ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2146.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Africa; architecture; health; literature review; urban agriculture (UA); urban palnning
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:03:01 CEST)
Urban agriculture is an early practice, especially for cities in the Global South that are expanding at an unprecedented rate, and in African cities, it can be a way to attend to essential social and health needs. However, it is unclear whether architects and urban planners have expressed interest or already incorporated urban farming within their designs of African cities. This literature review was conducted to understand to what extent architects and urban planners have researched urban agriculture and health. Comprehensive searches based on urban agriculture, health, and Africa were conducted in Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science from 2000 to December 2020. Zotero, Mozilla Firefox search engine, and Google Chrome were used to collect paper metadata. The duplicate articles were excluded, and all the n = 240 publications remaining were included in the analysis. Food security and the immediate health impact of urban agriculture on health were the most addressed topics. These studies reported the harmful effects of urban agriculture on malaria and the wastewater irrigation of plants. The evidence on urban agriculture is increasing from public health researchers, but not in the field of urban planning or architecture. Future research on urban agriculture's impacts on urban health should be increasingly done by architects and planners to help shape urban planning practices and regulations that could help create urban agriculture that benefits urban health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0059.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water footprint; bottled water; groundwater; Africa; water resource management; urban
Online: 10 December 2016 (08:41:51 CET)
Packaged water consumption has grown rapidly in urban areas of many low and middle income countries, but particularly in Ghana. However, the sources of water used by this growing packaged water industry and its implications for water resource management and transport-related environmental impacts have not been described. This study aimed to assess the spatial distribution of regulated packaged water production in Ghana, both in relation to demand and for natural mineral water, to hydrogeological characteristics. 764 addresses for premises licenced to produce packaged water from 2009-2015 were mapped and compared to regional sachet water consumption and beverage import/export data examined. We find evidence to suggest packaged water is transported shorter distances in Ghana than in developed countries. For natural mineral waters, producers should be able to address the most widespread water quality hazards (including high salinity, iron and nitrates) in aquifers used for production through reverse osmosis treatment. The study suggests there is scope to integrate beverage product and groundwater regulatory databases to support groundwater management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0421.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: urban morphology; physical activities; health; public health; public space; urban health
Online: 29 March 2020 (06:02:59 CEST)
Along with environmental pollutions, urban planning has been connected to public health. The research indicates that the quality of built environments plays an important role in reducing mental disorders and overall health. The structure and shape of the city are considered as one of the factors influencing happiness and health in urban communities and the type of the daily activities of citizens. The aim of this study was to promote physical activity in the main structure of the city via urban design in a way that the main form and morphology of the city can encourage citizens to move around and have physical activity within the city. Functional, physical, cultural-social, and perceptual-visual features are regarded as the most important and effective criteria in increasing physical activities in urban spaces based on literature review. The environmental quality of urban spaces and their role in the physical activities of citizens in urban spaces were assessed by using the questionnaire tool and analytical network process (ANP) of structural equation modeling. Further, the space syntax method was utilized to evaluate the role of the spatial integration of urban spaces on improving physical activities. Based on the results, the consideration of functional diversity, spatial flexibility and integration, security, and the aesthetic and visual quality of urban spaces plays an important role in improving the physical health of citizens in urban spaces. Further, more physical activities, including motivation for walking and consequently, the sense of public health and happiness, were observed in the streets having higher linkage and space syntax indexes with their surrounding texture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0275.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: biodiversity; human health; green space; urban green space; microbiome; urban microbiome; COVID-19; EcoHealth; planetary health; nature connectedness
Online: 19 October 2022 (09:55:39 CEST)
Mounting evidence supports the connections between exposure to environment types––such as green spaces and biodiversity––and human health. However, the mechanistic links that connect biodiversity (the variety of life) and human health, plus the level of supporting evidence, are less clear. Here, we undertook a scoping review to map the links between biodiversity and human health and summarise the levels of associated evidence using an established weight of evidence framework. Distinct from other reviews, we provide additional context regarding the environment-microbiome-health axis, evaluate the environmental buffering pathway (e.g., biodiversity impacts on air pollution), and draw upon expert opinion to provide case studies on three underrepresented linkages. The case studies include (1) biodiversity and Indigenous Peoples’ health, (2) biodiversity and urban social equity, and (3) biodiversity and COVID-19. We observed a moderate level of evidence to support the environmental microbiota-human health pathway and a moderate-high level of evidence to support broader nature pathways (e.g., green space) to various health outcomes, from stress reduction to enhanced wellbeing and improved social cohesion. However, studies of broader nature pathways did not typically include specific biodiversity metrics, indicating clear research gaps. Further research is required to understand the connections and causative pathways between biodiversity (e.g., using metrics such as taxonomy, diversity/richness, structure, and function) and health outcomes. There are well-established frameworks to assess the effects of broad classifications of nature on human health. These can assist future research in linking biodiversity metrics to human health outcomes. Our case studies on underrepresented linkages highlight the roles of biodiversity and its loss on urban lived experiences, infectious diseases, and Indigenous Peoples’ sovereignty and livelihoods. More research and awareness of these socioecological interconnections are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: WHO-5; well-being; rural; urban
Online: 15 August 2019 (16:17:46 CEST)
As mental health problems tend to increase during adolescence and is a serious public health issue in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Early detection is necessary and monitoring at the population level can be used to evaluate the progress of national programmes promoting positive well-being. Physical activity (PA) can be protective whereas increased screen time behaviours (STB) can be a risk for low levels of well-being. A national representative sample (n=4,731) of young adolescents aged 11y, 13y, and 15y from the Republic of Kazakhstan took part in the WHO collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Respondents completed the WHO-5 Well-being scale, and items in on PA and STB. Internationally recognised, recommended cut-offs were used for analyses. Two models of binary logistic regressions were performed to examine the associations with PA (Model 1) and PA with STB (Model 2) after stratification by gender and controlling for age, locality and family affluence. Three quarters of young adolescents in the Republic of Kazakhstan have good overall well-being, despite the proportion reduces as adolescents age from 11y to 15y (boys, OR=0.66 CI=0.49-0.80; girls, OR=0.55, CI=0.43-0.71). The odds ratio for positive well-being were more than twice for boys and more than 3.5 for girls who reported daily PA than not being active daily. Spending less time on STB for girls was associated with positive well-being than spending more STB time (OR=1.28, CI=1.04-1.59). Well-being among young adolescents drops dramatically between the ages of 11y and 15y and is higher among rural schools attendees than in urban schools. The recommended amounts of PA can be protective of low well-being for both boys and girls. However, meeting reporting STB recommendations was only protective for girls and not boys. Designing and implementing positive well-being programmes require consideration of locality and amounts of PA and STB
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Highway Beautification; Transplant Shock; Transportation; Tree Health; Tree Establishment; Urban Forestry
Online: 6 November 2018 (14:22:48 CET)
Urban tree planting initiatives can experience high levels of mortality during establishment years. Mortality tied to the stresses of transplanting can be partially negated or exacerbated depending on the species selected, nursery materials used, site conditions present, and management practices employed. Past research has quantified post-planting survival, health, and growth. However, varying climates, species, land use types, and management practices warrant additional region-specific research. The purpose of this study is to assess the success of plantings along Florida highways and identify species, site, and management factors related to tree and palm health and establishment. Results show high annual establishment survival (98.5%) across 21 planting projects ranging from 9 to 58 months after installation, (n = 2711). For transplanted palms, the presence of on-site irrigation significantly improved establishment from 96.2% to 99.4%. No establishment differences were detected with regard to irrigation treatment for small-stature trees, shade trees, and conifers. Additionally, there were significant differences in tree health response among tree groups given species, management, and site factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0977.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: urban trees; vegetation indices; chlorophyll fluorescence; forest health; crown density
Online: 14 June 2023 (04:07:08 CEST)
The urban environment induces stress on trees and the impact can be identified by observing the condition of the crown. The aim of this study is to correlate the variables crown density (Cdn), crown transparency (Ctr) and dieback (Cdie) with the following vegetation indices: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI2), blue normalized difference vegetation index (BNDVI), green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI), green-red vegetation Index (GRVI) and red-green-blue vegetation index (RGBVI) of the tree crown located in urban green areas, as well as chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) as an indirect indicator of tree health condition. A total of 549 trees were evaluated, represented in 24 families, 36 genera and 53 species; the variables had average values of 67.96 % in Cdn, 35.19 % in Ctr and 1 % in Cdie. Correlations were found between Fv/Fm, NDVI and BNDVI. NDVI and BNDVI correlated with variables such as Cdn and Ctr, mainly in species such as Ligustrum lucidum, Jacaranda mimosifolia and Fraxinus uhdei. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate tree health condition of trees in urban green environments through the identification of unfavorable conditions at the crown level by using vegetation indices for some of the species studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0499.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: greenspace; NDVI; environmental justice; greenness; Sentinel; satellite; urban green; health equity
Online: 24 August 2020 (03:07:41 CEST)
This paper discusses the potential and limitations of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in environmental justice, health and inequality studies in urban areas. Very often the NDVI is correlated with socioeconomic and/or sociodemographic data to demonstrate the inequality in environmental settings that themselves influence individual health and questions of environmental justice. This paper addresses the limits of the NDVI for such applications and as well its potential, if applied properly. The overall goal is to make people of disciplines other than those that are geo-related aware of the characteristics, limits and potentials of satellite image-based information layers such as NDVI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1683.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Spatial model; Urban Green Space; Human health; Ecosystem services; Ecosystem disservices; Participatory design, GIS; Quantitative assessment
Online: 27 November 2023 (11:17:02 CET)
Urban Green Space (UGS) has important impacts on human health, but an integrated participatory approach to UGS design for improved residents’ health was lacking to date. The aim of our study was to develop and evaluate such a novel approach to address this gap. The approach was developed following guiding principles from the literature, and tested with groups of children and elderly as participants in two neighborhoods of Maastricht (The Netherlands) with a low score on economic and health indicators. Novel aspects of the approach are the inclusion of both positive and negative health effects, the combination of participant self-assessment and model-based assessment of the health effects of UGS designs, and the use of maps to visualize UGS designs and health effects. The participant-generated UGS designs resulted in a considerable self-assessed increase in use of the UGS for meeting, stress reduction or leisure-based physical activity, as compared to the current situation. The model-assessed positive and negative health effects of the participant-generated UGS designs were limited. The major strength of the developed approach is that it combines active participation of residents in UGS (re)design with assessment of the health effects of these UGS designs. Whereas in other participatory approaches to UGS design it often remains unclear whether the resulting designs represent an improvement in terms of health, our combination of computer model-based assessment and a participatory process produced clear outcomes regarding the health benefits and use of UGS designs.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0323.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: rural health: urban health; health status; cancer survivors; United Kingdom
Online: 24 May 2022 (05:13:59 CEST)
Objective: To explore the effect of rural-urban residence on self-reported health status with UK cancer survivors. Design: A cross-sectional postal questionnaire that collected data on demographics, post-code and self-reported health status. Methods: Independent Samples t test was used to detect differences in health status between rural and urban respondents. Pearson’s χ2 was used to control for confounding variables and multivariate analysis was conducted using Stepwise linear regression. Setting: East Midlands of England. Participants: Adult cancer survivors who had undergone primary treatment in the last five years. Participants were excluded if they had recurrence or metastatic spread, started active oncology treatment in the last twelve months and were in receipt of palliative or end of life care. Main Outcome: Residence was measured using the UK ONS RUC2011 Rural-Urban Classifications and Health Status via the UK ONS self-reported health status measure. Results: 227 respondents returned a questionnaire. Forty-five per cent (N=103) were resident in a rural area and fifty-three per cent (N=120) in an urban area. Rural (4.11±0.85) respondents had significantly (p<0.001) higher self-reported health status compared to urban (3.65±0.93) respondents (MD 0.47; 95% CI 0.23, 0.70). Conclusion: Rural respondents had significantly higher self-reported health status compared to their urban counterparts. It is hoped that the results will stimulate further work in this area and that researchers will be encouraged to collect data on rural-urban residency where appropriate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: electric vehicles; fuel cell vehicles; sustainable mobility; mobility habits; sustainable urban transportation
Online: 11 April 2018 (05:29:14 CEST)
As the emission regulations get more and more stringent in the different fields of energy and environmental systems, the electric and fuel cell vehicles (FCV) have attracted growing attention by automakers, governments, and customers. Research and development efforts have been focused on devising novel concepts, low-cost systems, and reliable electric/fuel cell powertrain. In fact, electric and fuel cell vehicles coupled with low-carbon electricity sources offer the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and exposure to tailpipe emissions from personal transportation. In particular, Pedal Assisted Bicycles (PAB) popularity is rising in urban areas due to their low energy consumption and environmental impact. In fact, when electrically moved, they are zero emission vehicles with very low noise emissions, as well. These positive characteristics could be even improved by coupling a PAB with a fuel cell based power generation system, thus increasing the vehicle autonomy without influencing their emissions and consumption performances. In this paper, four types of vehicles are compared from an environmental and accessibility point of view: conventional car, bus, electric PAB and hydrogen fuel cell PAB; for such vehicles, the respective utilization stages are accounted for, i.e. without considering the manufacturing process. The analysis has been carried out comparing different vehicles performance along different routes of an Italian middle-size city, Viterbo, which represents a very good pilot case as its Municipality is adopting many solutions suggested by European Union (EU) through the planning tool called Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP). The comparison is based on an ad-hoc developed mathematical procedure, which includes environmental (greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions), health (pollutants toxicity levels) and accessibility time (waiting times) indicators. According to this analysis, electric and fuel cell PAB exhibit interesting advantages over the other vehicles. However, the global economic efficiency of electric or fuel cell apparatus depends substantially on the exploited source of electrical energy.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0560.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: MIGI; microbiome-inspired green infrastructure; microbiome; urban microbiome; nature-based intervention; biodiversity; greenspace; green infrastructure; multispecies urbanism; EcoHealth
Online: 21 April 2021 (09:01:13 CEST)
Background: Microbiome-Inspired Green Infrastructure (MIGI) was recently proposed as an integrative system to promote healthy urban ecosystems, through multidisciplinary design. Specifically, MIGI is defined as nature-centric infrastructure restored and/or designed and managed to enhance health-promoting interactions between humans and environmental microbiomes, whilst sustaining microbially-mediated ecosystem functionality and resilience. MIGI also aims to stimulate a research agenda that focuses on considerations for the importance of urban environmental microbiomes. Objectives: In this paper we provide details of what MIGI entails from a bioscience and biodesign perspective, highlighting the potential dual benefits for human and ecosystem health. We present ‘what is known’ about the relationship between urban microbiomes, green infrastructure and environmental factors that may affect urban ecosystem health (ecosystem functionality and resilience as well as human health). We discuss how to start operationalising the MIGI concept based on current available knowledge, and present a horizon scan of emerging and future considerations in research and practice. We conclude by highlighting challenges to the implementation of MIGI and propose a series of workshops to discuss multi-stakeholder needs and opportunities. Discussion: This article will enable urban landscape managers to incorporate initial considerations for the microbiome in their development projects to promote human and ecosystem health. However, overcoming the challenges to operationalising MIGI will be essential to furthering its practical development. Although the research is in its infancy, there is considerable potential for MIGI to help deliver sustainable urban development driven by considerations for reciprocal relations between humans and the foundations of our ecosystems –– the microorganisms.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Urban Heat Island; Heat-Related Health Risk (HRHR); Urban Landscape Metrics (ULM); Local Indicators of Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA); Spatial Error (SE) Regression; NCT-Delhi.
