ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0412.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: asari clams; upwelling of hypoxic water masses; mass mortality; hydrogen sulfide; chain of biological die-off
Online: 23 March 2023 (09:49:49 CET)
To investigate the mass mortality of asari clams triggered by upwelling-driven hypoxia, we conducted biological and oceanographic observations of the Rokujo tidal flat in Mikawa Bay, central Japan. In addition, a simple laboratory experiment was conducted using sediments on a tidal flat containing macrobenthos to examine the possibility of hydrogen sulfide formation in tidal flats. The results of field observations showed that the number and biomass of asari clams decreased from September to October in the tidal flat when hypoxia was intermittent. In particular, hypoxia persisted for approximately one week from September 21, which was associated with the calm weather and stagnation of tidal currents owing to the neap tide. The hydrogen sulfide concentration in the water directly above the sediment exceeded 30 mg L-1 after 3 days of incubation. Our results suggest that the mass mortality of asari clams may be caused by the high concentration of hydrogen sulfide produced by sulfate reduction, which is attributed to the chain of biological die-off caused by the upwelling of hypoxic water mass accompanied by meteorological events, and calm conditions such as the neap tide period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0079.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: fire detection; upwelling radiation; diurnal variation; training data; geostationary sensors
Online: 15 December 2016 (09:22:10 CET)
Fire detection from satellite sensors relies on an accurate estimation of the unperturbed state of a target pixel, from which an anomaly can be isolated. Methods for estimating the radiation budget of a pixel without fire depend upon training data derived from the location's recent history of brightness temperature variation over the diurnal cycle, which can be vulnerable to cloud contamination and the effects of weather. This study proposes a new method that utilises the common solar budget found at a given latitude in conjunction with an area's local solar time to aggregate a broad-area training dataset, which can be used to model the expected diurnal temperature cycle of a location. This training data is then used in a temperature fitting process with the measured brightness temperatures in a pixel, and compared to pixel-derived training data and contextual methods of background temperature determination. Results of this study show similar accuracy between clear-sky medium wave infrared upwelling radiation and the diurnal temperature cycle estimation compared to previous methods, with demonstrable improvements in processing time and training data availability. This method can be used in conjunction with brightness temperature thresholds to provide a baseline for upwelling radiation, from which positive thermal anomalies such as fire can be isolated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0118.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: acclimation; coral reefs; endosymbiosis; molecular biology; multivariate statistics; temperature; upwelling
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:03:03 CEST)
Multivariate statistical approaches (MSA), such as principal components analysis and multidimensional scaling, seek to uncover meaningful patterns within datasets by considering multiple response variables in a concerted fashion. Although these techniques are readily used by ecologists to visualize and explain differences between study sites, they could theoretically be employed to differentiate organisms within an experimental framework while simultaneously identifying response variables that drive documented experimental differences. Therefore, MSA were used herein to attempt to understand the response of the common, Indo-Pacific reef coral Seriatopora hystrix to temperature changes using data from laboratory-based temperature challenge studies performed in Southern Taiwan. Gene expression and physiological data partitioned experimental specimens by time of sampling, treatment temperature, and site of origin upon employing MSA, signifying that S. hystrix and its dinoflagellate endosymbionts display physiological and molecular signatures that are characteristic of sampling time, site of colony origin, and/or temperature regime. These findings promote the utility of MSA for documenting biologically meaningful shifts in the physiological and/or sub-cellular response of marine invertebrates exposed to environmental change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0796.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: upwelling; downwelling; Black Sea; Rim Current; permanent pycnocline; seasonal thermocline
Online: 12 July 2023 (12:03:35 CEST)
