ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: SBM model; industrial specialization; industrial clustering; urban land utilization efficiency
Online: 24 April 2017 (11:14:45 CEST)
In this paper, a land utilization efficiency evaluation model, which takes environmental loss into consideration, has been structured via taking advantage of the slack-based measure (SBM) model. Meanwhile, based on the panel data from 280 prefecture-level cities in China from 2003 to 2013, the paper thoroughly probed into, and discussed, the effect imposed by industry clustering and specialization on the utilization efficiency of urban land. Research results indicate several conclusions, as follows: (1) Taking environmental loss into account, the land utilization efficiency of prefecture-level cities in China is generally low. During the research period, the average value of the land utilization efficiency of prefecture-level cities in China is only 0.349, with, first, a declining trend, and then a rise. Geographically speaking, the land utilization efficiency presents a “depression in the center” phenomenon which means the land utilization efficiency of prefecture-level cities in the central China are relatively lower than in the east and west. Now, the difference among the urban land utilization efficiency in China significantly reflects the distinctions among Eastern, Western, and Central China. Moreover, the contribution degree of the difference of the land utilization efficiency among cities of central China to the aggregation difference shows an ascending momentum. Additionally, the relation between the population scale and land utilization efficiency in cities manifests as a U shape; (2) theoretically speaking, the relation between industry clustering and urban land utilization efficiency presents an inverted-U shape. However, this kind of relation is not significant in Western and Central China and medium-sized cities. Moreover, most of cities are still relatively far away from the inflection point or the critical value; and (3) the industry professional level has imposed a positive influence on urban land utilization efficiency. However, that influence is not significant in Eastern China and large cities. Consequently, strengthening the industry professional development of Western and Central China and small and medium-sized cities, facilitating diversified development of industries in Eastern China and large cities, and accelerating industrial clustering, all of these measures above will be conducive to improving urban land utilization efficiency in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0085.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: SDG11; Land Use Efficiency; Open Data, GHSL; Landsat; Urbanization; Urban expansion; Population mapping
Online: 4 October 2018 (15:35:06 CEST)
The Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) produces new global spatial information, evidence-based analytics and knowledge describing the human presence on the planet based mainly on two quantitative factors: i) the spatial distribution (density) of built-up structures and ii) the spatial distribution (density) of resident people. Both factors are observed in the long-term temporal domain and per uniform surface units in order to support trends and indicators for monitoring the implementation of international framework agreements. The GHSL uses various input data including global, multi-temporal archives of fine-scale satellite imagery, census data, and volunteered geographic information. In this paper, we present the characteristics of GHSL information to demonstrate how original frameworks of data and tools rooted on Earth Observation could support Sustainable Development Goals monitoring. In particular, we demonstrate the reach of gridded, open and free, local yet globally consistent, multi-temporal data in filling the data gap for the Sustainable Development Goal 11. Our experiments produce a global estimate for the Land Use Efficiency indicator (SDG 11.3.1) for 10,000 urban centers, calculating the ratio of land consumption to population growth rate that took place between 1990 and 2015. The results of our research demonstrate that there is a potential to lift SDG 11.3.1 from a tier 2 as GHSL provides a global baseline for the essential variables called by the SDG 11.3.1 metadata.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0249.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Geoarchaeology; Urban Geomorphology; Failaka Island; GIS; RS.
Online: 11 August 2020 (04:13:37 CEST)
Failaka Island is located 20 kilometers east of the Kuwait mainland. The island includes archaeological sites dating back to the Bronze, Hellenistic, Christian, and Islamic ages. To develop the island as a tourist attraction the state is pursuing a new urban plan based on the island's environmental potential. This study is the basis of the urban plan depends on environmental criteria from the view of Geoarchaeology. The study analysis the land-use and land-cover changes of Failaka Island between 1958- 2018. It provides a topographic survey of the island's coastline and a classification of its geomorphological features and a state of the art identification of its archaeological sites by using a drone to make a terrain model. The study used a medium to high-resolution image analysis of the land-use and land-cover changes: WorldView2-50cm 2010 and 2018; Landsat 8; aerial photography; Drone images and a digital elevation model (DEM), to analysis the expected sea level changes by the end of this century. This study also created a geodatabase of the island that can be adapted for future studies. The results emphasize the importance of preserving the historical and ecological features of the island while developing its infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1495.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Urban spatial plan; urban street width, land value; land price; space syntax; street network; land use distribution; land marketing; real estate.
Online: 21 June 2023 (07:39:24 CEST)
Overcoming the issue of land value and cost in urban areas will not provide a miraculous solution to the problems there. Appropriate land use cost, especially for residential and commercial land, is just one of the issues to be settled in the debate. Therefore, this study aims to build a new urban land price determination model by investigating the urban syntactical analysis, street width, and their economic effects on land value. The study attempts to determine the impact of syntactic analysis of streets and street width on land prices; it also seeks to identify the factor most affected by the land cost. Ultimately, the study built a model for urban land price prediction. The case selected is evaluated and compared in three aspects of the analysis, including; the urban axial assessments and urban street width, to find out their impacts on the real estate’s land price in the context of the land use distributions, which are predominantly residential and commercial types of uses. Depth map X8, SPSS, and QGIS 3.16 were used for the study evaluations and assessments. The result showed a significant impact of the urban street network on the price of land; this result can be used to enhance future urban design regarding urban economy improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0534.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: governance; social-ecological system; tropical cyclone; urban forest; urban tree canopy
Online: 23 July 2021 (10:31:50 CEST)
Urban Tree Canopy (UTC) greatly enhances the livability of cities by reducing urban heat buildup, mitigating stormwater runoff, and filtering airborne particulates, among other ecological services. These benefits, combined with the relative ease of measuring tree cover from aerial imagery, have led many cities to adopt management strategies based on UTC goals. In this study, we conducted canopy analyses for the 300 largest cities in Florida to assess the impacts of development practices, urban forest ordinances, and hurricanes on tree cover. Within the cities sampled, UTC canopy ranged from 5.9% to 68.7% with a median canopy coverage of 32.3% Our results indicate that the peak gust speeds recorded during past hurricanes events were a significant predictor of canopy coverage (P-value = <0.001) across the sampled cities. As peak gust speeds increased from 152 km/h (i.e., a lower-intensity Category 1 storm) to 225 km/h (lower-intensity Category 4 and the maximum gusts captured in our data), predicted canopy in developed urban areas decreased by 7.7%. Beyond the impacts of hurricanes and tropical storms, we found that historic landcover and two out of eight urban forest ordinances were significant predictors of existing canopy coverage (P-landcover <0.001; P-tree preservation ordinance = 0.02, P-heritage tree ordinance = 0.03). Results indicate that local policies and tree protections can protect or enhance urban tree canopy, even in the face of rapid development and periodic natural disturbances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0197.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Support Vector Machine; Support Vector Regression; Machine learning; Prediction; Urban Smart Bus
Online: 15 February 2020 (14:33:23 CET)
The impact of the accurate estimated time of arrival (ETA) is often overlooked by bus operators. By providing accurate ETA to riders, it gives them the impression of bus services is efficient and reliable and this promotes higher ridership in the long run. This research project aims to predict bus arrival time by using the Support Vector Regression (SVR) model which is based on the same theory as the Support Vector Machine (SVM). Urban City Bus data covering part of the Petaling Jaya area (route name PJ03) is used in this research work. Features related to traffic such as travel duration, a distance of the road, weather and operation at peak or non-peak hour have been used as input in the training of the SVR model. By using kernel trick and specifying optimum parameters, all the features in higher dimensions are efficiently calculated and the SVR model achieves convergence. The model is evaluated with the test set of data split from the original dataset. The experimental result indicates the SVR model displays good prediction ability with its low average error on the prediction result. However, weather data has not been influential to the prediction model as the results of the model trained with and without weather data show a negligible difference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0182.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: transportation integration; service industry agglomeration; Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration; urban agglomeration transportation integration index system; knowledge spillover effect.
Online: 13 September 2022 (16:02:29 CEST)
This study selected the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration as the research area, combining it with the current situation of the transportation development of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration to construct the urban agglomeration transportation integration index system and evaluate the development status of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration transportation integration. The study examined the influence mechanism of transportation infrastructure on service industry agglomeration. The results are as follows: (1) From 2011–2020, the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration’s transportation integration index showed a clear upward trend. (2)The development of transport integration in urban agglomerations has heterogeneous effects on local service agglomeration. The development of the integration level of local transportation has a certain inhibitory effect on the agglomeration of local service industry. The transportation integration of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration plays an important role in promoting the agglomeration of local wholesale and retail industry, transportation, storage and postal services. (3) The transportation integration of urban agglomeration can affect the agglomeration of service industry through the knowledge spillover brought by the free flow of various factors. The knowledge spillover effect caused by local transportation integration can promote the agglomeration of local service industry to a certain extent. The Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration needs to accelerate the construction of trans-provincial and trans-municipal transportation infrastructure, and further improve the connectivity level of the urban agglomeration, so as to promote the integrated development of high-quality transportation in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0047.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: sustainable development goals; land consumption; population growth; urban area
Online: 31 January 2020 (09:58:57 CET)
Demographic and socio-economic developments couple with other requirements to satisfy human needs result in rapid urban expansion sometimes with increasing rate of surface extent greater than the rate of growth of population, that result in continuous sealing of ground surface thereby affecting ecosystem services. This study applied remote sensing toward achieving the progress of SDGs and stage to determine the ratio of the rate of land consumption to the rate of population growth of Gombe metropolis. QGIS 2.18 was used for the image processing and classification analysis for the key Landsat ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper), Impervious Surface Indices and population data to inform on the urban trend and LCR/PGR for the periods 2000-2005, 2005-2010, and 2010-2015. The result appears that the LCR/PGR for the periods of study show split trends. During 2000-2005 the result shows that the study area expanded outward with LCR/PGR of 1.2. The result also indicate that during 2005-2010, the study area densified with little expansion with the LCR/PGR of 0.8. The result further reveals that during 2010-2015 the LCR/PGR reached 1.8. Pointing that the study area expanded outward with the rate of ground sealing getting high.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0051.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: urbanization; land surface phenology; urban heat island; Northeast China
Online: 10 January 2017 (10:30:26 CET)
The urbanization effects on land surface phenology (LSP) have been investigated by many studies, but few studies focused on the temporal variations of urbanization effects on LSP. In this study, we used the MODIS EVI, MODIS LST data and China’s Land Use/Cover Datasets (CLUDs) to investigate the temporal variations of urban heat island intensity and urbanization effects on LSP in Northeast China during 2001–2015. Land surface temperature (LST) and phenology differences between urban and rural areas represented the urban heat island intensity and urbanization effects on LSP, respectively. Mann-kendall nonparametric test and Sen's slope were used to evaluating the trends of urbanization effects on LSP and urban heat island intensity. The results indicated that the average land surface phenology (LSP) during 2001–2015 was characterized by high spatial heterogeneity. The start of the growing season (SOS) in old urban area had become earlier and earlier than rural area and the differences of SOS between urbanized area and the rural area changed greatly during 2001–2015 (−0.79 days/year, p < 0.01). Meanwhile, the length of the growing season (LOS) in urban and adjacent areas had become increasingly longer than rural area especially in urbanized area (0.92 days/year, p < 0.01), but the differences of the end of the growing season (EOS) between urban and adjacent areas did not change significantly. Next, the UHII increased in spring and autumn during the whole study period. Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that the increasing urban heat island intensity in spring contributed greatly to the increases of urbanization effects on SOS, but the increasing urban heat island intensity in autumn did not lead to the increases of urbanization effects on EOS in Northeast China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Change detection; NDVI; Landsat; Land cover land use change; Urban environment
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:44:21 CET)
Urban cities are the major drivers of economic growth and development. Economic growth and development however results in considerable land cover land use dynamics. This study assessed the dynamics in land cover land use that have occurred in New Braunfels, Texas in the last 7 years (2013 - 2020) to observe areas in the city that had experienced considerable shifts in land cover and land use. A 30-meter resolution Landsat images were used to examine possible changes in land cover land use. New Braunfels was observed to have experienced significant changes in land use especially in developed areas. This change can be attributed to the influx of people into the city, contributing to the need for increased urban development. Analysis of this study shows that about 16% (about 553 hectares) of forest land cover class and 28% (about 1,139 hectares) of grassland class in time 1 (August 31, 2013) changed to built-up land use class in time 2 (November 5, 2020). A limitation to this study was that of the spatial resolution of images used. Higher spatial resolution images could impact the producers, users, and overall accuracy assessment. Results from this study can aid in supporting better decision-making for sustainable urban development and climate change mitigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0664.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: radiative transfer equation; improved mono-window; generalized single-channel; split-window; LANDSAT-8; urban land surface temperature
Online: 27 September 2020 (04:59:36 CEST)
Land Surface Temperature (LST) estimation has been studied for several purposes, while the optimal method of estimating the LST has not been criticized yet. This research explores the optimum method in Land Surface Temperature (LST) estimation using LANDSAT-8 imagery data. Four different LST retrieval approaches, the Radiative Transfer Equation-based method (RTE), the Improved Mono-Window method (IMW), the Generalized Single-Channel method (GSC), and the Split-Window algorithm (SW), were calculated to present the LSTs over Buriram Town Municipality, Thailand. The calculated LSTs from these four methods were compared with the ground-based temperature data, taken on the same date and time of the employed LANDSAT-8 images. For this reason, the optimum method of the LST calculation was justified by considering the lowest normalized root means square error (NRMSE) values. As a result, the SW algorithm presents an optimum method in LST estimation. Regarding the SW, this algorithm requires not only the atmospheric profiles during satellite acquisition but also the retrieval of several coefficients. Besides, the LST retrieval method based on the SW algorithm is sensitive to water vapor content and coefficients. Although the SW algorithm is an optimum method explored in this study, it is emphasized that the adjustable values of coefficient response to the atmospheric state may be recommended. With these conditions, the SW algorithm can generate the land-surface temperature over the mixed land-use and land cover on the LANDSAT-8 images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1402.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: ecosystem services; optimisation; InVEST model; NSGA II; Central Plains Urban Agglomeration
Online: 20 June 2023 (08:11:13 CEST)
Based on multi-source remote sensing data, scenario analysis, and model simulation, the Pareto optimal solutions for water supply, water purification (N retention), and carbon storage and sequestration services under different scenarios were sought by adjusting its land use structure. The results showed that. In Scenario 1(S1), the water supply service needs to increase by 86.820 to 11.211 billion cubic metres, the water purification (N retention) service needs to decrease by 11,400 to 11,700 tons, and the carbon storage and sequestration service need to decrease by 2.070 to 2.487 billion tons. In Scenario 2(S2), the water supply service needs to increase by 8.243–10.666 billion cubic metres, the water purification (N retention) service needs to decrease by 11,300–1.10 million tons, and the carbon storage and sequestration service needs to decrease by 2.033 to 2.466 billion tons. In Scenario 3 (S3), the water supply service needs to increase by 7.832–11.437 billion cubic metres, the water purification (N retention) service needs to decrease by 1.16–10,800 tons, and the carbon storage and sequestration service needs to decrease by 19.220 to 2.380 billion tons. After land use optimisation and adjustment, the S3 ecological land structure is complete and consistent with the vision of ecological protection and urban development in the study area, which is the optimal scenario. After optimising the S3 ecosystem service supply pattern, the water supply, water purification (N retention), and carbon storage and sequestration services could connect the western and eastern ecosystem service supply areas, balance the overall ecosystem service supply pattern of the study area and meet the demand for ecosystem services. The results can guide regional land planning and ecosystem service management optimisation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0468.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Pollinator; landscape; land use; urban rural gradient; Japanese honeybee; honey; pollen; nutrition.