Online: 2 November 2020 (13:53:03 CET)
Urbanization induced land use land cover (LULC) changes intensify the urban heat island effects. It magnifies the risk of urban dwellers and sometimes causes the loss of human life, defined as heat-related health risk (HRHR). Hence, urban LULC planning plays a crucial role. Present study analyses the impact of composition and configuration of urban LULC defined as urban landscape metric (ULM) on HRHR in Delhi at the ward level. Firstly, the HRHR is measured by using satellite thermal and other digital data. Then, measured HRHR is validated by conducting a rapid field survey. Thirdly, ULM measured at ward level using Fragstat 4 software. Finally, both, HRHR and ULM linked with bi-variate Moran's I and impacts of ULM are assessed using ordinary least square (OLS) and spatial error (SE) regression. The result indicates the high risk is found as clustered in north-east, central and middle of south-west Delhi. Built-up density intensifies HRHR and abundance of vegetation reduce it; however, it is not similar for all vegetation patches. Larger vegetation patches surrounded by dense built-up might not able to reduce the risk as much as a large vegetation patch could in other regions. Findings can be helpful for heat resilient city planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urbanization; urban growth urban hierarchy; urban system
Online: 17 September 2021 (11:22:00 CEST)
The objectives of this paper are to analyze the urban growth and urbanization phenomenon in Algeria. Two processes that originated respectively by the expansion of existing urban areas and the process of urbanization that took place between 1954 and 2008, a period marked by significant economic, social and political changes in Algerian society. Our analysis was mainly based on the Algerian general census of population and habitat (2008) and on the application of rank-size distribution of cities according to Zipf’s rule. This study revealed that in Algeria, the urban system is particularly marked by the dramatic expansion of small cities. Indeed, the development of small towns, through the transition from rural to urban and the residential loosening of large cities have influenced the trend towards the balance of the urban system in Algeria. Results revealed also how the "primatial" city is undergoing profound economic and social changes at the national level. These changes are most often imposed from the top as part of land-use planning policy. This study provides some insights into the demographic dynamics of cities and the evolution of urban hierarchies in Algeria, through the comparison of the different rank-size distributions of Algerian cities in space and time. Our results suggest that land-use planning strategies are the only policies capable of influencing the future of the Algerian urban system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0404.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: urban temperature; urban climate; urban gardens; urban parks; urban green spaces; urban climate mitigation; artificial neural networks; predictions
Online: 6 September 2023 (14:33:20 CEST)
Cities exemplify the evolving world with changing demographics and climates. Urban green spaces play a crucial role in improving the quality of life of people through their potential to mitigate temperatures. Therefore, comprehending their impact is of para-mount interest. Given the challenges in obtaining temperature data from urban locations, this study develops Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to predict daily and hourly temperatures in Valladolid, Spain, with a particular focus on urban allotment gardens and a forested urban park. ANNs were built and evaluated from various combinations of inputs (X), hidden neurons (Y) and outputs (Z) under the practical rule of "making net-works simple, to obtain better results". The best performing model was 6-Y-1 ANN archi-tecture with an impressive result of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 0.42°C in the urban garden called Valle de Arán. However, other five ANN architectures were also tested (7-Y-5; 6-Y-5; 7-Y-1; 3-Y-Z and 2-Y-1). ANNs dedicated to urban temperature analysis hold immense potential for urban planning and research, aiding in under-standing the urban climate, forecasting future temperatures, identifying temperature mitigation strategies and even for managing urban crops
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1812.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Green building certification; green building movement; health co-benefits; sustainable buildings; transdisciplinary approach; users’ perspectives; urban health; Vietnam
Online: 25 May 2023 (14:13:06 CEST)
The health of urban citizens is defined by how their living environments are planned, built, and operated. These complex relations between health and the characteristics of built environments require system-orientated thinking and transdisciplinary interventions, yet have mainly been addressed using conventionally narrow sector-based approaches. This paper investigates the opportunities and challenges of the Vietnamese Green Building Movement (GBM) based on a transdisciplinary approach, with attention to additional health benefits of green buildings that are currently under-researched, while highlighting building users’ perspectives. Focusing on the perspectives of high-rise building residents, the paper examines transdisciplinary insights collected from six thematic webinars, expert interviews, and, in particular, from a household survey conducted in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Among other findings on opportunities and challenges for the Vietnamese GBM, the paper points out a challenging mismatch between the high importance homebuyers place on green building health benefits, and the focus of GBM stakeholders on GB energy-saving benefits- which are not necessarily homebuyers’ most pressing concerns. With this evidence-based inquiry, the paper concludes that improved health and well-being should be considered co-benefits of green buildings, along with energy efficiency. Importantly, this paper also brings attention to the necessity of a systemic and transdisciplinary approach in both academic and practical efforts toward the implementation of SDG3- to “ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all ages”- and SDG 11- “to make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0144.v1
Online: 13 March 2019 (09:36:39 CET)
This lecture aims to survey the existing literature on the dynamic urban growth. Theapplication in this lecture is a small step in the long iterative process between theconstruction of a model and its use for practical purposes. In this lecture, we follow thenotion of urban development and conduct an analysis of conceptual modeling phases ofurban development by Paeliuck (1970).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban structure; urban form; urban fabric; Japan; Osaka
Online: 4 October 2019 (11:52:16 CEST)
The Japanese city presents a certain number of peculiarities in the organization of its physical space (weak zoning regulations, fast piecemeal destruction/reconstruction of buildings and blocks, high compacity, incremental reorganization). Compared to countries where urban fabrics are more perennial and easily distinguishable (old centers, modern planned projects, residential areas, etc.), in Japanese metropolitan areas we often observe higher heterogeneity and more complex spatial patterns. Even within such a model, it should be possible to recognize the internal organization of the physical city. The aim of this paper is thus to study the spatial structure of the contemporary Japanese city, generalizing on the case study of Osaka and Kobe. In order to achieve this goal, we will need to identify urban forms at different local scales (building types, urban fabrics) and to analyze them at a wider scale to delineate morphological regions and their structuring of the overall layout of the contemporary Japanese city. Several analytical protocols are used together with field observations and literature. The results, and more particularly the building and urban fabrics types and their location within the Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area, are interpreted in the light of Japanese history and model of urbanization. A synoptic graphical model of an urban morphological structure based upon Osaka is produced and proposed as an interpretative pattern for the Japanese metropolitan city in general.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1584.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Urban Form; Urban Life; Street Life; Urban Space; Proximity
Online: 24 July 2023 (09:31:58 CEST)
Today’s urban spaces face precipitous challenges and complications, which include the COVID-19 pandemic, urbanization, population growth, and climate change. Proximity plays an essential role in influencing the integrity of public spaces and urban environments, while proxemics studies people’s experience, and the benefits, of urban space, and is based on a behavioral system of activities that includes ‘territoriality’. There is a need to study the behavioural patterns of people in given situations with proxemic dimensions in order to sustain both human beings and the quality of urban space. However, people behave spontaneously within environmental settings and reflect each other’s responses, meaning it is important to distinguish between different cultures, which tend to respond in particular ways to the meaning of proximity. This suggests there is no universal indicator for phenomena such as crowding. The aim of this paper is to highlight the interrelationship between urban form and urban life. This study focuses on two patterns of activity - street life and social life - by adopting a descriptive-analytical approach to documentary and desk research. The findings reveal a vital distinction between social and public patterns of proximity, while other proximities, although critical, are not observed within interactions between people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0152.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Urban road dust, Functional areas, Heavy metals, Pollution assessment, Health risk assessment, Jeddah
Online: 23 November 2017 (10:20:50 CET)
Data dealing with the assessment of heavy metal pollution in road dusts in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and its implication to human health risk of human exposure to heavy metals, are scarce. Road dusts were collected from five different functional areas (traffic areas TA, parking areas PA, residential areas RA, mixed residential commercial areas MCRA and suburban areas SA) in Jeddah and one in rural area (RUA) in Hada Al Sham. We aimed to measure the pollution levels of heavy metals and estimate their health risk of human exposure applying risk assessment models described by USEPA. Using geo-accumulation index (Igeo), the pollution level of heavy metals in urban road dusts was in the following order Cd > As > Pb > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > V > Mn > Co > Fe. Urban road dust was found to be moderately to heavily contaminated with As, Pb and Zn, and heavily to extremely contaminated with Cd. Calculation of enrichment factor (EF) revealed that heavy metals in TA had the highest values compared to that of the other functional areas. Cd, As, Pb, Zn and Cu were severely enriched, while Mn, V, Co, Ni and Cr were moderately enriched. Fe was consider as a natural element and consequently excluded. The concentrations of heavy metals in road dusts of functional areas were in the following order: TA > PA > MCRA > SA > RA > RUA. The study revealed that both children and adults in all studied areas having health quotient (HQ) < 1 are at negligible non-carcinogenic risk. The only exception was for children exposed to As in TA. They had an ingestion health quotient (HQing) 1.18 and a health index (HI) 1.19. The most prominent exposure route was ingestion. The cancer risk for children and adults from exposure to Pb, Cd, Co, Ni, and Cr was found to be negligible (< 1 x 10-6).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0489.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: urban bioclimate; urban cooling; urban wetland; riparian shading; inversion layer
Online: 22 August 2020 (04:27:59 CEST)
Climate change and rapid urbanization are adversely affecting the urban environment by exacerbating the widely reported Urban Heat Island effect in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Two wetland areas with variable riparian shadings in the warm-humid conditions of urban Dhaka had been investigated through field campaigns on microclimatic parameters for their cooling potential on the surrounding urban fabric. It was observed that an inversion layer of fully saturated air develops over the water surface of wetland, suppressing evaporation from the wetland water surface layer, which was effectively reducing the heat exchange between the water surface and the air layer above it through its action as an insulating vapor blanket. Because of this effect, the wetland was unable to render as a source of coolth for the surrounding overheated urban area. This effect of the inversion layer was more pronounced in the urban wetland without riparian shading either by urban form or tree canopy. A Multiphysics simulation study conducted on the selected urban wetlands indicates the effect of differential shading pattern on the relation between fetch and inversion layer thickness. This research hypothesizes that the wetland can act as an urban adaption measure against the urban heat island effect by potentially transforming them into Urban Cooling Island (UCI) towards a favorable urban bioclimate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0207.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: SSP (Shared Socio-economic Pathway) scenarios; air quality; WRF-CAMx; numerical modelling; urban areas; health impact assessment; premature deaths
Online: 14 September 2022 (11:57:03 CEST)
The World Health Organization estimates that every year air pollution kills seven million people worldwide. As it is expected that climate change will affect future air quality patterns, the full understanding of the links between air pollution and climate change, and how they affect human health, are challenges of future research. In this scope, a methodology to assess the air quality impacts on health was developed. The WRF-CAMx modelling framework was applied for the medium-term future climate (considering the SSP24.5 scenario) and for the recent past (considered as baseline). Following the WHO recommendations, mortality health indicators were used to estimate health impacts of long-term exposures. For that, the Aveiro Region, in Portugal, was considered as a case study. Future climate results indicate the occurrence of higher temperatures, and lower total precipitation. Despite that, improvements in the main pollutants’ concentrations, and consequently in the reduction of the related premature deaths are foreseen, mainly due to the reduction of pollutants emissions imposed by the European legislation for the upcoming years. The applied approach constitutes an added value in this research field, being crucial to anticipate the effects of climate change on air quality and evaluate their impacts on human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0136.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Rural dental care; Preventive visits; Rural Vs Urban; community health centers; Hispanic Vs Non-Hispanics
Online: 11 October 2022 (04:07:45 CEST)
Abstract: Background: To determine the impact of a patient's ethnicity on the seeking preventive dental services at the Community Health Centers (CHCs) in South-Central Texas. Methods: Pri-mary electronic health records (HER) data were collected regarding each patient's medical and dental history, and comprehensive treatment planning. The researchers retrieved EHR from Jan-uary 2016 to 2022. Bivariate analysis was completed to test outcome with predicator and covariates using appropriate statistical tests. A multiple linear regression model was used to understand the association between the predictor and outcome variable while controlling for confounders. Results: The study findings revealed significantly higher dental visits (2.26 ± 2.88) for Hispanic patients. The results from the multiple regression model indicated that non-Hispanic patients had a 8% fewer chance of visiting the CHCs for preventive dental services compared to the Hispanic population (p-value<0.001) when all other variables are held constant. However, the study results were not significant as the effect size was small to conclude the effect of ethnicity on the patients visiting the dental clinic at the CHCs for preventive services. Conclusion: The study concluded that there is no difference in the preventive dental services completed by Hispanics and Non-Hispanics when all other variables are controlled.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2051.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: urban runoff; irrigation; stormwater; urban hydrology
Online: 31 July 2023 (11:50:27 CEST)
One of the main problems is handling rainwater management in urban areas is water quality from urban run-off. Currently, the emphasis is on using rainwater in cities as much as possible. The concentration of pollutants is the most problematic in rainwater. After precipitation falls on surfaces, surface water is immediately contaminated. This pollution must be cleaned or contained and transported to a wastewater treatment plant through the sewer network. Among the primary pollutants that we can identify in surface water are, for example, heavy metals. In our research, we focus on the analysis of real surface waters taken from 13 lo-cations on the territory of the Slovak Republic. The result of the research is an analysis of the suitability of reusing these waters. From the results of the analyses, it is clear that not a single sample is suitable for irrigation, as the limits of at least one monitored parameter were exceeded in all samples. The monitored lead concentration parameter was exceeded in all monitored samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0693.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Urban walkways; Creative city, Urban Space
Online: 28 May 2021 (10:57:07 CEST)
