSAR time series; Big Data; PSDS; TomoSAR platform; Sentinel-1; Ho Chi Minh City
Online: 10 September 2021 (11:04:39 CEST)
Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), the most crowded city and economic hub of Viet Nam, has been experiencing land subsidence over the past decades. This effort aims to contribute the spatial distribution of subsidence in HCMC in its horizontal and vertical components using synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) time series. To this purpose, an advanced Persistent Scatterers and Distributed Scatterers (PSDS) InSAR technique was applied to two European Space Agency (ESA) Sentinel-1 datasets consisting of 96 ascending and 202 descending images, acquired from 2014 to 2020 over the HCMC area. A time series of 33 COSMO-SkyMed ascending images was also used for comparison. The combination of ascending and descending satellite passes is used to decompose the light of sight velocities into horizontal east-west and vertical components. Taking into account the presence of east-west horizontal motion, our findings indicate that the accuracy of the decomposed vertical velocity can be improved by up to 3 mm/year for Sentinel-1 data. The obtained results revealed that subsidence is most pronounced in the areas along the Sai Gon River, in the northwest-southeast axis, and in the southwest of the city, with a maximum value of 80 mm/yr, which is in accordance with the findings of the literature. The amplitude of east-west horizontal velocities is relatively small and large-scale eastward movement can be observed in the west of the city at a rate of 3-5 mm/yr. This confirmed that the displacement in Ho Chi Minh City area is mainly vertical downward. Together, these results reinforced the remarkable suitability of ESA's SAR Sentinel-1 for subsidence applications, even for non-European countries such as Vietnam and Southeast Asia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0209.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Unmanned Aerial systems (UAS); , RGB high resolution imagery; forest canopy gaps; understorey; vertical species diversity; microhabitat-bearing trees; contrast split segmentation; drone
Online: 12 July 2018 (05:36:22 CEST)
Forest canopy gaps are important for the ecosystem dynamics. Depending on tree species, small canopy openings might be also associated to intra-crown porosity and to space between crowns. Yet, little is known on the relationships between the fine-scaled pattern of canopy openings and biodiversity features. This research explored the possibility of i)- mapping forest canopy gaps from a very high resolution orthomosaic (10 cm), processed from a versatile imaging platform such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), ii)- to derive patch metrics that can be tested as covariates of variables of interest for forest biodiversity monitoring. This is attempted in a test area of 240 ha covered by temperate deciduous forest types in Central Italy and containing 50 forest inventory plots of about 530 m2. Correlation and linear regression techniques were used to explore relationships between patch metrics and understorey (density, development and species diversity) or forest habitat biodiversity variables (density of micro-habitat bearing trees, vertical species profile, tree species diversity). The results revealed that small openings in the canopy cover (75% smaller than 7 m2) can be faithfully extracted from UAV RGB imagery, using the red band and contrast split segmentation. Highest correlations were observed in the mixed forest (beech and turkey oak), while beech forest had the poorest ones and turkey oak forest displayed intermediate results. Moderate to strong linear relationships were found between gap metrics and understorey variables in mixed forest type, with adjusted R2 from linear regression ranging from 0.52 to 0.87. Equally good results, in the same forest types, were observed for forest habitat biodiversity variables (0.52<adjusted R2<0.79) with highest values found for density of trees with microhabitats and vertical species profile. In conclusion, this research highlights that UAV remote sensing can potentially provide covariate surfaces of variables of interest for forest biodiversity monitoring, conventionally collected in forest inventory plots. By integrating the two sources of data, these variables can be mapped over small forest areas with satisfactory levels of accuracy, at a much higher spatial resolution than would be possible by field-based forest inventory solely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0792.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Boreal forest; Multi-temporal LiDAR remote sensing; Crown Closure Monitoring; Tree Density; Gap Fraction; Vertical canopy cover; Gap probability; Spatial Autocorrelation; Height threshold; Spatial grid resolution
Online: 31 December 2020 (11:55:01 CET)
Monitoring crown closure evolution using multi-temporal Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) surveys is a method that we expect to be increasingly adopted given the availability of LiDAR sensors and the accumulating survey archives. However, little attention was devoted to comparing crown closure estimates from independent surveys. Although survey parameters cannot be modified after the data collection, we speculate that the error associated to crown closure estimates comparison can be reduced by selecting optimal post-survey parameters. In this study, we compared crown closure estimates of three airborne LiDAR surveys from 2018 (40 pt/m²) used as a reference, and two lower-density surveys from 2016 (4.5 pt/m²) and 2018 (2 pt/m²). We studied the effect of the height threshold used to separate canopy points and the grid resolution, using skewness and variance of lagged difference of crown closure. Crown closure estimates using low height thresholds were more different across surveys, resulting in higher root mean squared error (RMSE), bias and more different variograms. Results show that optimal height threshold was 3 m and grid resolution was 25 m, although there was room for decision (RMSE of 7% and 5%, and bias of 4% and 0% for 2016 and 2018 low-density surveys).