ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0478.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Perception, Covid-19, Vaccination, University Students, Bangladesh
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:27:47 CEST)
After a long waited span, the whole world could see the ray of covid-19 vaccine to resist the planet to watch the death procession. But some country people especially the people of Bangladesh keep them aside to take the vaccination. This study aims to understand the perception towards the COVID-19 vaccination program in Bangladesh and the targeted subject is the university student as they are suffering highly depression nowadays. Higher education has been affected globally as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in 223 countries. Moreover, for this pandemic situation, the university students can not complete their graduation which binds them to enter their professional career. Alike all of the developed countries, as well as developing countries, Bangladesh, also considered vaccination as an effective measure to protect the peoples from the Covid-19 virus. This study targeted three psychological factors of the university students and surveyed 322 students from the different universities in Bangladesh to understand their perception regarding vaccines. Moreover, it is seen that most of the students doubt the effectiveness of the vaccine which interrupts them from taking the vaccine willingly.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0452.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: anxiety; university students; web-interactive platform
Online: 6 June 2023 (11:47:35 CEST)
Entering University is an important transition for students. Requires adaptation and can influence academic success. Psychological disorders might emerge when difficulties like anxiety occur due to insecurity about emotions in a student's life. We are currently living in post-pandemic conditions where pressure is increasing. The project "Toolbox: University Student – Web-interactive Platform", a platform for learning anxiety management, was developed to address this problem among university students. The main objective is to understand whether using the platform (based on cognitive behavioral theory) has effectively managed anxiety among students. It is a case study with a sample of 31 students from two Portuguese Universities, aged between 19 and 47 years. They were divided into two groups: intervention (n=17) and control (n=13). The results show that participants subjected to intervention with the interactive platform decreased their anxiety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0914.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: sustainable diet; behaviour; validation; university students
Online: 11 August 2023 (09:51:47 CEST)
Sustainable diet behaviour is crucial in ensuring food security and healthy life with low environmental impacts, for the present and future generations. However, sustainable diet is a new concept both globally as well as in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aimed to adapt and validate a questionnaire on sustainable diet behaviours, as well as to assess the levels and willingness of sustainable diet behaviour and its association with socio-demographic characteristics among university students in a public university in Malaysia. The final questionnaire resulted in three factors (perceived effectiveness, local/ seasonal food and behavioural control). The questionnaire displayed acceptable factor loadings (0.57 - 0.79) with total variance of 50.4% in the Exploratory Factor Analysis and demonstrated relative fitness in the Confirmatory Factor Analysis. These findings showed that the adapted questionnaire was valid and could be used in the assessment of sustainable diet behaviour among young adults. In the survey, the participants showed moderate positive sustainable diet behaviour. Females and Indian participants were more likely to purchase seasonal / local foods and choose sustainable food products (p<0.05). Participants in the preparation and action stage for sustainable diet behaviour had higher scores in all three factors individually or combined. The findings should be used as the basis for future studies among the general population and intervention programs in promoting sustainable diet behaviour in the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: university students; electronic cigarettes (ECs); questionnaire survey; Slovakia
Online: 9 February 2020 (14:37:40 CET)
Young adults are more likely to have experimented with electronic cigarettes (EC) and underestimate their risks. The on-line survey adapted from American Survey on Tobacco and Alternative Tobacco Products included questions about the personal use of EC, perceptions about the harms and their role in disease causation, education and cessation training and practices related to classical cigarettes (CC), electronic cigarettes (EC) and alternative tobacco products (ATP). The questionnaire filled in 577 medical students (71.9% women) from Comenius University in Bratislava, the average age was 23±2yrs. The sample comprised of 486 (84.2%) Slovak and 91 (15.8%) foreign students; 385 were (66.7%) non-smokers, 111 (19.3%) ex-smokers and 81 (14 %) current smokers. EC currently use 13.5 % medical students, more males than females (22.2% vs 10.12%; OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.55−4.13), more foreign students than Slovak students (24.2% vs 11.52; OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.41−4.26), more smokers of classical cigarettes than non-smokers (46.9% vs 8.06%; OR 10.07, 95% CI 5.85−17.34). EC seems to be less harmful to 59.97 % students, mostly in the age groups ≤ 24 (61.76% vs 51.49%; OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03−2.07), 41.25% of students consider EC to be less addictive, 55.6% think they do not get enough education on EC during their medical study. The results show the high consumption of tobacco products and the lack of knowledge and awareness among medical students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0085.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: perceived sensory dimension (PSD); restoration experience; perceived restorativeness; university campus open space; university students
Online: 25 August 2017 (07:48:48 CEST)
Salutogenic landscape with its health-promoting qualities is a solution for ever-increasing problem of stress for university students as a vulnerable group. Based on nature related theories, natural environments could have a salutary effect on psychological restoration through stress alleviation. There is a body of research on investigating the impact of open green space characteristics for increasing of psychological restoration through framework of attention restoration theory and supportive environment theory. However, there is little knowledge on how the interaction among these characteristics could promote perceived restoration experience (PRE). To address this problem, using perceived sensory dimension (PSD) for open green space qualities and Perceived Restorativeness (PR) as properties of restorative environments, this study assessed the extent to which the PSD and PR impact on PRE. Using 444 screened data, the mediation effect of PR on the association of PSD to PRE is shown as well as the validity and reliability of proposed relationships. `Serene', `space', `prospect', `rich in species' and `nature' were the most influential PSDs on PRE through their higher effect on perceived characteristics of `fascination' and `compatibility'. These results provide information within landscape architecture and planning to promote the development of open spaces as resources for psychological restoration and stress relief.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0571.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: university; HEI; students; sustainability; UBC; qualitative study; perception
Online: 26 July 2021 (11:48:43 CEST)
As sustainability gains significance within Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) worldwide, the University of British Columbia (UBC) stands as one of the global champions of sustainability. In 2019, Times Higher Education ranked UBC as number one in the world for taking urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts and ranked one in Canada for making cities inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable. Over the years, UBC students have been instrumental to sustainability on the UBC campus by advocating for divestment, climate justice, and other sustainability commitments and projects in the university. Hence, this qualitative study examines students’ engagement with or their perception of the university’s sustainability programs and image. The study found that students acknowledged and commended the university’s sustainability efforts in teaching, research, providing sustainability-related opportunities for students, and in sustainability operations. However, students also addressed hesitation on the part of university administration in championing climate justice and bolder climate action. The conclusion is that continued support and engagement with students are critical for UBC to achieve its climate action plans and sustainability goals in general. The study contributes to the ongoing discourse on the influential role of young people and the youth climate movement in catalyzing ambitious global climate action at all levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1542.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: sleep quality; fatigue; university students; exam period
Online: 21 June 2023 (11:40:44 CEST)
The aim of our study was to assess university students’ sleep quality and fatigue before and during the academic exam period and identify potential associated factors. A Web-based survey was completed by 940 students of 20 different Tertiary Institutions including demographics, sleep habits, exercise, caffeine, tobacco, alcohol use, subjective sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index - PSQI) and fatigue (Fatigue severity scale – FSS) at the beginning of semester and at examination period. During exam period, PSQI (8.9 vs 6.1, p<0.001) and FSS scores (36.9 vs 32.7, p<0.001) were significantly elevated compared to pre-exam period. Increase of PSQI score was associated with age (β=0.111, p=0.011), presence of chronic disease (β=0.914, p=0.006), and depressive symptoms (β=0.459, p=0.001). Increase of FSS score was associated with female gender (β=1.658, p<0.001), age, (β=0.198, p=0.010), increase in smoking (β=1.7, p=0.029), coffee/energy drinks consumption (β=1.988, p<0.001), decreased levels of physical exercise (β=1.660, p<0.001), and depressive symptoms (β=2.526, p<0.001). In conclusion, our results show that sleep quality and fatigue are affected in university students during exam periods. Potential factors were identified which may lead to development of strategies for better quality of sleep, and wellbeing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0059.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: physical activity; overweight; obesity; BMI; university students