In recent years, urban planners and designers have paid attention to improve the creative factors in big and small cities in order to make the urban environment more attractive. It seems that improving desirable urban environmental qualities and walkability approaches such as flexibility, happiness, and vitality, provides the necessary background for creating creative urban spaces. The case study zone is urban walkways in Rasht that which has been completed four years ago. In this paper, after conceptualizing the nature of the creative city, as well as reviewing the views of the thinkers regarding the qualities of the environment, a conceptual model of creative urban space has been developed. Then, the indicators and criteria of creative urban space have been evaluated through the questionnaire and analysis through SPSS software and regression model, Pearson and Friedman. The result of the analyses of the five spatial, functional, social, perceptual, and environmental components and their relationship is expressed that factors such as paving streets, the development of local markets, the Suitability of urban walkways for physically and mentally handicapped people, the use of cultural elements, the use of diverse urban furniture and nightlife after building urban walkways play an important role in the realization of urban creative space in Rasht city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0727.v1
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:48:55 CEST)
The present study investigated the effect of art on promoting the meaning of the urban space. In this regard, after considering the semantic dimension of the urban space and the mechanism of transferring the meanings of art through the views of experts, a model is presented for examin-ing the art’s cooperation in promoting urban space meaning in Tehran. In this study, a mixed method was used. In the first stage, the categories of space meanings influenced by art were ex-tracted through using the qualitative method of interpretive phenomenology and by examining 61 in-depth interviews in six urban spaces eligible for urban art in Tehran. In the second stage, these categories were surveyed in these spaces through 600 questionnaires after converting to the questionnaire items. Based on the results, "the possibility of the experience and perception", "social participation", and "the relationship with the context" were the main themes of the se-mantic relationship of art and urban space. Further, the lower scores related to the theme of "so-cial participation" in the quantitative investigations indicated that this theme was weaker than the other themes in promoting the meaning of the urban space through the art in the selected urban spaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Koseze area; Mostec residential neighborhood (MRN); terraced residential neighborhood (TRN); urban heat island (UHI); urban cover; urban fabric; urban structure; urban metabolism
Online: 13 January 2017 (10:50:54 CET)
The study conducted in this paper is focused on a predominantly residential area of the City of Ljubljana – Koseze, which is characterized by generally favorable (bio)climatic conditions. Nonetheless, thermal satellite imaging showed that residential neighborhoods within the Koseze district display unexpected variations in summer temperatures. This observation called into question the benefits of existing bioclimatic features and indicated the need to investigate and compare two neighborhoods with similar urban parameters, with the aim to identify morphological differential characteristics impacting urban heat island (UHI) intensity. By applying the study methodology based on a literature review, surveys of key precedents, detailed mapping in two Koseze locations, in situ measurements, observations and recordings, thermal imaging and the analyses of statistical data, as well as by defining the four main categories of morphological urban parameters – structure, cover, fabric and metabolism, it was concluded that both neighborhoods have common morphological elements mitigating the UHI effect. Additionally, it was found that the neighborhood with higher UHI intensity has several less favorable features, such as busier roads, larger surface of parking corridors, and the existence of underground parking space. The traffic as an element of urban morphology hence represents the main cause of differences among UHI levels in the two Koseze neighborhoods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0106.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: social ecological system; tree canopy goal; urban conservation; urban forest equity; urban forest goals; urban tree canopy
Online: 7 June 2022 (11:08:20 CEST)
Urban forests are critical infrastructure for mitigating environmental and social challenges cities face. Municipalities and non-governmental entities, among others, often set goals (e.g., tree planting or canopy targets) to support urban forests and their benefits. We focus on canopy goals and develop conceptual underpinnings for an analysis of where additional canopy, as one important dimension of the urban forest, can fit within the landscape, while considering factors that influence where trees can be planted and where canopy can grow – ‘practical canopy.’ We apply this in New York City (NYC) to inform the setting of a canopy goal by the NYC Urban Forest Task Force (UFTF) for the NYC Urban Forest Agenda, which may trigger a virtuous cycle that supports the urban forest there. We further develop framing for a ‘priority canopy’ analysis to understand where urban forest expansion should be prioritized given more context (e.g., environmental hazards, local preferences), which can inform how expansion of the urban forest is achieved. We estimate an opportunity for 15,899 ha of new canopy in NYC given existing opportunities and constraints (practical canopy), which, if leveraged, could result in nearly doubling the canopy as of 2017 (17,253 ha). However, like existing canopy, practical canopy is not evenly distributed, in general, or across jurisdictions and land uses. Relying solely on areas identified as practical canopy to expand the urban forest would exacerbate inequities in its distribution. We discuss how the NYC UFTF established an aspirational but achievable goal of 30% canopy cover by 2035, which was informed by this analysis and guided by priorities of equity, health, and resilience. Achievement of this goal will ultimately require a combination of protecting and stewarding the existing resource, and leveraging opportunities for tree planting. Achieving a more equitable urban forest will also require identification of priority canopy, and, in cases, creation of new opportunities for tree planting and canopy expansion. Overall, the collaborative establishment of such goals based on local context can be instrumental in creating a virtuous cycle, moving conservation actors toward exercising influence and agency within the social ecological system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0213.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: cities; definition; megalopolis; large urban regions; functional urban regions; urban agglomerations; world; statistical delineation; comparative urban research
Online: 12 March 2020 (13:55:54 CET)
Cities’ delineation remains a hot topic of debate in a time where comparisons between cities are becoming increasingly based on different issues that address various scales of interventions and thus different concepts of cities. Aiming to compare cities and their insertion into globalization, we suggest that the “urban field of influence” is the best way to approach cities for this specific perspective. However, after reviewing the different existing possible concepts, we replace this concept with four different approaches proposed by Pumain et al. (1992): political entities, morphological agglomerations, functional urban areas and conurbations/Mega city regions. We discuss the top-down and bottom-up existing initiatives launched at the world scale and then use a mixed top-down and bottom-up approach to propose a new delineation of a large urban region (LUR), denoting a concept close to the conurbation or Mega city-region concept. The compositions of these LURs are published as an initial incomplete framework, suggesting the need for further critical comments and contributions to improve them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0209.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Urban green areas; health; urban health; emotional health; physical health; well-being; nature; environmental medicine; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; Vienna; Austria, environmental perception; pandemic; human nature relationship; recreation; age
Online: 14 September 2022 (12:08:02 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic drew public attention back to the living conditions related to housing, access to green areas in close neighbourhood and nearby recreation. Several studies confirm that visiting green spaces improved the health and wellbeing in times of crisis. This representative study for the metropolitan area of Vienna, Austria’s capital, confirms the high relevance of contact with nature, particularly for citizens to cope with the negative consequences and perceived stress, anxiety, nervousness and many other negative symptoms experienced during the health crisis. It highlights the importance of nearby smaller but also medium to large scale green areas in cities for health and wellbeing of the population. Moreover, it specifically adds novel insights on age effects in use and perception of urban green spaces during COVID-19 pandemic. The online panel survey (n=1012) was conducted in summer 2021. In order to obtain a representative sample reflective of the population’s characteristics, a (stratified) random sample was selected by applying the quota method. The objective was to obtain a sample which represented gender, age and regional distribution of the population of the City of Vienna as well as the immediately surrounding local communities. Interestingly, particularly young people spent more time outside in green areas during the pandemic, discovered novel spaces for the first time and stated a high relevance of contact with nature for their wellbeing. Elderly people above sixty five, on the contrary, stayed more frequently at home. Significant differences are visible between the age groups also with regard to negative symptoms experienced in case of restricted access to green areas due to strict pandemic measures such as lockdowns and quarantine. All age groups, however, similarly acknowledged the importance of green areas for their physical, mental and emotional health in general during the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Sustainability; Urban Planning; Climate Change; Technology; Urban Technology; Urban Development; Density; Congestion
Online: 5 March 2021 (09:12:05 CET)
We have an aversion to density in America. Density is a continual trope in this country, blamed for all of the ills of urban life, from crime and racial unrest in the middle of the 20th century to public health concerns today. In the early stages of the COVID pandemic density was the culprit, even though we’ve subsequently seen outbreaks in rural areas and sprawling cities across the United States. This paper will look into the root of America’s problems with density and argue that density is not the problem but the solution to the challenges of today’s and tomorrow’s cities. As we deplete the resources of the planet, density is our most direct pathway to recover some balance with nature. Dense living is more efficient, less carbon intensive and more environmentally sustainable. As geospatial differentiations matter less due to advances in communication technology, it's the density of people and ideas that will continue to fuel innovation. Finally, in a world that is increasingly dominated by pluralism, denser living promotes openness, tolerance and diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0109.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Climate change; energy system sizing; sustainable urban planning; urban climate; urban design.
Online: 22 February 2018 (13:34:10 CET)
Building more energy efficient and sustainable urban areas that will both mitigate the effect of climate change and adapt for the future climate, requires the development new tools and methods that can help urban planners, architect and communities achieve this goal. In the current study, we designed a workflow that links different methodologies developed separately, to derive the energy consumption of a university school campus for the future. Three different scenarios for typical future years (2039, 2069, 2099) were run as well as a renovation scenario (Minergie-P). We analyse the impact of climate change on the heating and cooling demand of the buildings and determined the relevance of the accounting of the local climate in this particular context. The results from the simulations showed that in the future there will a constant decrease in the heating demand while for the cooling demand there will be a significant increase. It was further demonstrated that when the local climate was taken into account there was an even higher rise in the cooling demand but also that the proposed renovations were not sufficient to design resilient buildings. We then discuss the implication of this work on the simulation of building energy consumption at the neighbourhood scale and the impact of future local climate on energy system design. We finally give a few perspective regarding improved urban design and possible pathways for the future urban areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1871.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: urban climate; Copernicus dataset; urban heat island; weather types; urban overheating; synoptic classification
Online: 26 May 2023 (07:06:17 CEST)
In this study we investigated the association between weather types (WTs) and the Urban Heat Island Intensity (UHII) in the region of Attica (Greece). The application of the methodology results in ten WTs over Attica region. The UHII was calculated for every hour of the day from 2008 to 2017, using a new air temperature dataset produced by Copernicus Climate Change Service. To have more clear results concerning the association between WTs and UHII, we have used also the upper 5% of UHII (Urban Overheating-UO). The UO have been estimated for two-time intervals (daytime and nighttime) and for the warm period (June-September). The UHII frequency distribution as well as the spatial characteristics of the UO were also investigated. It was found that UO was amplified under WT2 during the night while, WT10 was mainly responsible for exacerbated UO magnitude at daytime, in all months. Furthermore, analysis results revealed that the UO effect is more pronounced in Athens during the night, especially at Athens center. The daytime hot-spots identified mainly in sub-urban and rural areas. Therefore, this methodology may help for heat mitigation strategies and climate adaptation measures, in urban environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0496.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: urban parks; urban nature; environmental justice; well-being.
Online: 7 July 2023 (11:49:53 CEST)
The differential distribution, size, and quality of urban green spaces (UGS) among localities generate a differential distribution of benefits provided to users. We analyzed the spatial distribution of five size categories of UGS among 15 municipalities of Mexico City, compared their total surface per capita and associated them with the social marginality index. We found 1,353 UGSs accessible for public use with a total area of 2,643 ha. Seventy-four percent of them had <1 ha of surface area, and 51% were located in only three municipalities that were mostly middle- and high-income. These municipalities concentrated a higher area of green spaces per capita. We found a negative correlation between the marginality index and the area of UGS per municipality; the lower the marginality index, the higher the area of green spaces. We consider this a situation of environmental injustice since urban environmental services are distributed unequally with respect to marginalized populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Urban waterscape; Covid-19; boreholes; urban governance; Nairobi
Online: 10 June 2022 (08:10:25 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic and the initial focus on handwashing measures have again highlighted the importance of water access as an essential service in protecting human health. Yet, especially in southern cities, uneven geographies of water access – often mediated by fragmented and unequal infrastructure systems – may hamper the fight against infectious diseases. The spread of SARS-CoV-2 presented a dilemma for water providers as well as residents in water-deprived urban areas as they had to adhere to new hygiene standards and requirements, despite limited access to basic water infrastructure. Therefore, a deeper understanding of pandemic urban waterscapes – the infrastructure and governance systems as well as everyday practices and technologies – is necessary for ongoing debates on (post-) pandemic or zoonotic cities. In our paper, we focus on changes in urban (water) governance and government water projects in Nairobi since early 2020. We show that Covid-19 has contributed to changes in Nairobi’s waterscape but only in conjunction with recent changes in the city’s overall governance structure. However, if these waterscape changes lead to greater equity in water access, and if they have helped to curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2, is more than questionable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0752.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: spatial analysis; urban development; sustainable infrastructure; urban scales
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:29:41 CEST)
The reality of people’s lives has shifted from rural to urban areas, where an ever-increasing proportion of the world’s population lives. Providing infrastructure to serve these areas, especially in the Global South, is a key task of sustainable development. A deep understanding of the spatial arrangement and scales of these urban structures and their temporal evolution can help to develop innovative solutions to issues of energy, water, or transportation infrastructures. For this purpose, in this work we study the temporal evolution of urban built-up structures (Global Artificial Impervious Area) and population distributions (Global Human Settlement Population) in four regions of the Global South (Argentina, India, Egypt, and Nigeria). We qualitatively analyze regularity through the pair correlation function and subsequently identify typical scales within the different interurban systems. In doing so, we identify that especially the large settlement objects arrange themselves in a regular way and thus typical scales exist in urban systems. Thus, settlement objects are usually located about 20 to 40 km apart from each other. This information can be used to develop sustainable infrastructure concepts, for example for passenger transport between settlements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0273.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Landscape Ecology; Lake; River; Urban Ecosystem; Urban Forest
Online: 11 February 2021 (09:46:04 CET)