Online: 16 July 2021 (13:04:52 CEST)
Pollinators are being threatened globally by urbanisation and agricultural intensification, driv-en by a growing human population. Understanding these impacts on landscapes and pollinators is critical to ensuring a robust pollination system. Remote sensing data on land use attributes have previously linked honeybee nutrition to land use in the Western Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). Here, we instead focus on the less commonly studied Apis cerana japonica – the Japanese Honeybee. Our study presents preliminary data comparing forage (honey and pollen) with land use across a rural-urban gradient from 22 sites in Kyushu, southern Japan. Honey samples were collected from hives between June 2018 and August 2019. Pollen were collected and biotyped from hives in urban and rural locations (n = 4). Previous studies of honey show substantial vari-ation in monosaccharide content. Our analysis of A. cerana japonica honey found very little varia-tion in glucose and fructose (which accounted for 97% of monosaccharides), despite substantial differences in surrounding forage composition. As expected, we observed temporal variation in pollen foraged by A. cerana japonica, likely dependent on flowering phenology. These prelimi-nary results suggest that the forage and nutrition of A. cerana japonica may not be negatively af-fected by urban land use. This highlights the need for further comparative studies between A. cerana japonica and A. mellifera as it could suggest a resilience in pollinators foraging in their na-tive range.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0359.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Land Cover; LIDAR; Sociodemographics; Built Environment; Urban Form; Air Quality; Social Justice; Environmental Justice; Policy; Localized Action.
Online: 16 September 2020 (11:15:01 CEST)
Multiple social and environmental justice concerns are linked to urban form such as the distribution of socioeconomic class populations, healthcare spending, air pollution exposure, and human mobility. This study used 1m resolved LIDAR data to characterize land use in Salt Lake County, Utah and associate it with sociodemographic and air quality data at the census block group and zip code levels. We found that increasing tree cover was associated with higher per capita income and lower minority populations while increasing built cover was linked to lower per capita income and higher minority populations. Air quality showed less strong correlations, however, decreased non irrigated cover, increased built cover, and higher amounts of households living under poverty was related to higher long-term PM2.5 exposure. Several policy efforts have been undertaken to improve air quality and reduce negative health outcomes in Utah which are being informed by regulatory and research grade air quality sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0221.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: urban mobility; dynamic risk perception; data-driven model; policy analysis
Online: 15 March 2022 (15:56:15 CET)
In many countries, governments have implemented non-pharmaceutical techniques to limit COVID-19 transmission. Restricting human mobility is one of the most common interventions, including lockdown, travel restrictions, working from home, etc. However, due to the strong transmission ability of the virus variants, further rounds of interventions, including a strict lockdown, are not considered as effective as expected. The paper aims to understand how the lockdown policy and pandemics changed human mobility in the real scenario. Here we focus on understanding the mobility changes caused by compliance with restrictions and risk perceptions, using the mobility index from the Google report during three strict lockdown periods in Leeds, the largest city in the county of West Yorkshire, England from March 2020 to March 2021. The research proposed the time-varying z-scores and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to simulate how local people dynamically process and perceive health risk based on multi-dimensional daily COVID-19 reports first. Further modelling highlights exponentially increasing policy non-compliance through the duration of lockdown, probably attributable to factors such as mental anxiety and economic pressures. Finally, the proposed nonlinear regression model examines the mobility changes caused by the population's dynamic risk perceptions and lockdown duration. The case study at Leeds fits data well and shows that the third lockdown policy took effect much slower than the first. At the same time, the negative impact of the epidemic on population mobility decayed 40% in the third lockdown period in contrast with the first lockdown. The risk perception estimation methods could reflect that the local population became increasingly accustomed to the COVID-19 situation, and local people rationally evaluated the risks of COVID in the third lockdown period. The results prove that simulated risk perceptions and policy decay could explain urban mobility behaviour during the mobility well during lockdown periods, which could be a reference for future decision-making processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1759.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: TOD; urban rail transit; land use; Node-Place-Function model; NSGA-II algorithm
Online: 26 June 2023 (07:28:23 CEST)
The integration of transportation systems with land use through the Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) model can effectively promote sustainable development in cities. By increasing the intensive use of land within the supply capacity of urban public transportation, this model can comprehensively improve the efficiency of urban transportation and land use, while also addressing problems such as traffic congestion and environmental pollution. To implement this model, a "Node-Place-Function" (NPF) framework is proposed based on the coordination degree between rail transit and land use in Qingdao. A comprehensive evaluation system is constructed to quantitatively assess the TOD level and comprehensive development level of land use around rail transit stations from three dimensions. By applying the NSGA-II genetic algorithm, a land use allocation optimization model is developed to maximize rail transit station accessibility, land economic benefits, and environmental comfort. The research results guide other cities in China to implement TOD in land use planning and promote coordinated development between urban rail transit and land use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1196.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Insecure Tenure; Land Tenure; Urban Housing; Conurbation, Benin
Online: 29 April 2023 (03:30:31 CEST)
This study focuses on land tenure in an urban environment. Specifically, it intends to elucidate the influence of land tenure security on access to housing in urban communities. The conurbation of Grand Nokoué, which is an agglomeration of five cities in the Republic of Benin, West Africa, captures attention due to its particular features as a developing city. Based on the literature, this study outlined three major factors of insecure land tenure, namely, lack of recognition by authorities, lack of protection from eviction or expulsion, and informal community-based rights. In addition, we examined four characteristics of relevant housing issues, namely, the development of shantytowns, the multiplicity of precarious housing, the loss of housing for the development of public projects, and exposure to house demolition under judicial decision to formulate our hypotheses. The results of a field observation and semi-structured interviews supported the hypotheses and demonstrated that the legal access to land, the protection of the population from anarchic eviction and informal community-based rights may positively influence the development of sustainable urban housing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1564.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: buildings energy efficiency; climate change; energy efficiency; feedback effects; passive solar energy; renewable energy; transport energy efficiency; urban heat island
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:32:41 CEST)
Energy efficiency is, in principle, a simple idea: an output of human value, for example, vehicle-km traveled, divided by the needed input energy. Efficiency improvements are regarded by many as an important means of mitigating not only climate change, but also other environmental problems. Accordingly, many countries have efficiency ratings for appliances and efficiency standards for road vehicles. Despite the vast number of articles published on energy efficiency, few question whether it is a useful or accurate measure in its present form. This review addresses this lack, by a critical review of the literature, not only in energy efficiency, but in other areas of research, such as ‘energy services’, that can help broaden the scope of this idea, both geographically and conceptually. These shortcomings are illustrated in case studies of road passenger transport and buildings. The main findings are that energy efficiency inevitably has an ethical dimension, that feedbacks are more widespread than generally considered, and that conventional efficiency measures omit important energy input items, particularly those concerned with mining of the materials needed for renewable energy plants. Finally, the key results of this review are summarized, and its limitations are discussed, as is the future research needed to overcome these shortcomings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1038.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: water use efficiency; regional differences; convergence; urban agglomerations; Yangtze River Economic Belt
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:38:59 CEST)
This study used a two-stage network data envelopment analysis model to measure the water use efficiency of 108 cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt in the initial water use and wastewater treatment phases from 2009 to 2019. We used the Dagum Gini coefficient to decompose the urban water use efficiency of six major urban clusters in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. We also used σ convergence and β convergence types to test the convergence characteristics of urban water use efficiency of six major urban clusters in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. This study found that the overall low level of water use efficiency in cities in the Yangtze River Economic Zone mainly stems from the low level of water use efficiency in the wastewater treatment stage. The 108 cities in the Yangtze River Economic Zone are divided into four types based on the average values of water use efficiency in the initial use and wastewater treatment phases; the highest number of cities are in the double-low category, with low average values of water use efficiency in the initial use and wastewater treatment phases. During the study period, spatial differences in urban water use efficiency in the Yangtze River Economic Zone narrowed, with the differences stemming mainly from hyperdensity, followed by intra- and inter-regional differences. Meanwhile, there is convergence in urban water use efficiency in the Yangtze River Economic Belt; significant β convergence in the urban agglomerations of the Yangtze River Delta, Jianghuai, middle reaches of the Yangtze River, Chengdu–Chongqing, and Central Yunnan; and insignificant β convergence in the Central Qian urban agglomeration. After considering control factors, such as industrial structure, financial development level, environmental regulation, economic development level, and science and education development level, the water use efficiency of the six major urban clusters in the Yangtze River Economic Belt converges faster, but the influence of these control factors on the water use efficiency of each urban cluster is heterogeneous. Research results have reference value for the development of improvement strategies on differentiated urban water use efficiency in the Yangtze River Economic Belt.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0778.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: environmental justice; urban heat island; extreme heat; heat vulnerability; public transportation infrastructure
Online: 12 June 2023 (07:05:42 CEST)
Extreme heat is a climate, public health, and environmental justice issue. This case study examined public transit exposure and vulnerability to extreme heat by investigating the microenvironment, land cover characteristics, and social vulnerability of heat-vulnerable bus stops in Knoxville, Tennessee. The community’s temperature and Heat Index information, bus stop point data, land cover characteristics data, and the microenvironment of bus stops (i.e., trees and shelters) were processed and mapped with ArcGIS Pro. The pictures of the microenvironment of the bus stop were collected from Google Maps, and the social vulnerability of the area where the bus stops are located was investigated by analyzing the Center for Disease and Prevention's Social Vulnerability Index. Results found that the most heat-vulnerable bus stops were concentrated in West Knoxville, South, North, Northeast, and Northwest Knoxville. In addition, the most heat-vulnerable bus stops were concentrated in commercial complexes and areas a large number of systematically marginalized populations reside.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0192.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land surface temperature; the Flexible Spatiotemporal Data Fusion method; Landsat-like; Building density; urban expansion
Online: 11 September 2018 (11:17:43 CEST)
Satellite-based remote sensing technologies are utilized extensively to investigate urban thermal environments under rapid urban expansion. Current MODIS data is, however, unable to adequately represent the spatially detailed information because of its relatively coarser spatial resolution, while Landsat data can’t explore temporally the refined analysis due to the low temporal resolution. In order to resolve this situation, we used MODIS and Landsat data to generate “Landsat-like” data by using the flexible spatiotemporal data fusion method (FSDAF), and then studied spatiotemporal variation of land surface temperature (LST) and its driving factors. The results showed that 1) The estimated “Landsat-like” data have high precision; 2) By comparing 2013 and 2016 datasets, LST increases ranging from 1.8°C to 4°C were measurable in areas where the impervious surface area (ISA) increased, while LST decreases ranging from -3.52°C to -0.70°C were detected in areas where ISA decreased; 3) LST has a strongly negative relationship with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and a strongly positive relationship with Normalized Difference Built Index (NDBI) in summer; and 4) LST is well correlated with Building density (BD), in a complex conic mode, and LST may increase by 0.460°C to 0.786°C when BD increases by 0.1. Our findings can provide information useful for mitigating undesirable thermal conditions and for long-term urban thermal environmental management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0248.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Landsat; urban growth; Land Use Land Cover (LULC); remote sensing; urbanisation; NDVI
Online: 7 September 2023 (04:05:46 CEST)
The rapid growth of urban areas is a major challenge facing cities around the world. This growth can have a significant impact on the local climate, leading to higher temperatures and other changes. In desert climates, the effects of urban expansion can be particularly pronounced. This study investigated the impact of urban expansion on land surface temperature (LST) in Baghdad, Iraq. Notably, this study employs a sophisticated artificial intelligence method known as Random Forest for Land Use Land Cover (LULC) classification, utilizing three Landsat images spanning the temporal spectrum from 1985 to 2021 to meticulously monitor land use transformations and associated LST variations. The results showed that vegetated areas declined by 46.8% during the study period, while built-up areas increased by 124.7%. This decline in vegetation was accompanied by an increase in LST, with bare soil recording the highest temperatures. The study also found that LST has a strong inverse relationship with vegetation and moisture. This means that areas with more vegetation and moisture tend to have lower LSTs. These findings suggest that urban expansion can lead to higher LSTs in desert climates, which can have implications for the health and wellbeing of residents. The study has important implications for urban planners and policymakers in Baghdad and other cities in desert climates. By identifying the main factors that control LST, the study provides insights into strategies for mitigating the effects of urban expansion on temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0294.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Land Suitability Analysis, Multi Criteria Analysis, Country Park Periphery, Future Urban Development
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:17:11 CEST)
In recent years, land supply in Hong Kong has fallen sharply and fails to keep pace with the growth of population and number of households. Land shortage becomes urgent and dire. With the inadequate provision of residential land, housing supply is also adversely affected.Insufficient housing supply leads to surging property and rental price in the private market. According to the Rating and Valuation Department (RVD), the overall private domestic price index peaked in June 2017 at 336.1. Keen housing demand is also observed in the private rental market. RVD statistics showed that the domestic rental index also reached the peak at 183.6 in June 2017 and the vacancy rate of about 3.8% as at the end-2016, which is much lower than the average vacancy rate of 5% from 1996 to 2015 (Development Bureau, 2017).In addition, there is soaring housing demand in public housing. As at the end-December 2021, the average waiting time for general applicants was 5.7 years, which is nearly double of the Housing Authority’s target for providing the first flat offer to general applicants at around three years on average (Housing Authority, 2021). Identifying and securing sufficient land to meet both current and anticipated pressing housing demand becomes a key challenge of the government. In the light of this, the government has established a dedicated task force (Task Force on Land Supply) in September 2017 and appointed 30 professionals from different disciplines, such as planning, engineering, academia and think tank, to take a Marco-review on the land supply sources, look for feasible options as well as consider the pros and cons of various options. 18 land supply options were worked out for the public to make choices in the public engagement exercise. Among the 18 choices, the development area on the Periphery of Country Parks was regarded as one of the land supplies sources. This option does not only include the Hong Kong Housing Society’s studies on developing Two Pilot Areas on the Periphery of Tai Lam and Man On Shan Country Parks, but also include developing more areas on the periphery of Country Parks. The proposed option received overwhelming attention from the public and aroused debates in various perspectives. Its ecological value, recreational value, financial viability and even legitimacy were discussed. However, spatial analysis on the suitability of having residential development in Country Parks has not been conducted. Therefore, in this study, multi criteria GIS analysis is conducted to evaluate the geographic suitability of Hong Kong Country Parks for residential purpose with the consideration of various criteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0328.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: built environment efficiency; CASBEE; MURNInets; climate change; low carbon; carbon emission; urban tools; city