Online: 5 July 2022 (04:45:02 CEST)
Overweight and obesity, including its prevalence and consequences reflect a leading public health problem. Studies have already shown that physical activity leads to a reduction in body weight in children and adults. However, the university setting has rarely been investigated. The aim of this review is therefore to examine and summarize the effectiveness of physical-activity-based interventions to reduce obesity and overweight in university students. Three databases (PubMed, Scopus & Web of Science) were searched for relevant studies published in English between January 2010 and February 2022. Quantitative studies, conducting a physical-activity-based intervention with overweight or obese university students and reporting changes in BMI, were included. Data were described in a narrative synthesis. Eleven of 16 included studies reported a significant reduction in BMI. However, all studies except one were able to demonstrate some BMI improvements, whereas all studies reported significant changes in at least one health-related indicator. Aerobic exercises were able to demonstrate the greatest reductions in BMI. This review is the first systematic presentation on the effectiveness of physical-activity-based interventions on overweight and obese university students. Future work should reconsider BMI as the primary outcome because it is prone to bias. More interventions are needed to improve strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0265.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: life habits; mindfulness; flow meditation; university students; controlled trial
Online: 21 June 2020 (11:33:25 CEST)
The present study explored the effects of a Second-generation mindfulness-based intervention known as Flow Meditation (Meditación-Fluir) in the improvement of life habits. A sample of university students (n = 51) in Spain were randomly assigned to a seven-week mindfulness treatment or a waiting list control group. Results showed that compared to the control group, individuals in the mindfulness group demonstrated significant improvements across all outcome measures, including healthy eating habits (balanced diet, intake rate, snacking between meals, decrease in consumption by emotional states negative, increased consumption by negative emotional states, amount of consumption, meal times, consumption of low-fat products), tobacco, alcohol and cannabis consumption, and resting habits. There were differences between males and females in some of these variables and a better effect of the treatment was evident in the females of the experimental group as compared to males. The Flow Meditation program shows promise for fostering healthy life habits, thus decreasing behaviors related to maladaptive eating, tobacco, alcohol and drug consumption, as well as negative resting habits, in university students. This mindfulness program can significantly contribute in the treatment of eating disorders and addictions, wherein negative emotional states and impulsivity are central features of the condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0727.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: business environment; attitudes; entrepreneurship; behaviors; university
Online: 11 July 2023 (11:59:59 CEST)
Entrepreneurship education has become increasingly relevant. For some years now, the business environment for starting a new company in the Dominican Republic has been considered very propitious. This has generated that many universities have incorporated training in entrepreneurship in their study plans. This study aims to analyse whether the cognitive and affective components, the country's business environment, university training in entrepreneurship and attitudes towards entrepreneurship are antecedents of the entrepreneurial intention of university students. It also seeks to investigate the relationship between entrepreneurial intention and entrepreneurial behaviour of students. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire from a sample of 523 students who had taken courses on entrepreneurship. The data have been analysed through the SPSS and Smart-PLS programs. The results of this research highlight the importance of the affective component and attitudes towards entrepreneurship in the formation of students' entrepreneurial intentions. This reinforces the importance of cultivating positive attitudes through educational interventions. These results contribute to the understanding of the factors that drive entrepreneurial intentions among university students and provide a foundation for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: stress; resilience; mindfulness; psychological well-being; university students
Online: 23 December 2022 (06:10:38 CET)
Purpose: Using an identical experimental structure with both Thai and Singaporean undergraduates, we investigated relationships (interactions) among social support, stress, resilience, mindfulness, and self-efficacy on psychological well-being (PWB). Stress indicated a negative influence on PWB, but mindfulness, resilience, self-efficacy, and social support indicated positive influences. Methods: A cross-sectional predictive design was used with 966 Thai and 673 Singaporean university students. After calculating an adequate sample size and performing convenience sampling, we administered the following six standard scales: the Perceived Stress Scale, the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, the Mindfulness Awareness Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Psychological Well-being Scale—along with a demographic questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and structural equation modeling were performed for participants’ PWB. Results: Mindfulness had significant effects for both factors of PWB, including autonomy and growth, and cognitive triad, across two samples. In the Thai sample, resilience most strongly predicted autonomy and growth and perceived stress did so the cognitive triad, whereas in the Singaporean sample, perceived control most strongly predicted autonomy and growth and support from friends did so the cognitive triad. Conclusion: These findings provide specific knowledge toward enhancing psychosocial interventions and toward promoting PWB to strengthen mindfulness, resilience, perceived control of stress, and social support. stress, resilience, mindfulness, psychological well-being, university students
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0516.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Perceptions, public university students, online classes, COVID-19, Bangladesh
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:52:48 CEST)
The severe disease outbreak COVID-19 pandemic impacted public health and safety and the educational systems worldwide. For fear of the further spread of diseases, most educational institutions, including Bangladesh, have postponed their face-to-face teaching. Therefore, this study explores public university student's perceptions towards online classes during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. Data were collected among students of Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh, through an online survey. The study followed both a qualitative and quantitative approach, where the survey technique was used as an instrument of data collection. Results showed that most students were facing difficulty participating in virtual classes and could not communicate with their friends correctly during online classes. They faced challenges in online schooling, and the majority of the students preferred conventional types of learning to virtual classes and did not understand the content of virtual classes easily. The study also explored that most students did not feel comfortable in online classes. Still, considering the present pandemic situation, they decided to participate in online classes to continue schooling. Besides, the study discovered that female students showed better real perceptions than male students regarding online classes, and urban students have more optimistic appreciation than rural students. Moreover, laptop or personal computer users showed more positive perceptions towards online education than mobile users. Furthermore, Broadband/ Wi-Fi users have more positive perceptions than mobile network users. These findings would be an essential guideline for governments, policymakers, technology developers, and university authorities for making better policy choices in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0388.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: social noise; auditory, non-auditory noise effects; personal music players; university students
Online: 30 November 2019 (10:07:18 CET)
Purpose: The study is aimed to quantify the effects of social noise (personal music players (PMP), high-intensity noise exposure events) and road traffic noise exposures in the sample of Slovak university students living and studying in Bratislava. Methods: There were 1,003 university students (306 males and 697 females, average age 23.13±2) enrolled in the study; 347 lived in the student housing facility exposed to road traffic noise (LAeq =67.6 dB) and 656 in the control one (LAeq =53.4 dB). Respondents completed a validated ICBEN 5-grade scale “Noise annoyance questionnaire”. The exposure to PMP was objectified by the conversion of the subjective evaluation of the volume setting and duration. With the cooperation of the ENT specialist, we arranged audiometric examinations on the pilot sample of 41 volunteers. Results: From the total sample of 1,003 students, 794 (79.16 %) of them reported the use of PMP in the course of the last week; average time of 285 minutes. There was a significant difference in PMP use between the exposed (85.59 %) and the control group (75.76 %) (p=0.01). Among PMP users 30.7 % exceeded the LAV (lower action value for industry LAeq,8h = 80 dB). On a pilot sample of volunteers (n=41) audiometry testing was performed indicating a hearing threshold shift at higher frequencies in 22% of subjects. Conclusions: The results of the study on a sample of young healthy individuals showed the importance of exposure to environmental noise from different sources (transportation, neighborhood, construction, entertainment facilities, etc.) as well as social noise and the need for prevention and intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0528.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: university students; anxiety stress perception; coping strategies; pandemic; COVID-19 patients
Online: 7 June 2023 (09:35:31 CEST)