Within the town, Abiotic is a built environment that includes buildings, roads, pedestrians, and other elements that interact with biotics, which are living things including plants, animals, and humans. From a landscape ecological perspective, the urban structure consists of (1) a matrix, which is a collection of dominant buildings and homogeneous elements, (2) Patches are grouped as housing, urban forests, parks, lakes, and finally (3) Corridors such as roads, rivers, and pedestrians. The dominance of watertight areas over green open spaces in urban development can lead to increased temperatures and runoff. The condition of the soil structure and the steep slope of the soil can cause landslides, therefore urban development must pay attention to the natural conditions of the area being built. This research was conducted in Kota Baru, Bogor, South Tangerang, and Cikarang (Bekasi Regency). The purpose of this study is to determine the natural environment and the built environment as well as changes in the ecosystem and their consequences for the new town and its surroundings. This research uses quantitative and qualitative approaches. Analysis of land-use change uses spatial and temporal methods, while Nieuwolt's equation is used to measure comfort. This study finds comfortable environmental planning, with green open spaces such as urban forests, city parks, and bodies of water, such as lakes, as a space for interaction between fellow new city residents and people outside the new towns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban planning; land management; urban sprawl; spatial analysis
Online: 3 September 2020 (03:59:55 CEST)
Numerous cities in our modern world are unfortunately encountering the negative effects of urban sprawl: this includes unrestricted settlement, degradation in the quality of their environment, traffic congestion, sub-standard buildings, and air pollution as well as flooding, swampy areas, landslides, and settlement zones with dilapidated utilities and infrastructures that are not safe for living. The Ulaanbaatar City land management master plan defined the settlement zone area suitable for living as 33,698 hectares. However, due to unrestricted urban sprawl caused by exponential growth of the city’s population, the settlement zone area reached 39,235 hectares, which exceeds the limit by 5,537 hectares. In order to tackle this issue, several urban planning concepts were developed to be implemented within the Ulaanbaatar City urban planning framework. It is, in any case, problematic to choose a single planning concept due to the fact that neither measurements nor analyses are being made of the respective spatial quantitative indicators in urban planning assumptions that are taking the current situation into consideration. One of the prerequisites for identifying an optimal concept in urban planning is an assessment of the current situation, and measuring the impacts against its quantitative data. In the current research, when defining Ulaanbaatar city sprawl, the base year was selected as 1990, the time when the city started to sprawl. Research analyses were made using geographic information systems based on the satellite data 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 Landsat ТМ-5, 2010 Quickbird, 2015 World View and 2020 Sentinel2, respectively. Based on the results of determining the city sprawl using spatial indicators, the urban planning concepts applied thus far have been analyzed in relation to land use efficiency and land use structural changes. This research paper addresses the issue of reducing unrestricted urban sprawl by increasing the internal density of the city. The research results show that, by applying the concept of a compact city in urban redevelopment planning for 4,604 hectares, and by allocating the settlements in 12,479 hectares, it is possible to reduce the urban expansion threefold and increase land use efficiency accordingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0073.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Urban ecology; ecological knowledge; socio-ecology; urban birds; urban vegetation; exotic species; Biocultural homogenization
Online: 4 August 2020 (03:45:30 CEST)
Urbanization has impacted biodiversity and ecosystems at a global scale. At the same time, it has been recognized as a driver of the gap between humans and nature. The lack of direct contact with nature can deteriorate several aspects of human wellbeing, and change knowledge and attitudes of people towards the environment. However, this phenomenon is still poorly understood in Megacities outside developed countries. Here, we explore the relationship between ecological knowledge and self-reported wellbeing in an important urban park in Santiago, Chile. We conducted semi-structured surveys to park users to explore their notions, preferences, ecological knowledge of plants and birds and self-reported wellbeing. Citizens associated urban parks mainly with “nature”, and particularly with the presence of trees and plants. Trees were recognized as the most relevant elements of urban parks, in turn, birds were ranked as the less relevant. Regarding ecological knowledge, respondents correctly identified an average of 2.01 plants and 2.44 birds out of a total of 10 for each taxon, and exotic species were more likely to be recognized. Park users also reported high scores for self-reported wellbeing. Interestingly, variance of self-reported wellbeing scores tended to increase at low levels of ecological knowledge of trees, but no significant relationship was detected with knowledge of birds, nor native species. These results suggest that parks can positively contribute to bring people closer to nature. Ecological knowledge was related to self-reported wellbeing. Improving ecological knowledge can be critical to restore the relationship between humans and nature in megacities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0620.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Urban green space; COVID-19; urban parks; open space; New York City; urban infrastructure; equity
Online: 30 September 2020 (10:00:40 CEST)
Urban green spaces provide a range of environmental and health benefits, which may become even more critical during times of crisis such as the current COVID-19 pandemic. However, with a radical shift in mobility, additional concerns over safety, and access temporarily restricted during the implementation of social distancing policies, the experience and use of urban green spaces may be reduced. This is particularly concerning for densely populated cities like New York, considered the first U.S. epicenter or vanguard of the outbreak. To better understand the impact of COVID-19 on the perception and use of urban green spaces, we conducted a social survey during the early months of the Covid-19 pandemic in New York City (May 13 - June 15, 2020). The results of the survey show respondents continued to use urban green spaces during the pandemic and consider them to be more important for mental and physical health than before the pandemic began. However, the study revealed a pattern of concerns residents have about green space accessibility and safety, and found key differences between the concerns and needs of different populations, suggesting a crucial role for inclusive decision-making, support for additional management strategies, and urban ecosystem governance that reflect the differential values, needs and concerns of communities across the City. As urban centers face looming budget cuts and reduced capacity, this study provides some empirical evidence to illustrate the value of urban green spaces as critical urban infrastructure, and may have implications for funding, policy, and management, of urban green spaces in NYC, with potential applications to other cities, particularly during times of crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0946.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Green Areas, Urban Environment, Green Spaces, Neighbourhoods, Urban Planning
Online: 16 October 2023 (10:21:10 CEST)
The paper in question explores the connection between green areas and urban well-being in an effort to give readers a comprehensive grasp of the topic. The major goals of this study are to evaluate how green spaces affect urban residents' physical and mental health, sense of community, and general quality of life. This research presents numerous major conclusions through a thorough investigation of the current literature and empirical analysis of urban environments across various areas. First of all, it shows that being close to green spaces is associated with better physical health, including a decline in obesity and cardiovascular disease rates. Second, green areas are linked to better mental health, with residents of greener neighbourhoods reporting reduced levels of stress, anxiety, and sadness. However, neighbourhoods having green open grass areas have greater levels of social interaction, and cohesion, which encourages residents to feel a sense of belonging. Lastly, this study highlights the positive impact of green spaces on overall urban quality of life, as they contribute to cleaner air, lower noise pollution, and increased property values. The implications of these findings are significant for urban planning and policy development. They underscore the importance of prioritizing green spaces in urban design, as investments in such areas not only promote physical and mental health but also enhance social bonds and elevate the overall liveability of cities. This research provides a foundation for evidence-based decision-making in urban development to create healthier, more vibrant, and sustainable urban environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0599.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: urbanization; urban greenspace; urban population; Xinjiang; central asian countries
Online: 10 October 2023 (07:54:21 CEST)
Central Asian countries are the core area of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). However, as part of the former Soviet Union, we know very little about the urbanization processes in these countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Here, were used land-cover type data, vegetation index data, and grided population data to quantify the urban expansion, urban population changes, and urban environment changes across cities in Central Asia from 2000 to 2020, and took Xinjiang, China as a reference. We found that the urbanization in the study area was uneven. Specifically, the urban expansion in Xinjiang, China and Kazakhstan was faster than in the other countries in the study area. Due to rapid urban expansion, the urban population density in Xinjiang, China decreased from 2000 to 2020, but rapid urban population growth was maintained. Consequently, the pressure of the urban population growth in Xinjiang, China was less than that in the other countries of Central Asia. On average, more than 35% of the urban built-up areas underwent significant greening in Xinjiang, China and more than 3.63 million residents directly benefited from the increase in urban greenness. Although the urban greenness in Xinjiang increased significantly, the overall greenness was still lower than in most cities in Central Asia. In the future, the cities in Xinjiang, China should continue to promote the construction of urban ecological civilization and strengthen their role as a link in the Belt and Road Initiative.
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: green infrastructure; sustainable urban development; urban planning; landscape representations
Online: 11 January 2017 (07:44:52 CET)
In the quest for more sustainable urban landscape development, the concept of ‘green infrastructure’ (GI) has become central in policy documents and as a multifunctional general planning tool. GI is not however a simple and unambiguous solution. While there in policy documents are claims for more and connected GI, actual urban development takes another direction. The densifying imperative is hard to combine with an increased and more connected GI. This paper argues for a critical and diversified approach to the concept of GI, to facilitate its implementation in urban planning and management. While GI most often is seen as a common asset and a public good, the actual land use negotiations and management responsibilities cannot be limited to a public service discourse, but should address more clearly a variety of actors. Linguistic as well as spatial definitions of the two relevant dichotomies of ‘green-grey’ and ‘public-private’ are crucial in GI location, design, construction and management, it is argued. Overarching representations of GI will be needed, but also – and linked to it – a spatial storm water plan and an overall plan for public space. The development over time will need an intersectorial implementation and management program. Thus some of the GI intentions may be implemented in planning processes, some through reorganisation and redesign of public space, and some by agreements with landowners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0089.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Historical texture; Historical Square; Urban landscape; Urban furniture; Cyprus; Nicosia.
Online: 6 April 2023 (10:26:09 CEST)
Historical city textures are living history embodying public open spaces of former civilizations, their landscapes and traditional life cultures, carrying them to the present and giving them life. The squares, which form the public open spaces, have been important meeting centers in the social lives of people. City furniture are the important elements in these public open spaces, reflecting the identity of the city and improving quality of life. City furniture improve the reflection of cultural value in historical city textures and their usability. The walled city center, where the historical city texture of Nicosia lies, has a very rich historical texture with the cultural heritage of various civilizations in the history of Cyprus. Public open spaces within the texture, which have acquired the quality of squares with their functions throughout the social history of Nicosia, are still important social spaces for the people of the city. This study analyzed Asmaaltı and Selimiye Squares, two important spaces of the walled city, through examining the city furniture in terms of their material, shape, and functionality, and their conformity with the historical texture. Their deficiencies and nonconformities with the historical texture were identified accordingly. In consideration with such examples, city furniture in historical city textures were assessed for their conformity with the texture characteristics, architectural styles, social, cultural, and economical characteristics, and relevant recommendations are presented respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0081.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Historical texture; Historical Square; Urban landscape; Urban furniture; Cyprus; Nicosia.
Online: 6 April 2023 (09:11:17 CEST)
Tarihi kent dokuları, eski uygarlıkların kamusal açık alanlarını, peyzajlarını ve geleneksel yaşam kültürlerini bünyesinde barındıran, günümüze taşıyan ve yaşatan yaşayan bir tarihtir. Kamusal açık alanları oluşturan meydanlar, insanların sosyal yaşamlarında önemli buluşma merkezleri olmuştur. Kent mobilyaları bu kamusal açık alanlarda kentin kimliğini yansıtan ve yaşam kalitesini artıran önemli unsurlardır. Kent mobilyaları, kültürel değerlerin tarihi kent dokularına yansımasını ve kullanılabilirliğini artırır. Lefkoşa'nın tarihi kent dokusunun yattığı Suriçi kent merkezi, Kıbrıs tarihindeki çeşitli uygarlıkların kültürel mirası ile oldukça zengin bir tarihi dokuya sahiptir. Doku içinde kamusal açık alanlar, Lefkoşa'nın sosyal tarihi boyunca işlevleriyle meydan niteliği kazanan meydanlar, kent insanı için halen önemli sosyal mekanlardır. Bu çalışmada, Suriçi kentin iki önemli mekanı olan Asmaaltı ve Selimiye Meydanları, kent mobilyaları malzeme, biçim, işlevsellik ve tarihi dokuya uygunluk açısından incelenerek incelenmiştir. Buna göre eksiklikleri ve tarihi dokuya uymayanları tespit edilmiştir. Bu örnekler ışığında tarihi kent dokularındaki kent mobilyalarının doku özellikleri, mimari üsluplar, sosyal, kültürel ve ekonomik özelliklerle uygunluğu değerlendirilmiş ve öneriler sunulmuştur. kentliler için hala önemli sosyal mekanlardır. Bu çalışmada, Suriçi kentin iki önemli mekanı olan Asmaaltı ve Selimiye Meydanları, kent mobilyaları malzeme, biçim, işlevsellik ve tarihi dokuya uygunluk açısından incelenerek incelenmiştir. Buna göre eksiklikleri ve tarihi dokuya uymayanları tespit edilmiştir. Bu örnekler ışığında tarihi kent dokularındaki kent mobilyalarının doku özellikleri, mimari üsluplar, sosyal, kültürel ve ekonomik özelliklerle uygunluğu değerlendirilmiş ve öneriler sunulmuştur. kentliler için hala önemli sosyal mekanlardır. Bu çalışmada, Suriçi kentin iki önemli mekanı olan Asmaaltı ve Selimiye Meydanları, kent mobilyaları malzeme, biçim, işlevsellik ve tarihi dokuya uygunluk açısından incelenerek incelenmiştir. Buna göre eksiklikleri ve tarihi dokuya uymayanları tespit edilmiştir. Bu örnekler ışığında tarihi kent dokularındaki kent mobilyalarının doku özellikleri, mimari üsluplar, sosyal, kültürel ve ekonomik özelliklerle uygunluğu değerlendirilmiş ve öneriler sunulmuştur. ve tarihi dokuya uygunluğu. Buna göre eksiklikleri ve tarihi dokuya uymayanları tespit edilmiştir. Bu örnekler ışığında tarihi kent dokularındaki kent mobilyalarının doku özellikleri, mimari üsluplar, sosyal, kültürel ve ekonomik özelliklerle uygunluğu değerlendirilmiş ve öneriler sunulmuştur. ve tarihi dokuya uygunluğu. Buna göre eksiklikleri ve tarihi dokuya uymayanları tespit edilmiştir. Bu örnekler ışığında tarihi kent dokularındaki kent mobilyalarının doku özellikleri, mimari üsluplar, sosyal, kültürel ve ekonomik özelliklerle uygunluğu değerlendirilmiş ve öneriler sunulmuştur.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0295.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: stormwater drainage; urban flood; urban drainage management; food disaster management
Online: 15 October 2020 (12:05:44 CEST)
Stormwater drainage and urban flooding are the popular issues in policy agendas and academia. Although the research on these title increases steadily an integrated review on stormwater drainage and urban flood with a focus on pluvial flooding has yet to be produced. This paper presents a critical review on stormwater drainage and urban flood based on 78 selected journal papers published over the period of 1990 to 2018. The review focus on pluvial flooding to relate urban stormwater drainage management and urban flood disaster management and to show the links between the two. The methods taken to manage urban stormwater drainage and urban flooding as well as the complexity of achieving a comprehensive urban flood disaster management are evaluated and discussed. To better understand the concepts behind urban flood and improve the urban flood risk management strategies, recommendation of future research directions are also provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0098.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Historic urban landscapes; Weberian administration; tactical urban planning; buffer zones.