Online: 31 January 2019 (14:18:50 CET)
CASBEE-City tool determines the city’s Built Environment Efficiency (BEE) by calculating the improvement of Quality of Life (Q) over human activities’ Environmental Load (L) within the city’s hypothetical boundary. A total of 58 variables (57 Q indicators and one variable for L) are used in the worldwide version of CASBEE-City which were grounded using ISO 37120:2014 Sustainable Development of Communities and 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the United Nations (UN). This paper examines the application of CASBEE-City for Malaysian cities using the case of Johor Bahru City and identifies assessment indicators which are customised based on the data availability, reliability and suitability through focus group discussions (FGDs) which involved 36 respondents (researchers, urban planners and stakeholders). This paper reveals Johor Bahru with moderate score B+ in 2010 and 2025. Consensus were also achieved from the 36 FGD respondents for the practicability and future potential of CASBEE-City and BEE framework in Johor Bahru.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0604.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land surface temperature; urban spatial form; building form; gravity index; thermal adaptiveness; quadrant analysis; spatial regression
Online: 8 August 2023 (07:26:57 CEST)
Climate change is expected to result in rising temperatures, leading to increased occurrences of extreme weather events like heat waves and cold spells. Urban planning responses are crucial for improving the adaptive capacity of cities and communities in dealing with significant temperature variations across seasons. This study aims to investigate the relationship between urban temperature fluctuations and urban morphology throughout the four seasons. Through quadrant and statistical analyses, the study identifies built-environment factors that contribute to moderate seasonal land surface temperatures (LST). The research focuses on Seoul, South Korea as a case study and calculates seasonal LST values at both the grid level (100m×100m) and street-block level, incorporating factors such as vegetation density, land use patterns, albedo, two- and three-dimensional building forms, and gravity indices for natural reserves. The quadrant analysis reveals spatial segregation between areas demonstrating high LST adaptability (cooler summers and warmer winters) and those displaying LST vulnerability (hotter summers and colder winters), with significant differences in vegetation and building forms. The spatial regression analysis demonstrates that higher vegetation density and proximity to water bodies play key roles in moderating LST, leading to cooler summers and warmer winters. Building characteristics have an invariant impact on LST across all seasons, where horizontal expansion contributes to higher LST, while vertical expansion reduces LST. These findings are consistent for both grid- and block-level analyses. The study emphasizes the flexible role of the natural environment in moderating temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0405.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: UN SDGs; urban agenda; goal 11; relative efficiency; data envelopment analysis (DEA)
Online: 27 October 2021 (12:30:11 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation level of urban Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the Republic of Korea and to measure the extent of internal and external impacts on the implementation level. An evaluation framework was established based on relative efficiency theory, and the implementation level of urban SDGs at the local government unit in the Republic of Korea was examined by performing an analysis of each stage. First, in reference to the 2018 cross-section, the implementation level of target 11.2 (public transportation) was assessed as excellent across the country, compared with the implementation level of targets 11.5 (disaster safety), 11.6 (environment), and 11.7 (public space), which were assessed as needing improvement. Second, the factors positively impacting the implementation level of target 11.2 were urban population, GRDP, financial independence, urbanization area, and bus-only lanes, whereas the factors positively impacting the implementation level of target 11.5 were population density and GRDP. The positive factors influencing the implementation level of target 11.6 (air quality sector) were found to be GRDP, financial independence, administrative area, and renewable energy generation, whereas the effective factors of the implementation level of target 11.6 (waste management sector) were analyzed as GRDP, financial independence, and the population density of households in the waste management area. The positive factors influencing the implementation level of target 11.7 were GRDP, financial independence, administrative area, and green area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0164.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land use/land cover; nighttime light (NTL); NDEUI; landscape metrics; random Forests; urban growth mode
Online: 9 October 2018 (03:31:38 CEST)
Rapid urbanization has dramatically spurred the economic development over the past three decades, especially in China, but has nevertheless had negative impacts on natural resources since it is an irreversible process. Thus, it is essential to timely monitor and quantitatively analysis the changes in land use over time and to identify the landscape pattern variation related to growth mode in different period. This study aims at inspecting spatiotemporal characteristics of landscape pattern respond to land use changes in Xuzhou city during the period from 1985 to 2015. In this connection, we proposed a new spectral index, named the Normalized Difference Enhanced Urban Index (NDEUI), which combines data from NTL (Nighttime light) from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) with annual maximum Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to reduce the detection confusion between urban areas and barren land, as well as follows. NDEUI-assisted Random Forests algorithm was implemented to obtain the land use/land cover (LULC) maps of Xuzhou in 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2015, respectively. Here, four different periods viz. 1985–1995, 1995–2005, 2005–2015 and 1985–2015 are chosen for the change analysis of land use and landscape pattern. The results indicated that the urban area has increased by about 30.65%, 10.54%, 68.77%, and 143.75% during the four periods mentioned above at the main expense of agricultural land, respectively. The spatial trend maps revealed that continuous transition from other land use types into urban land has appeared a dual-core development mode throughout the urbanization process, located at the new city region and the Jiawang district, mainly affected by the construction of new city region, freeway and the high railway station. Furthermore, we quantified the patch complexity, aggregation, connectivity and diversity of landscape employing a number of landscape metrics to represent the changes of landscape pattern at both class and landscape level, affected by urbanization during the study period. The results showed that with regard to the four aspects of landscape pattern, there were considerable differences among the four years, mainly owing to the increasing dominance of urbanized land. Spatiotemporal variation of landscape pattern was also conducted on the basis of subgrids in 900 m × 900 m. Combined with the land use changes and spatiotemporal variation of landscape pattern, it can be concluded that different urbanization modes and intensity result in variously the spatiotemporal evolution of landscape patterns. For Xuzhou city, the urban growth mainly appeared a leapfrog mode alone both sides of the roads during the period of 1985 to 1995, and then shifted into edge-expansion mode during the period from 1995 to 2005, whereas the edge-expansion and leapfrog modes coexisted for the period from 2005 to 2015. The high valuable spatiotemporal information generated utilizing RS and GIS in this study may give assistance to urban planners and policymakers to well understand urban dynamics and evaluate their spatiotemporal and environmental impacts at a local level for the sake of sustainable urban planning in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0056.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land use change; urban sprawl; Logistic regression; Markov chain; Cellular automata; Gilan Province
Online: 18 July 2016 (11:53:16 CEST)
Although, promotion of urbanization culture in recent decades has made inevitable development of cities in the world, however, the development can be guided in a direction that leave, to the extent possible, minimum socioeconomic and environmental impacts. For this, it is required to first forecast auto-spreading orientation of cities and suburbs in rural areas over time and then avoid shapeless growth of cities. This paper is an attempt to develop a dynamic hybrid model based on logistic regression (LR), Markov chain (MC), and cellular automata (CA) for prediction of future urban sprawl in fast-growing cities. The model was developed using 12 widely-used urban development criteria, whose significant coefficient was determined by logistic regression, and validated by relative operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The validated model was run in Guilan, a tourist province in northern Iran with a very high rate of urban development. For this, changes in the area of urban land use were detected over the period of 1989 to 2013 and then, future sprawl of the province was forecasted by the years 2025 and 2037. The analysis results revealed that the area of urban land use was increased by more than 1.7 % from 36012.5 ha in 1989 to 59754.8 ha in 2013, and the area of Caspian Hyrcanian forestland was reduced by 31628 ha. The results also predicted an alarming increase in the rate of urban development in the province by the years 2025 and 2037, during which urban land use is predicted to develop 0.9 % and 1.38 %, respectively. The development pattern is expected to be uneven and scattered, without following any particular direction. The development will occur close to the existing or newly-formed urban basements as well as around major roads and commercial areas. This development, if not controlled, will lead to the loss of 13863 ha of Hyrcanian forests and if the trend continues, 21013 ha of Hyrcanian forests and 20208 ha of Barren/open lands are expected to be destroyed by the year 2037. In general, the proposed model is an efficient tool for the support of urban planning decisions and facilitates the process of sustainable development of cities by providing decision-makers with an overview on future development of cities where the growth rate is very fast.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0223.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Abiotic Stress; Forestry; Tree Physiology; Plant Selection; Urban Forestry
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:42:34 CET)
Responses to water stress were measured for sugar maple (Acer saccharum subsp. saccharum Marshall) sources from Oklahoma (Caddo sugar maple), Missouri, Tennessee, Ontario and a black maple (Acer saccharum subsp. nigrum F. Michx.) source from Iowa. Seedling sources were selected for differences in temperature and precipitation of their geographic origins. Seedlings were preconditioned through moist (watered daily) or dry (watered every 4-7 days) cycles and then exposed to prolonged water stress. Dry preconditioned sugar maple seedlings from Oklahoma, Missouri, and Tennessee, sources from warmer and/or drier climates with greater relative evapotranspiration potentials, declined less rapidly in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency (WUE) as water stress increased than dry preconditioned seedlings from Ontario and Iowa having origins in cooler, moister climates. Under imposed water stress the Ontario and Iowa sourced seedlings increased their root to shoot ratios and decreased their specific leaf area, mechanisms for drought avoidance. However, no corresponding changes in these values occurred for Oklahoma, Missouri, and Tennessee sources. Results from this study suggest greater tolerance of water stress in the Oklahoma, Missouri and Tennessee ecotypes from the western and southern range of sugar maple resulted primarily with WUE rather than other water stress coping mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0155.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: CLC 2018 level of detail; comparison of remote sensing and geodetic data; settlement; land use monitoring; urban sprawl
Online: 9 May 2020 (08:22:55 CEST)
The article describes the results of comparison of occurence of buildings (and address points) in Poland with delimitations of land use belonging to particular classes in the CORINE Land Cover (CLC) 2018 dataset. Large discrepancies have been identified, which reach on average approx. 34% of addresses and 35% of buildings located outside class 1 (artificial surfaces), mainly on terrains of class 2 (agricultural areas). Among single-family buildings it was 37% and among new addresses (forecasted or ‘under construction’ buildings) – as much as 50%. This puts a question mark over the possibility of using CLC data with resolution of 25 ha for monitoring of spatial planning and development in Poland for purposes of the diagnosis and assessment of the scale of dispersion of built-up areas. It is worth carrying out similar analyses in other countries, known for the deconcentration processes and a relatively large share of dispersed settlement e.g. other CEE countries, Spain, Portugal, Italy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urbanization; urban growth urban hierarchy; urban system
Online: 17 September 2021 (11:22:00 CEST)
The objectives of this paper are to analyze the urban growth and urbanization phenomenon in Algeria. Two processes that originated respectively by the expansion of existing urban areas and the process of urbanization that took place between 1954 and 2008, a period marked by significant economic, social and political changes in Algerian society. Our analysis was mainly based on the Algerian general census of population and habitat (2008) and on the application of rank-size distribution of cities according to Zipf’s rule. This study revealed that in Algeria, the urban system is particularly marked by the dramatic expansion of small cities. Indeed, the development of small towns, through the transition from rural to urban and the residential loosening of large cities have influenced the trend towards the balance of the urban system in Algeria. Results revealed also how the "primatial" city is undergoing profound economic and social changes at the national level. These changes are most often imposed from the top as part of land-use planning policy. This study provides some insights into the demographic dynamics of cities and the evolution of urban hierarchies in Algeria, through the comparison of the different rank-size distributions of Algerian cities in space and time. Our results suggest that land-use planning strategies are the only policies capable of influencing the future of the Algerian urban system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0404.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: urban temperature; urban climate; urban gardens; urban parks; urban green spaces; urban climate mitigation; artificial neural networks; predictions
Online: 6 September 2023 (14:33:20 CEST)
Cities exemplify the evolving world with changing demographics and climates. Urban green spaces play a crucial role in improving the quality of life of people through their potential to mitigate temperatures. Therefore, comprehending their impact is of para-mount interest. Given the challenges in obtaining temperature data from urban locations, this study develops Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to predict daily and hourly temperatures in Valladolid, Spain, with a particular focus on urban allotment gardens and a forested urban park. ANNs were built and evaluated from various combinations of inputs (X), hidden neurons (Y) and outputs (Z) under the practical rule of "making net-works simple, to obtain better results". The best performing model was 6-Y-1 ANN archi-tecture with an impressive result of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 0.42°C in the urban garden called Valle de Arán. However, other five ANN architectures were also tested (7-Y-5; 6-Y-5; 7-Y-1; 3-Y-Z and 2-Y-1). ANNs dedicated to urban temperature analysis hold immense potential for urban planning and research, aiding in under-standing the urban climate, forecasting future temperatures, identifying temperature mitigation strategies and even for managing urban crops
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0144.v1
Online: 13 March 2019 (09:36:39 CET)
This lecture aims to survey the existing literature on the dynamic urban growth. Theapplication in this lecture is a small step in the long iterative process between theconstruction of a model and its use for practical purposes. In this lecture, we follow thenotion of urban development and conduct an analysis of conceptual modeling phases ofurban development by Paeliuck (1970).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban structure; urban form; urban fabric; Japan; Osaka
Online: 4 October 2019 (11:52:16 CEST)