Background: Studying anxiety, stress and the selection of coping strategies in the COVID-19 pandemic is necessary to minimize the adverse changes associated with the risk of infection and the consequences of the disease. Objective: To investigate the level of anxiety, stress perception and coping strategies in relation to the presence of illness. Material and Methods: The anonymous cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 3950 university students of northeastern Poland (1822), Lithuania (232) and the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad (1896). Due to the almost identically applied anti-epidemic measures, the respondents were treated as a unified group. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale-10 and Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced questionnaires were used. Results: Among 1212 men and 2738 women, COVID-19 was diagnosed in 348 (28.7%) and 1020 (37.3%) individuals, respectively, according to the clinical protocol. The prolonged nature of the process and the longer consequences of the disease were indicated by an increase in anxiety levels. Conclusions: The risk of possible infection and coping with illness required the adoption of active anti-stress strategies, which was observed regardless of going through the disease. Convalescents differed from non-diseased individuals in having higher levels of concern about their own emotions and their more frequent turn to religion, notably among the females. The repertoire of strategies among women was broader, with elevated levels of helplessness and avoidance seen as integral strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0139.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transport mode; revealed preference; stated preference; multinomial logit model; university students
Online: 8 May 2020 (08:42:54 CEST)
This work mainly aims to identify and understand the factors influencing the switching of transportation modes among higher-education students in Joinville, Brazil when traveling to universities. Furthermore, this study evaluates the possibility of switching from individual vehicles to other modes of transport (i.e., bus, bicycle, and walking) by employing a multinomial logit model. The results indicate that students would be interested in switching from individual motor vehicles to other options. The scenarios for switching to buses presented the highest switching probability. The bus cost was the most important factor for switching. Meanwhile, the parking space reduction does not affect the student's choice, indicating that restricting available spaces should not be an isolated measure for decreasing the car mode attractiveness. Finally, the transport mode switch would occur only if alternative modes to the car or their infrastructure are improved; otherwise, students maintain their usual choices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education; University of the District of Columbia; engineering education; summer program
Online: 13 June 2019 (07:28:00 CEST)
Preparing high school students for engineering disciplines is crucial for sustainable scientific and technological developments in the USA. This paper discusses a pre-college program, which not only exposes students to various engineering disciplines but also enables them to consider engineering as the profession. The four-week long “Engineering Innovation (EI)” course is offered every year to high school students by the center of outreach, Johns Hopkins University. EI program is designed to develop problem-solving skills through extensive hands-on engineering experiments. A team consisting of an instructor, generally a PhD in Engineering, and a teaching fellow, generally a high school science teacher, closely work with students to pedagogically inculcate basics of core engineering disciplines such as civil, mechanical, electrical, materials, and chemical engineering. EI values independent problem-solving skills and simultaneously promote the team spirit among students. A number of crucial engineering aspects such as professional ethics, communications, technical writing, and understanding of common engineering principles are inculcated among high school students via well-designed individual and group activities. This paper discusses the model of EI program and its impact on students learning and their preparation for the engineering career.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: depression; acculturation stress; social connectedness; international students, university students, ASSIS, suicidal ideation
Online: 24 December 2018 (14:52:30 CET)
(1) This study aimed to examine the prevalence of depression and its correlation with acculturative Stress and Social Connectedness among domestic and overseas students in Japan International University. (2) Methods: A Web-based survey was distributed among students of International University, which resulted in 263 responses. On the survey together with socio-demographic data, a nine-item tool from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), was used to measure the prevalence of Depression and its relationship with socio-demographic data, Social Connectedness Scale was used to measure Social Connectedness, and Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students (ASSIS) was used to measured acculturative stress. (3) Results: Depression was significantly high in international and domestic students (37.81% and 29.85% respectively). English language proficiency and students age (20 years old) showed a significant correlation with depression among domestic students (β=-1.63, p=0.038 and β=2.24, p=0.048). Stay length (third year) also displayed a significant correlation with depression among international students (β=1.08, p=0.032). Among international and domestic students statistically significant positive correlation between depression and acculturative stress, negative associations of social connectedness with depression and acculturative stress were also found. Suicidal or self-hurting ideation thoughts are found among around 20% of all students. (4) Conclusions: These findings indicate a relatively high prevalence of depression among students of International University, and overseas students are more affected. Depression, Acculturation stress and Social Connectedness show statistically strong intercorrelation, which highlights the need of host University to recognise the role of Acculturation and Social Connectedness in the development of Depression among students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0236.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Internet addiction; mobile phone addiction; online social network; university students; technological addictions; behavioral addictions
Online: 25 January 2018 (05:10:00 CET)
1) Background: It has been more than a decade since the concern about addictive use of the Internet and mobile phones was first expressed and its possible inclusion into the lists of mental disorders has been a popular topic of discussion recently, thus it seems to be a fitting moment to investigate the evolution of this issue over time. The aim of the present study was to analyze the evolution of the perception of problematic Internet and smartphone use in young people over the period 2006–2017; 2) Methods: To this end, a questionnaire on Internet use habits and the CERI and CERM questionnaires on negative consequences of Internet and smartphone use were administered to a sample of 792 university students and compared with data from former studies over the period 2006–2017; 3) Results: The perception of problematic Internet and mobile phone use has increased over the last decade, social networks are considered responsible for this increase, and females are the ones perceived to be more affected than males. The degree to which participants agree with the statement “I am addicted to the Internet” can be used as a screening item for problematic use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0937.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Sustainable knowledge; attitudes; sustainable behaviour; attitudes towards teachers; university
Online: 13 July 2023 (13:36:29 CEST)
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is crucial in higher education, providing students with the knowledge, skills, and values necessary for a sustainable future. ESD seeks a holistic understanding of sustainability and promotes critical thinking and innovative approaches. Specifically, ESD is very important to address in engineering careers, as engineers will need to establish sustainable solutions in the future. For this reason, the integration of sustainability into university curricula has been studied for some time. In this way, this research analyses the perceptions (attitudes towards teachers; knowledge about sustainable development; environmental, economic and social attitudes; sustainable behaviours) that engineering students in the Dominican Republic have towards sustainable development. 626 questionnaires completed by engineering students were obtained. Subsequently, the data was analysed in SPSS and PLS-SEM. The results showed that attitudes towards teachers have an impact on engineering students' knowledge of sustainable development. In turn, the results also showed that knowledge about sustainable development influences both attitudes (economic, social and environmental) and sustainable behaviours of engineering students. Contrary to other research, this study suggested that economic attitudes are not identified as an antecedent of sustainable behaviours among engineering students. From these results, implications and future lines of research are generated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2039.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Knowledge sharing; Social media; Academic development; University students; Bangladesh
Online: 30 May 2023 (04:30:28 CEST)
Social networking opened up new avenues for learning and knowledge sharing. Due to its document exchange, virtual communication, and knowledge production capabilities, social media is a helpful tool for learning and teaching. The research embraces multiple goals. First, this study examines Bangladeshi university students' social value, communication and collaboration, trust, and perceived benefits of knowledge sharing through social media in academic advancement. The second goal is to examine how families and technology support mediates those aspects of social media knowledge sharing with student academic development. We used Technology Acceptance Model and Social Exchange Theory as examples of how social media sharing of knowledge impacts academic progress in Bangladeshi university students through family and technological support. PLS-SEM was used using survey data from 737 Bangladeshi students to test the model. Social value, communication and collaboration, trust, and perceived benefits of sharing knowledge through social media significantly enhance Bangladeshi students' academic growth. In the case of mediation, family and technological support mediates the relationship between communication and collaboration, trust, perceived benefits and academic development. However, there is no mediation with the social value of knowledge sharing in social media with student’s academic development. The article concludes with implications, limitations, and future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0123.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Skin cancer; Photoprotection habits; Photoexposure; University students; Teachers health sciences