Online: 5 July 2018 (15:10:03 CEST)
In this article, a critical reflection is made that involves questioning the notion of historic urban landscapes profiled in the Memorandum of Vienna (UNESCO, 2005) and the Paris Recommendation (UNESCO, 2011) as a conceptual paradigm on which to base urban conservation in the 21st century. Its limited methodological development and the assumption of change as an inherent part of the urban condition constitutes the source of many of the problems and difficulties posed by management and protection of contemporary cities, since there is no consensus as to what the acceptable limits of change should be in historic urban landscapes - difficulties that become ever more apparent, given the background of Weberian administrative doctrines present in current governance models. Likewise, the concept of Buffer Zones as a landscape management tool is analyzed, with the aim of establishing new methodological proposals that enable spatial organization to be regulated by defining areas of harmonization that are made up of flexible and multifunctional spaces for cooperation where territorial scale comes into contact with modernization of the historical fabric.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0499.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: SDGs; urban inequality; urban governance; inclusive development; participatory geospatial methods; citizen-generated data; data practices; urban indicators
Online: 29 November 2018 (03:16:51 CET)
There is much discussion regarding the Sustainable Development Goals’ (SDGs) capacity to promote inclusive development. While some argue that they represent an opportunity for goal-led alignment of stakeholders and evidence-based decision-making, other voices express concerns as they perceive them as a techno-managerial framework that measures development according to quantitatively defined parameters and does not allow for local variation. We argue that the extent to which the positive or negative aspects of the SDGs prevail depends on the monitoring system’s ability to account for multiple and intersecting inequalities. The need for sub-nationally (urban) representative indicators poses an additional methodological challenge – especially in cities with intra-urban inequalities related to socio-spatial variations across neighbourhoods. This paper investigates the extent to which the SDG indicators’ representativeness could be affected by inequalities. It does so by proposing a conceptual framing for understanding the relation between inequalities and SDG monitoring, which is then applied to analyse the current methodological proposals for the indicator framework of the “urban SDG”, Goal 11. The outcome is a call for 1) a more explicit attention to intra-urban inequalities, 2) the development of a methodological approach to “recalibrate” the city-level indicators to account for the degree of intra-urban inequalities, and 3) an alignment between methodologies and data practices applied for monitoring SDG 11 and the extent of the underlying inequalities within the city. This would enable an informed decision regarding the trade-off in indicator representativeness between conventional data sources, such as censuses and household surveys, and emerging methods, such as participatory geospatial methods and citizen-generated data practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Urban mobility, urban train lines, modeling, soil mass-structure, soil-structure interaction, PLAXIS, computational mechanics, simulation, smart cities, urban sustainable devel-opment, urban rail transportation
Online: 14 August 2019 (09:27:56 CEST)
Design and advancement of the durable urban train infrastructures are of utmost importance for reliable mobility in the smart cities of the future. Given the importance of urban train lines, tunnels, and subway stations, these structures should be meticulously analyzed. In this research, two-dimensional modeling and analysis of the soil-structure mass of the Alan Dasht station of Mashhad Urban Train are studied. The two-dimensional modeling was conducted using Hashash’s method and displacement interaction. After calculating the free-field resonance and side distortion of the soil mass, this resonance was entered into PLAXIS finite element program, and finally, stress and displacement contours together with the bending moment, shear force and axial force curves of the structure were obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: city grid; urban landscape; landmarks; urban nodes; city image; blitz; reconstruction
Online: 2 August 2021 (16:06:59 CEST)
Modernist planners were given the opportunity to apply the idea of the Modern Movement in the implementation of cities transforming after World War II, which was not possible before in long-term evolving structures. Usually, however, it was impossible to change everything: some urban and even architectural elements were necessary to be preserved. As a result, the elements of the ancient landscapes of these cities - historical objects and spaces - necessary for the continuity of evidence of history and identity have been preserved, sometimes through reconstruction. Finally, in some of these cities, both old and new elements contribute to the contemporary urban landscape. The aim of the research is to examine two key categories of urban structure in this perspective: 1. landmarks 2. urban network nodes. For this purpose: 1. the changes in the number and rank of the space with which the landmarks exhibition was carried out were compared; 2. the changes in the rank of nodes in the urban structure functioning both in the pre-war and in the present structure, as well as changes in their distribution and concentration areas were analyzed. The numbers of individual elements were balanced and the changes in the structure of their arrangement were analyzed with the use of a polygon grid. The analyzes were based on the case of a medium-scale European city (Białystok). Research shows that as a result of post-war reconstruction, the number of elements of the urban grid decreased, especially those of lower rank, the rank of others decreased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0534.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: governance; social-ecological system; tropical cyclone; urban forest; urban tree canopy
Online: 23 July 2021 (10:31:50 CEST)
Urban Tree Canopy (UTC) greatly enhances the livability of cities by reducing urban heat buildup, mitigating stormwater runoff, and filtering airborne particulates, among other ecological services. These benefits, combined with the relative ease of measuring tree cover from aerial imagery, have led many cities to adopt management strategies based on UTC goals. In this study, we conducted canopy analyses for the 300 largest cities in Florida to assess the impacts of development practices, urban forest ordinances, and hurricanes on tree cover. Within the cities sampled, UTC canopy ranged from 5.9% to 68.7% with a median canopy coverage of 32.3% Our results indicate that the peak gust speeds recorded during past hurricanes events were a significant predictor of canopy coverage (P-value = <0.001) across the sampled cities. As peak gust speeds increased from 152 km/h (i.e., a lower-intensity Category 1 storm) to 225 km/h (lower-intensity Category 4 and the maximum gusts captured in our data), predicted canopy in developed urban areas decreased by 7.7%. Beyond the impacts of hurricanes and tropical storms, we found that historic landcover and two out of eight urban forest ordinances were significant predictors of existing canopy coverage (P-landcover <0.001; P-tree preservation ordinance = 0.02, P-heritage tree ordinance = 0.03). Results indicate that local policies and tree protections can protect or enhance urban tree canopy, even in the face of rapid development and periodic natural disturbances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: vehicle park violations; POI; urban safety; urban healthy living; parking prediction
Online: 15 September 2019 (15:52:05 CEST)
Car parking is a challenging part of urban transportation and the traffic violations around it cause many problems for citizens. In recent years, due to the fast growth and development of urbanization, temporary and unauthorized stopping of cars along the streets, especially in large cities, has led to an increased traffic, urban disorders, dangers for citizens, and violation of rules. Studies have shown that there is a direct relationship between vehicle parking violations and urban places. GIScience capabilities and tools play an important role in analysing the spatial distribution of these violations. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of vehicle violations in a region of Tehran, Iran that is suffering from a heavy traffic load and heavily polluted air. Although two dissimilar urban segregations exist in the north and south of the study area, our analysis indicates a similar pattern of car parking violations. In both of the areas, about 70% of all curb parks are legal, while the remaining are illegal. Also, spatial analysis reveals a direct relationship between some POIs and the occurrence of car park violations so that the density of legal curb parks is high near some POIs, and less near some others and vice versa. For example, the number of vehicle park violation around the hospitals is more than the average of the study area. However, the number of park violations around the universities is less than the average. Our findings reveal that co-location of certain POIs, for instance a hotel and a supermarket will lead to an increase in the number of park violations. In other words, there is a strong correlation between the type of POIs and curb-parks violations. Our results also show that POIs have an impact radius that leads to violations occurring in that area. For example, the area of the impact of a hospital on the creation of car park violations was estimated at 125 meters. Our presented approach along with the discussed findings along with conclusions can be useful to a large range of stakeholders including urban planner, traffic police departments, local municipalities, law enforcement agencies, and environmentalists to have a better perspective of infrastructure planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0296.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: design patterns; urban design; problem-solving; creativity; urban design education; teamwork
Online: 17 September 2018 (10:01:27 CEST)
Urban design is a complex problem-solving activity that commonly requires the aid of a variety of methods to support the process and enhance the quality of the outcomes. How to help designers with adequate methods to deal with ill-defined urban problems constitutes a major challenge in the urban design domain. In this regard, the use of urban design patterns is considered as a method that can contribute to urban design problem-solving. However, this tool was never investigated to understand its role in the task-related activities that take place during the design process by designers working in team, and its effect on the creativity of the final design outcome as perceived by urban designers and students. Therefore, an empirical research based on a controlled experiment was carried out to explore the aid provided by design patterns during the conceptual stages of the process. The study contributed to gain a better insight into the main design activities derived from the use of patterns as problem-solving tools, and to unveil their contribution to urban design. Implications for design practice and design education are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0127.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: homer; technoeconomic; urban; sustainable
Online: 6 January 2023 (12:57:55 CET)
Keywords: Utilizing; HOMER; techno-economic; sustainable; urban (List three to ten pertinent keywords specific to the article yet reasonably common within the subject discipline.)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0675.v1
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:20:32 CEST)
Urban mobility is experiencing a profound change. On the one hand, mobility patterns are becoming more complex, and typical home-work-home travel is no longer the rule, as journeys now tend to connect multiple points in a rather inconstant pattern. This has changed the approach to transport planning, in that the existing transportation planning and operation approaches have been focussed on the ability to identify typical home-work/school-home travel and subsequently plan the transport system accordingly. The traditional approach has been: forecast -> plan -> deliver, as new mobility solutions are emerging. These are characterised by greater flexibility, in that they take advantage of the “sharing concept” and simultaneously provide solutions that have lower GHG emissions. Urban mobility follows a fuzzier pattern, with even the urban transportation system behaving like an active organism, where solutions are often quickly replaced. This dynamic and evolving environment raises several new challenges at different levels. The best digital solution system is the Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) one. This system transforms the physical transportation system into a commodity and takes advantage of the internet of things (IoT). However, the onset of MaaS solutions is anything but linear. Several business models have emerged, with different partners originating from different industries (e.g., technological, transport operators, infrastructure managers, etc.) developing their own solutions, often in competition with others. It is not unusual to find different MaaS solutions in the same city, which integrate different solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0224.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Geotourism, Geoheritage, Urban Geology
Online: 19 July 2019 (10:17:59 CEST)
Multimedia materials represent a promising approach for the Geoheritage promotion. Despite Geology is normally associated with natural environments, new tendencies are projected towards a better knowledge of the “geological reason” for the location and the development of urban settlements. The urban environment is, in fact, a perfect “laboratory” for opening the scientific topics to a broad audience. In this paper the experience of a geological exhibition organized in the town of Perugia city (Umbria, central Italy) is illustrated, highlighting the SECRET (SEe and CREaTe) for an effective dissemination activity. Panels, interactive tools, laboratories and trekking tours outside the museum represent the main activities, which counted more than eight thousand visitors in a few months. Moreover, the exhibition was the starting point for ongoing projects on geotourism in the city with important consequences in terms of visibility and financial return.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0046.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Model; Temperature; Urban; Warming
Online: 5 February 2018 (16:34:46 CET)
There is a perception among the inhabitants of the Aburrá Valley Region, that this heavily populated region, situated in the Andean mountains of Colombia, has been suffering large temperature elevations in the last years, especially in the last decade. To give perspective about this issue, the authors have gone through the available information about temperature changes in three meteorological stations in the region and have correlated it with a set of variables of urban, climatic and energetic nature, with the intention of developing an approximate model to understand the temperature changes. Changes in the mean temperature, based on the linear correlation of the data were estimated on 0.47oC for the 20 years between 1995 and 2015; the study showed that 60% of change was found to be related to local human activities and 40% was attributed to the impact of global warming. For the local influences some practical mitigation actions are proposed, related to improve the energy management and paying more attention to the temperature changes trough improvements in the number and capability of sampling stations in the urban air and in the river, which serve as clear indicators of the changes and the effect of any mitigation measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0072.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: model; temperature; urban; warming
Online: 12 December 2017 (07:18:48 CET)
There is a perception among the inhabitants of the Aburrá Valley Region, that this heavily populated region, situated in the Andean mountains of Colombia, has been suffering large temperature raises in the last years, especially in the last decade. To give perspective about this issue, the authors have gone through the available information about temperature changes in three meteorological stations in the region and have correlated it with a set of variables of urban, climatic and energetic nature, with the intention of developing an approximate model to understand the temperature changes. Changes in the mean temperature, based on the linear tendencies, were estimated on 0.47ºC for the 20 years between 1995 and 2015; 60% of change was found to be related to local human activities and 40% was attributed to the impact of global warming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0729.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: adaptation; climate change; urban vulnerabilities; population health; resilience; urban regeneration; social acceptance
Online: 12 September 2023 (07:11:25 CEST)
The public administrations (PAs) that have joined the Covenant of Mayors must now complete their adaptation plans with the climate chapter (SECAP). At the same time, the previous Plan for sustainable energy (SEAP) was mainly dedicated to mitigation actions (sustainable energy). It was often managed directly by municipalities' in-house energy companies or agencies. The WMO1234 Recommendation (Guidance on Integrated Urban Hydrometeorological, Climate and Environmental Services) is a fundamental Guidance to allow PAs to make policies and decisions regarding city regeneration and population health prevention. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe a process undertaken in the Emilia-Romagna region to build a coherent frame from the individuation of local environmental vulnerabilities and adopt specific policies. This frame was created by the contribution of various Institutions, including the Regional Authority, which furnished the main directives and tools for the mitigation and adaptation, the Municipality of Bologna, which prepared the first Adaptation Plan following the SECAP guidance, the Emilia-Romagna branch of Italian Association of Municipalities (ANCI), which took in charge the approach to harmonize different urban contexts and to communicate with stakeholders and population, and Research Institutes and Scientific Associations to explore, with specific studies and modeling application, the outcomes produced by a joint support to the new urban directives, such as the General Urban Planning Plan (PUG). To achieve this result, the WMO Guidance 1234 has been assumed as a reference methodology to ensure the best utilization of available data and widespread a common science-based methodological approach to other municipalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2180.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban green spaces; human activities; Convolutional Neural Networks; computation vision; urban parks
Online: 31 August 2023 (13:18:41 CEST)
Understanding park events and their categorization offer pivotal insights into urban parks and their integral roles in cities. This study utilized images and event category data from the New York City Parks Events Listing database to train a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for image-based park event categorization. Different CNN models were tuned to complete this multi-label classification task, their performances compared. Preliminary results underscore the efficacy of deep learning in automating the event classification process, revealing the multifaceted activities within urban green spaces. The CNN showcased proficiency in discerning various event nuances, emphasizing the diverse recreational and cultural offerings of urban parks. Such categorization has potential applications in urban planning, aiding decision-making processes related to resource distribution, event coordination, and infrastructure enhancements tailored to specific park activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2263.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: fire risk; wildland-urban interface; rural-urban interface; machine learning classification; GIS
Online: 31 May 2023 (14:29:50 CEST)
As in many parts of the world, rural-urban, forest-urban interface areas surrounding urban regions expose the natural areas they interact with to a threat of fire risk that can reach various sizes. This risk has been assessed for various regions of the world using many different methods and numerical models so far. Among these, it is seen that machine learning models have successful applications in risk assessment and risk prediction studies. For the fire risk prediction of Istanbul's yet unurbanized regions, but where the city is anticipated to potentially shift, data was collected using the opportunities provided by Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing technologies based on fires that occurred between 2000-2021, and the region was examined. Machine learning methods' Random Forest (RF), Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGB), and Light Gradient Boosting (LGB) models were applied for the classification of factors effective in fire. The best result was given by the RF model with 0.93 accuracy, 0.062 F1 score, and 0.753 Area Under Curve (AUC) value. In the classification of factors in the RF model, the grouping between fire-initiating factors and factors effective in spreading is evident, while this distinction is partially noticeable in the other two models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0784.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban vitality index; urban morphology parameters; comparative approach; Andean region; GIS tools