The Japanese city presents a certain number of peculiarities in the organization of its physical space (weak zoning regulations, fast piecemeal destruction/reconstruction of buildings and blocks, high compacity, incremental reorganization). Compared to countries where urban fabrics are more perennial and easily distinguishable (old centers, modern planned projects, residential areas, etc.), in Japanese metropolitan areas we often observe higher heterogeneity and more complex spatial patterns. Even within such a model, it should be possible to recognize the internal organization of the physical city. The aim of this paper is thus to study the spatial structure of the contemporary Japanese city, generalizing on the case study of Osaka and Kobe. In order to achieve this goal, we will need to identify urban forms at different local scales (building types, urban fabrics) and to analyze them at a wider scale to delineate morphological regions and their structuring of the overall layout of the contemporary Japanese city. Several analytical protocols are used together with field observations and literature. The results, and more particularly the building and urban fabrics types and their location within the Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area, are interpreted in the light of Japanese history and model of urbanization. A synoptic graphical model of an urban morphological structure based upon Osaka is produced and proposed as an interpretative pattern for the Japanese metropolitan city in general.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1584.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Urban Form; Urban Life; Street Life; Urban Space; Proximity
Online: 24 July 2023 (09:31:58 CEST)
Today’s urban spaces face precipitous challenges and complications, which include the COVID-19 pandemic, urbanization, population growth, and climate change. Proximity plays an essential role in influencing the integrity of public spaces and urban environments, while proxemics studies people’s experience, and the benefits, of urban space, and is based on a behavioral system of activities that includes ‘territoriality’. There is a need to study the behavioural patterns of people in given situations with proxemic dimensions in order to sustain both human beings and the quality of urban space. However, people behave spontaneously within environmental settings and reflect each other’s responses, meaning it is important to distinguish between different cultures, which tend to respond in particular ways to the meaning of proximity. This suggests there is no universal indicator for phenomena such as crowding. The aim of this paper is to highlight the interrelationship between urban form and urban life. This study focuses on two patterns of activity - street life and social life - by adopting a descriptive-analytical approach to documentary and desk research. The findings reveal a vital distinction between social and public patterns of proximity, while other proximities, although critical, are not observed within interactions between people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0489.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: urban bioclimate; urban cooling; urban wetland; riparian shading; inversion layer
Online: 22 August 2020 (04:27:59 CEST)
Climate change and rapid urbanization are adversely affecting the urban environment by exacerbating the widely reported Urban Heat Island effect in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Two wetland areas with variable riparian shadings in the warm-humid conditions of urban Dhaka had been investigated through field campaigns on microclimatic parameters for their cooling potential on the surrounding urban fabric. It was observed that an inversion layer of fully saturated air develops over the water surface of wetland, suppressing evaporation from the wetland water surface layer, which was effectively reducing the heat exchange between the water surface and the air layer above it through its action as an insulating vapor blanket. Because of this effect, the wetland was unable to render as a source of coolth for the surrounding overheated urban area. This effect of the inversion layer was more pronounced in the urban wetland without riparian shading either by urban form or tree canopy. A Multiphysics simulation study conducted on the selected urban wetlands indicates the effect of differential shading pattern on the relation between fetch and inversion layer thickness. This research hypothesizes that the wetland can act as an urban adaption measure against the urban heat island effect by potentially transforming them into Urban Cooling Island (UCI) towards a favorable urban bioclimate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2051.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: urban runoff; irrigation; stormwater; urban hydrology
Online: 31 July 2023 (11:50:27 CEST)
One of the main problems is handling rainwater management in urban areas is water quality from urban run-off. Currently, the emphasis is on using rainwater in cities as much as possible. The concentration of pollutants is the most problematic in rainwater. After precipitation falls on surfaces, surface water is immediately contaminated. This pollution must be cleaned or contained and transported to a wastewater treatment plant through the sewer network. Among the primary pollutants that we can identify in surface water are, for example, heavy metals. In our research, we focus on the analysis of real surface waters taken from 13 lo-cations on the territory of the Slovak Republic. The result of the research is an analysis of the suitability of reusing these waters. From the results of the analyses, it is clear that not a single sample is suitable for irrigation, as the limits of at least one monitored parameter were exceeded in all samples. The monitored lead concentration parameter was exceeded in all monitored samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0693.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Urban walkways; Creative city, Urban Space
Online: 28 May 2021 (10:57:07 CEST)
In recent years, urban planners and designers have paid attention to improve the creative factors in big and small cities in order to make the urban environment more attractive. It seems that improving desirable urban environmental qualities and walkability approaches such as flexibility, happiness, and vitality, provides the necessary background for creating creative urban spaces. The case study zone is urban walkways in Rasht that which has been completed four years ago. In this paper, after conceptualizing the nature of the creative city, as well as reviewing the views of the thinkers regarding the qualities of the environment, a conceptual model of creative urban space has been developed. Then, the indicators and criteria of creative urban space have been evaluated through the questionnaire and analysis through SPSS software and regression model, Pearson and Friedman. The result of the analyses of the five spatial, functional, social, perceptual, and environmental components and their relationship is expressed that factors such as paving streets, the development of local markets, the Suitability of urban walkways for physically and mentally handicapped people, the use of cultural elements, the use of diverse urban furniture and nightlife after building urban walkways play an important role in the realization of urban creative space in Rasht city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0727.v1
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:48:55 CEST)
The present study investigated the effect of art on promoting the meaning of the urban space. In this regard, after considering the semantic dimension of the urban space and the mechanism of transferring the meanings of art through the views of experts, a model is presented for examin-ing the art’s cooperation in promoting urban space meaning in Tehran. In this study, a mixed method was used. In the first stage, the categories of space meanings influenced by art were ex-tracted through using the qualitative method of interpretive phenomenology and by examining 61 in-depth interviews in six urban spaces eligible for urban art in Tehran. In the second stage, these categories were surveyed in these spaces through 600 questionnaires after converting to the questionnaire items. Based on the results, "the possibility of the experience and perception", "social participation", and "the relationship with the context" were the main themes of the se-mantic relationship of art and urban space. Further, the lower scores related to the theme of "so-cial participation" in the quantitative investigations indicated that this theme was weaker than the other themes in promoting the meaning of the urban space through the art in the selected urban spaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Koseze area; Mostec residential neighborhood (MRN); terraced residential neighborhood (TRN); urban heat island (UHI); urban cover; urban fabric; urban structure; urban metabolism
Online: 13 January 2017 (10:50:54 CET)
The study conducted in this paper is focused on a predominantly residential area of the City of Ljubljana – Koseze, which is characterized by generally favorable (bio)climatic conditions. Nonetheless, thermal satellite imaging showed that residential neighborhoods within the Koseze district display unexpected variations in summer temperatures. This observation called into question the benefits of existing bioclimatic features and indicated the need to investigate and compare two neighborhoods with similar urban parameters, with the aim to identify morphological differential characteristics impacting urban heat island (UHI) intensity. By applying the study methodology based on a literature review, surveys of key precedents, detailed mapping in two Koseze locations, in situ measurements, observations and recordings, thermal imaging and the analyses of statistical data, as well as by defining the four main categories of morphological urban parameters – structure, cover, fabric and metabolism, it was concluded that both neighborhoods have common morphological elements mitigating the UHI effect. Additionally, it was found that the neighborhood with higher UHI intensity has several less favorable features, such as busier roads, larger surface of parking corridors, and the existence of underground parking space. The traffic as an element of urban morphology hence represents the main cause of differences among UHI levels in the two Koseze neighborhoods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0106.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: social ecological system; tree canopy goal; urban conservation; urban forest equity; urban forest goals; urban tree canopy
Online: 7 June 2022 (11:08:20 CEST)
Urban forests are critical infrastructure for mitigating environmental and social challenges cities face. Municipalities and non-governmental entities, among others, often set goals (e.g., tree planting or canopy targets) to support urban forests and their benefits. We focus on canopy goals and develop conceptual underpinnings for an analysis of where additional canopy, as one important dimension of the urban forest, can fit within the landscape, while considering factors that influence where trees can be planted and where canopy can grow – ‘practical canopy.’ We apply this in New York City (NYC) to inform the setting of a canopy goal by the NYC Urban Forest Task Force (UFTF) for the NYC Urban Forest Agenda, which may trigger a virtuous cycle that supports the urban forest there. We further develop framing for a ‘priority canopy’ analysis to understand where urban forest expansion should be prioritized given more context (e.g., environmental hazards, local preferences), which can inform how expansion of the urban forest is achieved. We estimate an opportunity for 15,899 ha of new canopy in NYC given existing opportunities and constraints (practical canopy), which, if leveraged, could result in nearly doubling the canopy as of 2017 (17,253 ha). However, like existing canopy, practical canopy is not evenly distributed, in general, or across jurisdictions and land uses. Relying solely on areas identified as practical canopy to expand the urban forest would exacerbate inequities in its distribution. We discuss how the NYC UFTF established an aspirational but achievable goal of 30% canopy cover by 2035, which was informed by this analysis and guided by priorities of equity, health, and resilience. Achievement of this goal will ultimately require a combination of protecting and stewarding the existing resource, and leveraging opportunities for tree planting. Achieving a more equitable urban forest will also require identification of priority canopy, and, in cases, creation of new opportunities for tree planting and canopy expansion. Overall, the collaborative establishment of such goals based on local context can be instrumental in creating a virtuous cycle, moving conservation actors toward exercising influence and agency within the social ecological system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0213.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: cities; definition; megalopolis; large urban regions; functional urban regions; urban agglomerations; world; statistical delineation; comparative urban research
Online: 12 March 2020 (13:55:54 CET)
Cities’ delineation remains a hot topic of debate in a time where comparisons between cities are becoming increasingly based on different issues that address various scales of interventions and thus different concepts of cities. Aiming to compare cities and their insertion into globalization, we suggest that the “urban field of influence” is the best way to approach cities for this specific perspective. However, after reviewing the different existing possible concepts, we replace this concept with four different approaches proposed by Pumain et al. (1992): political entities, morphological agglomerations, functional urban areas and conurbations/Mega city regions. We discuss the top-down and bottom-up existing initiatives launched at the world scale and then use a mixed top-down and bottom-up approach to propose a new delineation of a large urban region (LUR), denoting a concept close to the conurbation or Mega city-region concept. The compositions of these LURs are published as an initial incomplete framework, suggesting the need for further critical comments and contributions to improve them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Sustainability; Urban Planning; Climate Change; Technology; Urban Technology; Urban Development; Density; Congestion
Online: 5 March 2021 (09:12:05 CET)
We have an aversion to density in America. Density is a continual trope in this country, blamed for all of the ills of urban life, from crime and racial unrest in the middle of the 20th century to public health concerns today. In the early stages of the COVID pandemic density was the culprit, even though we’ve subsequently seen outbreaks in rural areas and sprawling cities across the United States. This paper will look into the root of America’s problems with density and argue that density is not the problem but the solution to the challenges of today’s and tomorrow’s cities. As we deplete the resources of the planet, density is our most direct pathway to recover some balance with nature. Dense living is more efficient, less carbon intensive and more environmentally sustainable. As geospatial differentiations matter less due to advances in communication technology, it's the density of people and ideas that will continue to fuel innovation. Finally, in a world that is increasingly dominated by pluralism, denser living promotes openness, tolerance and diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0109.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Climate change; energy system sizing; sustainable urban planning; urban climate; urban design.
Online: 22 February 2018 (13:34:10 CET)
Building more energy efficient and sustainable urban areas that will both mitigate the effect of climate change and adapt for the future climate, requires the development new tools and methods that can help urban planners, architect and communities achieve this goal. In the current study, we designed a workflow that links different methodologies developed separately, to derive the energy consumption of a university school campus for the future. Three different scenarios for typical future years (2039, 2069, 2099) were run as well as a renovation scenario (Minergie-P). We analyse the impact of climate change on the heating and cooling demand of the buildings and determined the relevance of the accounting of the local climate in this particular context. The results from the simulations showed that in the future there will a constant decrease in the heating demand while for the cooling demand there will be a significant increase. It was further demonstrated that when the local climate was taken into account there was an even higher rise in the cooling demand but also that the proposed renovations were not sufficient to design resilient buildings. We then discuss the implication of this work on the simulation of building energy consumption at the neighbourhood scale and the impact of future local climate on energy system design. We finally give a few perspective regarding improved urban design and possible pathways for the future urban areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1871.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: urban climate; Copernicus dataset; urban heat island; weather types; urban overheating; synoptic classification
Online: 26 May 2023 (07:06:17 CEST)
In this study we investigated the association between weather types (WTs) and the Urban Heat Island Intensity (UHII) in the region of Attica (Greece). The application of the methodology results in ten WTs over Attica region. The UHII was calculated for every hour of the day from 2008 to 2017, using a new air temperature dataset produced by Copernicus Climate Change Service. To have more clear results concerning the association between WTs and UHII, we have used also the upper 5% of UHII (Urban Overheating-UO). The UO have been estimated for two-time intervals (daytime and nighttime) and for the warm period (June-September). The UHII frequency distribution as well as the spatial characteristics of the UO were also investigated. It was found that UO was amplified under WT2 during the night while, WT10 was mainly responsible for exacerbated UO magnitude at daytime, in all months. Furthermore, analysis results revealed that the UO effect is more pronounced in Athens during the night, especially at Athens center. The daytime hot-spots identified mainly in sub-urban and rural areas. Therefore, this methodology may help for heat mitigation strategies and climate adaptation measures, in urban environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0496.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: urban parks; urban nature; environmental justice; well-being.