Online: 7 December 2020 (07:04:11 CET)
Background: Excessive sun exposure, together with insufficient protection, is the main risk factor for the onset of Melanoma and Non Melanoma skin cancer, namely the most common cancer in fair-skinned populations across the world, and of several other skin and eye adverse health effects. Epidemiological data show the existence of scant awareness of this risk, and of high rates of sunburn among young people. The main aim of the present study is to examine sun exposure habits and protection behaviour in university students. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study to investigate sun exposure and protection practices in a group of education sciences students at a university in southern Spain. This survey provided data for a descriptive and comparative analysis, by groups and gender, of photoprotection and skin self-examination practices. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire have been analysed. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 315 students. Most of them (74.6%) have suffered at least one sunburn in the last year. The use of sunscreen or protective clothing is not frequent, and 89.5% of students do not self-examine their skin. The metric properties of the questionnaire showed high values of reliability and validity. Conclusions: The awareness of solar exposure risk in Spanish university students of Education Sciences is low, self-protection is scant, the potential exposure to dangerous levels of UV radiation is high and most students have suffered one or more sunburns in the last year. Intervention strategies should be introduced in these students to highlight the risks involved and the need of more adequate sun protection practices. Information campaigns should be conducted to address the problem so that, when these students become teachers, they have an adequate knowledge of the risk and of the benefits of a higher attention to this problem, and can translate these competences in health education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0246.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; university student; socio-demographic factors, satisfaction; perception; online learning; mental health; habits; institutions; continents
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:20:09 CEST)
The paper presents the most comprehensive and large-scale study to date on how students perceive the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on various aspects of their lives on a global level. With a sample of 30,383 students from 62 countries, the study reveals that amid the worldwide lockdown and transition to online learning students were most satisfied with the support provided by teaching staff and their universities’ public relations. Still, deficient computer skills and the perception of a higher workload prevented them from perceiving their own improved performance in the new teaching environment. Students were mainly concerned about issues to do with their future professional career and studies, and experienced boredom, anxiety and frustration. The pandemic has led to the adoption of particular hygienic behaviours (e.g. wearing masks, washing hands) and discouraged certain daily practices (e.g. leaving home, shaking hands). Students were also more satisfied with the role played by hospitals and universities during the epidemic compared to the government and banks. The findings also show that students with selected socio-demographic characteristics (male, part-time, first level, applied sciences, lower living standard, from Africa or Asia) were generally more strongly affected by the pandemic since they were significantly less satisfied with their academic work/life. Key factors influencing students' satisfaction with the role of their university are also identified. Policymakers and higher education institutions around the world may benefit from these findings while formulating policy recommendations and strategies to support students during this and any future pandemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1461.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Entrepreneurial intentions; Female students; Saudi Arabia; Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB); University ecosystem
Online: 21 August 2023 (12:00:51 CEST)
Abstract: This paper aimed to investigate the entrepreneurial intentions of female students in Saudi Arabia, utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as the theoretical framework. Employing a quantitative research methodology, data was collected through a questionnaire administered to female students at Princess Nourah University. The results revealed a positive inclination towards entrepreneurship, with over 64% expressing a desire to pursue entrepreneurial ventures in the future. This optimistic trend among female students suggests a potential pool of future entrepreneurs. Interestingly, a small percentage (3.21%) categorically rejected entrepreneurship as a career option, indicating a relatively low level of disinterest in entrepreneurial pursuits. However, many respondents (32%) remained undecided, presenting a valuable opportunity for mentorship and support to cultivate their entrepreneurial intentions. These findings underscore the significance of providing guidance and education to encourage entrepreneurship among female students. The TPB analysis highlighted that attitudes and perceived behavioral control towards entrepreneurship were favorable among female students, indicating a positive mindset and belief in their ability to embark on entrepreneurial endeavors. However, societal norms still exert a negative influence on some student’s entrepreneurial intentions, suggesting a need to address cultural barriers that might hinder female students' willingness to pursue entrepreneurship. The study suggests enhancing female entrepreneurship through societal encouragement and support from personal networks. It highlights the importance of fostering entrepreneurial aspirations in female students. Crucially, the study underscores the role of universities in cultivating entrepreneurial intentions by proposing the implementation of entrepreneurship-focused curricula and the creation of university-based training units or incubators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1641.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: emotional well-being; ideal university hostel; personal construct theory; qualitative repertory grid technique; students’ perceptions
Online: 22 June 2023 (15:34:46 CEST)
One of the ramifications of the COVID-19 pandemic is that it has lent urgency to ongoing discussions on mental well-being. While standard techniques are available to diagnose mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress, ambiguity persists regarding the emotional aspect of well-being. Emotional well-being (EWB) is a recently developed concept that seeks to understand the contribution of emotions to one’s well-being. Interactive approaches for such investigations are recommended to understand people’s contextual experiences. In this study, we use a qualitative approach to examine the psychological impact of the built environment on its residents to formulate the desiderata for an ideal place based on their perceptions. We use personal construct theory and the associated qualitative repertory grid technique. We recruited 15 students from the United Arab Emirates University and obtained information on their perceptions of three built environments they experienced. The findings revealed information on the students’ emotional constructs that were associated with a set of design-related factors, and the way the ideal hostel should be characterized in response to these associations. These findings enrich our knowledge of EWB within built environments and can inform their future design by considering the emotional aspect of the well-being of residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Political Socialization, Political Participation, Social Networking, Political Science Students, Islamic Azad University
Online: 20 December 2018 (13:19:22 CET)
The present study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the impact of social networks on political socialization and political participation of political science students of the Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Tehran south branch during 2007-2017. This article is a descriptive-survey research based on the theory of planned behavior and has been done based on random sampling with a population of 280 samples. The findings indicate that 93% of students use social media and spend a significant part of their study hours on social networks, which mainly include Telegram, Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and WhatsApp. The variables related to social networks affect the socialization and political participation of students, and the extent of the impact of social networks on encouraging individuals to participate in the election as a component of political socialization is positive and significant. This finding and other findings are a positive and significant impact of social networks on the attitudes, values and norms, attitudes and behaviors of political science students as a sample population, and thus the hypothesis of this research has been confirmed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0750.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: behavior; theory; addiction; gambling; college students; university students; young adults; betting; gaming
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:54:54 CEST)
Gambling among college students can start as a pastime activity. However, this pastime can lead to problem gambling and pathological gambling. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify and explain gambling behavior among university students using a novel fourth-generation multi-theory model (MTM) of health behavior change. Data were collected from a sample of 1,474 university students at a large southwestern university in the U.S. between January 2023 and February 2023, utilizing a validated 39-item survey. The statistical analyses employed in this study encompassed descriptive statistics, independent samples t-tests, and hierarchical regression modeling. Among students who engaged in gambling in the past month, the constructs of participatory dialogue (β = 0.052; p < 0.05), behavioral confidence (β = 0.073; p < 0.0001), and changes in the physical environment (β = 0.040; p = 0.0137) accounted for 27.7% of the variance in the likelihood of initiating the behavior change. Furthermore, the constructs of emotional transformation (β = 0.104; p = 0.0003) and practice for change (β = 0.060; p = 0.0368) accounted for 22.6% of the variance in the likelihood of sustaining quitting gambling behavior. The Multi-Theory Model (MTM) can be employed to design interventions aimed at reducing problem gambling among college students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0311.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: perceived stress; life satisfaction; academic performance; university students; stress management; COVID-19