Online: 23 April 2023 (07:34:36 CEST)
Urban vitality, understood as a key factor for the achievement of cities’ sustainability, shows a strong relationship with urban morphology. The city theorist Jane Jacobs suggested morphologi-cal aspects to promote vital cities already in the 1960s, which remain valid in the present. How-ever, few studies in the Andean region quantitatively exemplify this. This paper aims to test the measurement of urban vitality in a neighborhood of Quito, Ecuador, called La Mariscal, inte-grating Jacobs’ approach. In particular, three urban vitality indexes are evaluated with the appli-cation of GIS software using cadastral data obtained from the municipality and field data col-lection. Results show that the context-based previous knowledge and the scale of analysis are es-sential factors in the configuration of dimensions, indicators, and spatial representation of any urban vitality index. In the study area land use mixture, contact opportunity, and accessibility dimensions are fundamental. Regarding indicators, the incorporation of the informal small-scale commerce, the quality of sidewalks, the street slope, and the good-conditioned street furniture is recommended. Finally, a hybrid representation (raster and vectorial) is suggested to precisely measure urban vitality at a block scale. Altogether, by providing a comparative approach, we in-tend to bring a useful framework for researchers and planners to study urban vitality in Andean cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0037.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Urban morphology; Transitional morphologies; Assemblage; Urban coding; Adaptive city; Permutation; Parametric Design
Online: 1 April 2021 (17:46:19 CEST)
Grounded on urban morphology studies, the research tries to overcome the analysis of the permanents elements of the city seeking for a transitional paradigm in urban morphology, aiming at grasping the dynamics in urban evolution and providing operative tools for urban regeneration design in an adaptive approach. A combination of four actions of urban analysis is here suggested to highlight urban dynamics: a. Sorting the transitional steps of urban morphologies (within rapid market processes), b. Underlining rules and Processes characterizing urban coding in transition, c. Mapping urban assemblages in the adaptive city and d. Reading and representing urban permutation phenomenon. The results of this multifaced and multidimensional set of analytical tools allow to outline a new design thinking paradigm moving towards a parametric approach to urban design of cities in transition broadening the extent of urban regeneration process and supporting urban policies in the framework community based approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0064.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Smart City, Urban ICT, Open Urban Platforms, Sustainable Cities, Resiliency, Quality Assurance
Online: 2 December 2020 (14:08:40 CET)
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is at the heart of the Smart City approach, which constitutes the next level of cities’ and communities’ development across the globe. Thereby, ICT serves as the gluing component enabling different domains to interact with each other and facilitating the management and processing of vast amounts of data and information towards intelligently steering the cities infrastructure and processes, engaging the citizens and facilitating new services and applications on various aspects of urban life - e.g. supply chains, mobility, transportation, energy, citizens’ participation, public safety, interactions between citizens and the public administration, water management, parking and many other use cases and domains. Hence, given the fundamental role of ICT in cities in the near future, it is of paramount importance to lay the ground for a sustainable and reliable ICT infrastructure, which can enable a city/community to respond in a resilient way to upcoming challenges whilst increasing the quality of life for its citizens. This paper constitutes a continuation of a series of research documents and standardization activities, which relate to the concept of Open Urban Platforms (OUP) and the way they serve as a blueprint for each city/community towards the establishment of an ICT backbone. Thereby, the current paper emphasizes on the aspects of sustainability and resilient ICT, whilst reporting on our latest activities and related developments in the research area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0114.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban chickens; poultry; disease transmission; food security; risk; exposure; locavore; urban agriculture
Online: 17 February 2018 (13:01:41 CET)
This research investigates the relationship among human knowledge, behavior, and risk as they relate to urban chicken husbandry in the U.S. Concern over zoonotic diseases has been on the rise, especially with increasing contact. In particular, avian influenza, or bird flu, Salmonella enterica (salmonella), and Escherichia coli (E. coli), can all cross species lines between people and poultry. This study analyzed knowledge and practices in urban chicken husbandry to assess how they relate to risk of disease acquisition, hypothesizing that certain practices associated with a lessened knowledge base may heighten the risk. This study used social surveys to examine the self-reported knowledge base of individuals involved in chicken husbandry as they relate to beliefs and behaviors associated with the care of these animals. These results identify key factors that may heighten the risk of disease transmission, and demonstrate that an increased knowledge base could act to lessen this risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1522.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: urban microclimate; computational fluid dynamics; CFD; microclimate simulation; ENVI-met; urban mobility; urban morphology; microclimate mitigation; outdoor comfort; climate adaptation
Online: 21 June 2023 (10:07:10 CEST)
This paper investigates urban microclimate in relation to the typical major streets and mobility layout in Turin, i.e. boulevards with lateral minor roads, called “controviali”, an almost unique urban mobility layout. The aim is to examine the possibility of intervention in relation to the type and scope of mobility for microclimate mitigation and climate adaptation purposes. To this, this paper evaluates to which extent urban morphology and mobility features contribute to determining microclimatic conditions, to finally identify site-specific prioritised strategies to cope with its mitigation. This research is structured in two phases. The first phase is dedicated to urban-scale analysis of the streets with “controviali”, resulting in the creation of a database containing their properties and typology, to finally derive six clusters of boulevards. The second phase involves the selection of one representative case study per cluster and simulation of their microclimate conditions, performed by the software ENVI-met. The results are discussed in relation to the parameters proven in the prior literature review to have a major impact on the microclimate. The assessment of the results indicated which elements affect the climatic conditions the most, allowing for the proposal of different prioritised mitigation strategies in the conclusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0347.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: mobile network data; call detail records; data analysis; human mobility; urban mobility; social sensing; urban geography; urban sociology; commuting; sustainability
Online: 27 June 2022 (04:04:09 CEST)
The analysis of the human movement patterns based on the mobile network data makes it possible to examine a very large population cost-effectively, and led to several discoveries about human dynamics. However, the application of this data source is still not common practice. The goal of this study was to analyze the commuting tendencies of the Budapest Metropolitan Area using mobile network data and propose an automatized alternative to the current, questionnaire-based method. Commuting is predominantly analyzed by the census, but that is performed only once in a decade in Hungary. To analyze commuting, the home and the work locations of the subscribers are determined based on their appearances during and outside the working hours. The home locations were compared to census data at a settlement level. Then, the settlement and district level commuting tendencies were identified and compared to the findings of census-based sociological studies. It has been found that commuting analysis based on mobile network data strongly correlates with the census-based findings, even though home and work locations have been estimated by statistical methods. All the examined aspects, including commuting from sectors of the agglomeration to the districts of Budapest and demographic distribution of the commuters, show that mobile network data can be an automatized, fast, cost-effective, and relatively accurate way of commuting analysis, that could provide a powerful tool to the sociologists interested in commuting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1892.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Urban Ecosystem Services; perceptions; Socio-ecological analysis; urban adaptation planning; sustainable cities; Cotonou.
Online: 26 May 2023 (08:30:31 CEST)
Anarchic urbanization and land artificialization expose urban ecosystems and Ecosystem Services (ES) to the threat. Urban ecosystems and trees play a crucial role in improving urban environments, and their management depends on the perceptions and preferences of urban residents. An assessment of the socio-ecological factors determining the perception of the actors allows for the proper design and planning of ecological urban policies and urban adaptation to climate change. In this study, we assessed the perception and discriminating variables of the different stakeholders of urban ES provided in the city of Cotonou. Thus, 381 city dwellers were individually interviewed after statistical sampling. Focus group discussions with the stakeholders also made it possible to highlight the ES provided in the different Land Use Units (LU). The results show that 73.23% of the city dwellers agreed that they were aware of ecosystem services. The hierarchical classification shows two homogeneous groups of perceivers with ethnicity, age and education as statistically discriminating sociological variables (pv˂0.001). Urban dwellers in the city of Cotonou perceived more SEs in the cultural and regulatory services category significantly (pv<0.001; v-test>3). The principal component analysis (PCA) reveals the varying availability of ES according to the different LU in the city. This study adds scientific value in the application of urban ecology to decision-making in climate and environment policy planning for sustainable cities in Africa and all over the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0517.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: city trees; landscape design; landscape architecture; socio-ecological system; urban ecosystem; urban forest
Online: 30 August 2022 (09:54:35 CEST)
Despite the abundance of tree diversity in the natural world, and generally high tree species richness in urban areas, urban forests continue to be dominated by a limited number of species. As socio-ecological systems, urban forests are shaped by historical and current management efforts and decision-making of a wide range of human actors. Drawing on past research, we offer a conceptual framework for describing the complex interactions among tree producers and consumers as trees are selected, grown, specified, and planted in private and public urban areas. We illustrate how multiple layers of selection criteria filter down the entirety of potential local tree diversity to a handful of commonly used and accepted tree species. We detail the actors and decision makers who impact tree composition and diversity across several land types. Finally, we identify research, education and outreach needs as they relate to creating more diverse and resilient urban forest ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0282.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: cyclone; defect; hurricane; likelihood of failure; storm damage; typhoon; urban ecology; urban forestry
Online: 21 May 2022 (11:03:18 CEST)
Urban trees are often more sun- and wind-exposed than their forest-grown counterparts. These environmental differences can impact how many species grow – impacting trunk taper, crown spread, branch architecture, and other aspects of tree form. Given these differences, windthrow models derived from traditional forest production data sources may not be appropriate for urban forest management. Additionally, visual abnormalities historically labeled as “defects” in timber production may not have a significant impact on tree failure potential. In this study, we look at urban tree failures associated with Hurricane Irma in Tampa, Florida, USA. We used spatial analysis to determine if patterns of failure existed among our inventoried trees. We also looked at risk assessment data to determine which visual defects were the most common and the most likely to be associated with branch or whole-tree failure. Results indicate that there was no spatial pattern associated with the observed tree failures – trees failed or withstood the storm as individuals. While some defects like decay and dead wood were associated with increased tree failure, other defects like weak branch unions and poor branch architecture were less problematic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0184.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: urban planning; COVID-19; urban mobility; sustainability; smart cities; smart growth; pandemic; resilience
Online: 10 May 2021 (12:31:01 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has put lifestyles in question, changed daily routines and limited citizen freedoms that seemed inalienable before. A human activity that was greatly affected since the beginning of the health crisis is mobility. Focusing on mobility, we aim to discuss the transformational impact that the pandemic brought on this specific urban domain, especially with regards to the promotion of the smart growth agenda and the acceleration towards the smart city paradigm. We collect 60 initial policy responses related to urban mobility from 86 cities around the world and analyse them based on the challenge they aim to address, the exact principles of smart growth and sustainable mobility that they encapsulate and the level of ICT penetration. Our findings suggest that emerging strategies, although mainly temporary, are transformational, in line with the principles of smart growth. As a result the pandemic becomes an opportunity for shifting towards more sustainable urban planning and mobility practices. However, most policy responses adopted during the first months of the pandemic fail to leverage advancements made in the field of smart cities, and to adopt off-the-shelf solutions such as in monitoring, alerting and operations management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0363.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Public real estate; disused properties; divestment; urban walkability; urban accessibility; Cagliari; Sardinia; Italy.
Online: 15 December 2020 (09:51:12 CET)
Urban accessibility represents one of the great challenges of the contemporary city, which is required to adopt sustainable development models in line with the UN Agenda 2030 objectives, recently confirmed by the health emergency. Urban accessibility and walkability are topics closely related to those aiming at a livable, healthy and inclusive city, based on a system of high-quality public spaces and on a network of services and infrastructures. However, these principles collide with the fragmentation of many urban contexts, built following vehicular accessibility needs. Within this framework, the city of Cagliari represents an interesting case study as it is affected by the disposal of public properties which appear as “enclaves” in the historic urban fabric. This research aims to evaluate if and in which terms the abandoned assets can facilitate the development of the 15-minutes city, as a city reducing the need to move over a certain time and space and therefore granting a more equal access to urban services to a wide range of citizens. This is done by proposing indexes defined as porosity, crossing and attractiveness, which constitute a combined index to improve the pedestrian accessibility in the “central places” of the contemporary city, where the walkability can also become a possible “free choice” for a new healthy lifestyle. These indexes were calculated for the most significant large disused public buildings in the historic center to guide future scenarios towards a 15 minutes city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0520.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Urban planning; land use policy; tourism planning; urban management; tourism complex; master planning
Online: 26 October 2020 (12:00:42 CET)
This research paper is to analyze the planning and design techniques of the tourism complexes in the process of municipalities’ master planning. First, it explains the importance of the tourism industry with the help of theories of scholars and experts. Then, it emphasizes the link between the economic developments of cities/regions with the development of the tourism industry. The innovation of this work is to integrate tourism industry planning and comprehensive regional/ urban planning. The main way of doing this is to plan and design the tourism complexes in the early stages of the master planning of the municipality. Urban land-use policies and locating techniques are suggested through this research. Land-use policies and new urban design models for the regional/urban sustainable development are some of the other handouts in this paper. The outcome of this research is good assistance for engineers, planners, and students of urban and regional development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: data governance; data sovereignty; urban data spaces; ICT reference architecture; open urban platform
Online: 6 December 2018 (05:09:54 CET)
This paper presents the results of a recent study that was conducted with a number of German municipalities/cities. Based on the obtained and briefly presented recommendations emerging from the study, the authors propose the concept of an Urban Data Space (UDS), which facilitates an eco-system for data exchange and added value creation thereby utilizing the various types of data within a smart city/municipality. Looking at an Urban Data Space from within a German context and considering the current situation and developments in German municipalities, this paper proposes a reasonable classification of urban data that allows to relate the various data types to legal aspects and to conduct solid considerations regarding technical implementation designs and decisions. Furthermore, the Urban Data Space is described/analyzed in detail, and relevant stakeholders are identified, as well as corresponding technical artifacts are introduced. The authors propose to setup Urban Data Spaces based on emerging standards from the area of ICT reference architectures for Smart Cities, such as DIN SPEC 91357 “Open Urban Platform” and EIP SCC. Thereby, the paper walks the reader through the construction of an UDS based on the above mentioned architectures and outlines all the goals, recommendations and potentials, which an Urban Data Space can reveal to a municipality/city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0554.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Environmental justice; Urban parks; Tarragona
Online: 23 June 2021 (09:25:19 CEST)
There is consensus over the fact that urban green areas contribute to the quality of life of their inhabitants. So, efficient city management must assess whether the population has access to green areas and their quality in relation to vegetation, facilities or furnishings, for example. Therefore, the objective set is to establish the environmental justice of urban parks in Tarragona (Spain) by developing a Park Quality Index (PQI) and the sociodemographic characteristics (level of studies, Human Development Index [HDI], home sale and rental prices) of the population living within 300 metres of a park. To prepare this, a GIS-integrated Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) has been produced. The results show that the green areas have low accessibility and availability and that most parks obtain an average-low PQI, with the best- valued aspect being the vegetation and the worst the facilities. As for the degree of environmental justice, a casual relationship emerges between the PQI and the indicators used. The average value of the home sale prices is the one that shows the greatest correlation. These results can be used together with participatory procedures as a basis for identifying places with greater inequality, and for selecting the more effective actions that enable increasing environmental justice with respect to green areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0208.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban planning; bibliometrics; citation analysis