Online: 7 July 2023 (11:49:53 CEST)
The differential distribution, size, and quality of urban green spaces (UGS) among localities generate a differential distribution of benefits provided to users. We analyzed the spatial distribution of five size categories of UGS among 15 municipalities of Mexico City, compared their total surface per capita and associated them with the social marginality index. We found 1,353 UGSs accessible for public use with a total area of 2,643 ha. Seventy-four percent of them had <1 ha of surface area, and 51% were located in only three municipalities that were mostly middle- and high-income. These municipalities concentrated a higher area of green spaces per capita. We found a negative correlation between the marginality index and the area of UGS per municipality; the lower the marginality index, the higher the area of green spaces. We consider this a situation of environmental injustice since urban environmental services are distributed unequally with respect to marginalized populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Urban waterscape; Covid-19; boreholes; urban governance; Nairobi
Online: 10 June 2022 (08:10:25 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic and the initial focus on handwashing measures have again highlighted the importance of water access as an essential service in protecting human health. Yet, especially in southern cities, uneven geographies of water access – often mediated by fragmented and unequal infrastructure systems – may hamper the fight against infectious diseases. The spread of SARS-CoV-2 presented a dilemma for water providers as well as residents in water-deprived urban areas as they had to adhere to new hygiene standards and requirements, despite limited access to basic water infrastructure. Therefore, a deeper understanding of pandemic urban waterscapes – the infrastructure and governance systems as well as everyday practices and technologies – is necessary for ongoing debates on (post-) pandemic or zoonotic cities. In our paper, we focus on changes in urban (water) governance and government water projects in Nairobi since early 2020. We show that Covid-19 has contributed to changes in Nairobi’s waterscape but only in conjunction with recent changes in the city’s overall governance structure. However, if these waterscape changes lead to greater equity in water access, and if they have helped to curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2, is more than questionable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0752.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: spatial analysis; urban development; sustainable infrastructure; urban scales
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:29:41 CEST)
The reality of people’s lives has shifted from rural to urban areas, where an ever-increasing proportion of the world’s population lives. Providing infrastructure to serve these areas, especially in the Global South, is a key task of sustainable development. A deep understanding of the spatial arrangement and scales of these urban structures and their temporal evolution can help to develop innovative solutions to issues of energy, water, or transportation infrastructures. For this purpose, in this work we study the temporal evolution of urban built-up structures (Global Artificial Impervious Area) and population distributions (Global Human Settlement Population) in four regions of the Global South (Argentina, India, Egypt, and Nigeria). We qualitatively analyze regularity through the pair correlation function and subsequently identify typical scales within the different interurban systems. In doing so, we identify that especially the large settlement objects arrange themselves in a regular way and thus typical scales exist in urban systems. Thus, settlement objects are usually located about 20 to 40 km apart from each other. This information can be used to develop sustainable infrastructure concepts, for example for passenger transport between settlements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0273.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Landscape Ecology; Lake; River; Urban Ecosystem; Urban Forest
Online: 11 February 2021 (09:46:04 CET)
Within the town, Abiotic is a built environment that includes buildings, roads, pedestrians, and other elements that interact with biotics, which are living things including plants, animals, and humans. From a landscape ecological perspective, the urban structure consists of (1) a matrix, which is a collection of dominant buildings and homogeneous elements, (2) Patches are grouped as housing, urban forests, parks, lakes, and finally (3) Corridors such as roads, rivers, and pedestrians. The dominance of watertight areas over green open spaces in urban development can lead to increased temperatures and runoff. The condition of the soil structure and the steep slope of the soil can cause landslides, therefore urban development must pay attention to the natural conditions of the area being built. This research was conducted in Kota Baru, Bogor, South Tangerang, and Cikarang (Bekasi Regency). The purpose of this study is to determine the natural environment and the built environment as well as changes in the ecosystem and their consequences for the new town and its surroundings. This research uses quantitative and qualitative approaches. Analysis of land-use change uses spatial and temporal methods, while Nieuwolt's equation is used to measure comfort. This study finds comfortable environmental planning, with green open spaces such as urban forests, city parks, and bodies of water, such as lakes, as a space for interaction between fellow new city residents and people outside the new towns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban planning; land management; urban sprawl; spatial analysis
Online: 3 September 2020 (03:59:55 CEST)
Numerous cities in our modern world are unfortunately encountering the negative effects of urban sprawl: this includes unrestricted settlement, degradation in the quality of their environment, traffic congestion, sub-standard buildings, and air pollution as well as flooding, swampy areas, landslides, and settlement zones with dilapidated utilities and infrastructures that are not safe for living. The Ulaanbaatar City land management master plan defined the settlement zone area suitable for living as 33,698 hectares. However, due to unrestricted urban sprawl caused by exponential growth of the city’s population, the settlement zone area reached 39,235 hectares, which exceeds the limit by 5,537 hectares. In order to tackle this issue, several urban planning concepts were developed to be implemented within the Ulaanbaatar City urban planning framework. It is, in any case, problematic to choose a single planning concept due to the fact that neither measurements nor analyses are being made of the respective spatial quantitative indicators in urban planning assumptions that are taking the current situation into consideration. One of the prerequisites for identifying an optimal concept in urban planning is an assessment of the current situation, and measuring the impacts against its quantitative data. In the current research, when defining Ulaanbaatar city sprawl, the base year was selected as 1990, the time when the city started to sprawl. Research analyses were made using geographic information systems based on the satellite data 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 Landsat ТМ-5, 2010 Quickbird, 2015 World View and 2020 Sentinel2, respectively. Based on the results of determining the city sprawl using spatial indicators, the urban planning concepts applied thus far have been analyzed in relation to land use efficiency and land use structural changes. This research paper addresses the issue of reducing unrestricted urban sprawl by increasing the internal density of the city. The research results show that, by applying the concept of a compact city in urban redevelopment planning for 4,604 hectares, and by allocating the settlements in 12,479 hectares, it is possible to reduce the urban expansion threefold and increase land use efficiency accordingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0073.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Urban ecology; ecological knowledge; socio-ecology; urban birds; urban vegetation; exotic species; Biocultural homogenization
Online: 4 August 2020 (03:45:30 CEST)
Urbanization has impacted biodiversity and ecosystems at a global scale. At the same time, it has been recognized as a driver of the gap between humans and nature. The lack of direct contact with nature can deteriorate several aspects of human wellbeing, and change knowledge and attitudes of people towards the environment. However, this phenomenon is still poorly understood in Megacities outside developed countries. Here, we explore the relationship between ecological knowledge and self-reported wellbeing in an important urban park in Santiago, Chile. We conducted semi-structured surveys to park users to explore their notions, preferences, ecological knowledge of plants and birds and self-reported wellbeing. Citizens associated urban parks mainly with “nature”, and particularly with the presence of trees and plants. Trees were recognized as the most relevant elements of urban parks, in turn, birds were ranked as the less relevant. Regarding ecological knowledge, respondents correctly identified an average of 2.01 plants and 2.44 birds out of a total of 10 for each taxon, and exotic species were more likely to be recognized. Park users also reported high scores for self-reported wellbeing. Interestingly, variance of self-reported wellbeing scores tended to increase at low levels of ecological knowledge of trees, but no significant relationship was detected with knowledge of birds, nor native species. These results suggest that parks can positively contribute to bring people closer to nature. Ecological knowledge was related to self-reported wellbeing. Improving ecological knowledge can be critical to restore the relationship between humans and nature in megacities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0620.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Urban green space; COVID-19; urban parks; open space; New York City; urban infrastructure; equity
Online: 30 September 2020 (10:00:40 CEST)
Urban green spaces provide a range of environmental and health benefits, which may become even more critical during times of crisis such as the current COVID-19 pandemic. However, with a radical shift in mobility, additional concerns over safety, and access temporarily restricted during the implementation of social distancing policies, the experience and use of urban green spaces may be reduced. This is particularly concerning for densely populated cities like New York, considered the first U.S. epicenter or vanguard of the outbreak. To better understand the impact of COVID-19 on the perception and use of urban green spaces, we conducted a social survey during the early months of the Covid-19 pandemic in New York City (May 13 - June 15, 2020). The results of the survey show respondents continued to use urban green spaces during the pandemic and consider them to be more important for mental and physical health than before the pandemic began. However, the study revealed a pattern of concerns residents have about green space accessibility and safety, and found key differences between the concerns and needs of different populations, suggesting a crucial role for inclusive decision-making, support for additional management strategies, and urban ecosystem governance that reflect the differential values, needs and concerns of communities across the City. As urban centers face looming budget cuts and reduced capacity, this study provides some empirical evidence to illustrate the value of urban green spaces as critical urban infrastructure, and may have implications for funding, policy, and management, of urban green spaces in NYC, with potential applications to other cities, particularly during times of crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0946.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Green Areas, Urban Environment, Green Spaces, Neighbourhoods, Urban Planning
Online: 16 October 2023 (10:21:10 CEST)
The paper in question explores the connection between green areas and urban well-being in an effort to give readers a comprehensive grasp of the topic. The major goals of this study are to evaluate how green spaces affect urban residents' physical and mental health, sense of community, and general quality of life. This research presents numerous major conclusions through a thorough investigation of the current literature and empirical analysis of urban environments across various areas. First of all, it shows that being close to green spaces is associated with better physical health, including a decline in obesity and cardiovascular disease rates. Second, green areas are linked to better mental health, with residents of greener neighbourhoods reporting reduced levels of stress, anxiety, and sadness. However, neighbourhoods having green open grass areas have greater levels of social interaction, and cohesion, which encourages residents to feel a sense of belonging. Lastly, this study highlights the positive impact of green spaces on overall urban quality of life, as they contribute to cleaner air, lower noise pollution, and increased property values. The implications of these findings are significant for urban planning and policy development. They underscore the importance of prioritizing green spaces in urban design, as investments in such areas not only promote physical and mental health but also enhance social bonds and elevate the overall liveability of cities. This research provides a foundation for evidence-based decision-making in urban development to create healthier, more vibrant, and sustainable urban environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0599.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: urbanization; urban greenspace; urban population; Xinjiang; central asian countries
Online: 10 October 2023 (07:54:21 CEST)
Central Asian countries are the core area of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). However, as part of the former Soviet Union, we know very little about the urbanization processes in these countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Here, were used land-cover type data, vegetation index data, and grided population data to quantify the urban expansion, urban population changes, and urban environment changes across cities in Central Asia from 2000 to 2020, and took Xinjiang, China as a reference. We found that the urbanization in the study area was uneven. Specifically, the urban expansion in Xinjiang, China and Kazakhstan was faster than in the other countries in the study area. Due to rapid urban expansion, the urban population density in Xinjiang, China decreased from 2000 to 2020, but rapid urban population growth was maintained. Consequently, the pressure of the urban population growth in Xinjiang, China was less than that in the other countries of Central Asia. On average, more than 35% of the urban built-up areas underwent significant greening in Xinjiang, China and more than 3.63 million residents directly benefited from the increase in urban greenness. Although the urban greenness in Xinjiang increased significantly, the overall greenness was still lower than in most cities in Central Asia. In the future, the cities in Xinjiang, China should continue to promote the construction of urban ecological civilization and strengthen their role as a link in the Belt and Road Initiative.
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: green infrastructure; sustainable urban development; urban planning; landscape representations
Online: 11 January 2017 (07:44:52 CET)
In the quest for more sustainable urban landscape development, the concept of ‘green infrastructure’ (GI) has become central in policy documents and as a multifunctional general planning tool. GI is not however a simple and unambiguous solution. While there in policy documents are claims for more and connected GI, actual urban development takes another direction. The densifying imperative is hard to combine with an increased and more connected GI. This paper argues for a critical and diversified approach to the concept of GI, to facilitate its implementation in urban planning and management. While GI most often is seen as a common asset and a public good, the actual land use negotiations and management responsibilities cannot be limited to a public service discourse, but should address more clearly a variety of actors. Linguistic as well as spatial definitions of the two relevant dichotomies of ‘green-grey’ and ‘public-private’ are crucial in GI location, design, construction and management, it is argued. Overarching representations of GI will be needed, but also – and linked to it – a spatial storm water plan and an overall plan for public space. The development over time will need an intersectorial implementation and management program. Thus some of the GI intentions may be implemented in planning processes, some through reorganisation and redesign of public space, and some by agreements with landowners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2146.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Africa; architecture; health; literature review; urban agriculture (UA); urban palnning
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:03:01 CEST)
Urban agriculture is an early practice, especially for cities in the Global South that are expanding at an unprecedented rate, and in African cities, it can be a way to attend to essential social and health needs. However, it is unclear whether architects and urban planners have expressed interest or already incorporated urban farming within their designs of African cities. This literature review was conducted to understand to what extent architects and urban planners have researched urban agriculture and health. Comprehensive searches based on urban agriculture, health, and Africa were conducted in Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science from 2000 to December 2020. Zotero, Mozilla Firefox search engine, and Google Chrome were used to collect paper metadata. The duplicate articles were excluded, and all the n = 240 publications remaining were included in the analysis. Food security and the immediate health impact of urban agriculture on health were the most addressed topics. These studies reported the harmful effects of urban agriculture on malaria and the wastewater irrigation of plants. The evidence on urban agriculture is increasing from public health researchers, but not in the field of urban planning or architecture. Future research on urban agriculture's impacts on urban health should be increasingly done by architects and planners to help shape urban planning practices and regulations that could help create urban agriculture that benefits urban health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0089.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Historical texture; Historical Square; Urban landscape; Urban furniture; Cyprus; Nicosia.
Online: 6 April 2023 (10:26:09 CEST)
Historical city textures are living history embodying public open spaces of former civilizations, their landscapes and traditional life cultures, carrying them to the present and giving them life. The squares, which form the public open spaces, have been important meeting centers in the social lives of people. City furniture are the important elements in these public open spaces, reflecting the identity of the city and improving quality of life. City furniture improve the reflection of cultural value in historical city textures and their usability. The walled city center, where the historical city texture of Nicosia lies, has a very rich historical texture with the cultural heritage of various civilizations in the history of Cyprus. Public open spaces within the texture, which have acquired the quality of squares with their functions throughout the social history of Nicosia, are still important social spaces for the people of the city. This study analyzed Asmaaltı and Selimiye Squares, two important spaces of the walled city, through examining the city furniture in terms of their material, shape, and functionality, and their conformity with the historical texture. Their deficiencies and nonconformities with the historical texture were identified accordingly. In consideration with such examples, city furniture in historical city textures were assessed for their conformity with the texture characteristics, architectural styles, social, cultural, and economical characteristics, and relevant recommendations are presented respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0081.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Historical texture; Historical Square; Urban landscape; Urban furniture; Cyprus; Nicosia.
Online: 6 April 2023 (09:11:17 CEST)
Tarihi kent dokuları, eski uygarlıkların kamusal açık alanlarını, peyzajlarını ve geleneksel yaşam kültürlerini bünyesinde barındıran, günümüze taşıyan ve yaşatan yaşayan bir tarihtir. Kamusal açık alanları oluşturan meydanlar, insanların sosyal yaşamlarında önemli buluşma merkezleri olmuştur. Kent mobilyaları bu kamusal açık alanlarda kentin kimliğini yansıtan ve yaşam kalitesini artıran önemli unsurlardır. Kent mobilyaları, kültürel değerlerin tarihi kent dokularına yansımasını ve kullanılabilirliğini artırır. Lefkoşa'nın tarihi kent dokusunun yattığı Suriçi kent merkezi, Kıbrıs tarihindeki çeşitli uygarlıkların kültürel mirası ile oldukça zengin bir tarihi dokuya sahiptir. Doku içinde kamusal açık alanlar, Lefkoşa'nın sosyal tarihi boyunca işlevleriyle meydan niteliği kazanan meydanlar, kent insanı için halen önemli sosyal mekanlardır. Bu çalışmada, Suriçi kentin iki önemli mekanı olan Asmaaltı ve Selimiye Meydanları, kent mobilyaları malzeme, biçim, işlevsellik ve tarihi dokuya uygunluk açısından incelenerek incelenmiştir. Buna göre eksiklikleri ve tarihi dokuya uymayanları tespit edilmiştir. Bu örnekler ışığında tarihi kent dokularındaki kent mobilyalarının doku özellikleri, mimari üsluplar, sosyal, kültürel ve ekonomik özelliklerle uygunluğu değerlendirilmiş ve öneriler sunulmuştur. kentliler için hala önemli sosyal mekanlardır. Bu çalışmada, Suriçi kentin iki önemli mekanı olan Asmaaltı ve Selimiye Meydanları, kent mobilyaları malzeme, biçim, işlevsellik ve tarihi dokuya uygunluk açısından incelenerek incelenmiştir. Buna göre eksiklikleri ve tarihi dokuya uymayanları tespit edilmiştir. Bu örnekler ışığında tarihi kent dokularındaki kent mobilyalarının doku özellikleri, mimari üsluplar, sosyal, kültürel ve ekonomik özelliklerle uygunluğu değerlendirilmiş ve öneriler sunulmuştur. kentliler için hala önemli sosyal mekanlardır. Bu çalışmada, Suriçi kentin iki önemli mekanı olan Asmaaltı ve Selimiye Meydanları, kent mobilyaları malzeme, biçim, işlevsellik ve tarihi dokuya uygunluk açısından incelenerek incelenmiştir. Buna göre eksiklikleri ve tarihi dokuya uymayanları tespit edilmiştir. Bu örnekler ışığında tarihi kent dokularındaki kent mobilyalarının doku özellikleri, mimari üsluplar, sosyal, kültürel ve ekonomik özelliklerle uygunluğu değerlendirilmiş ve öneriler sunulmuştur. ve tarihi dokuya uygunluğu. Buna göre eksiklikleri ve tarihi dokuya uymayanları tespit edilmiştir. Bu örnekler ışığında tarihi kent dokularındaki kent mobilyalarının doku özellikleri, mimari üsluplar, sosyal, kültürel ve ekonomik özelliklerle uygunluğu değerlendirilmiş ve öneriler sunulmuştur. ve tarihi dokuya uygunluğu. Buna göre eksiklikleri ve tarihi dokuya uymayanları tespit edilmiştir. Bu örnekler ışığında tarihi kent dokularındaki kent mobilyalarının doku özellikleri, mimari üsluplar, sosyal, kültürel ve ekonomik özelliklerle uygunluğu değerlendirilmiş ve öneriler sunulmuştur.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0295.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: stormwater drainage; urban flood; urban drainage management; food disaster management
Online: 15 October 2020 (12:05:44 CEST)
Stormwater drainage and urban flooding are the popular issues in policy agendas and academia. Although the research on these title increases steadily an integrated review on stormwater drainage and urban flood with a focus on pluvial flooding has yet to be produced. This paper presents a critical review on stormwater drainage and urban flood based on 78 selected journal papers published over the period of 1990 to 2018. The review focus on pluvial flooding to relate urban stormwater drainage management and urban flood disaster management and to show the links between the two. The methods taken to manage urban stormwater drainage and urban flooding as well as the complexity of achieving a comprehensive urban flood disaster management are evaluated and discussed. To better understand the concepts behind urban flood and improve the urban flood risk management strategies, recommendation of future research directions are also provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0098.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Historic urban landscapes; Weberian administration; tactical urban planning; buffer zones.