Online: 21 October 2021 (13:59:07 CEST)
The circumstances arising from the exceptional situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have affected all socioeconomic areas in the last two years. The field of Education has not been an exception and the management of the situation seems to have caused an increase in the level of perceived stress of university students. On this basis, this research that aims, first, to analyze the student’s level of perceived stress during the de-escalation and return to normality period, secondly, to evaluate its relationship with life satisfaction and, finally, to detect the students' needs in stress management, has been developed. An exploratory-descriptive study of quantitative and cross-sectional nature has been carried out. 222 university students of the Childhood and Primary Education Degrees of the University of Jaén (Spain) have participated. The instruments, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) have been used. The results show a moderate and partial relationship among the dimensions of the used instruments. The obtained coefficients of determination are, Academic Performance (r² = .019) and Life Satisfaction (r² = .402), with a mean square error (SRMR) of .079. These findings show the need to develop actions within the university training program in effective stress management strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0473.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: mental health; perceived stress; university students; gender differences; COVID-19; post-lockdown; Romania
Online: 21 July 2021 (09:38:11 CEST)
The rapid spread of COVID-19 worldwide was accompanied by intense fears, confusion, worries, anger and stress threatening people’s mental health. Unprecedented measures to slow down and prevent the transmission of COVID-19 have had various impacts on the population’s health behaviour and mental health. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the lockdown’s effects on university students’ mental health in Romania. Based on a cross-sectional design, the survey data were collected from a sample of 722 participants (247 males; M = 21.1 years; SD ± 1.73). A path analysis was performed to verify the hypothesised direct and indirect effects included in the multiple mediation model. The findings showed a positive association between stress and boredom proneness, missing daily social interactions, spending more time on phone conversations and the increasing interest in following news about the pandemic. The path analysis revealed an excellent fit between the proposed multiple mediation model and the sample data. Boredom proneness and missing daily social interactions both affected stress, directly and indirectly, through more time spent on phone conversations. In addition, it was found that the increased interest in following news about the pan-demic mediated the relationship between boredom proneness and perceived stress. In terms of gender differences, our findings revealed that female students experienced significantly higher stress levels than male students, perceived to a greater extent the lack of daily social interactions and spent more time on phone conversations. Overall, the findings further extend the empirical evidence on university students’ mental health in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, universities need to organise support programmes focused on developing university students’ coping strategies to maintain their mental health even in adverse contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0540.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: universal communicative competence; algorithm; digital technology of collaborative learning; technical university; Microsoft Teams
Online: 27 October 2020 (09:00:22 CET)
This article presents a quantitative assessment of pedagogical support aimed at improving collaborative education at a modern technical university. The article analyzes the structural composition of the universal communicative competence in a foreign language to identify the advantages of the proposed content detailization. An algorithm for constructing educational and speech actions of students with the use of collaborative digital technology, regarding the monitoring and control of tools, is developed and theoretically justified. Microsoft Teams is offered as a platform for implementing digital collaborative learning technology. The didactic possibilities and methodological functions of Microsoft Teams in foreign language teaching are revealed. The digital technology of the collaborative learning algorithm is relevant for building collaborative actions is relevant, since it contributes to the development of the ability to solve common professional tasks. The algorithm of the dialogic communication, including problem, contradiction, conflict, intellectual difficulty, having general professional context as a stimulus to enhance the interaction in pair work is proposed as pedagogical support. The analysis and quantitative assessment of students' oral responses showed that the dialogue in a foreign language, based on the algorithmic component, is more structured and stimulates students' communication on relevant professional-oriented topics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1997.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: EdTech; 3D modelling; digital narrative; software class; Blender; 3D design; 3D education; university education; digital education; higher education
Online: 31 October 2023 (09:41:25 CET)
This research discusses the development of a software-centered EdTech (Education Technology) class model through the implementation of a course titled "3D Time Machine" at a 4-year university in Republic of Korea over two semesters. The course focused on teaching 3D modeling software, Blender, within the history department. The primary objective of offering this course was to equip students from the digital generation with the capability to manipulate digital technology effectively. Through studying historical materials and accumulating domain knowledge, students could construct their narratives from their unique perspectives. This aimed to foster their proficiency in digital technology operation, preparing them for an education environment increasingly centered around virtual worlds. As the use of virtual worlds gains prominence in educational settings, there is a growing need to incorporate curricula that prepare students to thrive as well-prepared citizens in future societies. Assessing the digital competencies of contemporary university students and designing instructional models with particular attention to their needs is becoming increasingly important. This research draws insights from interviews, conducted in both face-to-face and written formats, with students who participated in the "3D Time Machine" course. The interviews revealed valuable insights that can be actively incorporated into the development of software-centered EdTech instructional models. They reported that they expanded their perceptions as they learned how to make their ideas tangible. The course helped students overcome their fear of digital technology. In conclusion, the course effectively employs 3D modeling technology, a software-centered EdTech, as a core element in helping students develop their narratives rapidly and diversely, thereby playing a crucial role in their ability to articulate their unique perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Menstrual hygiene; Knowledge of menstrual hygiene; Attitude about menstrual hygiene; Practice of menstrual hygiene; Menstrual hygiene in Health science university
Online: 17 August 2023 (08:04:52 CEST)
Abstract: Background: The practice of menstrual hygiene(MH) is a public health issue and depends on various factors. Taboos and incorrect MH practices can lead to health hazards. This study aimed at assessing the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of MH among the female students and faculty of Medical and Health Sciences University. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional questionnaire survey between February and June 2023 using consecutive sampling. Univariate analysis and comparisons were done with a significant p-value <.05. Results: A total of 253 women participated in the study. The knowledge and practices of MH were good. There were significantly more irregular and painful periods in younger females (p=.005,.0001). 89% of women used disposable pads and least used menstrual cups. Younger women were unaware of menstrual cloth. The attitude towards menses varied, with younger females feeling annoyed (p=.002), and older females embarrassed (p=.0001) at menarche. About 1/3rd of participants perceived menstrual blood as unhygienic. Younger women were more open about talking about menses (p=.005). Conclusion: There was good knowledge and practices of MH among participants. There were differences in menstrual history and attitude among older and younger women. The attitude and beliefs vary among the participants, due to sociocultural factors and age differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0712.v1
Online: 29 June 2021 (15:22:38 CEST)
A university campus is a place full of memorable experiences and a sense of place. It is an environment that potentially creates a social and intellectual exchange of ideas and brings together diverse people. Campus planning is one essential need for any higher institution and is an instrument used for directing, promoting, and securing orderly physical development of an institution Campus planning present unique opportunities for demonstrating and popularizing contemporary tendencies in urban planning. The purpose of this study is to explore the overall concepts of the campus planning and architecture of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (Knust) And University of Ghana (Legon). The Study was based mainly on two methods; Documentary research and qualitative Observation to have in depth knowledge about the campuses. Through field observation, the study was limited to the spatial organization and planning, site layout and master planning, land use, use of space, and architectural details. The study adopts A Comparative Analysis Approach and found out that Campus Planning Concept varies and unique to campuses and in developing a campus plan, it involves a time-consuming dynamic process and besides, there are neither shortcuts nor one approach or generic solution to that. The study also revealed that Iconic and unique buildings are usually found on university campuses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0070.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: COVID-19; university student; socio-demographic factors; satisfaction; perception; online learning; mental health; habits; institutions; continents; Natural Language processing; Swivel embedding; Words Cloud.
