ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1470.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: vegetable analog; vegetable oil; storage stability; freeze storage
Online: 21 September 2023 (10:30:40 CEST)
Studies on the long-term stability of meat analogs stored under frozen conditions are lacking. Here, we aimed to assess the storage stability of vegetable oil-supplemented meat analogs and analyze the effects of temperature and storage period on their physiochemical characteristics. The meat analogs were prepared by adding 30 g castor oil, orange oil, palm oil, shortening, or margarine vegetable oil based on 100 g of textured vegetable protein. They were then stored at −18 or −60 °C for 6 months and analyzed at one-month intervals. The meat analog supplemented with orange oil had the highest water content, liquid-holding capacity, hardness, and antioxidant activity. During frozen storage, temperature barely affected the meat quality. The storage stability of all meat analog samples was maintained for 6 months, although the quality was slightly reduced with an increase in storage duration. Coliform group bacteria were not detected regardless of the storage condition. Orange oil improved the juiciness of meat analogs, and the quality of samples was maintained for at least 6 months under frozen storage. The findings of this study are relevant to the development and promotion of vegetable meat as an alternative to animal meat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0681.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: AFB1; AFs; vegetable seeds; vegetable oils; dietary intake
Online: 29 March 2021 (11:09:17 CEST)
A total of 744 samples of vegetable seeds and oil (soybean, sunflower, canola, olive, corn, and mustard) were collected for the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and total aflatoxins (AFs). The results have shown that 92 (56.7%) samples of branded and 108 (57%) samples of non-branded edible seeds were observed to be contaminated with AFs. The maximum mean of AFB1 and total AFs in non-branded soybean seeds was 21.01 ± 4.70 and 36.37 ± 6.10 µg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, all samples of edible seeds have concentrations of AFB1 greater than the proposed limit of European Union (EU, 2 µg/kg) and 12 (7.40%) samples of branded seeds and 14 (7.40%) samples of non-branded seeds were found in the range ≥ 50 µg/kg. About 78 (43.3%) samples of branded edible oil and 103 (48.3%) sample of non-branded edible oil were observed to be positive with AFs, and the elevated average of AFB1 (14.29 ± 2.51 µg/kg) and total AFs (25.61 ± 7.50) µg/kg were found in non-branded soybean oil samples. Furthermore, 16 (8.88%) and 6 (3.33%) samples of branded vegetable oil have levels of total AFs in a range (21 - 50 µg/kg) and ≥ 50 µg/kg, respectively. The findings have indicated significant difference of AFs levels between branded and non-branded vegetable oil samples (t = 22.274 and p = 0.000) at α = 0.05 and significant difference of AFs levels in vegetable seeds and oil samples ( t = -17.75, p = 0.000) at α =0.05. The highest dietary intake was found in non-branded sunflower oil sample (0.90 µg/kg/day) in female individuals (16-22 age group), followed by the dietary intake of 0.69 µg/kg/day body weight in male individuals (16-22 age group).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0241.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: vegetable intake; vegetable cultivation; qualitative study; Japanese, adults
Online: 26 March 2019 (10:49:20 CET)
Objective: We examined the reasons why vegetable cultivation increases or does not increase vegetable intake among adult Japanese vegetable growers.Materials and Methods: A qualitative cross-sectional study using a self-completed anonymous questionnaire was sent to participants (aged 20–74 years residing in three areas of a city in Gunma Prefecture, Japan) in September 2016. The questionnaire addressed perceptions of whether vegetable cultivation would increase vegetable intake, with four possible answers: strongly disagree, disagree, agree, and strongly agree. Respondents were then asked reasons for their view, with free-text responses. We also asked about participants’ characteristics and whether they found that growing vegetables had changed their vegetable intake and access to vegetables. We categorized the free-text answers by content.Results: We analyzed 442 answers, and reasons for vegetable growing increasing vegetable intake were grouped into five categories: “availability,” “purpose of cultivation,” “quality,” “increased positive emotions toward vegetables,” and “unconsciousness”; for it not increasing intake were also grouped into five categories: “limited quantities,” “negative emotions toward vegetables,” “cultivation for a purpose other than eating vegetables,” “access to vegetables from other sources,” and “limits associated with self-cultivation.”Conclusion: We found five main reasons why vegetable growing may and may not increase vegetable intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1305.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Hypercholesterolemia; Atherosclerosis; vegetable oils
Online: 20 July 2023 (03:20:38 CEST)
Dyslipidemia presents high levels of serum cholesterol, being characterized as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, especially for the development of atherosclerosis. E. oleracea (OFEO), A. esculentus (OFAE), B. orellana (OFBO) and granulated (CHR) oils are rich in bioactive compounds with potential to treat changes in lipid metabolism. This study investigated the effects of treatments with oils from A. esculentus, E. oleracea, B. orellana and granules (Chronic SM®) on saturated fat-induced dyslipidemia Cocos nucifera L. The chromatographic profile showed the majority of unsaturated fatty acids in the tested oils. The quantification of tocotrienols and geranylgeraniol was obtained in OFBO and CHR. Treatments with OFEO, OFAE, OFBO and CHR were able to significantly reduce glycemia with p>0.001, as well as hypertriglyceridemia, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, in addition to increasing HDL-cholesterol. The treatments inhibited the formation of atheromatous plaques in the vascular endothelium of the treated rats. The obtained results suggest that the OFEO, OFAE, OFBO and CHR groups have antidyslipidemic effects and antiatherogenic activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Streptomyces; vegetable production; biofertilizer