Online: 5 July 2018 (15:10:03 CEST)
In this article, a critical reflection is made that involves questioning the notion of historic urban landscapes profiled in the Memorandum of Vienna (UNESCO, 2005) and the Paris Recommendation (UNESCO, 2011) as a conceptual paradigm on which to base urban conservation in the 21st century. Its limited methodological development and the assumption of change as an inherent part of the urban condition constitutes the source of many of the problems and difficulties posed by management and protection of contemporary cities, since there is no consensus as to what the acceptable limits of change should be in historic urban landscapes - difficulties that become ever more apparent, given the background of Weberian administrative doctrines present in current governance models. Likewise, the concept of Buffer Zones as a landscape management tool is analyzed, with the aim of establishing new methodological proposals that enable spatial organization to be regulated by defining areas of harmonization that are made up of flexible and multifunctional spaces for cooperation where territorial scale comes into contact with modernization of the historical fabric.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0499.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: SDGs; urban inequality; urban governance; inclusive development; participatory geospatial methods; citizen-generated data; data practices; urban indicators
Online: 29 November 2018 (03:16:51 CET)
There is much discussion regarding the Sustainable Development Goals’ (SDGs) capacity to promote inclusive development. While some argue that they represent an opportunity for goal-led alignment of stakeholders and evidence-based decision-making, other voices express concerns as they perceive them as a techno-managerial framework that measures development according to quantitatively defined parameters and does not allow for local variation. We argue that the extent to which the positive or negative aspects of the SDGs prevail depends on the monitoring system’s ability to account for multiple and intersecting inequalities. The need for sub-nationally (urban) representative indicators poses an additional methodological challenge – especially in cities with intra-urban inequalities related to socio-spatial variations across neighbourhoods. This paper investigates the extent to which the SDG indicators’ representativeness could be affected by inequalities. It does so by proposing a conceptual framing for understanding the relation between inequalities and SDG monitoring, which is then applied to analyse the current methodological proposals for the indicator framework of the “urban SDG”, Goal 11. The outcome is a call for 1) a more explicit attention to intra-urban inequalities, 2) the development of a methodological approach to “recalibrate” the city-level indicators to account for the degree of intra-urban inequalities, and 3) an alignment between methodologies and data practices applied for monitoring SDG 11 and the extent of the underlying inequalities within the city. This would enable an informed decision regarding the trade-off in indicator representativeness between conventional data sources, such as censuses and household surveys, and emerging methods, such as participatory geospatial methods and citizen-generated data practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Urban mobility, urban train lines, modeling, soil mass-structure, soil-structure interaction, PLAXIS, computational mechanics, simulation, smart cities, urban sustainable devel-opment, urban rail transportation
Online: 14 August 2019 (09:27:56 CEST)
Design and advancement of the durable urban train infrastructures are of utmost importance for reliable mobility in the smart cities of the future. Given the importance of urban train lines, tunnels, and subway stations, these structures should be meticulously analyzed. In this research, two-dimensional modeling and analysis of the soil-structure mass of the Alan Dasht station of Mashhad Urban Train are studied. The two-dimensional modeling was conducted using Hashash’s method and displacement interaction. After calculating the free-field resonance and side distortion of the soil mass, this resonance was entered into PLAXIS finite element program, and finally, stress and displacement contours together with the bending moment, shear force and axial force curves of the structure were obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: city grid; urban landscape; landmarks; urban nodes; city image; blitz; reconstruction
Online: 2 August 2021 (16:06:59 CEST)
Modernist planners were given the opportunity to apply the idea of the Modern Movement in the implementation of cities transforming after World War II, which was not possible before in long-term evolving structures. Usually, however, it was impossible to change everything: some urban and even architectural elements were necessary to be preserved. As a result, the elements of the ancient landscapes of these cities - historical objects and spaces - necessary for the continuity of evidence of history and identity have been preserved, sometimes through reconstruction. Finally, in some of these cities, both old and new elements contribute to the contemporary urban landscape. The aim of the research is to examine two key categories of urban structure in this perspective: 1. landmarks 2. urban network nodes. For this purpose: 1. the changes in the number and rank of the space with which the landmarks exhibition was carried out were compared; 2. the changes in the rank of nodes in the urban structure functioning both in the pre-war and in the present structure, as well as changes in their distribution and concentration areas were analyzed. The numbers of individual elements were balanced and the changes in the structure of their arrangement were analyzed with the use of a polygon grid. The analyzes were based on the case of a medium-scale European city (Białystok). Research shows that as a result of post-war reconstruction, the number of elements of the urban grid decreased, especially those of lower rank, the rank of others decreased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0421.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: urban morphology; physical activities; health; public health; public space; urban health
Online: 29 March 2020 (06:02:59 CEST)
Along with environmental pollutions, urban planning has been connected to public health. The research indicates that the quality of built environments plays an important role in reducing mental disorders and overall health. The structure and shape of the city are considered as one of the factors influencing happiness and health in urban communities and the type of the daily activities of citizens. The aim of this study was to promote physical activity in the main structure of the city via urban design in a way that the main form and morphology of the city can encourage citizens to move around and have physical activity within the city. Functional, physical, cultural-social, and perceptual-visual features are regarded as the most important and effective criteria in increasing physical activities in urban spaces based on literature review. The environmental quality of urban spaces and their role in the physical activities of citizens in urban spaces were assessed by using the questionnaire tool and analytical network process (ANP) of structural equation modeling. Further, the space syntax method was utilized to evaluate the role of the spatial integration of urban spaces on improving physical activities. Based on the results, the consideration of functional diversity, spatial flexibility and integration, security, and the aesthetic and visual quality of urban spaces plays an important role in improving the physical health of citizens in urban spaces. Further, more physical activities, including motivation for walking and consequently, the sense of public health and happiness, were observed in the streets having higher linkage and space syntax indexes with their surrounding texture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: vehicle park violations; POI; urban safety; urban healthy living; parking prediction
Online: 15 September 2019 (15:52:05 CEST)
Car parking is a challenging part of urban transportation and the traffic violations around it cause many problems for citizens. In recent years, due to the fast growth and development of urbanization, temporary and unauthorized stopping of cars along the streets, especially in large cities, has led to an increased traffic, urban disorders, dangers for citizens, and violation of rules. Studies have shown that there is a direct relationship between vehicle parking violations and urban places. GIScience capabilities and tools play an important role in analysing the spatial distribution of these violations. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of vehicle violations in a region of Tehran, Iran that is suffering from a heavy traffic load and heavily polluted air. Although two dissimilar urban segregations exist in the north and south of the study area, our analysis indicates a similar pattern of car parking violations. In both of the areas, about 70% of all curb parks are legal, while the remaining are illegal. Also, spatial analysis reveals a direct relationship between some POIs and the occurrence of car park violations so that the density of legal curb parks is high near some POIs, and less near some others and vice versa. For example, the number of vehicle park violation around the hospitals is more than the average of the study area. However, the number of park violations around the universities is less than the average. Our findings reveal that co-location of certain POIs, for instance a hotel and a supermarket will lead to an increase in the number of park violations. In other words, there is a strong correlation between the type of POIs and curb-parks violations. Our results also show that POIs have an impact radius that leads to violations occurring in that area. For example, the area of the impact of a hospital on the creation of car park violations was estimated at 125 meters. Our presented approach along with the discussed findings along with conclusions can be useful to a large range of stakeholders including urban planner, traffic police departments, local municipalities, law enforcement agencies, and environmentalists to have a better perspective of infrastructure planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0296.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: design patterns; urban design; problem-solving; creativity; urban design education; teamwork
Online: 17 September 2018 (10:01:27 CEST)
Urban design is a complex problem-solving activity that commonly requires the aid of a variety of methods to support the process and enhance the quality of the outcomes. How to help designers with adequate methods to deal with ill-defined urban problems constitutes a major challenge in the urban design domain. In this regard, the use of urban design patterns is considered as a method that can contribute to urban design problem-solving. However, this tool was never investigated to understand its role in the task-related activities that take place during the design process by designers working in team, and its effect on the creativity of the final design outcome as perceived by urban designers and students. Therefore, an empirical research based on a controlled experiment was carried out to explore the aid provided by design patterns during the conceptual stages of the process. The study contributed to gain a better insight into the main design activities derived from the use of patterns as problem-solving tools, and to unveil their contribution to urban design. Implications for design practice and design education are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0127.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: homer; technoeconomic; urban; sustainable
Online: 6 January 2023 (12:57:55 CET)
Keywords: Utilizing; HOMER; techno-economic; sustainable; urban (List three to ten pertinent keywords specific to the article yet reasonably common within the subject discipline.)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0675.v1
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:20:32 CEST)
Urban mobility is experiencing a profound change. On the one hand, mobility patterns are becoming more complex, and typical home-work-home travel is no longer the rule, as journeys now tend to connect multiple points in a rather inconstant pattern. This has changed the approach to transport planning, in that the existing transportation planning and operation approaches have been focussed on the ability to identify typical home-work/school-home travel and subsequently plan the transport system accordingly. The traditional approach has been: forecast -> plan -> deliver, as new mobility solutions are emerging. These are characterised by greater flexibility, in that they take advantage of the “sharing concept” and simultaneously provide solutions that have lower GHG emissions. Urban mobility follows a fuzzier pattern, with even the urban transportation system behaving like an active organism, where solutions are often quickly replaced. This dynamic and evolving environment raises several new challenges at different levels. The best digital solution system is the Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) one. This system transforms the physical transportation system into a commodity and takes advantage of the internet of things (IoT). However, the onset of MaaS solutions is anything but linear. Several business models have emerged, with different partners originating from different industries (e.g., technological, transport operators, infrastructure managers, etc.) developing their own solutions, often in competition with others. It is not unusual to find different MaaS solutions in the same city, which integrate different solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0224.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Geotourism, Geoheritage, Urban Geology
Online: 19 July 2019 (10:17:59 CEST)
Multimedia materials represent a promising approach for the Geoheritage promotion. Despite Geology is normally associated with natural environments, new tendencies are projected towards a better knowledge of the “geological reason” for the location and the development of urban settlements. The urban environment is, in fact, a perfect “laboratory” for opening the scientific topics to a broad audience. In this paper the experience of a geological exhibition organized in the town of Perugia city (Umbria, central Italy) is illustrated, highlighting the SECRET (SEe and CREaTe) for an effective dissemination activity. Panels, interactive tools, laboratories and trekking tours outside the museum represent the main activities, which counted more than eight thousand visitors in a few months. Moreover, the exhibition was the starting point for ongoing projects on geotourism in the city with important consequences in terms of visibility and financial return.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0046.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Model; Temperature; Urban; Warming
Online: 5 February 2018 (16:34:46 CET)
There is a perception among the inhabitants of the Aburrá Valley Region, that this heavily populated region, situated in the Andean mountains of Colombia, has been suffering large temperature elevations in the last years, especially in the last decade. To give perspective about this issue, the authors have gone through the available information about temperature changes in three meteorological stations in the region and have correlated it with a set of variables of urban, climatic and energetic nature, with the intention of developing an approximate model to understand the temperature changes. Changes in the mean temperature, based on the linear correlation of the data were estimated on 0.47oC for the 20 years between 1995 and 2015; the study showed that 60% of change was found to be related to local human activities and 40% was attributed to the impact of global warming. For the local influences some practical mitigation actions are proposed, related to improve the energy management and paying more attention to the temperature changes trough improvements in the number and capability of sampling stations in the urban air and in the river, which serve as clear indicators of the changes and the effect of any mitigation measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0072.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: model; temperature; urban; warming
Online: 12 December 2017 (07:18:48 CET)
There is a perception among the inhabitants of the Aburrá Valley Region, that this heavily populated region, situated in the Andean mountains of Colombia, has been suffering large temperature raises in the last years, especially in the last decade. To give perspective about this issue, the authors have gone through the available information about temperature changes in three meteorological stations in the region and have correlated it with a set of variables of urban, climatic and energetic nature, with the intention of developing an approximate model to understand the temperature changes. Changes in the mean temperature, based on the linear tendencies, were estimated on 0.47ºC for the 20 years between 1995 and 2015; 60% of change was found to be related to local human activities and 40% was attributed to the impact of global warming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0729.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: adaptation; climate change; urban vulnerabilities; population health; resilience; urban regeneration; social acceptance
Online: 12 September 2023 (07:11:25 CEST)
The public administrations (PAs) that have joined the Covenant of Mayors must now complete their adaptation plans with the climate chapter (SECAP). At the same time, the previous Plan for sustainable energy (SEAP) was mainly dedicated to mitigation actions (sustainable energy). It was often managed directly by municipalities' in-house energy companies or agencies. The WMO1234 Recommendation (Guidance on Integrated Urban Hydrometeorological, Climate and Environmental Services) is a fundamental Guidance to allow PAs to make policies and decisions regarding city regeneration and population health prevention. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe a process undertaken in the Emilia-Romagna region to build a coherent frame from the individuation of local environmental vulnerabilities and adopt specific policies. This frame was created by the contribution of various Institutions, including the Regional Authority, which furnished the main directives and tools for the mitigation and adaptation, the Municipality of Bologna, which prepared the first Adaptation Plan following the SECAP guidance, the Emilia-Romagna branch of Italian Association of Municipalities (ANCI), which took in charge the approach to harmonize different urban contexts and to communicate with stakeholders and population, and Research Institutes and Scientific Associations to explore, with specific studies and modeling application, the outcomes produced by a joint support to the new urban directives, such as the General Urban Planning Plan (PUG). To achieve this result, the WMO Guidance 1234 has been assumed as a reference methodology to ensure the best utilization of available data and widespread a common science-based methodological approach to other municipalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2180.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban green spaces; human activities; Convolutional Neural Networks; computation vision; urban parks