The paper analyzes quasiperiodic upwellings and downwellings on the shelf and upper part of continental slope of the north-eastern Black Sea. It is shown that these processes are related to changes in intensity and direction of alongshore current and the following geostrophic adjustment of density field. The source of such changes is a meandering of the Black Sea Rim Current (RC). It leads to a quasi-periodic change of direction of the alongshore current, from north-western (cyclonic RC meander) to south-eastern (anticyclonic RC meander, or eddy). These cycles, or phases, have average duration about 10 days. During the north-western phase, the permanent Black Sea pycno-halocline (hereafter pycnocline) and seasonal thermocline descend, their thickness increases, and so does the thickness of the upper mixed layer (UML). During the south-eastern phase both pycnocline and seasonal thermocline ascend and become thinner, along with the UML, which also becomes thinner. In both phases, isopycnals in the pycnocline and isotherms in the thermocline demonstrate quasi-in-phase vertical oscillations, which have a good correlation with speed and direction of the alongshore current. These correlations allow estimation of the magnitude of upwellings and downwellings in the shelf-slope area of the north-eastern Black Sea using data series of current velocity profiles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0061.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Coastal upwelling; Upwelling index; Scatterometer; Wind stress; Kelvin Wave; Ekman Transport
Online: 5 July 2022 (05:36:03 CEST)
Monsoon winds drive upwelling along the eastern coast of India during the south-west (SW) monsoons. These winds also provide alongshore windstress (AWS) resulting in positive cross-shore Ekman transport (ET) from late May to the end of September. While instances of high ET and sea surface temperature (SST) based upwelling index (UI_SST) were observed along different parts of the coast, UI_SST was weaker in the northern section in the earlier part of monsoon. This was even in the presence of maximum AWS and ET during the 10 years analysis period spanning January-2009 to December-2018. Additionally, negative sea surface height anomalies (SSHAs), typically associated with coastal upwelling, were observed only along the southern-most coast. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis revealed two coherent modes of SSHA variation. The first principal component (PC) showed a SSHA signature coincident spatio-temporally with the first downwelling Kelvin wave, closely associated with the equatorial zonal winds that drive coastal Kelvin waves. The third PC with a coastal SSHA pattern similar to the second upwelling Kelvin wave was associated with offshore ET along the northern part of the Indian east coast. Time series of the two PCs exhibited suppression of coastal upwelling by downwelling Kelvin waves during May-July along the northeastern coast of India. Local AWS driven ET was the primary driver of coastal upwelling with the weakening of the remotely forced Kelvin waves in August. A coherent mode consisting of negative coastal SSHA signature was excited in response to local AWS driven ET during the upwelling period. This study examined the spatio-temporal variability of SW monsoon coastal upwelling along the east coast of India and illustrated the role of equatorial windstress forced first downwelling Kelvin wave in suppressing upwelling in the northern part of the coast during early SW monsoon season.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0038.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Coastal upwelling; Upwelling index; Scatterometer; Wind stress; Kelvin Wave; Ekman Transport
Online: 2 September 2022 (09:57:06 CEST)
Monsoon winds drive upwelling along the eastern coast of India during the south-west (SW) monsoons. These winds also provide alongshore windstress (AWS) resulting in positive cross-shore Ekman transport (ET) from March to the end of September. While instances of high ET and sea surface temperature based upwelling index (UI_SST) were observed along two parts of the coast: between Kashinagara and Kakinada in the north, and between Kavali and Point Calimere in the south. The UI_SST illustrated a much poorer agreement with local ET in the northern section, where the onset of UI_SST preceded the rise of ET and the subsidence of UI_SST signals occurred during a period of rising ET. Additionally, negative sea surface height anomalies (SSHAs), typically associated with coastal upwelling, were also missing through most of the upwelling period. A complex empirical orthogonal function (CEOF) analysis revealed two coherent modes of SSHA variation. The first mode showed a SSHA signature spatio-temporally coincident with the first upwelling and downwelling Kelvin waves closely associated with the equatorial zonal winds that drive them. The second CEOF mode, with a coastal SSHA pattern similar to the SSHA signatures of coastal upwelling, was associated with local offshore ET along the Indian east coast. The CEOF analysis exhibited the triggering of coastal upwelling in April and its suppression from June by coastally trapped Kelvin waves along the northeastern coast of India, while local AWS driven ET was the primary driver of coastal upwelling along the southeastern coast. The second CEOF mode also exhibited a coherent negative coastal SSHA signature excited by local AWS driven ET during the upwelling period. This study examined the spatio-temporal variability of premonsoon and SW monsoon coastal upwelling along the western Bay of Bengal and its relation to remotely forced coastal Kelvin waves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0181.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Salinity; Coastal; Upwelling; Validation
Online: 10 July 2018 (13:41:28 CEST)