Online: 3 November 2021 (09:06:22 CET)
The review of previous works shows this study is the first attempt to analyse the lockdown effect using Natural Language Processing Techniques, particularly sentiment analysis methods applied at large scale. On the other hand, it is also the first of its kind to analyse the impact of COVID 19 on the university community jointly on staff and students and with a multi-country perspective. The main overall findings of this work show that the most often related words were family, anxiety, house and life. On another front, it has also been shown that staff have a slightly less negative perception of the consequences of COVID in their daily life. We have used artificial intelligence models like swivel embedding and the Multilayer Perceptron, as classification algorithms. The performance reached in terms of accuracy metric are 88.8% and 88.5%, for student and staff respectively. The main conclusion of our study is that higher education institutions and policymakers around the world may benefit from these findings while formulating policy recommendations and strategies to support students during this and any future pandemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0003.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: project management; sustainable development; projects; competences; sustained success; sustainability; research university; sustainable university
Online: 1 April 2018 (12:45:02 CEST)
The paradigm that assumes the autonomous management of universities involves them in the redefinition of their policies and processes and the training of their staff, designing new formulas that allow them to adapt to a changing environment. In this context, research and sustainable universities can link with society to solve its problems and influence a responsible and sustainable development. Through a Delphi panel, importance to acquire and improve project management (PM) competences by teaching and research staff (TRS) into innovating education and research projects is measured, from the standard of individual competences (ICB4) of the International Project Management Association (IPMA). Also, internal data sources from the flexible structures of two Spanish universities (the University of Cadiz (UCA) and the Technical University of Madrid (UPM)), are investigated, in order to analyze how they are organized. Thanks to the study of cases, an increasing tendency to work by projects is observed, empowering teams, managing properly stakeholders and facilitating their functions towards society. Likewise, after two rounds of experts’ consultation, consensus is reached with an acceptable and stable level of responses, resulting in confirmation that there is alignment between IPMA competences and TRS’ needs for sustained success in education and research, contributing to universities’ development, improvement and sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0033.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Tertiary Education, TETFUND, Management, University
Online: 6 October 2017 (09:05:56 CEST)
This study set out to determine the effect of Tertiary Education Tax Fund (TETFUND) on management in Nigerian tertiary education. Specifically, the study sought to determine whether ETF fund allocations to Nigerian Tertiary Institutions significantly affect the enrollment ratio to Nigerian Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria. The hypothesis was formulated in line with the objectives of the study. Survey and Time series research design were adopted. Data were obtained from National Bureau of Statistics by use of financial ratios and tested using regression analysis with aid of SPSS statistical package version 20.0. Based on the analysis, the study found that ETF fund allocations to Nigerian Tertiary Institutions have no correlation with the enrollment ratio of Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. Based on the findings, the study recommends that to the intervention agency to achieve meaningful on its constituents fund allocations should commensurate with enrolment ratio of tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0029.v1
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:58:08 CET)
Background: The passage through university, as a complex experience, can heighten personal susceptibility to eating disorders. The objective of this research is to determine how gender, age, year of course, and center or faculty can influence the risk of an eating disorder among university students. Method: A transversal and descriptive study with a probabilistic sample of 516 Spanish students from 26 university degrees is performed, by administering the Inventory Eating Disorder-Reference criterion (EDI-3-RF) to the students. Results: It was found that the female students enrolled in second-year grades presented a greater obsession with thinness and body dissatisfaction, that the male students did more physical exercise to control their weight, and that those under 20 years and the students from both the Health and Law Faculties presented greater bulimic behavior. Conclusions: It is necessary to implement preventive measures adapted to the university students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0055.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019/COVID-19; Internet Gaming Disorder Scale9—Short form (IGDS9-SF); university students; factorial structure/psychometric properties/structural validity/validation; cultur*/collectivisti*/individualis*; invariance; gender; game type
Online: 21 March 2022 (11:04:57 CET)
The prevalence of internet gaming disorders (IGD) is considerably high among youth, especially with social isolation imposed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. IGD adversely affects mental health, quality of life, and academic performance. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS9-SF) is designed to detect IGD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. However, inconsistent results are reported on its capacity to diagnose IGD evenly across different cultures. To ensure the suitability of the IGDS9-SF as a global measure of IGD, this study examined the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in a sample of Sri Lankan university students (N = 322, mean age =17.2 ± 0.6, range = 16-18 years, 56.5% males) and evaluated its measurement invariance across samples from Sri Lanka, Turkey, Australia, and the USA. Among Sri Lankan students, a unidimensional structure expressed good fit, invariance across different groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, and income), adequate criterion validity (strong correlation with motives of internet gaming, daily gaming duration, and sleep quality), and good reliability (alpha = 0.81). Males and online multiplayers expressed higher IGD levels, greater time spent gaming, and more endorsement of gaming motives (e.g., Social and Coping) than females and offline players. Across countries, the IGDS9-SF was invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels, albeit strict invariance was not maintained. The lowest and highest IGD levels were reported among Turkish and American respondents, respectively. In conclusion, the IGDS9-SF can be reliably used to measure IGD among Sri Lankan youth. Because the scale holds scalar invariance across countries, its scores can be used to compare IGD levels in the studied countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0683.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Pre-Marital Sex; courtship; influences; university; undergraduates
Online: 17 October 2023 (03:38:54 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Pre-marital sex is a sexual interest practiced by people who are yet to get married and has ended up being accepted specifically in western countries. Sex before marriage is sexual behavior engaged in by single people. In the past, having sex before getting married is seen as a moral dilemma that many cultures forbade and that many people regarded to be sin in many religions, although it has gained wider acceptance across the board. OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out to determine the perception, practices, and factors associated with pre-marital sex, courtship, and its influences among Osun State University Undergraduates, Osogbo, Osun State. METHODOLOGY: The study was a descriptive study, and respondents were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. Students of Osun State University, Osogbo main campus form the population of the study and its sample size was calculated using Leslie Kish’s formula. A total of 387 responses were validated from the survey. The instrument for data collection was a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire consisting of four sections. The data obtained were collated, examined for completion, coded, imputed, and analyzed using SPSS v21. RESULTS: The mean age of the respondents was between 19.19±2.17, and the majority were between 18 – 24 years. About 52% of the respondents show a positive perception of premarital sex and courtship. Also, in the practice of courtship majority (88.3%) of the respondents think those that go around together are courting and from the responses obtained and analyzed from the factors leading to pre-marital sex, the findings revealed that peer pressure (90.4%), Internet (86.7%), pornography (83.9%) and drugs (82.9%) are the leading factors which contribute to pre-marital sex among undergraduates. CONCLUSION: The study hereby recommends that Parents should as a matter of responsibility monitor and pays regular visits to their children in the universities and provide them with materials that will make them stay comfortable for them not to fall victim to peer pressure.Pre-marital sex is a practice that should be avoided by undergraduate students, though most students consider courtship as a normal practice, it is still used as a normal factor that leads them to practice pre-marital sex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0516.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: gamification; university students; higher education; gamer profile
Online: 7 September 2023 (08:19:50 CEST)
In recent years, the use of gamified systems in education has increased due to the growing empirical evidence of their usefulness in improving motivation and participation in learning processes. In order to take advantage of the opportunities for improvement in education presented by gamification, plus the decision to create gamified systems in higher education, this article investigates the willingness of student teachers to learn with gamified systems. The research method is quantitative with validated instruments to measure: 1) student perception of gamification; 2) player profile; and 3) screen time, with an n=569 student teachers from the fifteen regions of Chile. The results show that students prefer to learn with gamified systems than in a traditional way with a significant difference (Wilcoxon z= -18.86, p < 0.01). There are significant positive and negative relationships in correspondence with the Gamer Profile. However, as a finding, a negative relationship was found between the number of hours spent playing video games and the perception of learning through gamified systems. In conclusion, Chilean student teachers present a favorable disposition to teacher training with gamified systems. However, the disposition varies in relation to the number of hours spent playing video games.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: University tuition fees; educational equality; educational investment