Online: 2 November 2022 (02:59:42 CET)
A replicated outdoor pot experiment was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different phytohormone and siderophore producing, and P-solubilizing bacterial species on spinach nu-trient uptake, nitrate concentration and nitrate reductase activity. The mentioned parameters were determined in spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea L.), non-inoculated and inoculated with four plant growth–promoting actinobacteria (Streptomyces griseus (S1), Streptomyces albogriseolus (S2), Strep-tomyces aurantiacus (S3) and Streptomyces kanamyceticus (S4) under the influence of two sources of nitrogen fertilizers including potassium nitrate and urea (100 and 200 ppm). Inoculation with the strains increased spinach shoot fresh weight by 16%–43% over the control. Bacterial inoculation gave leaf chlorophyll increases of 15%–40%. Inoculation increased plant height by 2.2%–24.6% in spinach. A close reverse relationship between nitrate concentration and enzyme activity (r2= 0.87) was demonstrated. The measured parameter responses were variable and dependent on the in-oculant strain, with highest enzyme activity and lowest nitrate concentration exhibited in S2 (S. albogriseolus) inoculation. The source and application dose of nitrogen fertilizer had varied impact on measured parameter. The maximum phosphorous and iron concentration were measured by soil inoculation with S4 and applying 200 ppm nitrate potassium nitrogen fertilizer. Application of 200 ppm KNO3 nitrogen fertilizer with different Streptomyces strains showed the capability of S2 in decreasing nitrate content while protein content increased. In particular, the strains S2 and S4 have great potential in being formulated and used as biofertilizers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0313.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: multilocation; AMMI; GGE; vegetable; Alium cepa
Online: 21 September 2022 (05:13:46 CEST)
Onion is one of the most economically and nutritionally important vegetable crops in West Africa. However, high-yielding varieties that are accessible to farmers remain scarce. Onion lines from the World Vegetable Center’s Allium program were evaluated during the cool and dry season from September to March for three years to identify adapted onion lines suitable for sustainable intensi-fication of production systems in Northern Ghana and Southern Mali. Trials were implemented in the Upper East and Northern Regions of Ghana and in two districts in the Sudan savanna zones of Mali (Bougouni and Koutiala). Nine onion lines, including a check variety were assessed for yield stability using a randomized complete block design. The trials were carried out in “technology parks” under the joint management of farmers and researchers. Onion bulb weight was recorded for each plot after harvest. Separate analyses of variances were performed for each location and season. Analysis of variance of combined locations, seasons and lines was made to determine the most stable varieties using the line-superiority measure and ecovalence stability coefficients. Results indicated that lines AVON1310 and AVON1325 were most stable for yield performance over lo-cations and seasons. From the genotype main effects and genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE) biplot, the best performing lines were AVON1310 (33.32 t.h-1), AVON1308 (28.81 t.h-1) and AVON1325 (31.68 t.h-1). These lines are potential candidates for sustainable intensification of onion production in Ghana and Mali.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0191.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Pesticides, Vegetable, Nepal, Determinant, Multivariate Probit
Online: 29 November 2017 (13:27:57 CET)
Currently, the pesticides are the global core concern because it is a boon to farmers against increasing disease-pest and simultaneously, pesticide residue is the major anxiety regarding human health. For that reason, identification and determination of factors affecting the application of pesticides are essential. To identify and evaluate determinants of pesticides application in Nepal, a household survey of 300 households was carried-out and an empirical analysis was done using multivariate probit model. Moreover, powder and liquid forms of pesticides were considered for summer and winter season in vegetable farming, which was assigned as outcome variables. Likewise, socio-economic, demographic, farm-level and perception data were considered as explanatory variables. Use of chemical fertilizers, age and gender of head of household, household size and access to weather information were found the most influencing factors. Moreover, forms of pesticides and growing seasons were found complementary to each other. Therefore, devising the policy options accordingly should balance needs of farmers and health of consumers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0194.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: AMF; Vegetable production; plant pests; plant diseases
Online: 13 October 2021 (10:30:06 CEST)