Online: 31 August 2023 (13:18:41 CEST)
Understanding park events and their categorization offer pivotal insights into urban parks and their integral roles in cities. This study utilized images and event category data from the New York City Parks Events Listing database to train a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for image-based park event categorization. Different CNN models were tuned to complete this multi-label classification task, their performances compared. Preliminary results underscore the efficacy of deep learning in automating the event classification process, revealing the multifaceted activities within urban green spaces. The CNN showcased proficiency in discerning various event nuances, emphasizing the diverse recreational and cultural offerings of urban parks. Such categorization has potential applications in urban planning, aiding decision-making processes related to resource distribution, event coordination, and infrastructure enhancements tailored to specific park activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2263.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: fire risk; wildland-urban interface; rural-urban interface; machine learning classification; GIS
Online: 31 May 2023 (14:29:50 CEST)
As in many parts of the world, rural-urban, forest-urban interface areas surrounding urban regions expose the natural areas they interact with to a threat of fire risk that can reach various sizes. This risk has been assessed for various regions of the world using many different methods and numerical models so far. Among these, it is seen that machine learning models have successful applications in risk assessment and risk prediction studies. For the fire risk prediction of Istanbul's yet unurbanized regions, but where the city is anticipated to potentially shift, data was collected using the opportunities provided by Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing technologies based on fires that occurred between 2000-2021, and the region was examined. Machine learning methods' Random Forest (RF), Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGB), and Light Gradient Boosting (LGB) models were applied for the classification of factors effective in fire. The best result was given by the RF model with 0.93 accuracy, 0.062 F1 score, and 0.753 Area Under Curve (AUC) value. In the classification of factors in the RF model, the grouping between fire-initiating factors and factors effective in spreading is evident, while this distinction is partially noticeable in the other two models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0784.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban vitality index; urban morphology parameters; comparative approach; Andean region; GIS tools
Online: 23 April 2023 (07:34:36 CEST)
Urban vitality, understood as a key factor for the achievement of cities’ sustainability, shows a strong relationship with urban morphology. The city theorist Jane Jacobs suggested morphologi-cal aspects to promote vital cities already in the 1960s, which remain valid in the present. How-ever, few studies in the Andean region quantitatively exemplify this. This paper aims to test the measurement of urban vitality in a neighborhood of Quito, Ecuador, called La Mariscal, inte-grating Jacobs’ approach. In particular, three urban vitality indexes are evaluated with the appli-cation of GIS software using cadastral data obtained from the municipality and field data col-lection. Results show that the context-based previous knowledge and the scale of analysis are es-sential factors in the configuration of dimensions, indicators, and spatial representation of any urban vitality index. In the study area land use mixture, contact opportunity, and accessibility dimensions are fundamental. Regarding indicators, the incorporation of the informal small-scale commerce, the quality of sidewalks, the street slope, and the good-conditioned street furniture is recommended. Finally, a hybrid representation (raster and vectorial) is suggested to precisely measure urban vitality at a block scale. Altogether, by providing a comparative approach, we in-tend to bring a useful framework for researchers and planners to study urban vitality in Andean cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0037.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Urban morphology; Transitional morphologies; Assemblage; Urban coding; Adaptive city; Permutation; Parametric Design
Online: 1 April 2021 (17:46:19 CEST)
Grounded on urban morphology studies, the research tries to overcome the analysis of the permanents elements of the city seeking for a transitional paradigm in urban morphology, aiming at grasping the dynamics in urban evolution and providing operative tools for urban regeneration design in an adaptive approach. A combination of four actions of urban analysis is here suggested to highlight urban dynamics: a. Sorting the transitional steps of urban morphologies (within rapid market processes), b. Underlining rules and Processes characterizing urban coding in transition, c. Mapping urban assemblages in the adaptive city and d. Reading and representing urban permutation phenomenon. The results of this multifaced and multidimensional set of analytical tools allow to outline a new design thinking paradigm moving towards a parametric approach to urban design of cities in transition broadening the extent of urban regeneration process and supporting urban policies in the framework community based approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0064.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Smart City, Urban ICT, Open Urban Platforms, Sustainable Cities, Resiliency, Quality Assurance
Online: 2 December 2020 (14:08:40 CET)
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is at the heart of the Smart City approach, which constitutes the next level of cities’ and communities’ development across the globe. Thereby, ICT serves as the gluing component enabling different domains to interact with each other and facilitating the management and processing of vast amounts of data and information towards intelligently steering the cities infrastructure and processes, engaging the citizens and facilitating new services and applications on various aspects of urban life - e.g. supply chains, mobility, transportation, energy, citizens’ participation, public safety, interactions between citizens and the public administration, water management, parking and many other use cases and domains. Hence, given the fundamental role of ICT in cities in the near future, it is of paramount importance to lay the ground for a sustainable and reliable ICT infrastructure, which can enable a city/community to respond in a resilient way to upcoming challenges whilst increasing the quality of life for its citizens. This paper constitutes a continuation of a series of research documents and standardization activities, which relate to the concept of Open Urban Platforms (OUP) and the way they serve as a blueprint for each city/community towards the establishment of an ICT backbone. Thereby, the current paper emphasizes on the aspects of sustainability and resilient ICT, whilst reporting on our latest activities and related developments in the research area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0114.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban chickens; poultry; disease transmission; food security; risk; exposure; locavore; urban agriculture
Online: 17 February 2018 (13:01:41 CET)
This research investigates the relationship among human knowledge, behavior, and risk as they relate to urban chicken husbandry in the U.S. Concern over zoonotic diseases has been on the rise, especially with increasing contact. In particular, avian influenza, or bird flu, Salmonella enterica (salmonella), and Escherichia coli (E. coli), can all cross species lines between people and poultry. This study analyzed knowledge and practices in urban chicken husbandry to assess how they relate to risk of disease acquisition, hypothesizing that certain practices associated with a lessened knowledge base may heighten the risk. This study used social surveys to examine the self-reported knowledge base of individuals involved in chicken husbandry as they relate to beliefs and behaviors associated with the care of these animals. These results identify key factors that may heighten the risk of disease transmission, and demonstrate that an increased knowledge base could act to lessen this risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1522.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: urban microclimate; computational fluid dynamics; CFD; microclimate simulation; ENVI-met; urban mobility; urban morphology; microclimate mitigation; outdoor comfort; climate adaptation
Online: 21 June 2023 (10:07:10 CEST)
This paper investigates urban microclimate in relation to the typical major streets and mobility layout in Turin, i.e. boulevards with lateral minor roads, called “controviali”, an almost unique urban mobility layout. The aim is to examine the possibility of intervention in relation to the type and scope of mobility for microclimate mitigation and climate adaptation purposes. To this, this paper evaluates to which extent urban morphology and mobility features contribute to determining microclimatic conditions, to finally identify site-specific prioritised strategies to cope with its mitigation. This research is structured in two phases. The first phase is dedicated to urban-scale analysis of the streets with “controviali”, resulting in the creation of a database containing their properties and typology, to finally derive six clusters of boulevards. The second phase involves the selection of one representative case study per cluster and simulation of their microclimate conditions, performed by the software ENVI-met. The results are discussed in relation to the parameters proven in the prior literature review to have a major impact on the microclimate. The assessment of the results indicated which elements affect the climatic conditions the most, allowing for the proposal of different prioritised mitigation strategies in the conclusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0347.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: mobile network data; call detail records; data analysis; human mobility; urban mobility; social sensing; urban geography; urban sociology; commuting; sustainability
Online: 27 June 2022 (04:04:09 CEST)
The analysis of the human movement patterns based on the mobile network data makes it possible to examine a very large population cost-effectively, and led to several discoveries about human dynamics. However, the application of this data source is still not common practice. The goal of this study was to analyze the commuting tendencies of the Budapest Metropolitan Area using mobile network data and propose an automatized alternative to the current, questionnaire-based method. Commuting is predominantly analyzed by the census, but that is performed only once in a decade in Hungary. To analyze commuting, the home and the work locations of the subscribers are determined based on their appearances during and outside the working hours. The home locations were compared to census data at a settlement level. Then, the settlement and district level commuting tendencies were identified and compared to the findings of census-based sociological studies. It has been found that commuting analysis based on mobile network data strongly correlates with the census-based findings, even though home and work locations have been estimated by statistical methods. All the examined aspects, including commuting from sectors of the agglomeration to the districts of Budapest and demographic distribution of the commuters, show that mobile network data can be an automatized, fast, cost-effective, and relatively accurate way of commuting analysis, that could provide a powerful tool to the sociologists interested in commuting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1892.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Urban Ecosystem Services; perceptions; Socio-ecological analysis; urban adaptation planning; sustainable cities; Cotonou.
Online: 26 May 2023 (08:30:31 CEST)
Anarchic urbanization and land artificialization expose urban ecosystems and Ecosystem Services (ES) to the threat. Urban ecosystems and trees play a crucial role in improving urban environments, and their management depends on the perceptions and preferences of urban residents. An assessment of the socio-ecological factors determining the perception of the actors allows for the proper design and planning of ecological urban policies and urban adaptation to climate change. In this study, we assessed the perception and discriminating variables of the different stakeholders of urban ES provided in the city of Cotonou. Thus, 381 city dwellers were individually interviewed after statistical sampling. Focus group discussions with the stakeholders also made it possible to highlight the ES provided in the different Land Use Units (LU). The results show that 73.23% of the city dwellers agreed that they were aware of ecosystem services. The hierarchical classification shows two homogeneous groups of perceivers with ethnicity, age and education as statistically discriminating sociological variables (pv˂0.001). Urban dwellers in the city of Cotonou perceived more SEs in the cultural and regulatory services category significantly (pv<0.001; v-test>3). The principal component analysis (PCA) reveals the varying availability of ES according to the different LU in the city. This study adds scientific value in the application of urban ecology to decision-making in climate and environment policy planning for sustainable cities in Africa and all over the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0517.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: city trees; landscape design; landscape architecture; socio-ecological system; urban ecosystem; urban forest
Online: 30 August 2022 (09:54:35 CEST)
Despite the abundance of tree diversity in the natural world, and generally high tree species richness in urban areas, urban forests continue to be dominated by a limited number of species. As socio-ecological systems, urban forests are shaped by historical and current management efforts and decision-making of a wide range of human actors. Drawing on past research, we offer a conceptual framework for describing the complex interactions among tree producers and consumers as trees are selected, grown, specified, and planted in private and public urban areas. We illustrate how multiple layers of selection criteria filter down the entirety of potential local tree diversity to a handful of commonly used and accepted tree species. We detail the actors and decision makers who impact tree composition and diversity across several land types. Finally, we identify research, education and outreach needs as they relate to creating more diverse and resilient urban forest ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0282.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: cyclone; defect; hurricane; likelihood of failure; storm damage; typhoon; urban ecology; urban forestry
Online: 21 May 2022 (11:03:18 CEST)
Urban trees are often more sun- and wind-exposed than their forest-grown counterparts. These environmental differences can impact how many species grow – impacting trunk taper, crown spread, branch architecture, and other aspects of tree form. Given these differences, windthrow models derived from traditional forest production data sources may not be appropriate for urban forest management. Additionally, visual abnormalities historically labeled as “defects” in timber production may not have a significant impact on tree failure potential. In this study, we look at urban tree failures associated with Hurricane Irma in Tampa, Florida, USA. We used spatial analysis to determine if patterns of failure existed among our inventoried trees. We also looked at risk assessment data to determine which visual defects were the most common and the most likely to be associated with branch or whole-tree failure. Results indicate that there was no spatial pattern associated with the observed tree failures – trees failed or withstood the storm as individuals. While some defects like decay and dead wood were associated with increased tree failure, other defects like weak branch unions and poor branch architecture were less problematic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0184.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: urban planning; COVID-19; urban mobility; sustainability; smart cities; smart growth; pandemic; resilience
Online: 10 May 2021 (12:31:01 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has put lifestyles in question, changed daily routines and limited citizen freedoms that seemed inalienable before. A human activity that was greatly affected since the beginning of the health crisis is mobility. Focusing on mobility, we aim to discuss the transformational impact that the pandemic brought on this specific urban domain, especially with regards to the promotion of the smart growth agenda and the acceleration towards the smart city paradigm. We collect 60 initial policy responses related to urban mobility from 86 cities around the world and analyse them based on the challenge they aim to address, the exact principles of smart growth and sustainable mobility that they encapsulate and the level of ICT penetration. Our findings suggest that emerging strategies, although mainly temporary, are transformational, in line with the principles of smart growth. As a result the pandemic becomes an opportunity for shifting towards more sustainable urban planning and mobility practices. However, most policy responses adopted during the first months of the pandemic fail to leverage advancements made in the field of smart cities, and to adopt off-the-shelf solutions such as in monitoring, alerting and operations management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0363.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Public real estate; disused properties; divestment; urban walkability; urban accessibility; Cagliari; Sardinia; Italy.