Online: 15 August 2023 (08:55:06 CEST)
The expansion of university enrollment and the implementation of tuition fees have become focal points of discussion in both current educational practices and theories. While increased university enrollment offers more opportunities for higher education, the high cost of tuition fees has pushed economically disadvantaged students to the brink of discontinuing their studies, prompting widespread concerns about educational equality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0591.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: regional development; periphery; socioeconomic index; academy; university
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:45:08 CEST)
MIGAL – Galilee Research Institute is a regional R&D center in the northeast peripheral region of Israel. An internationally recognized applied research institute, MIGAL specializes in biotechnology and computational sciences, plant sciences, precision agriculture and environmental sciences, as well as food, nutrition and health. Most of MIGAL’s researchers serve as the core faculty at Tel Hai Academic College (TH). Despite the country’s small surface area, socioeconomic inequality in Israel is high by OECD standards, with wage differences between rich and poor regions reaching up to 400%. The aims of this study are to identify possible socioeconomic impacts of MIGAL–TH on the peripheral northeast’s development. We discuss the effects of academic research and institutions of higher education on mitigating differences between the center and periphery of the country. Data for MIGAL, TH and the northeastern peripheral region were collected from the yearly reports of the two institutions and the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. MIGAL was found to serve as a link between research, academic teaching and socioeconomic development in the northeast periphery. Several variables related to this link and describing MIGAL–TH and northeastern periphery development were analyzed over time: MIGAL’s budget, total number of employees and number of employees with PhDs; number of TH graduate students; socioeconomic index (SEI) of the northeastern periphery and its position on the Israeli list of regional SEIs. The signs and significance levels of their trends indicate a potential socioeconomic impact of academic research and higher education on peripheral development in the northeast of the country. Research budgets and the creation of jobs for academics living in the region are just a few examples of this impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0540.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Intellectual Property Legislations; Public University Libraries; Jordan
Online: 24 May 2021 (08:46:19 CEST)
Despite the scientific and technological development, libraries of Jordanian universities suffer from an obvious lack of digital information resources, because for many reasons, the most important of these is the non-application of intellectual property legislation (IPL) related to these resources. This study investigated the reality of the application of intellectual property legislation related to digital information resources at the libraries of public universities in Jordan. The population study consisted of all employees of departments of digital information resources. The study sample was (74) employees. Texts of regulations for the intended libraries and the Jordanian copyright law No. (22) for the year (1992) were reviewed and analyzed. In addition, a questionnaire was developed regarding the actual application of intellectual property legislation relating to digital resources at the university libraries in Jordan. Results revealed that the application of IP legislation relating to digital resources at the libraries of public universities in Jordan was moderate and that the supervising to the libraries of universities from the National Library regarding the protection of intellectual property rights of digital resources was moderate. The study recommended the application of intellectual property legislation related to digital resources in the intended libraries, this could be achieved through including intellectual property legislation in the regulations of public services in the intended libraries, to provide for the terms of protecting IP rights for digital resources, improving the legislation, developing of the Jordanian copyright law to be compatible with digital information resources, providing the necessary support for these libraries, and emphasizing the role of the National Library.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0185.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Attitude; COVID-19; Knowledge; Nigeria; Perception; University
Online: 14 June 2020 (16:06:03 CEST)
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an emerging viral infection, is impacting the social, economic and political patterns of the world. To contain the spread of this pandemic, Nigeria like many countries globally, has imposed drastic preventive measures such as physical distancing and lockdown/curfew. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and perception (KAP) about COVID-19 among members of staff of a university community in southwest, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous, self-designed, online KAP questionnaire was conducted from April 18 to May 31, 2020. Purposive and chain referral sampling techniques were used to recruit respondents from the teaching and non-teaching categories of the university. The KAP questionnaire consisted of ten knowledge questions regarding the identification of clinical characteristics, transmission and prevention of COVID-19. The questions on attitude (15) and perception (10) assessed respondents on adherence to policies and their views on government efforts to contain the spread of the infection respectively. A total of 125 (teaching) and 102 (non-teaching) staff responded. The respondents had scientific (78.8 %) and non-scientific (28.2 %) work background. Approximately 59.1 % of the respondents were males. The mean knowledge and positive attitude levels were 70.8 % (SD ± 9.6 %) and 83.1 % (SD ± 13.07 %) respectively. Significant differences in the knowledge mean scores were observed for demographic categories such as educational qualification (p = 0.0006), staff work category (p = <0.0001), work background (p = <0.0001), and type of lockdown (p = 0.0271). Most of the respondents (85.3 %) opined that COVID-19 was a biological weapon and viewed the lockdown as necessary (81.5 %). However, they thought that the Nigerian government was not doing enough to mitigate COVID-19 spread. The perception of COVID-19 in the university community bear implications across public health initiatives, compliance with precautionary behaviour and bilateral relations with foreign nations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0372.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: delta project; university living lab; ecological corridor
Online: 25 June 2018 (07:59:08 CEST)
The University of Guayaquil, which shares the same name as the city where it is located, faces the challenge of transforming its image for the XXI century. It was deemed necessary to identify details about the urban evolution of the historic link with the city, in relation to the changes produced by the project’s siting and its direct area of influence. The goal is to integrate the main university campus within a framework which guarantees sustainability and allows innovation in the living lab. To achieve this, the action research method was applied, focused on participation and the logic framework. For the diagnosis, proposal, and management model, integrated working groups were organized with internal users such as professors, students, and university authorities, and external actors such as residents, the local business community, Guayaquil city council, and the Governorate of Guayas. As result of the diagnosis, six different analysis dimensions were established which correspond to the new urban agenda for the future campus: compactness, inclusiveness, resilience, sustainability, safety and participation. As a proposal, the urban design integrates the analysis dimensions whose financing and execution are given by the Town Hall, at the same time the Governorate integrates the campus with its network of community police headquarters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0198.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Six sigma (6σ); DMAIC; Academia; Presidency University; defects
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:57:20 CET)
The Six Sigma (6σ) method is used to improve and optimize an organization’s products, services, and processes by constantly decreasing defects. In this paper we try implementing the 6σ methodology in Academia. The challenges and actuality of implementation of 6σ methodologies successfully in Academia are immense. However, the benefits of applying 6σ are equally great. The objective of this paper is to understand the evolution, benefits, and challenges of 6σ practices in academia through a case study of Presidency University situated in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. The problem statement in the paper is the poor performance of students in academics and by using the DMAIC approach of 6σ we try to identify and understand the causes and set out to improve them so the students can have better placement and academic opportunities. This paper is also an attempt to show the readers about the wide application of 6σ in fields other than manufacturing and how it can be beneficial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1350.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: economic sustainability; university city; socio-economic inequality; index assessment
Online: 20 October 2023 (12:32:52 CEST)
The study is devoted to analyzing the economic sustainability of the town of Amherst, MA. The city's top employer and core enterprise is the University of Massachusetts Amherst, with over 32,000 students and almost 2,000 staff members. Based on a literature review, a hypothesis was put forward that a university city should have a high level of economic sustainability. To assess economic sustainability, the USCESI Index was developed. It evaluates sustainability in three groups of parameters: society, economy, and ecology. The first group includes the level of racial diversity, the level of education of the population, and the access to medical services. The second group consists of the Gini coefficient by income level, the median cost of housing, and the unemployment rate. The environmental situation is assessed according to the Air Quality Index developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For comparison, the town of Braintree, MA, was taken. The USCESI was calculated for both locations. The analysis showed that both Amherst and Braintree have a high degree of economic sustainability. However, it was revealed that proximity to a significant economic center has a more powerful positive impact on economic sustainability than the location of a large university.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Brazilian labelling regulation; energy efficiency; thermal comfort; university buildings.