AMF (Arbuscular Mychorhizal Fungi) are very well known due to their importance in promoting growth and developments of plants especially vegetables. These fungi can be grown easily, stored and multiplied with simple means, also the application of these fungi is generally on the layer of the soil or near the roots in the inner layers of the soils. The growth of the amf fungi is very easy and they are highly adjustable to any soil and environmental conditions. In this review our main focus is on the use of amf for production of vegetables and also the effect of amf against insects and pests. The amf is known to reduce several symptoms caused by different insect pests and also plant diseases thereby promoting healthy growth of the plants. Also use of this amf will increase the uptake of nutrient from the soils through symbiotic relationships between plants and fungi. The uptake of important minerals which are drawn from deeper layers of soils is observed with the help pf amf. This study reveals the benefits of the use of amf under severe disease and pest incidences thereby known as an alternate for harmful chemical pesticides and fungicides.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0205.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: fruit and vegetable intake; fruit and vegetable receiving; locally-grown products; local food system; nonmarket food; social cohesion
Online: 24 October 2019 (10:58:58 CEST)
In this study, we identified the factors that affect the frequency of receiving nonmarket fruit and vegetables (FV). For Survey 1, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire for men aged 50–74 living in city (A) in Gunma, Japan. Participants were asked questions on FV receiving frequency, FV gardening, social cohesion (4–20 points), and basic characteristics. For Survey 2, a similar survey was conducted for residents aged 20–74 in three areas in city (B) in Gunma, but we included more variables. Ordinal logistic regression models were used for the analysis. In Survey 1, the responses of 243 participants were analyzed. The results showed that the FV receiving frequency was positively associated with non-gardeners and social cohesion. In Survey 2, the responses of 791 participants were analyzed. Vegetable receiving frequency was positively associated with rural and suburban areas, family structure, employment status, and non-farmers. The relationship between receiving frequency and social cohesion was similar to that found in Survey 1. In conclusion, in areas with flourishing FV cultivation, it seems to be easy to obtain FV through the social networks of reception, even for individuals who are not cultivating FV themselves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1980.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: preschool; caregiver; vegetable consumption; fruit consumption; social support
Online: 28 July 2023 (09:29:46 CEST)
This research objective was to develop a promoting vegetable and fruit consumption behaviors program among preschool children based on 4 aspects of House’s social support framework to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in preschool the program. This study was quasi-experimental. The sample consisted of preschool children and their caregivers who were randomly selected based on the inclusion criteria. The experimental and control groups had 96 pairs of preschool-aged children and their caregivers. The experimental group was given the program, while the control group was to resume normal activities. The program development was based on the caring lifestyle of caregivers in Muang District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. The tools consisted of a preschool care eating behavior assessment and a caregiver knowledge test about the child's fruit and vegetable intake and how to modify the child's fruit and vegetable intake. In addition, fruit and vegetable eating behaviors in preschoolers and a handbook for nurses and primary caregivers were approved by five experts and deemed suitable for the caregiver support framework. The results of the development indicated that a 10-week program was appropriate and tended to increase preschoolers' consumption of fruits and vegetables. In especially experimental group both caregivers increasingly gained knowledge and behavior of caregivers to promote fruit and vegetable eating behavior and preschool increasing the fruit and vegetable consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1546.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: tribology; stainless steel; vegetable oil lubrication; MoS2 nanotubes
Online: 22 July 2023 (17:12:56 CEST)
We present functionalization of AISI 316L surfaces by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser texturing in order to modify the surface morphology with crosshatch and dimple patterns. We performed tribological analysis under lubrication with sunflower and jojoba oil with and without addition of solid lubricant, MoS2 nanotubes. In connection to friction/wear response we analysed laser-textured surface wettability, oil spreadability and oil retention capacity. We have shown, that the crosshatch pattern generally exhibited lower friction than the dimples pattern, with the addition of MoS2 nanotubes not having any significant effect on the coefficient of friction under the investigated contact conditions. This was additionally with better oil spreadability and oil retention capacity results of crosshatch textured surface. Furthermore, texturing reduced wear of the stainless steel surfaces but led to approximately one order of magnitude larger wear rate of the steel counter-body, primarily due to the presence of hard bulges around the textured patterns. Overall, the crosshatch pattern showed better oil retention capacity and lower friction in combination with different vegetable oils, thus making it a promising choice for improving tribological performance in various environmentally friendly applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0245.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: traceability; granularity; influence factors; empirical analysis; vegetable companies
Online: 12 April 2023 (05:50:12 CEST)
