ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0255.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: vehicular ad hoc networks; conditional privacy; revocation
Online: 12 November 2018 (03:48:47 CET)
It is a challenging issue to provide a secure and conditional anonymous authentication scheme in vehicle ad hoc networks(VANETs) with low storage space and computational cost. In 2008, Lu et al.  proposed an conditional privacy preservation scheme called ECPP protocol. The ECPP protocol provides conditional privacy preservation to vehicles in VANETs, that is, on one hand vehicles can achieve anonymous authentication in the network, on the other hand allow to be traced and revoked if necessary. However, ECPP scheme suffers from large storage and high computational cost. In our scheme, an improved protocol based on the concept of ECPP protocol has been proposed, which uses minimal interaction steps, little storage space and less computation overhead to achieve more efficiency conditional privacy preservation(MECPP) scheme in VANETs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0367.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: Vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET); M2M; Fuzzy logic; ITS; LAC-VANET
Online: 30 January 2020 (12:10:04 CET)
Vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) is a type of mobile network which is used for establishing connection between vehicles (M2M) and also between vehicles and nearby stationary equipment which are often road-side equipment. The main target of VANET is to provide security and convenience for the passengers. In order to achieve this goal, a special electronic device called OBU (On-Board Unit) is embedded in each vehicle which makes the connection between vehicles and between the vehicles and the road-side equipment possible. In this paper, the Location-Aware Clustering in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (LAC-VANET) is proposed. We try to achieve the main and major goal in VANET networks, i.e. fast propagation of security and urgent messages in ITS systems, using clustering and selecting the best cluster head based on Fuzzy logic such that the cluster head can transfer important information such as the obstacles and accidents detected on the road with a suitable speed and without creating a large traffic load in the vehicle network in order to notify other vehicles and prevent the danger and vehicle accidents. Moreover, LAC-VANET method is evaluated here via extensive simulations carried out in NS-2. The simulation results indicate that the VANET network performance metrics are improved in terms of average throughput, Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), end to end delay, and packet loss rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0294.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: vehicular networks; performance management; design of vehicular networks; mobile networks; vehicle-to-infrastructure; roadside units; infrastructure for vehicular networks
Online: 13 November 2018 (04:55:58 CET)
Over the past few decades, the growth of the urban population has been remarkable. Nowadays, 50% of the population lives in urban areas, and forecasts point that by 2050 this number will reach 70%. Today, 64% of all travel made is within urban environments and the total amount of urban kilometers traveled is expected to triple by 2050. Thus, seeking novel solutions for urban mobility becomes paramount for 21st century society. In this work, we discuss the performance of vehicular networks. We consider the metric Delta Network. The Delta Network characterizes the connectivity of the vehicular network through the percentage of travel time in which vehicles are connected to roadside units. This article reviews the concept of Delta Network and extends its study through the presentation of a general heuristic based on the definition of scores to identify the areas of the road network that should receive coverage. After defining the general heuristic, we show how small changes in the score computation can generate very distinct (and interesting) patterns of coverage, each one suited to a given scenario. In order to exemplify such behavior, we propose three deployment strategies based on simply changing the computation of scores. The results show that the strategies derived from the general heuristic are very interesting, all of them deploying roadside units in a circle pattern around the traffic epicenter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0536.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: 5G; IoT; SAM Model; Vehicular Communication Systems
Online: 23 July 2020 (08:07:58 CEST)
Network slicing is a promising technology for 5G networks in which operators can sell customized services to different tenants at various prices and Quality of Services (QoS) demands. Thus, the latest 4th Generation (4G) and upcoming 5th Generation (5G) mobile technologies are expected to offer massive connectivity and management of high volume of data traffic in the presence of immense interferences from mobile networks of IoT devices. Further, it will face challenges of congestion and overload of data traffic due to the humongous number of IoT devices. Nevertheless, these devices are likely to demand high throughput, low latency, and high level of reliability especially for critical real-time applications such as in Vehicular Communication System (VCS). To address these issues in 5G mobile networks, this paper proposes a Slice Allocation Management (SAM) Model based on the critical services of smart systems such as VCS to satisfy QoS demands. The proposed model aims at providing dedicated slices on the basis of service requirements such as expected throughput and latency for VCS. To ensure such performance and provide data traffic priorities of IoT devices in the uplink of Relay Nodes (RNs) cells in the 5G mobile networks, we have sliced the Radio Access Networks (RAN), along with the assignment of the nearest Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) with isolated slices based on the priorities for each IoT nodes to reduce latency level. The proposed model was simulated and validated using the OPNET simulator. The results obtained demonstrate that SAM Model is able to achieve improvement of end to end delays and uplink throughputs of the networks in high-density networks of IoT devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: cognitive radio; cognitive vehicular networks; spectrum sensing; sensing/reporting channel; correlated rayleigh fading channel; hard fusion
Online: 25 December 2017 (10:42:53 CET)