Data from NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP) and from the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) were used to examine the freshening that occurred during 2015-2016 in the Southern California Current System. Overall the freshening was found to be related to the 2014-2016 Northeast Pacific Warm Anomaly. The primary goal was to determine the feasibility of using SMAP data to observe the surface salinity signal associated with the warming. As a first step direct comparisons were done with salinity from the CalCOFI data at one-meter depth. During 2015 SMAP was saltier than CalCOFI by 0.5 PSU, but biases were reduced to < 0.1 PSU during 2016. South of 33°N, and within 100 km of the coast, SMAP was fresher in 2015 by almost 0.2 PSU. CalCOFI showed freshening of 0.1 PSU. North of 33°N SMAP and CalCOFI saw significant freshening in 2016, SMAP by 0.4 PSU and CalCOFI by 0.2 PSU. Differences between SMAP and CalCOFI are consistent with the increased stratification in 2015 and changes in the mixed layer depth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0071.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: chlorophyll-a; downwelling; IOD; small pelagic fish; upwelling
Online: 2 November 2020 (19:45:51 CET)
Although researchers have investigated widely the impact of IOD phases on human lives, only a few have examined such impacts on fisheries. In this study, we analyzed the influence of negative (positive) of IOD on a chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration as an indicator of phytoplankton biomass and small pelagic fish production in the eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) off Java. We also conducted field surveys in the EIO off Palabuhanratu Bay at the peak (October) and the end (December) of the 2019 positive IOD phase. Our findings show that the Chl-a concentration had a strong and robust association with the 2016 (2019) negative (positive) IOD phases. The negative (positive) anomalous Chl-a concentration in the EIO off Java associated with the negative (positive) IOD phase induced strong downwelling (upwelling), leading to the preponderant decrease (increasing) of small pelagic fish production in the EIO off Java.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0377.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Global salt cycle; Wilson cycle; Giant salt accumulations; Subduction; Rifting; Mantle; upwelling; Hydrated mantle; Hydrothermal salt expulsion; Hydrothermal circulation; Basin subsidence; Supercritical fluids; Phase separation; Saline brine; Salt diapir; Bedded salts; Inherited composition; Inherited structures; Lower crustal body; Electrical conductivity; Magnetotelluric method; Seismic velocity; Brittle-ductile behaviour; Continental crust formation; Oceanic crust formation; Hydration of oceanic crust; Serpentinization; Volcanism; Mineral solubility.
Online: 16 July 2021 (14:34:42 CEST)
The main objective of this communication is to describe the ‘Global Salt Cycle’. Giant salt accumulations are commonly found along continental margins of former rifts. The first stage in the accumulation process is saturation of newly formed oceanic crust with seawater. Final mobilisation and accumulation of the salts occurs during rifting, localised in the vicinity of relict subduction zones. Oceanic crust is created along the spreading ridges in the deep oceans of the Earth. It exchanges mass and energy with seawater in hydrothermal circulation cells that penetrate deep into the new and fractured crust. Water-rock interactions include the formation of hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, e.g., serpentinites and clay minerals. By incorporating hydroxyl groups and water in their crystal lattices, the salinity of remaining brines increases. Subduction of oceanic crust and serpentinised lithosphere transports water, hydrated minerals, and marine salts deep into the crust and mantle. Upon pressurisation and heating of the subducting slab, different parts of this water are expelled at different depths/temperatures. The resulting fluids will contain salts brought in with the slab, as well as new salts formed by water-rock interaction. The combination of elevated pressures and temperatures, water, salinity, and CO2, create permeability in the normally impermeable, peridotitic mantle, by altering the fluid-rock dihedral angles of mineral grains. This P/T-determined intergranular permeability allows ascent of saline fluids, under lithostatic pressure, within the mantle wedge, or the slab itself. The fluids produce a mechanically weakened and buoyant zone within the mantle wedge due to high pore pressure between mineral grains and reduced mantle density. During the lifetime of a subduction zone, a substantial accumulation of saline fluids within the mantle wedge and crust, is evident. Deep, fluid reservoirs accumulate between the subduction trench and the volcanic front. They may exist for hundreds of millions of years, even after the extinction of the subduction zone. Saline fluids may escape to the surface along deep faults, due to overfilling of available pores/fractures. Fluids within the mantle wedge may form rock melts or exist as supercritical, mineral rich fluids. The combination of reduced pressure due to rifting, and a saline and buoyant mantle, creates a mantle circulation that brings the accumulated, saline fluids, to crustal levels. Salts will therefore accumulate during initial stages of rifting as a result of massive fluid expulsion, phase change and boiling of mantle fluids. No extra energy is required to produce phase change and boiling. The result is formation of solid salts or dense brines/slurries invading fractured crustal rocks, or escaping to the surface/seabed. This process may take place both before and after the sea has invaded a continental rift.