Evaluating the efficacy of the traceability systems (TS) plays an important role not only for planning system implementation before development, but also for analyzing system performance once the system is in use. In the present work, we evaluate the traceability granularity using a comprehensive and quantifiable model and try find its influencing factors via an empirical analysis with 80 vegetable companies in Tianjin city, China. Granularity indicators were collected mostly by the TS platform to ensure the objectivity of the data, and the granularity score was evaluated by using a TS granularity model. The results show a clear imbalance in the distribution of companies as a function of score. The number of companies (21) scoring in the range [50,60] exceeded the number in the other score ranges. Furthermore, the influencing factors on traceability granularity were analyzed by using a rough set method based on nine factors pre-selected by using a published method. The results show that the factor “number of TS operation staff” is deleted because it is unimportant. The remaining factors rank according to importance as follows: Expected revenue > Supply chain (SC) integration degree > Cognition of TS > Certification system > Company sales > Informationization management level > System maintenance investment > Manager education level. Based on these results, the corresponding implications are given with the goal of (i) establishing the market mechanism of high price with high quality, (ii) increasing government investment for constructing the TS, and (iii) enhancing the organization of SC companies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0263.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: fruit; vegetable; childhood; COVID-19; cash value benefit
Online: 20 June 2022 (09:46:42 CEST)
During the COVID-19 pandemic, WIC increased the Cash Value Benefit (CVB) for fruits and vegetables by roughly $25/month/person. We sought to understand WIC participant perceptions of this change and barriers and facilitators to using the CVB. We conducted 10 virtual focus groups (5 rural, 5 urban/suburban) with WIC participants (n=55) in North Carolina in March 2022. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed. We open coded the content and used thematic analysis to uncover consistencies within and between sampled groups. Participants expressed favorable perceptions of the CVB increase and stated the pre-pandemic CVB amount was insufficient. Barriers to using the increased CVB were identifying WIC approved fruits and vegetables in stores and insufficient supply of fruits and vegetables. Barriers were more pronounced in rural groups. CVB use facilitators were existing household preferences for fruits and vegetables and the variety of products that can be purchased with the CVB relative to other components of the WIC food package. Participants felt the CVB increase allowed their families to eat a wider variety of fruits and vegetables. The CVB increase may improve fruit and vegetable intake, particularly if made permanent, but barriers to CVB and WIC benefit use may be limiting the potential impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: vegetable extract; seaweed extract; agrosystems; resilience; Apulia (Italy)
Online: 9 March 2022 (09:53:25 CET)
To meet the United Nations sustainable development goals (UN-SDGs) and the European Green Deal, plant biostimulants have become a necessity in agriculture. In particular, seaweed-based biostimulants have received a greater acceptance for their several benefits in crop growth and yield. This study evaluates the effects foliar applications based on vegetables and brown algae extract (Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol., on grapes and olive yield in two field experiments in the Apulia region known for its modern agricultural sector. In particular, grape-growing and olive production. At harvest, the yield performances were determined. The results highlighted that the crop responses differed in grape and olive orchards. The biostimulant application determined significant increases in bunch development (+ 9.5%) and bunch weight (+10%) compared to untreated control. In the olive orchard, the yield was not significantly influenced by biostimulant application, whereas we observed quality improvement in olive oil in treated plants compared with the control. To better understand the mechanisms behind this difference, the research concludes by suggesting pursuing in-depth studies and high scientific and technical proficiency to determine and optimise the rates and timing of applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0219.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Lycopene, Blakeslea trispora, fermentation, vegetable oil, orange peel
Online: 25 February 2019 (08:54:39 CET)
The production of lycopene from different substrates by Blakeslea trispora in fermentation was investigated. Lycopene productions from 4 and 6 % glucose (pH 6.5) in shake flask fermentation were 77.7 and 28.1 mg L-1. A maximum lycopene concentration of 944.8 mg L-1 was detected with 4 % glucose supplemented with 1.0 % sunflower oil in fermentor studies. Zygospores of B. trispora are the morphological forms, which are responsible for the production of the lycopene. The highest level of zygospores was correlated with the highest amount of intracellular lycopene in the total biomass dry weight. The media containing only orange peel (1 %) gave a 4.9 mg L-1 lycopene production in a fermentor. The presence of oils as substrates resulted in enhanced mold growth and subsequent higher lycopene production. Substrates containing linoleic acid compounds led to high lycopene production. The data showed that the biosynthesis of lycopene starts in most cases simultaneously in the early growth phase even in trace amounts and the amount of lycopene formation increased continuously from 2 to 7 days.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0359.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Parkia biglobosa, alkaline fermentation, vegetable protein, condiment, pH
Online: 22 June 2018 (14:38:29 CEST)