Online: 16 December 2019 (06:33:20 CET)
Analyses of faculty citation activity usually focus on counts as a function of author characteristics such as rank, gender, previous citation levels, and other factors influencing productivity and career path. Citation analyses of publications consider aspects such as number of authors, author reputation, author order, length of the title, methodology, and impact factors of the publication. While publication topics or discipline are considered to be important factors, they are more difficult to analyze, and therefore performed less frequently. This paper attempts to do that for the field of urban planning. Urban planning is multi-disciplinary and includes consideration of social, economic, technological, environmental, and political systems that shape human settlement patterns. It has been suspected that some topics are more “popular” and have larger audiences, therefore are cited more often. Using nearly 15,000 urban planning publications, this paper presents an analysis of topics to assess which are cited most frequently. The classification of publications was performed using a Support Vector Machine (SVM), a machine learning (ML) approach to text classification, using citation data from Google Scholar. The citation levels for the resulting categories are analyzed and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: homeless; food insecurity; urban health
Online: 14 December 2017 (11:45:48 CET)
The number of families sheltered in the Paris region (France) increased by a factor of 5 between 1999 and 2009. In 2013, a survey was performed on homeless families in order to characterize their living conditions, their health needs and the developmental problems in children. This random survey was conducted in 17 languages among homeless families sheltered in emergency centers for asylum-seekers, emergency housing centers, social rehabilitation centers and social hotels in the Paris region. The situation was particularly worrying regarding their food security. Indeed, only 14.0% of people were with food security, whereas 43.3% were with low food security and 9.8% very low food security (a situation where children are also affected). Stratified multivariate robust Poisson models showed that some characteristics can lead homeless families to be at higher risk of food insecurity and/or at higher risk of falling into very low food security, such as residential instability, single parenthood, having more than 3 children, depressive symptoms, housing in social hostels, difficult access to cheap or free food locally. These harmful situations are intolerable in such a wealthy region as the Paris region. They argue for a better detection of these families, a closer social follow-up and an increase in food aid.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1907.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: urban flood risk assessment; USF model; TSR model; urban landscape GIS delineation; rainfall data
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:42:26 CEST)
Since the 20th century, Japan has experienced a period of very rapid urbanization. Cities have experienced substantial densification and expansion, resulting in gradually elevated flood risk. Urban flooding has also occurred in most large cities in Japan, particularly in Tokyo. In response to this growing problem, much effort and resources have been spent on research and development aimed at understanding, simulating, and managing urban flood risk in Japan. The objective of this review is to summarize, discuss and share key outputs from some of the main research directions in this field, significant parts of which have been uniquely developed in Japan and only published in Japanese. After a general introduction to urban runoff modelling, in the next section, key historical works in Japan are summarized, followed by a description of the situation in Japan with respect to observations of precipitation and water level. Then, the storage function model approach is reviewed, including an extension to urban basins, as well as recent experiments with AI-based emulation in Japanese basins. Subsequently, we review the prospects of detailed hydrodynamic modelling involving high-resolution, vector-based Geographical Information System (GIS) data for the optimal description of the urban environment with applications in Tokyo. We conclude the paper with some future prospects related to urban flood risk modelling and assessment in Japan.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1348.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Resilience assessment; resilience strategies; urban stormwater and wastewater; urban water infrastructure; water supply systems
Online: 19 June 2023 (10:35:06 CEST)
Resilient urban water infrastructure (UWI) is essential to maintaining public health and safety in urban areas and preventing consistent disruptions. However, UWI is vulnerable to a wide range of shocks and stresses due to the complex nature and interdependency of its components. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the advances in resilience assessment of UWI comprising water supply, stormwater, and wastewater systems. This assessment involves examining bibliometric analysis, developed frameworks to understand resilience concepts for infrastructure and society, strategies for improving resilience, and resilience indicators. The study findings indicate that resilience assessment has primarily been conducted in developed countries, highlighting the macroeconomic importance of UWI. Three major areas were identified for analysing resilience in UWI: system design, development of resilience concepts, and implementation of green infrastructure. It was also found that while resilience is commonly defined based on technical approaches, a more thorough understanding of resilience can be obtained through holistic approach. While strategies such as system upgrade, decentralisation, digitalisation, and nature-based solutions can enhance resilience in UWI, they may be insufficient to achieve all resilience indicators. To address the issue of proper comparison of different resilience options, comprehensive and qualified indicators and metrics should be extensively examined in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0321.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: City of Proximity; Walkability; 15 Minute City; Urban Regeneration; Urban Enclaves; Green Military Barracks
Online: 22 October 2021 (09:04:56 CEST)
The concepts of accessibility and urban walkability are the cornerstones of urban policies for the contemporary city, called upon to adopt sustainable development models in line with the objectives of the 2030 Agenda and the ambitious objectives of the 'European Green Deal'. These concepts are closely linked to the paradigm of a sustainable city (livable, healthy and inclusive), founded on a system of quality public spaces and on a network of services and infrastructures, both tangible and intangible, capable of strengthening or building new relationships: social, economic and environmental. It is therefore necessary to recognize potential opportunities for connection and permeability in consolidated urban environments, very often fragmented and characterized by enclaves. Within this framework, the city of Cagliari represents an interesting case study as it is characterized by the presence of a series of military complexes, real 'enclaves' which condition the proximity connections and, more generally, the walkability. In this sense, building on previous research and analysis of policies and projects aimed at reintroducing, even partially, this military asset into civilian life (Green Barracks Project - GBP - 2019), this study proposes and applies a methodology to improve urban accessibility in a flexible network logic, where 'walkability' can become not only a moment of possible "choice" but the basis for planning oriented to the '15 min city' model or, more generally, to the renewed, inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable “City of proximity”.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0265.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: urban greenspace; sustainable city; urban forest management; psychological well-being; mental health; stress relief
Online: 13 October 2020 (09:31:06 CEST)
The construction of sustainable urban forests follows the principle that well-being in people is promoted when exposed to tree population. Facial expression is the direct representation of inner emotion that can be used to assess real-time perception in urban forests. The emergence and change of facial expressions for forest visitors are in an implicit process. The reserved character of oriental races strengthens the requirement for the accuracy to recognize expressions through instrument rating. In this study, a dataset was established with 2,886 randomly photographed faces from visitors in a constructed urban forest park and a promenade at summertime in Shenyang City at Northeast China. Six experts were invited to choose 160 photos in total with 20 images representing one of eight typical expressions as angry, contempt, disgusted, happy, neutral, sad, scared, and surprised emotions. The FireFACE ver. 3.0 software was used to test hit-ratio validation as the accuracy (ac.) to match machine-recognized photos with those identified by experts. According to Kruskal-Wallis test on the difference from averaged scores in 20 recently published papers, contempt (ac.=0.40%, P=0.0038) and scared (ac.=25.23%, P=0.0018) expressions cannot pass the validation test. Therefore, the FireFACE can be used as an instrument to analyze facial expression from oriental people in urban forests but contempt and scared expressions cannot be identified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban governance; public participation; public comments; web-crawling data; qualitative content analysis; urban China
Online: 9 September 2020 (03:37:38 CEST)
Public participation is crucial in the process of urban governance in smart-city initiatives to enable urban planners and policy makers to take account of the real public needs. Our study aims to develop an analytical framework using citizen-centred qualitative data to analyse urban problems and identify the areas most needed for urban governance. Taking a Chinese megacity as the study area, we first utilise a web-crawling tool to retrieve public comments from an online comment board and employ the Baidu Application Programming Interfaces and a qualitative content analysis for data reclassification. We then analyse the urban problems reflected by negative comments in terms of their statistical and spatial distribution, and the associative factors to explain their formation. Our findings show that urban problems are dominantly related to construction and housing, and most frequently appear in industry-oriented areas and newly-developed economic development zones on the urban fringe, where the reconciling of government-centered governance and private governance by real estate developers and property management companies are most needed. Areas with higher land price and a higher proportion of aged population tend to have less urban problems, while various types of civil facilities affect the prevalence of urban problems differently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban fabrics; seismic vulnerability; critic analysis; cost modelling; Urban preservation programming; building works programming
Online: 23 June 2019 (14:08:14 CEST)
Vulnerability is the big issue of the small inland urban centers exposed to the risk of depopulation. In the climate and in the context of an increasing seismic risk in the center-northern part of Italy, seismic vulnerability can become the determinant cause of the final abandonment of a small town. In some Italian regions, as well as Emilia Romagna, municipalities are implementing seismic vulnerability reduction policies based on the Emergency Limit Condition that has become a basic reference for ordinary land planning. This study proposes a valuation planning approach to the seismic vulnerability reduction carried out within the general planning framework concerning the Faentina Union, a group of five small towns located in the south-western part of the Province of Ravenna, Italy. The approach consists of three main stages: knowledge – the typological, constructive and technological description of the buildings specifically concerning their vulnerability degree; interpretation – the analyses aimed to outline a range of hypotheses about the damages in case of seism; planning – identifying the works intended to definitely reduce the vulnerability of the buildings. This stage includes a cost modelling tools aimed at outlining the trade-off between the extension and the intensity of the vulnerability reduction works, given the budget.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0069.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: urban system; urban context; microzone, fuzzy rule set; Mamdani fuzzy system; spatial database, GIS
Online: 4 October 2018 (11:55:09 CEST)
We present a new unsupervised method aimed to obtain a partition of a complex urban system in homogenous urban areas, called urban contexts. The area of study is initially partitioned in microzones, homogeneous portion of the urban system, that are the atomic reference elements for the census data. With the contribution of domain experts, we identify the physical, morphological, environmental and socio-economic indicators need to identify synthetic characteristics of urban contexts and create the fuzzy rule set necessary to determine the type of urban context. We implement the set of spatial analysis processes necessary to calculate the indicators for microzone and apply a Mamdani fuzzy rule system to classify the microzones. Finally, the partition of the area of study in urban contexts is obtained by dissolving continuous microzones belonging to the same type of urban context. Tests are performed on the Municipality of Pozzuoli (Naples - Italy); the reliability of out model is measured by comparing the results with the ones obtained by detailed analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0097.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban sustainability; California; landscape decision-making; urban environment; water use behaviors; social-ecological systems
Online: 31 July 2017 (16:45:57 CEST)
Urban development and planning are increasingly centered on matters of sustainability, balancing economic development with ecosystem services and biotic structures within urban environments. In addition to these institutional and structural factors, the decision-making process within individual households must be understood to address rising concerns about water use. Therefore, individual characteristics and preferences that influence the use of water also warrant examination. In response to a survey of occupants of single-family residences in the Fresno Clovis Metropolitan Area of California, contextual interviews and focus group interviews with a homeowner sub-sample, we find evidence of an interplay of social-structural, institutional, and cultural factors involved in influencing individual water use behaviors and landscape decision making. The complexity of residential behaviors and decision-making poses some potential issues with regards to the interactions between individual households and institutional actors in matters of water usage and landscaping, as survey respondents indicate relatively little confidence in institutions and groups to make wise water policy decisions. We conclude that the promotion and implementation of sustainable water use practices will require not only environmental education for the citizenry, but also a tailoring of information for environmental educational initiatives that address the particularities of individual neighborhoods and communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1886.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Walking Environment; User Satisfaction; Sustainable Urban Mobility; Urban Sustainability; Pedestrian Infrastructure; Road Safety and Walking
Online: 30 October 2023 (13:21:04 CET)
Urban mobility and sustainable transportation are fundamental for the European Union's goal of achieving climate neutrality by 2050. The EU encourages national governments to prioritize zero-emission urban transport systems that emphasize safety, accessibility, and inclusiveness. Promoting walking plays a fundamental role in sustainable urban mobility, offering advantages such as emission reduction, better air quality, and enhanced public health. Recent research underscores the importance of creating appealing and safe pedestrian environments to encourage walking. These efforts align with the United Nations' Agenda 2030 sustainability goals, particularly Objective 11, which aims to build inclusive, safe, and sustainable cities and communities. This paper explores the factors influencing pedestrians' willingness to walk and categorizes them into four main groups: Physical Characteristics, Comfort, Safety, and Attractiveness. Significantly, the study reveals that the importance of these factors varies based on demographics, mainly the age of the users. Understanding these factors and their relative significance for pedestrian satisfaction is crucial for shaping effective policies and urban planning strategies aimed at promoting sustainable mobility. By prioritizing pedestrian satisfaction and addressing the specific needs and preferences of diverse groups, cities can create more walkable and environmentally friendly urban environments. These findings offer valuable insights for policymakers and urban planners working toward EU climate-neutral objectives and enhancing the well-being of citizens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1911.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: enterprise flow; urban network structure; influencing mechanisms; the Ningxia Urban Agglomeration along the Yellow River
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:53:54 CEST)
Given the significant role of the Ningxia Urban Agglomeration along the Yellow River in reshaping the urban network and promoting coordinated development in the upper Yellow River region of China, this paper takes enterprise flow as the explicit manifestation of the regional urban network. Based on the data of registered enterprises from 2005 to 2021, combined with the interlocking network model, social network analysis method, and spatial panel econometric model, this paper interprets the evolution of the regional urban network structure and its influencing mechanisms through the different types of enterprise flow. The results indicate the following: (1) The external network is primarily focused on outflow investments towards North China, East China, and Northwest China. The overall inflow sources form a multi-origin structure dominated by North China and East China. The Jinfeng and Xingqing serve as core hubs for enterprise exports in the external network and destinations for incoming enterprises. However, in the Productive manufacturing connections, a spatial organizational pattern driven by multiple cities has formed. (2) In the internal network, a concentric connection structure centered around the Jinfeng and Xingqing has formed. The Productive service connections are relatively active, while the Productive manufacturing connections are relatively concentrated between the Jinfeng, Xingqing, Ningdong, and Lingwu. However, there is an imbalance in the spatial connections within the urban agglomeration network and an incomplete hierarchical system of network nodes. (3) In the external network, the main feature is the absorption of external elements to foster development momentum. In the internal network, the Jinfeng and Xingqing serve as contact and radiation sources, influencing various nodes. However, their driving capacity is weak. (4) The market demand and coordinated development both demonstrate significant promoting effects on the connections within the external and internal networks. The sluggish adjustment and transformation of regional industrial structure have resulted in a temporary negative inhibitory effect on the development of transformation. The negative impact of urban investment activities and the positive impact of government management are reflected within the internal network. (5) The improvement of urban management and service functions, as well as external borrowing, can promote the connection in different network. However, the borrowing economic activity can have a negative impact in different networks. (6) Industrial agglomeration can promote enterprises connections in different networks and generate significant spatial spillover effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0747.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: nature-based solutions; productive urban landscapes; decision support systems; edible cities; urban agriculture; circular economy
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:30:52 CEST)
In the last five years, European research and innovation programmes have prioritised the development of online catalogues and tools (handbooks, models, etc.) to facilitate the implementation and monitoring of Nature Based Solutions (NBS). However, only a few catalogues and toolkits within European programmes are directly related to mainstreaming of NBS for food production (i.e., edible NBS). Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to present existing NBS tools through the eyes of productive urban landscapes. We reviewed 32 projects related to NBS and 50 tools were identified and characterised. Then, the 6 tools already available, and providing indicators, were further analysed in terms of their format and knowledge domains. Our main conclusion demonstrates that there is a lack of tools capable of supporting users for planning and implementing edible NBS, calculating the food potential of the city and/or of individual edible NBS, including the needed resources for implementation and operation (water, nutrients, energy), and assessing their urban design value, environmental and socio-economic impacts. And when they do exist, there is a resistance to share the models and equations behind the tools to allow other projects to reuse or validate them, fact which is contrary to Open Science principles stood up by many research public agencies.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Smart City; Urban planning Italy; Governance 3.0; New Digital Platforms; Sentiment Analysis; Pandemic Urban Effects