An explosive growth in vehicular wireless services and applications gives rise to spectrum resource starvation. Cognitive radio has been used to vehicular networks to mitigate the impending spectrum starvation problem by allowing vehicles to fully exploit spectrum opportunities unoccupied by licensed users. Efficient and effective detection of licensed user is a critical issue to realize cognitive radio applications. However, spectrum sensing in vehicular environments is a very challenging task due to vehicles mobility. For instance, vehicle mobility has a large effect on the wireless channel, thereby impacting the detection performance of spectrum sensing. Thus, gargantuan efforts have been made in order to analyze the fading properties of mobile radio channel in vehicular environments. Indeed, numerous studies have demonstrated that the wireless channel in vehicular environments can be characterized by a temporally correlated Rayleigh fading. In this paper, we focus on energy detection for spectrum sensing and a counting rule for cooperative sensing based on Neyman-Pearson criteria. Further, we go into the effect of the sensing and reporting channels condition on spectrum sensing performance under temporally correlated Rayleigh sensing channel. For local and cooperative sensing, we derive some alternative expressions for average probability of miss detection. The pertinent numerical and simulating results are provided to further validate our theoretical analyses under a variety of scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0076.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: Delay-Tolerant Network (DTNs); Vehicular Delay-Tolerant networks (VDTNs); Store Carries and Forward (SCF)
Online: 7 October 2022 (08:33:14 CEST)
Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) are intermittently connected networks, where there is no guaranteed end-to-end connectivity between the source and destination. The link between the pair of nodes in the DTNs environments is frequently disrupted, due to the fast mobility of nodes, dissemination nature, and power outages. Due to the absence of contemporaneous paths between the nodes, the opportunities for message forwarding in DTNs usually are limited. To obtain high data delivery, the DTNs use innovation of the Store-Carry and Forward (SCF) technique which allows data transmission to successfully proceed despite the absence of continuous end-to-end paths. However, the SCF approach arises various issues such as buffer congestion and message drop which are caused due to growing number of carried messages in restricted network resources. Therefore, buffer management techniques are required to manage the buffer capacity of the nodes by deciding how to effectively drop the messages and how to schedule the messages in the node’s buffer in a perfect way. This paper evaluates the performance of six buffer management techniques, namely First-In-FirstOut, Last In First Out, Drop Largest, Drop Youngest, Evict Shortest Lifetime First and Evict Most Forwarded First, with MaxProp and Spray and Wait routing protocols under variable message’s Time-To-Live values (60 to 300 minutes with step-change 60 minutes). In addition, this study uses an Opportunistic Network Environment (ONE) simulator that is utilized for evaluating the performance of the dropping policies techniques, where it is considering five performance metrics (delivery ratio, overhead ratio, average latency, hop count, and message drop). The evaluation results of each buffer management policy are explained by these metrics briefly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0126.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Vehicular Fog Computing (VFC); Big Data Streaming (BDS); Energy-Efficiency; resource management; Infrastructure-to-Vehicular (I2V)
Online: 24 November 2017 (05:06:27 CET)
In this paper, we discuss the most significant application opportunities and outline the challenges in performing a real-time and energy-efficient management of the distributed resources available at mobile devices and Internet-to-Data Center. We also present an energy-efficient adaptive scheduler for Vehicular Fog Computing (VFC) that operates at the edge of a vehicular network, connected to the served Vehicular Clients (VCs) through an Infrastructure-to-Vehicular (I2V) over multiple Foglets (Fls). The scheduler optimizes the energy by leveraging the heterogeneity of Fls, where the Fl provider shapes the system workload by maximizing the task admission rate over data transfer and computation. The presented scheduling algorithm demonstrates that the resulting adaptive scheduler allows scalable and distributed implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0204.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: vehicular network; VANET; vehicle-to-everything; mobile edge computing; blockchain
Online: 13 December 2021 (13:19:39 CET)
As V2X technology develops, acute problems related to reliable and secure information exchange between network objects in real time appear. The article aims to solve the scientific problem of building a network architecture for reliable delivery of correct and uncompromised data within the V2X concept to improve the safety of road users, using blockchain technology and mobile edge computing (MEC). The authors present a formalized mathematical model of the system, taking into account the interconnection of objects and V2X information channels, and an energy-efficient algorithm of traffic offloading to the MEC server. The paper presents the results of application of blockchain technologies and mobile edge computing in the developed system, their description, evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of the implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0004.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET); Cloud Computing; privacy preservation; security and privacy
Online: 3 October 2016 (20:40:50 CEST)