Parkia biglobosa (African locust bean) seed was fermented aerobically to produce a vegetable protein based condiment using various temperature differences and ambient temperature. The rate of fermentation was monitored using three (3) different methods namely: weight loss, pH and Carbon dioxide release. Samples were inoculated using Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as starter culture. During fermentation, several changes occur in the seeds of the African Locust bean. The difference in the weight loss (initial and final weight of the fermenting samples) were used to monitor the rate of fermentation of the African Locust bean (parkia biglobosa) seeds to vegetable protein called ‘Iru’. Fermentation of this seed to ‘Iru’ is an alkaline fermentation, which was confirmed by this work. As means of monitoring the rate of fermentation, the evolution of CO2 was also monitored.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0180.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Green Chemistry; Vegetable oils; Bio-based nanoparticles; Oncology APIs
Online: 4 May 2023 (04:04:06 CEST)
Latterly, the development of green synthesized polymeric nanoparticles with anticancer studies has been an emerging field in academia, and in the pharmaceutical and chemical industry. Vegetable oils are potential substitutes for petroleum derivatives, as they present themselves as a clean and environmentally friendly alternative and are available in high quantities at relatively low prices. Biomass-derived chemicals can be converted into monomers with unique structures, generating materials with new properties for the synthesis of sustainable monomers and polymers. In this way, the production of bio-based polymeric nanoparticles appears as a great application of green chemistry for biomedical uses. There is an increasing demand for biocompatible and biodegradable materials for specific applications in biomedical as cancer therapy, encouraging scientists in working on research towards designing polymers, with enhanced properties and clean processes, containing oncology active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The nanoencapsulation of these APIs in bio-based polymeric nanoparticles can control the release of the substances, increase bioavailability, reduce problems with volatility and degradation, reduce side effects, and increase treatment efficiency. Thus, this review aims to discuss the use of green chemistry for bio-based nanoparticle production and its application in anticancer medicine. The use of vegetable oils for the production of renewable monomers and polymers will be discussed, bringing castor oil as an ideal candidate for such application, as well as more suitable methods for the production of bio-based nanoparticles and some oncology APIs available for anticancer application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0351.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: vegetable; seedling quality; automatic transplanting; substrate improvement; consolidation strength
Online: 25 March 2022 (15:52:36 CET)
Automation of vegetable seedling transplanting has provided opportunities for saving labors and improving productivity. Some changes in seedling agronomy are necessary for efficient transplanting. In this study, the local nursery substrates were added with the herbaceous peat, the sphagnum peat and the coir peat, respectively. Effects of the new compound substrates were investigated on the seedling qualities and the root-substrate strength. In the results, we found that the addition of these horticultural mediums significantly affected the physiochemical properties of the original substrates. Under the same nursery conditions, some appropriate additions could promote the seedling growth. And the deficient or excessive additions were to inhibit the growing development of seedlings and their roots. The corresponding additions would also improve the structural characteristics of the root lumps. Generally, the nursery substrates added with the sphagnum peat were relatively optimized in contribution to the seedling qualities and the root-substrate strength. Especially as the commercial substrate and the sphagnum peat were mixed at the volume ratio of 2:1, the dry matter accumulation of seedlings was 2.18 times more than the original. Their root lumps had the best consolidation strength, which may be an effective application for the necessary qualities of seedlings for automatic transplanting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0353.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: adaptation; climate change; southern Mali; Heckman probit; vegetable production
Online: 12 March 2021 (20:27:55 CET)
This study aims to determine the impact of climate change on market garden production in the extreme south of Mali through the perception and adaptation of market gardeners to climatic phenomena. The study used two models, namely the probit selection and Heckman results models and multinomial logistic regression, based on data collected from producers. A total of 194 producers were surveyed. The results of Heckman's probit model indicate that experience in agriculture and the educational level of the producers are the two main determinants of producers' perception and simultaneous adaptation to climate change. Among these variables agricultural experience is both positively and negatively correlated with perception.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0033.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: polylactic acid(PLA); modified vegetable oils (MVO); maleinization; mechanical properties
Online: 2 May 2023 (01:09:06 CEST)