Online: 15 December 2020 (09:51:12 CET)
Urban accessibility represents one of the great challenges of the contemporary city, which is required to adopt sustainable development models in line with the UN Agenda 2030 objectives, recently confirmed by the health emergency. Urban accessibility and walkability are topics closely related to those aiming at a livable, healthy and inclusive city, based on a system of high-quality public spaces and on a network of services and infrastructures. However, these principles collide with the fragmentation of many urban contexts, built following vehicular accessibility needs. Within this framework, the city of Cagliari represents an interesting case study as it is affected by the disposal of public properties which appear as “enclaves” in the historic urban fabric. This research aims to evaluate if and in which terms the abandoned assets can facilitate the development of the 15-minutes city, as a city reducing the need to move over a certain time and space and therefore granting a more equal access to urban services to a wide range of citizens. This is done by proposing indexes defined as porosity, crossing and attractiveness, which constitute a combined index to improve the pedestrian accessibility in the “central places” of the contemporary city, where the walkability can also become a possible “free choice” for a new healthy lifestyle. These indexes were calculated for the most significant large disused public buildings in the historic center to guide future scenarios towards a 15 minutes city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0520.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Urban planning; land use policy; tourism planning; urban management; tourism complex; master planning
Online: 26 October 2020 (12:00:42 CET)
This research paper is to analyze the planning and design techniques of the tourism complexes in the process of municipalities’ master planning. First, it explains the importance of the tourism industry with the help of theories of scholars and experts. Then, it emphasizes the link between the economic developments of cities/regions with the development of the tourism industry. The innovation of this work is to integrate tourism industry planning and comprehensive regional/ urban planning. The main way of doing this is to plan and design the tourism complexes in the early stages of the master planning of the municipality. Urban land-use policies and locating techniques are suggested through this research. Land-use policies and new urban design models for the regional/urban sustainable development are some of the other handouts in this paper. The outcome of this research is good assistance for engineers, planners, and students of urban and regional development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: data governance; data sovereignty; urban data spaces; ICT reference architecture; open urban platform
Online: 6 December 2018 (05:09:54 CET)
This paper presents the results of a recent study that was conducted with a number of German municipalities/cities. Based on the obtained and briefly presented recommendations emerging from the study, the authors propose the concept of an Urban Data Space (UDS), which facilitates an eco-system for data exchange and added value creation thereby utilizing the various types of data within a smart city/municipality. Looking at an Urban Data Space from within a German context and considering the current situation and developments in German municipalities, this paper proposes a reasonable classification of urban data that allows to relate the various data types to legal aspects and to conduct solid considerations regarding technical implementation designs and decisions. Furthermore, the Urban Data Space is described/analyzed in detail, and relevant stakeholders are identified, as well as corresponding technical artifacts are introduced. The authors propose to setup Urban Data Spaces based on emerging standards from the area of ICT reference architectures for Smart Cities, such as DIN SPEC 91357 “Open Urban Platform” and EIP SCC. Thereby, the paper walks the reader through the construction of an UDS based on the above mentioned architectures and outlines all the goals, recommendations and potentials, which an Urban Data Space can reveal to a municipality/city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0554.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Environmental justice; Urban parks; Tarragona
Online: 23 June 2021 (09:25:19 CEST)
There is consensus over the fact that urban green areas contribute to the quality of life of their inhabitants. So, efficient city management must assess whether the population has access to green areas and their quality in relation to vegetation, facilities or furnishings, for example. Therefore, the objective set is to establish the environmental justice of urban parks in Tarragona (Spain) by developing a Park Quality Index (PQI) and the sociodemographic characteristics (level of studies, Human Development Index [HDI], home sale and rental prices) of the population living within 300 metres of a park. To prepare this, a GIS-integrated Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) has been produced. The results show that the green areas have low accessibility and availability and that most parks obtain an average-low PQI, with the best- valued aspect being the vegetation and the worst the facilities. As for the degree of environmental justice, a casual relationship emerges between the PQI and the indicators used. The average value of the home sale prices is the one that shows the greatest correlation. These results can be used together with participatory procedures as a basis for identifying places with greater inequality, and for selecting the more effective actions that enable increasing environmental justice with respect to green areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0208.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban planning; bibliometrics; citation analysis
Online: 16 December 2019 (06:33:20 CET)
Analyses of faculty citation activity usually focus on counts as a function of author characteristics such as rank, gender, previous citation levels, and other factors influencing productivity and career path. Citation analyses of publications consider aspects such as number of authors, author reputation, author order, length of the title, methodology, and impact factors of the publication. While publication topics or discipline are considered to be important factors, they are more difficult to analyze, and therefore performed less frequently. This paper attempts to do that for the field of urban planning. Urban planning is multi-disciplinary and includes consideration of social, economic, technological, environmental, and political systems that shape human settlement patterns. It has been suspected that some topics are more “popular” and have larger audiences, therefore are cited more often. Using nearly 15,000 urban planning publications, this paper presents an analysis of topics to assess which are cited most frequently. The classification of publications was performed using a Support Vector Machine (SVM), a machine learning (ML) approach to text classification, using citation data from Google Scholar. The citation levels for the resulting categories are analyzed and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: homeless; food insecurity; urban health
Online: 14 December 2017 (11:45:48 CET)
The number of families sheltered in the Paris region (France) increased by a factor of 5 between 1999 and 2009. In 2013, a survey was performed on homeless families in order to characterize their living conditions, their health needs and the developmental problems in children. This random survey was conducted in 17 languages among homeless families sheltered in emergency centers for asylum-seekers, emergency housing centers, social rehabilitation centers and social hotels in the Paris region. The situation was particularly worrying regarding their food security. Indeed, only 14.0% of people were with food security, whereas 43.3% were with low food security and 9.8% very low food security (a situation where children are also affected). Stratified multivariate robust Poisson models showed that some characteristics can lead homeless families to be at higher risk of food insecurity and/or at higher risk of falling into very low food security, such as residential instability, single parenthood, having more than 3 children, depressive symptoms, housing in social hostels, difficult access to cheap or free food locally. These harmful situations are intolerable in such a wealthy region as the Paris region. They argue for a better detection of these families, a closer social follow-up and an increase in food aid.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1907.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: urban flood risk assessment; USF model; TSR model; urban landscape GIS delineation; rainfall data
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:42:26 CEST)
Since the 20th century, Japan has experienced a period of very rapid urbanization. Cities have experienced substantial densification and expansion, resulting in gradually elevated flood risk. Urban flooding has also occurred in most large cities in Japan, particularly in Tokyo. In response to this growing problem, much effort and resources have been spent on research and development aimed at understanding, simulating, and managing urban flood risk in Japan. The objective of this review is to summarize, discuss and share key outputs from some of the main research directions in this field, significant parts of which have been uniquely developed in Japan and only published in Japanese. After a general introduction to urban runoff modelling, in the next section, key historical works in Japan are summarized, followed by a description of the situation in Japan with respect to observations of precipitation and water level. Then, the storage function model approach is reviewed, including an extension to urban basins, as well as recent experiments with AI-based emulation in Japanese basins. Subsequently, we review the prospects of detailed hydrodynamic modelling involving high-resolution, vector-based Geographical Information System (GIS) data for the optimal description of the urban environment with applications in Tokyo. We conclude the paper with some future prospects related to urban flood risk modelling and assessment in Japan.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1348.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Resilience assessment; resilience strategies; urban stormwater and wastewater; urban water infrastructure; water supply systems
Online: 19 June 2023 (10:35:06 CEST)
Resilient urban water infrastructure (UWI) is essential to maintaining public health and safety in urban areas and preventing consistent disruptions. However, UWI is vulnerable to a wide range of shocks and stresses due to the complex nature and interdependency of its components. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the advances in resilience assessment of UWI comprising water supply, stormwater, and wastewater systems. This assessment involves examining bibliometric analysis, developed frameworks to understand resilience concepts for infrastructure and society, strategies for improving resilience, and resilience indicators. The study findings indicate that resilience assessment has primarily been conducted in developed countries, highlighting the macroeconomic importance of UWI. Three major areas were identified for analysing resilience in UWI: system design, development of resilience concepts, and implementation of green infrastructure. It was also found that while resilience is commonly defined based on technical approaches, a more thorough understanding of resilience can be obtained through holistic approach. While strategies such as system upgrade, decentralisation, digitalisation, and nature-based solutions can enhance resilience in UWI, they may be insufficient to achieve all resilience indicators. To address the issue of proper comparison of different resilience options, comprehensive and qualified indicators and metrics should be extensively examined in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0321.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: City of Proximity; Walkability; 15 Minute City; Urban Regeneration; Urban Enclaves; Green Military Barracks
Online: 22 October 2021 (09:04:56 CEST)
The concepts of accessibility and urban walkability are the cornerstones of urban policies for the contemporary city, called upon to adopt sustainable development models in line with the objectives of the 2030 Agenda and the ambitious objectives of the 'European Green Deal'. These concepts are closely linked to the paradigm of a sustainable city (livable, healthy and inclusive), founded on a system of quality public spaces and on a network of services and infrastructures, both tangible and intangible, capable of strengthening or building new relationships: social, economic and environmental. It is therefore necessary to recognize potential opportunities for connection and permeability in consolidated urban environments, very often fragmented and characterized by enclaves. Within this framework, the city of Cagliari represents an interesting case study as it is characterized by the presence of a series of military complexes, real 'enclaves' which condition the proximity connections and, more generally, the walkability. In this sense, building on previous research and analysis of policies and projects aimed at reintroducing, even partially, this military asset into civilian life (Green Barracks Project - GBP - 2019), this study proposes and applies a methodology to improve urban accessibility in a flexible network logic, where 'walkability' can become not only a moment of possible "choice" but the basis for planning oriented to the '15 min city' model or, more generally, to the renewed, inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable “City of proximity”.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0265.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: urban greenspace; sustainable city; urban forest management; psychological well-being; mental health; stress relief
Online: 13 October 2020 (09:31:06 CEST)
The construction of sustainable urban forests follows the principle that well-being in people is promoted when exposed to tree population. Facial expression is the direct representation of inner emotion that can be used to assess real-time perception in urban forests. The emergence and change of facial expressions for forest visitors are in an implicit process. The reserved character of oriental races strengthens the requirement for the accuracy to recognize expressions through instrument rating. In this study, a dataset was established with 2,886 randomly photographed faces from visitors in a constructed urban forest park and a promenade at summertime in Shenyang City at Northeast China. Six experts were invited to choose 160 photos in total with 20 images representing one of eight typical expressions as angry, contempt, disgusted, happy, neutral, sad, scared, and surprised emotions. The FireFACE ver. 3.0 software was used to test hit-ratio validation as the accuracy (ac.) to match machine-recognized photos with those identified by experts. According to Kruskal-Wallis test on the difference from averaged scores in 20 recently published papers, contempt (ac.=0.40%, P=0.0038) and scared (ac.=25.23%, P=0.0018) expressions cannot pass the validation test. Therefore, the FireFACE can be used as an instrument to analyze facial expression from oriental people in urban forests but contempt and scared expressions cannot be identified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban governance; public participation; public comments; web-crawling data; qualitative content analysis; urban China
Online: 9 September 2020 (03:37:38 CEST)
Public participation is crucial in the process of urban governance in smart-city initiatives to enable urban planners and policy makers to take account of the real public needs. Our study aims to develop an analytical framework using citizen-centred qualitative data to analyse urban problems and identify the areas most needed for urban governance. Taking a Chinese megacity as the study area, we first utilise a web-crawling tool to retrieve public comments from an online comment board and employ the Baidu Application Programming Interfaces and a qualitative content analysis for data reclassification. We then analyse the urban problems reflected by negative comments in terms of their statistical and spatial distribution, and the associative factors to explain their formation. Our findings show that urban problems are dominantly related to construction and housing, and most frequently appear in industry-oriented areas and newly-developed economic development zones on the urban fringe, where the reconciling of government-centered governance and private governance by real estate developers and property management companies are most needed. Areas with higher land price and a higher proportion of aged population tend to have less urban problems, while various types of civil facilities affect the prevalence of urban problems differently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban fabrics; seismic vulnerability; critic analysis; cost modelling; Urban preservation programming; building works programming
Online: 23 June 2019 (14:08:14 CEST)
Vulnerability is the big issue of the small inland urban centers exposed to the risk of depopulation. In the climate and in the context of an increasing seismic risk in the center-northern part of Italy, seismic vulnerability can become the determinant cause of the final abandonment of a small town. In some Italian regions, as well as Emilia Romagna, municipalities are implementing seismic vulnerability reduction policies based on the Emergency Limit Condition that has become a basic reference for ordinary land planning. This study proposes a valuation planning approach to the seismic vulnerability reduction carried out within the general planning framework concerning the Faentina Union, a group of five small towns located in the south-western part of the Province of Ravenna, Italy. The approach consists of three main stages: knowledge – the typological, constructive and technological description of the buildings specifically concerning their vulnerability degree; interpretation – the analyses aimed to outline a range of hypotheses about the damages in case of seism; planning – identifying the works intended to definitely reduce the vulnerability of the buildings. This stage includes a cost modelling tools aimed at outlining the trade-off between the extension and the intensity of the vulnerability reduction works, given the budget.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0069.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: urban system; urban context; microzone, fuzzy rule set; Mamdani fuzzy system; spatial database, GIS
Online: 4 October 2018 (11:55:09 CEST)
We present a new unsupervised method aimed to obtain a partition of a complex urban system in homogenous urban areas, called urban contexts. The area of study is initially partitioned in microzones, homogeneous portion of the urban system, that are the atomic reference elements for the census data. With the contribution of domain experts, we identify the physical, morphological, environmental and socio-economic indicators need to identify synthetic characteristics of urban contexts and create the fuzzy rule set necessary to determine the type of urban context. We implement the set of spatial analysis processes necessary to calculate the indicators for microzone and apply a Mamdani fuzzy rule system to classify the microzones. Finally, the partition of the area of study in urban contexts is obtained by dissolving continuous microzones belonging to the same type of urban context. Tests are performed on the Municipality of Pozzuoli (Naples - Italy); the reliability of out model is measured by comparing the results with the ones obtained by detailed analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0097.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban sustainability; California; landscape decision-making; urban environment; water use behaviors; social-ecological systems
Online: 31 July 2017 (16:45:57 CEST)
Urban development and planning are increasingly centered on matters of sustainability, balancing economic development with ecosystem services and biotic structures within urban environments. In addition to these institutional and structural factors, the decision-making process within individual households must be understood to address rising concerns about water use. Therefore, individual characteristics and preferences that influence the use of water also warrant examination. In response to a survey of occupants of single-family residences in the Fresno Clovis Metropolitan Area of California, contextual interviews and focus group interviews with a homeowner sub-sample, we find evidence of an interplay of social-structural, institutional, and cultural factors involved in influencing individual water use behaviors and landscape decision making. The complexity of residential behaviors and decision-making poses some potential issues with regards to the interactions between individual households and institutional actors in matters of water usage and landscaping, as survey respondents indicate relatively little confidence in institutions and groups to make wise water policy decisions. We conclude that the promotion and implementation of sustainable water use practices will require not only environmental education for the citizenry, but also a tailoring of information for environmental educational initiatives that address the particularities of individual neighborhoods and communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1886.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Walking Environment; User Satisfaction; Sustainable Urban Mobility; Urban Sustainability; Pedestrian Infrastructure; Road Safety and Walking
Online: 30 October 2023 (13:21:04 CET)
Urban mobility and sustainable transportation are fundamental for the European Union's goal of achieving climate neutrality by 2050. The EU encourages national governments to prioritize zero-emission urban transport systems that emphasize safety, accessibility, and inclusiveness. Promoting walking plays a fundamental role in sustainable urban mobility, offering advantages such as emission reduction, better air quality, and enhanced public health. Recent research underscores the importance of creating appealing and safe pedestrian environments to encourage walking. These efforts align with the United Nations' Agenda 2030 sustainability goals, particularly Objective 11, which aims to build inclusive, safe, and sustainable cities and communities. This paper explores the factors influencing pedestrians' willingness to walk and categorizes them into four main groups: Physical Characteristics, Comfort, Safety, and Attractiveness. Significantly, the study reveals that the importance of these factors varies based on demographics, mainly the age of the users. Understanding these factors and their relative significance for pedestrian satisfaction is crucial for shaping effective policies and urban planning strategies aimed at promoting sustainable mobility. By prioritizing pedestrian satisfaction and addressing the specific needs and preferences of diverse groups, cities can create more walkable and environmentally friendly urban environments. These findings offer valuable insights for policymakers and urban planners working toward EU climate-neutral objectives and enhancing the well-being of citizens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1911.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: enterprise flow; urban network structure; influencing mechanisms; the Ningxia Urban Agglomeration along the Yellow River
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:53:54 CEST)
Given the significant role of the Ningxia Urban Agglomeration along the Yellow River in reshaping the urban network and promoting coordinated development in the upper Yellow River region of China, this paper takes enterprise flow as the explicit manifestation of the regional urban network. Based on the data of registered enterprises from 2005 to 2021, combined with the interlocking network model, social network analysis method, and spatial panel econometric model, this paper interprets the evolution of the regional urban network structure and its influencing mechanisms through the different types of enterprise flow. The results indicate the following: (1) The external network is primarily focused on outflow investments towards North China, East China, and Northwest China. The overall inflow sources form a multi-origin structure dominated by North China and East China. The Jinfeng and Xingqing serve as core hubs for enterprise exports in the external network and destinations for incoming enterprises. However, in the Productive manufacturing connections, a spatial organizational pattern driven by multiple cities has formed. (2) In the internal network, a concentric connection structure centered around the Jinfeng and Xingqing has formed. The Productive service connections are relatively active, while the Productive manufacturing connections are relatively concentrated between the Jinfeng, Xingqing, Ningdong, and Lingwu. However, there is an imbalance in the spatial connections within the urban agglomeration network and an incomplete hierarchical system of network nodes. (3) In the external network, the main feature is the absorption of external elements to foster development momentum. In the internal network, the Jinfeng and Xingqing serve as contact and radiation sources, influencing various nodes. However, their driving capacity is weak. (4) The market demand and coordinated development both demonstrate significant promoting effects on the connections within the external and internal networks. The sluggish adjustment and transformation of regional industrial structure have resulted in a temporary negative inhibitory effect on the development of transformation. The negative impact of urban investment activities and the positive impact of government management are reflected within the internal network. (5) The improvement of urban management and service functions, as well as external borrowing, can promote the connection in different network. However, the borrowing economic activity can have a negative impact in different networks. (6) Industrial agglomeration can promote enterprises connections in different networks and generate significant spatial spillover effects.