This project designed a set of network security mechanisms for cloud applications in VANETs. At present, cloud computing is one of the government’s development priorities in the industry. We divide cloud into public, private, and hybrid clouds in this project. Vehicles or passengers can access road conditions or public transport information through the public cloud; public transportation can access current driving records and users can access relevant enterprise information on the private cloud and hybrid cloud is a combination of public and private clouds. Both cloud computing or VANETs require network and information security. At present, many researches on VANETs security only focus on message communication, and neglect information storage. Researches on cloud computing security only focus on information protection, and neglect user privacy and anonymity. This project designed a set of network and information security mechanisms in line with the requirements of Confidentiality, Authentication, Non-repudiation, Conditional Anonymity, and Conditional Untraceability. This project primarily needs to achieve the following: 1.an authentication mechanism to verify the identity of each other between the passenger and the vehicle and to verify the identity with Single Sign-On; 2. vehicle or user privacy and anonymity, which need to be able to replace the anonymous ID and related parameters for the vehicle or the user; 3. a private communication mechanism, which enables any vehicle or user to communicate privately; and 4. an information security encryption method, which can encrypt the information on a cloud server to avoid unauthorized access by internal personnel or hackers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0668.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: sustainable management of cargo transportation; multi-componential services; vehicular communication networks; changing transportation topology
Online: 30 August 2020 (14:31:25 CEST)
The aim of this research is forwarded for assessment of provision possibilities of the multi-componential and heterogeneous services in the fast-changing topology of cargo transportation processes. The mobile intelligent services in nowadays transport means require the development of complex infrastructure for multi-compositional service support. Our objectives are related to the investigation in data-transfer capabilities for heterogeneous service support, by offering some improvements for developing the infrastructure of transportation of vehicles by helping in the administration of transport processes. This research aims to develop an approach for assessment of infrastructure for sustainable management of cargo transportation processes by roads. Such assessment is multi-layered by including the management possibilities of cargo transportation logistic processes and electronic (smart, mobile) services by implementing of nowadays innovative software and hardware of information communication technologies (ICT). Special attention is paid for road safety, more environment cleanable, and paperless management by assessing the integration of potentials and prospects of wireless, vehicle Ad-hoc communication networks (VANET), and other communication possibilities. Some requirements are revealed for such type of infrastructure for the provision of heterogeneous services. The results of the development of infrastructure demonstrate the capacities of the potential of wireless networks for the provision of high-level of multi-component, heterogeneous services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0468.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: C-V2X; Eco-routing; ITS; CAV; VANET; Smart cities; environmental applications; vehicular networks; V2V; V2I
Online: 26 January 2023 (04:11:31 CET)
Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X) is a communication technology that supports various safety, mobility, and environmental applications given its higher reliability properties compared to other communication technologies. The performance of these C-V2X-enabled Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) applications is affected by the performance of the C-V2X communication technology (mainly packet loss). Similarly, the performance of the C-V2X communication is dependent on the vehicular traffic density which is affected by the traffic mobility patterns, and vehicle routing strategies. Consequently, it is critical to develop a tool that can simulate, analyze, and evaluate the mutual interactions of the transportation and communication systems at the application level and to the evaluate the benefits of the C-V2X enabled ITS applications. In this paper, we demonstrate the benefits gained when using C-V2X Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication technology in an energy-efficient dynamic routing application. Specifically, we develop a Connected Energy-Efficient Dynamic Routing (C-EEDR) application using C-V2X as a communication medium in an integrated vehicular traffic and communication simulator (INTEGRATION). The results demonstrate that the C-EEDR application achieves fuel savings of up to 16.6% and 14.7% in the IDEAL and C-V2X communication cases, respectively for a peak hour demand on the downtown Los Angeles network considering a 50% level of market penetration of connected vehicles. The results demonstrate that the fuel savings increase with increasing levels of market penetration at lower traffic demand levels (25% and 50% the peak demand). At higher traffic demand levels (75% and 100%) the fuel savings increase with increasing levels of market penetration with maximum benefits at a 50% market penetration rate. Although the communication system is affected by the high density of vehicles at the high traffic demand levels (75% and 100% the peak demand), the C-EEDR application manages to perform reliably producing system-wide fuel consumption savings.The C-EEDR application achieves fuel savings of 15.2% and 11.7% for the IDEAL communication and 14% and 9% for the C-V2X communication at the 75% and 100% market penetration rates, respectively. Finally, the paper demonstrates that the C-V2X communication constraints only affect the performance of the C-EEDR application at the full demand level when the market penetration of connected vehicles exceeds 25%. This degradation, however is minimal (less than a 2.5% reduction in fuel savings).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0276.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: IoT in Healthcare; IoT in Vehicular Networks; Behaviors and Decision Making, IoT in Learning Environments; IoT in Mining; Io IoT in Energy Systems; IoT in Smart Cities; Sensors; Low Power Networks
Online: 20 December 2019 (12:37:09 CET)
With Internet of Things (IoT) gaining presence throughout different industries a lot of new technologies have been introduced to support this undertaking. Implications on one such technology, wireless systems allowed for the use of different communication methods to achieve the goal of transferring data reliably, with more cost efficiency and over longer distances. Anywhere from a single house with only a few IoT devices such as a smart light bulb or a smart thermostat connected to the network, all the way to a complex system that can control power grids throughout countries, IoT has been becoming a necessity in everyday lives. This paper presents an overview of the devices, systems and wireless technologies used in different IoT architectures (Healthcare, Vehicular Networks, Mining, Learning, Energy, Smart Cities, Behaviors and Decision Making), their upbringings and challenges to this date and some foreseen in the future.