Polylactic acid (PLA) was modified with three types of MVOs, which are the epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO), maleinized sunflower oil (MSO) and maleinized olive oil (MOO), at different weight fractions. A co-rotating twin screw extruder was used to produce composite materials by melt mixing process. The effect of MVOs content, from 2.5% to 10%, on the morphology, mechanical properties, density and water absorption were investigated in detail. Addition of ESBO and maleinized vegetable oils leads to a slight decrease in density of PLA from 1.252 to 1.231 g/cm3. As the concentration of MVO in PLA increases, the amount of water absorption also increased and the highest water absorption value was observed in P10MSO. In general, the elastic modulus (EM) was slightly changed by the addition of MVO to PLA, while the tensile strength (TS) decreased. Due to the plasticizing effect of MVOs, an increase in the Izod impact strength was obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0693.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Citrullus lanatus; grafting tool; rootstock regrowth; scion growth; vegetable grafting
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:56:14 CEST)
Grafting is an effective way to increase plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stressors, it is widely used in watermelon production. However, grafting is labor intensive due to the additional time is required, such as the management of rootstock regrowth. This study used a new grafting tool to destroy (remove) the epidermis of pumpkin and bottle gourd rootstock cotyledon base during grafting, we called this a new grafting method. Compared with the traditional grafting (100%), the new grafting method had significantly lower rate of rootstock regrowth (2-23%), higher watermelon scion dry weight and leaf area. In addition, the time used for the new hole insertion and one cotyledon grafting method to destroy (remove) the epidermis of rootstock cotyledon base (4.2 s/plant, 4.2 s/plant) is significantly shorter than the time required to remove the rootstock regrowth manually in the traditional grafting (9.3 s/plant, 8.8 s/plant). Thus, this study developed a new grafting method for watermelon to inhibit rootstock regrowth and enhance scion growth, and this new method is cost-effective for grafted watermelon seedlings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0572.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption; Food businesses; Food environments; Asia
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:23:57 CET)
Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption benefits the health of populations, particularly those in East and Southeast Asian countries, which have undergone an unprecedented change in their food environments in the last decade. This current systematic review is the first to study determinants—facilitators, barriers, and moderators—associated with FV consumption in East and Southeast Asia. In a search of the literature, we consulted five electronic academic databases of English peer-reviewed papers published between 2010 and 2020 and found 31 studies. Results of these studies show that individuals strongly perceive FVs as being higher quality and safe and trust in their benefits, and food businesses with modernized systems have significantly fostered the consumption of FVs. A main barrier to FV consumption, however, is financial concerns, exacerbated by food businesses with FV unavailability and urbanization-induced FV price inflation and dietary patterns. Further hindering FV consumption are demographics and shopping patterns. The fragmented and conditionalized findings of the 31 studies require standardized FV consumption measurements. Unlike the impact of FV consumption determinants and their interactions in Western countries, those in Asia, particularly countries other than China, have been substantially understudied. Therefore, as the research gaps in studies of food environments and FV consumption in East and Southeast Asia urgently demand scholarly attention, this paper proposes recommendations that favour the consumption of FVs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0466.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; dietary fiber; gut microbiota; prognosis; vegetable fiber
Online: 22 October 2020 (21:26:36 CEST)
The gut microbiota has been suggested as an important factor in the pathogenic mechanisms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This study aimed to investigate whether the intake of different kinds of dietary fiber was related to the disease progression rate (∆FS) and survival time. In total, 272 sporadic ALS patients diagnosed according to the revised EI Escorial criteria were recruited from March 2011 and were followed-up until the occurrence of events or the end of September 2020. The events included percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, tracheostomy, and death. Dietary fiber intake was calculated based on a 24-hour dietary recall and classified according to five major fiber-rich foods: vegetables, fruits, grains, legumes, and nuts/seeds. Among the total participants, the group with ∆FS values lower than the mean ∆FS (0.75) was noted in the highest tertiles of total and vegetable fiber intake. Participants with the highest tertile of vegetable fiber intake showed longer survival in the Kaplan–Meier analysis (p = 0.033). Notably, vegetable fiber intake was negatively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. This study showed that vegetable fiber intake could influence the disease progression rate and survival time. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm whether dietary fiber supplementation improves the prognosis of ALS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0552.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Colliguaya integerrima; Colliguaja salicifolia; vegetable oil; bio-polyol; renewable resources
Online: 28 September 2018 (04:44:48 CEST)