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:41:22 CET)
Current acceleration in digital innovations, the unexpected challenges in our social interactions, open access to virtualization, huge limitation in our physical spaces, and unpredictable changes in our old lifestyles - as originated from the COVID-19 global pandemic in 2020 - continue to provide us with a framework, rapidly updating under our eyes, of the modifications our world is undergoing by pursuing into the “new digital age”. Or, as many scholars say nowadays, into the new normal! These are shared and deep changes that, regardless of their permanence or temporariness in the time, concretely stress, ever more greatly, their “own” effects on how ideally a city should function. Forcing us to reflect on the real ability to achieve choices and visions for the future by taking vantage from the new digital platforms. In the pages of this article authors, through different eyes but sharing an early response to the matter of new Governance, explore the theme of a radical change of those already consolidated paradigms and, therefore, of the innovations that are transforming the way we understand our society and its technologic advancements, economics, and culture, as defined through dimensions of time and space. This article identiﬁes a methodologic vision for acquiring a more democratic and participatory (inclusive) dimension in the newest conﬁguration of contemporary cities, the new smart city, and in the possible innovations in reading the common sentiments and wishes through the new digitalized world. The analysis investigates how ICT is altering the meanings/ideas of “urban planning”, driving us toward a more effective “governance” through a citizen-centred digital approach. Indeed, city governance's success must be measured based on the “listening capacity” of the inhabitants and the facilities that we are capable to provide to citizens. “Sentiment Analysis” tool is tested as a useful tool to achieve these aims.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0408.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: urban heat island; non-constructible parcels; cool surfaces; urban vegetation; envi met; mitigation measures; beirut
Online: 28 May 2018 (13:21:28 CEST)
The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is one of the more serious consequences of urbanization resulting in impacts on thermal comfort levels, heat stress, and even mortality. For Municipal Beirut, implementation of “cool” surface materials and green spaces have been recommended to counterbalance the UHI. This paper builds on previous findings on the topic of non-constructible parcels within the district of Bachoura in Municipal Beirut and examines the possibility of implementing “cool” surface or paving materials and urban vegetation which can improve thermal conditions especially during the summer period and with the viewto project the positive findings of this case study to the entire Municipal Beirut area. A numerical analysis using ENVI-met 4.0 investigates the thermal performance of these non-constructibles further to implementation of high reflective surfaces and urban vegetation within a broad neighborhood scale in Bachoura. Results show reductions in ambient temperatures up to 1K on a summer day.. Within the framework of an integrated approach to planning, this form of urban acupuncture aims for substantial UHI reduction. Energy performance of buildings further to implementation of these mitigation measures is also recommended for future studies and to validate the findings in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0974.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: food-policy; agroecology; assessment; urban agriculture
Online: 15 November 2023 (09:59:30 CET)
Recent crises have highlighted the vulnerabilities of global supply chains and, consequently, a profound need for food system transformation. In this scenario, Local Food Policy and agroe-cology arise as two different but converging paradigms capable of fostering an inclusive and sustainable transition of the food systems, especially in the urban contexts. The purpose of this paper is to strengthen the relationship between these two paradigms by proposing agroecological assessment as a tool for formulating evidence-based Local Food Policies. Considering the city-region food system of Rome (Italy) as a reference context, the paper proposes an adaptation of the TAPE model on a sample of 20 farms to analyze urban agriculture and understand the extent to which it contributes to the transformation of the food system. Data processing shows that, in the city-region context of Rome, agroecological principles are not fully adopted by the majority of farms. In addition, farms with the highest agroecological level are those driven mainly by social factors and have a lower propensity for innovation. This could be read as a constraining aspect because it hinders and slows down the transformation process of food systems. However, these data turn out to be essential to the implementation of Local Food Policy and in identifying pathways toward sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1969.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: urban forest healing program; depression; anxiety
Online: 29 August 2023 (10:16:01 CEST)
Depression is considered a widespread mental health problem worldwide. Moreover, anxiety symptoms are very closely related to depression patients, and it is known that the coexistence rate of depression and anxiety diagnosed simultaneously is high. Treatment and preventive management of depression and anxiety are essential for public health. Forest healing is attracting attention as a form of low-cost preventive medicine that is safe and has no side effects. However, although the physiological and psychological effects have been scientifically proven, it is insufficient to reveal a direct relationship between forest healing and depression. This study investigated the benefits of an urban forest healing program on depression and anxiety symptoms of depressive disorders. We employed a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-seven depression patients were randomly divided into an urban forest healing program group and a control group. Measures included the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires. Our results revealed that the combination of general treatment and forest healing programs for patients with depression is more effective in improving depression and anxiety than routine treatment alone. We expect our work to serve as a starting point for more sophisticated research in discussing the availability of non-pharmacological treatments in forest healing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0315.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: longleaf pine; urban interface; fire exclusion
Online: 5 May 2023 (07:23:55 CEST)
The dependence of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystems on fire is well-understood, and anthropogenic alteration of fire cycles within its natural range has contributed to its decline. This is increasingly exacerbated in areas of urban interfaces, wherein use of prescribed fire can be problematic. The purpose of this study—the University of West Florida Campus Ecosystem Study—was to examine effects of fire exclusion on longleaf pine in the unique urban interface of a university campus. This was conceived as an interconnected series of investigations on the main campus and three associated natural areas that comprise remnant longleaf stands following cessation of widespread longleaf pine harvesting ~120 years ago. This period of chronic fire exclusion has allowed for a distinct shift in stand structure and composition. The open, savanna-like structure of fire-maintained longleaf stands has transitioned into closed-canopy forests with the increased prevalence of southern evergreen oaks (especially live oak—Quercus virginiana) and Magnolia spp., resulting in complete absence of longleaf regeneration. Fire exclusion has also appeared to have decreased soil fertility. Significant variation in mean age of longleaf pine stems of the main campus and natural areas suggest that the natural areas were likely under separate ownership with contrasting land-use history prior to purchase by the State of Florida for campus construction in 1963.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0144.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Urban Regeneration; Civic Actors; Revitalisation Processes
Online: 3 May 2023 (11:22:06 CEST)
In Italy, the number of buildings that have fallen into disuse is huge; also the normative and regulative framework promoting public portfolio’s re-use and revitalisation is still unclear and blurred. Nevertheless, in the last ten years, these buildings have become fertile ground for innovation and creative experiences by civic actors. The rise of this new category of civic actors plays an important role, both from the institutional side and the kind of initiatives and practices they process. They act in different manners but according to an in-depth analysis they share similar patterns of behaviour. What has emerged is that, although the different contexts, where they operate, the institutional performances might be successful if only certain kinds of conditions are taken into consideration. Based on some basic features, civic actors and their dynamics with public administrations are analysed to understand conditions that allow revitalisation processes to be successful in unused public buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0337.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Classics Keywords: metabarcoding; statistical modeling; urban river ecology
Online: 20 March 2023 (03:30:47 CET)
In this study we sought to investigate the impact of urbanization, presence of concrete river bottom, and nutrient pollution on microbial communities along the L.A. River. Six molecular markers were evaluated for identification of bacteria, plants, fungi, fish, and invertebrates in 90 samples. PCA (principal components analysis) was used with PAM (partitioning around medoids) clustering to reveal community structure and an NB (Negative binomial) model in DESeq2 was used for differential abundance analysis. PCA and factor analysis exposed the main axes of variation but were sensitive to outliers. Differential abundance of Proteobacteria was associated with soft bottom sites, and there was an apparent balance in the abundance of organisms responsible for nitrogen cycling. Nitrogen cycling was explained by differential abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea, the complete ammonia oxidizers Nitrospira sp., nitrate reducing bacteria Marmoricola sp., and nitrogen fixing bacteria Devosia sp. which were differentially abundant at soft-bottom sites (p adj < 0.002). In contrast, differential abundance of several Cyanobacteria and other anoxygenic phototrophs was associated with the concrete bottom sites, which suggested the accumulation of excess nitrogen. The soft bottom sites tended to be represented by differential abundance of aerobes, whereas the concrete-associated species tended to be alkaliphilic, saliniphilic, calciphilic, sulfate dependent, and anaerobic. In Glendale Narrows, downstream from multiple water reclamation plants, there were differential abundance of cyanobacteria and algae, however indicator species for low nutrient environments and ammonia-abundance were also present. There was differential abundance of ascomycetes associated with Arroyo Seco and a differential abundance of Scenedesmaceae green algae and cyanobacteria in Maywood, in the analysis which compared suburban with urban river communities. The proportion of Ascomycota to Basidiomycota within the LA River differed from the expected proportion based on published worldwide freshwater and river 18S data; the shift in community structure was most likely associated with the extremes of urbanization. This study indicates that extreme urbanization can result in overrepresentation of cyanobacterial species that could cause reductions in water quality and safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0176.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: resilience; climate change; urban planning; adaptation
Online: 9 December 2022 (10:01:53 CET)
The paper provides a critical synthesis of analysis and evaluation of some case studies in the Italian national context, which allowed, through an inductive method, to assess, in terms of integration and coherence, the process of transposition of climate change adaptation contents, possibly already contained within a regional urban framework (Regional Urban Laws) or specific Regional Adaptation Strategies or Local Adaptation Plans, within the territorial and urban planning tools of metropolitan or local scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0434.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: Investigation; citizens; urban context; Participation; regeneration
Online: 23 November 2021 (15:29:15 CET)
Public participation in the decision-making process in Urban Interventions is the key to the success of the project for improving the quality of life of its citizens. The citizen has the democratic right to express his needs and aspiration; he is the final user who experiences the outcomes of the policy decisions. Non involvement of the citizens in the planning process can bring about the misinterpretation of the intention of political leadership and lead to opposition and protest. The inadequate understanding of citizens of the urban context makes public participation ineffective. In this context, the decision-makers are often faced with the challenges of the level of confidence of the citizens about their ideas and responses being incorporated in the project and the confidence of the citizens in the local urban authority in its ability to carry out the project. However, the decision-makers base their decision on the assumption that the citizens have a general understanding of the urban issues. This research work investigates the basis of this assumption. 1. Do the citizens have confidence that the local urban authority considers their choices and responses in the course of decision making 2. Do the citizens have the confidence that the local urban authority can undertake the Urban Regeneration project 3. Whether in the decision-making process of urban regeneration intervention, citizen's responses are backed by a general understanding of urban issues. The case study taken up is of Hassan city. Five areas of crucial importance have been selected based on the development plan report of the city. The integrated approach aims to find the most appropriate area for proposing the Urban Regeneration project. The framework adopted includes 1. Questionnaire survey: to collect citizens’ responses 2. Analysis of variance (ANNOVA) for analysis of the data collected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Socio-Equity; Urban Transport; Policies; India
Online: 9 July 2021 (13:55:49 CEST)
Public Transport has been seen since ages as the most environmentally sustainable mode of transport. The users of public transport are diverse and have different socio-economic character. Hence the public transport which is not only supposed to be environmentally sustainable but also envisaged to ensure equity amongst various stakeholders of society like the females, elderly and other vulnerable groups through its service. Gender in binary terms of being differentiated based on men and women is a social construct. Public transport systems in developing countries like India witness socio-cultural factors that shape the experience of women in public spaces by social norms extant in society. Along with this, gender-based issues related to public transport are social and behavioural shortcomings as a consequence of a lack of gender sensitivity. On similar lines, elderly have a negative experience involving safety threats, physical and psychological discomfort while accessing public transport systems. The literature published regarding such issues on the gender and elderly question in public transport systems have been studied and has been brought forth under a stand- alone narrative literature review. A literature review is a prerequisite to conducting either stand-alone reviews or as a preliminary study to be supported with quantitative or qualitative analysis. Here, a stand-alone literature review concerning issues in the public transport system in India has been performed. A narrative type of review is conducted to provide an overview of pre- existing published literature. Narrative overviews are useful educational articles as they help present a broad perspective on a topic and often define the development of a problem and/or ways to manage it. The semi-systematic or narrative-review approach is designed for topics that have been theorized differently and studied within diverse disciplines making it unfavourable to study under a full systematic-review process which majorly caters to reviewing quantitative researches. As narrative-styled literature reviews prefer a semi- systematic data collection method, utmost care has been taken to include perspectives from diverse disciplines. The scope of this review is restricted to summarizing the Indian policies, schemes of public transport in light of socio-equity consideration while narrowing the inherent discrepancies within the socio-cultural ethos of the Indian society which influences socio-equity consideration in public spaces in general and the modes of public transport in particular. Research articles from electronic databases were selected based on relevance to understand the issues this viewpoint, their essential findings and possible recommendations are formulated to provide a comprehensive summary of previous researches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0273.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Men; Urban; HIV self-testing; Delivery
Online: 9 June 2021 (22:14:21 CEST)
Background: HIV self-testing (HIVST) is one of the recommended approaches for HIV testing services, particularly for helping reach populations who would not normally access facility-based HIV testing. HIVST must be tailored to different populations to ensure uptake. Objective: The main objective of this study was to develop an acceptable HIVST delivery strategy to help improve urban men’s engagement with HIV services. Methods: We invited key stakeholders for urban men’s HIV services to participate in a co-creation workshop aimed at developing HIVST delivery approaches for urban men, using eThekwini municipality as a study setting. We conducted purposive sampling to include health care users and health care providers, representing a range of views across the public sector and voluntary sector. We employed the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) method for data collection. The NGT workshop was conducted in two consecutive phases: phase one was focused on determining barriers for men’s engagement with the current/facility-based HIV testing services; phase two was aimed at determining HIVST delivery strategies. We used the results of the NGT to design a tailored HIVST strategy for urban men in eThekwini District. Results: Participants identified the following psychological factors as the most important barriers to uptake of HIV testing services by urban men: stigma, ignorance about the importance of testing and testing process as well as fear of positive test results. Key stakeholders suggested internal motivation strategies as a potentially effective approach to support HIVST delivery strategy. Guided by the NGT results, we designed a HIVST delivery strategy that is supported by a risk communication approach Conclusion: We designed an evidence-based risk communication mobile health (mHealth) strategy coupled with SARS COV-2 self-testing tailored to improve men’s uptake of HIVST. A follow-up study to evaluate the feasibility of implementing these approaches is recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0794.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: sustainability; urban sustainability; car-sharing; Europe
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:16:02 CET)
(1) Background: The article gives us an insight into the key issues of the car-sharing and its impact on urban sustainability. (2) Methods: A selection of 314 articles published in peer-reviewed journals from the Scopus database were analysed using Leximancer 5.0 for Automated Content analysis. (3) Results: Seven themes were identified explaining the researched topic of the car-sharing situation in Europe, which are Sharing, Economy, Model, Systems, Electrical car-sharing, Policy and Travel. There are two ways of sharing owned cars in Europe, access to cars from the fleet of private organizations and P2P car-sharing. Sustainable environmental solutions in the context of the electrification of cars are used. Car-sharing usually takes place online and can be free or for a free as defined by The European Economic and Social Committee. (4) Conclusions: The article provides an overview of understanding the concept of urban car-sharing in Europe.