In this study we investigated the potential of two non-edible oil extracts from seeds of Colliguaya Integerrima (CIO) and Colliguaja Salicifolia (CSO) to use as a renewable source for polyols and eventually polyurethane foams or biodiesel. For this purpose, two novel polyols from the aforementioned oils were obtained in a one-single step reaction using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid. The polyol derivatives obtained from the two studied oils were characterized by spectral (FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR), physico-chemical (e.g. chromatographic analysis, acid value, oxidizability values, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification number, kinematic viscosity, theorical molecular weights, density, hydroxyl number and hydroxyl functionality) and thermal (TGA) analyses according to standard methods. Physico-chemical results revealed that all parameters, with the exception of the iodine value, were higher for bio-polyols (CSP and CIP polyols) compared to the starting oils. The NMR, TGA and FT-IR analyses demonstrated the formation of polyols. Finally, the OH functionality values for CIP and CSP polyols were 4.50 and 5.00, respectively. This result indicated the possible used of CIP and CSP polyols as a raw material for the preparation of polyurethane rigid foams.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0318.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: input efficiency use; Kosovar greenhouse vegetable industry; tomatoes and peppers
Online: 20 June 2018 (09:40:52 CEST)
This study evaluates the input efficiency of greenhouse tomato and pepper farms in Kosovo. Using data collected from farm surveys, we conduct an input-oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA) to empirically assess input efficiency. Secondly, linear regression analysis is used to investigate which farm variables predict greenhouse tomato and pepper technical efficiency (TE). The DEA results indicated that among the seven regions in Kosovo, Prizren emerged as the most efficient greenhouse tomato producing region with a mean efficiency of 0.83 (on a scale of 0 to 1). Prishtina followed with a mean efficiency of 0.80. In the production of greenhouse peppers, Prishtina was the most efficient region with a mean efficiency of 0.99. Ferizaj followed with a mean efficiency of 0.93. Conclusions about farm characteristics that explain differences in efficiency were sensitive to model specification. Nevertheless, depending on the structural and operational characteristics of the greenhouse tomato and pepper farms, there is an opportunity for the technically inefficient farms and regions to improve their use of inputs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: vegetable waste; phenolics; hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress; antioxidant activity; AGE inhibition
Online: 2 August 2019 (10:36:17 CEST)
Pomegranate peel is a natural source of phenolics, claimed to possess healing properties, among which antioxidant and antidiabetic. In line with this evidence, the ethyl acetate PGE extract, obtained by Soxhlet from the peel of Dente di cavallo DC2 variety and characterized by a 4% amount of ellagic acid, has been studied for its hypoglycemic, antiglycation and antioxidative cytoprotective properties, in order to support a possible further nutraceutical interest. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition, interference with advanced glycation end-products (AGE) formation and metal chelating abilities were evaluated as hypoglycemic mechanisms. Also, considering that oxidative stress is associated with hyperglycemia complications, PGE antioxidant cytoprotective properties under hyperglycemic conditions were assayed. Phenolic profile was characterized by integrated chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. Under our experimental conditions, PGE strongly inhibited the tested enzymes, especially α-glucosidase, and exerted chelating and antiglycation properties. Also, it reduced both ROS and GSH levels under hyperglycemic conditions, thus suggesting its ability to support cell functions by counteracting intracellular oxidative stress. Along with ellagic acid, rutin was the major identified flavonoid (about 4 %) of PGE. Present results suggest PGE to be a possible remedy for hyperglycemia management and encourage further studies to exploit its promising properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: eggplant peel; polyphenols; HSV-1; Warburg effect; antioxidant activity; antiviral agents; vegetable waste
Online: 3 August 2018 (04:53:37 CEST)
DR2B and DR2C extracts, from peel of commercially and physiologically ripe eggplants, were studied for the antioxidative cytoprotective properties and anti-HSV-1 activity, in line with the evidence that several antioxidants can impair viral replication by maintaining reducing conditions into the host cells. The antioxidative cytoprotective effects against tBOOH-induced damage was assessed in Caco2 cells, while the antiviral activity was studied in Vero cells; phenolic and anthocyanin fingerprint was characterized by integrated phytochemical methods. Results highlighted different compositions of the extracts, with chlorogenic acid and delphinidin-3-rutinoside as the major constituents; other peculiar phytochemicals were also identified. DR2C resulted able to partly counteract the tBOOH-induced cytotoxicity, with a remarkable lowering of lactate metabolism under both normoxia and hypoxia. DR2B and DR2C reduced ROS production, possessed scavenging and chelating properties. Interestingly, DR2C increased intracellular GSH levels. Furthermore, DR2C inhibited the HSV-1 replication when added for 24 h after viral adsorption, as also confirmed by the reduction of many viral proteins expression. Since DR2C was able to reduce NOX4 expression during HSV-1 infection, its antiviral activity may be correlated to its antioxidant properties. Although further studies are needed to better characterize DR2C activity, the results suggest this extract as a promising new anti-HSV-1 agent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0167.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: vegetable oils; emulsifiers; triglycerides; FAME; epoxidized fatty acids; glycerol; polyglycerol; PGPR; renewable raw materials
Online: 25 December 2017 (07:32:07 CET)
Oligo- and polyesters of polyglycerol and polyricinoleic acid are widely used as emulsifiers in various industries. Based on the condensation of glycerol and its oligomers with epoxidized derivatives of vegetable oils, new promising emulsifiers for oil-water systems were obtained. Complex structural and functional spectral analysis of synthesized substances showed that the main reactions leading to the formation of the desired products were the opening of epoxide cycles, the transesterification of esters and the condensation of fatty acid derivatives. The new combination of renewable raw materials is of undoubted interest for deeper vegetable oils chemical processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1788.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: RAMAN fingerprints; edible vegetable oils; sunflower oil; olive oil; Patter recognition techniques; portable analyser; SORS
Online: 28 November 2023 (08:20:49 CET)
Nowadays, the combination of fingerprinting methodology with friendly environmental and economical analytical instrumentation are becoming increasingly relevant in the food sector. In this study, a highly versatile portable analyser based on Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) to obtain the edible vegetable oils (sunflower and olive oils) fingerprints was used to evaluate the capability of such fingerprints, obtained quickly, reliable and without any sample treatment, to discriminate/classify the analysed samples. After data treatment, not only HCA and PCA as unsupervised pattern recognition techniques but also SVM, kNN and SIMCA as supervised pattern recognition techniques, showed that the main effect over the discrimination/classification was associated to those regions of RAMAN fingerprint related to the free fatty acids content, especially oleic and linoleic acid. These facts allowed the discrimination attending to the original raw material used in the oil's elaboration. In all the model established, reliable qualimetric parameters were obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: tomato cultivar; allelopathy; competitive ability; plant-plant interactions; weed suppression; sustainable agriculture; weed management; vegetable
Online: 3 September 2021 (10:33:20 CEST)
The present study aims to identify tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars with weed-suppressive ability against target weed species in the tomato growing season. A greenhouse study was conducted with 17 tomato cultivars and target weeds Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.), and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.). Tomato plants and weed species were grown in the same pot. The height, chlorophyll, and dry weight biomass of the weeds were measured 28 days after sowing. The largest effect of tomato interference was on Palmer amaranth. Cultivar 15 reduced Palmer amaranth height, chlorophyll, and biomass by 58, 28, and 83%, respectively. Chlorophyll percentage of yellow nutsedge seedlings was suppressed by 15% by cultivar 64, whereas 13% of its height was reduced by cultivar 20. Cultivar 15 reduced biomass of yellow nutsedge by 40%. The percentage of chlorophyll of large crabgrass was reduced by 22% with cultivar 5, whereas the height and biomass were reduced by 35 and 44% with cultivars 38 and 63, respectively. Factoring all parameters evaluated, cultivars 38, 33, and 7 were most suppressive against the problematic weed species in tomato.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Keywords: vegetable cultivation; health; physical health; mental health; social well-being; qualitative study; adult; Japan
Online: 8 April 2019 (12:49:04 CEST)
The present short communication aimed to determine the effects of vegetable cultivation on health. We conducted a qualitative study using responses to an open-ended question that was part of a survey on regional differences on vegetable intake. Participants in this study were residents of Gunma Prefecture, Japan, and were aged between 20–74 years. In the questionnaire, we asked: “Aside from increasing vegetable intake, how does vegetable cultivation affect your health?” We were able to categorize the answers into six subcategories related to physical health, mental health, and social well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2244.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Produce prescription program; program implementation; food as medicine; fruit and vegetable consumption; healthcare setting; public health; diabetes; prediabetes.
Online: 30 June 2023 (11:37:43 CEST)
Through a partnership with three Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), the local health department in Los Angeles County implemented a produce prescription program (PPR) to increase fresh fruit and vegetable purchases among patients with diabetes or prediabetes. The PPR, which began in 2020, provided eligible patients with a $40 voucher every month for 6 months to promote the purchase of fresh produce at large chain grocery stores. This qualitative assessment describes staff experiences with the PPR, documenting the facilitators and barriers they encountered while implementing the program. Fifteen clinic staff (i.e., PPR implementers) were interviewed for this assessment. Thematic analysis and coding were conducted using the ATLAS.ti software; the coding was carried out by two separate coders. Interviewees discussed the importance of having preexisting partnerships and programs to support the PPR at their clinic site. Hidden costs related to implementing the program included a large and unexpected amount of staff time devoted to enrolling patients into the program. Collecting quality data and having limited expertise to rigorously evaluate the program were other challenges. Because patients often share their food with their family, the monthly $40 incentive was generally not enough to support their needs; interviewees suggested giving a higher inventive amount to those with a larger household. Future PPR efforts and similar food incentive programs should consider these and other facilitators and barriers to implementation and sustainability, especially when making adjustments to these programs to improve services and access to food resources.