Online: 21 August 2023 (08:58:00 CEST)
Thermal comfort is extremely important in architecture, especially in environments with more people spending longer on studies or intellectual activities. This research describes a case study to investigate university buildings' energy and thermal performance as a part of the ANEEL program. Due to this importance, and the need to save energy in Brazilian public buildings, the ANEEL-the Brazilian Energy Electricity Regulatory Agency, launched 2016 a national program focusing on energy efficiency in public universities around the country. University offices and classrooms require high intellectual effort; thus, environmental comfort is critical for maintaining its users' physical and mental health. This study included a pre-diagnosis of the performance of the envelope, lighting, and air conditioning systems and a survey about the quality of the environments from the users' point of view. The Prescriptive Method of the Brazilian Labeling Program (PBE) for Commercial, Service, and Public Buildings (RTQ-C) assessed the building performance. Statistical analysis was applied to correlate the quality and thermal preference of the users from the PMV/PPD. The results showed a high rate of thermal discomfort in both environments of the studies, even when using air conditioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: oral language competence; initial teacher education; university teachers; interdisciplinarity
Online: 31 May 2023 (10:57:21 CEST)
Recent studies highlight the need to introduce objectives in Initial Teaching Education focused on the development of oral language competence (OLC). The main aim of the study is to examine activities to promote the development of OLC that are carried out in university classrooms and their evaluation, to analyze the relationship between students’ awareness of OLC work and class activities and to identify proposals to improve students’ OLC. Participants were 175 university teachers who teach on the bachelor’s degree in Initial Teacher Education (ITE) and the master’s degree in Secondary Education (MSE) at seven Catalan universities. The data collection instrument was an online questionnaire with 69 questions. The results indicate that 92.5% of participants work on OLC in their subjects, that 76.5% propose activities that are specifically linked to OLC and that 65.1% of participants evaluate OLC in their subject. A total of 39.4% of participants reported the need to increase discussions to generate processes of collaborative and interdisciplinary reflection between university teachers from different areas of knowledge, among others. We conclude that professional development processes need to be designed for ITE teachers to reflect on how they help students to develop OLC from a pragmatic perspective.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Australia; cooperative learning; Iran; quality of implementation; university instructor
Online: 17 November 2021 (12:01:05 CET)
Cooperative learning (CL) is a teaching and learning pedagogy that has been used widely in school but there is limited information on instructors’ perceptions of CL nor observations of how CL is implemented in higher education settings. In this study, we investigated the ad-vantages and challenges of embedding CL into instructors’ teaching in Iran and Australia. Data were collected through interview and observation. Results showed that despite challenges such as the lack of familiarity of CL and how it can be implemented in university curricula, issues associated with assessment, and time constraints, CL created an interactive, pleasant and safe environment for deep learning in both countries. The findings showed that there were challenges in Iran such as a tendency to use traditional approaches to teaching, insufficient understanding of how to establish teamwork, and a lack of up-to-date teaching resources. In Australia, changing courses, working with external students, catering for individual differences, and building positive relationships were some of the challenges of implementing CL. We believe that these challenges can be overcome if university instructors are prepared to address them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0547.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Efficacy, Health Belief Model, Substance use, Intervention, University student
Online: 20 April 2021 (13:21:28 CEST)
Abstract Aim: To determine the efficacy of health beliefs model –based intervention in changing the belief related to substance use among university student in Mosul city-Iraq. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Methods: A probability (simple random sample) of (N=80) undergraduate student in different specialties would be selected. The study sample will be recruited from (4) colleges in the University of Mosul's Engineering, Sciences, Medicine and Education Colleges. The sample will be randomly assigned into experimental and control groups of (40) undergraduate student for each group. Such chosen is employed of pool of topics that have the criteria contain students who have using on (Smoking, Hookah, Drug abuse and Alcohol).For during from 25of October / 2019 till 1 of February/2021. Data is analyzed using the "Statistical Package for Social Science" (SPSS) software for Windows (V:26). Results: This finding indicated that before the intervention, mean scores for all concepts of HBM, add to Motivation, Control, and behaviors intensions of students they were almost equal. However, after the intervention were significantly different in the study group, while it was not significant in the control group. Conclusion:This study concluded that designing an HBM-based study could affect students' understanding and their behaviors in the field of substance abuse. Considering the positive correlation between construct of HBM, particularly in "perceived benefits and perceived severity" related to students’ beliefs. These beliefs implied a significant correlation with each other and with the attention to the prevention of addiction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0417.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: sustainable development goals; university; institutional policy; learning strategy; indicators
Online: 17 December 2020 (07:57:34 CET)
This paper presents a practical case illustrating how the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda have been designed and articulated in the context of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU). Even though there is a widespread formal adherence of universities to the SDGs, there is a lack of solid commitment to go beyond the compartmentalization of their implementation and to contribute to a holistic approach. The EHUagenda 2030 is a roadmap to move towards an integrated, verifiable and pragmatic contribution to this international agenda. It describes the UPV/EHU's contribution to 12 of the 17 SDGs, with the addition of its own commitment to linguistic and cultural diversity (SDG 17 + 1), along with the three sectoral plans: the Equality Campus, the Inclusion Campus and the Planet Campus. It also describes the refocus of its education model IKD i3; i3 is ikaskuntza x ikerketa x iraunkortasuna, Basque for learning x research x sustainability. Additionally, it includes the UPV/EHU’s Panel of Sustainable Development Indicators, which addresses the technical aspects of monitoring the implementation of the SDGs. The systematic methodology used in this process (mapping; mainstreaming; diagnosis and definition and, finally, estimation) and presented in this paper could be replicated in other universities yet to embark on this integration. The steps and findings presented here can also be applied to other organizations and help the integration process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0479.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: real monitoring; energy efficiency management system; wsan; majmaah university
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:58:31 CEST)
This research presents alternative solutions for an Energy Efficiency Management System (EEMS) serving as a framework for optimizing the energy consumption algorithm and lowering energy consumption. First, a monitoring Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (WSAN) is used for sensing, measuring, gathering data, and modeling all the dynamic disturbance parameters of the rooms in the building. Second, integrated software for metering and controlling the processes of digital data flow is used. Third, an alternative solution is proposed to reduce energy consumption. The primary benefits of this system are real-time monitoring; rapid, alternative solutions; and the ability to make a prudent decision on how to lower energy consumption. The system shows instant and accumulated solutions for short and long-term time planning. The solutions identified can be implemented in the same buildings under the same circumstances. The universities of Majmaah and Philadelphia have buildings with similar infrastructure. The system was applied to the buildings at Philadelphia University. The results were generalized to both universities. After implementation, the energy consumption of the EEMS using WSAN (based on the monitoring was reduced up to 23% when compared to that of the initial state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0334.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: University; emotional education; social ambit; cognitive domain; physical education degree
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:21:11 CET)
The objective of the present study was to apply an intervention program based on emotional ed-ucation and self-knowledge, in students of the degree in Education to verify changes in wisdom. For this, the 3S-WS questionnaire was administered before and after 8 weeks of intervention, an-alyzing aspects related to affective, cognitive and reflective wisdom. The sample consisted of 100 students (40 men and 60 women, aged between 20 and 29 years). After the intervention program, students improved reflective wisdom without difference between sexes. On the other hand, men had higher values in all variables than women. In conclusion, the program to improve personal development and self-awareness could be useful to improve wisdom (especially reflective wis-dom) in 3rd and 4th year students of the degree in Education, specializing in Physical Education. At the same time, it is intended that these students understand the foundations of the intervention so that in the future it can be replicated in their classrooms and contribute to the sustainable de-velopment of the 2030 Agenda.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Internet of things; Artificial Intelligence; Smart University; Microcontroller; Smart buildings
Online: 5 February 2021 (21:52:06 CET)
In this paper we designed system for smart university building based on artificial intelligence (AI) and internet of things (IOT). Our idea can be summarized in smart security system that has different sensors to detect the surrounding environment of the class room in campus which keep everyone and everything on campus safer. By using (IOT), (AI) technologies and applications and by using microcontroller programming we can make the university building safer, secure and more energy saves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0217.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Creating Shared Value; university-business contamination; living lab; sustainability science
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:38:20 CET)
This paper presents and discusses the pedagogical implication of teaching Shared Value, presenting a case study about a contamination lab namely the case of the Shared Value Living Lab (SVLL) which took place at the University of Torino (UniTO) in Italy. The paper analyzes the pedagogical side of CSV (arguments, topics, learning methodologies, etc.) in the framework of recent theories and approaches of teaching sustainability in business school and in the cooperation between industry and academia, as well. Our research methodology relies on the analysis and comparison of one case study under an intrinsic as it enables researchers to find “interactivity” and connectedness between the individuals participating. The SVLL case is an interesting example of co-creation of social value between academia and its stakeholders. First, it represents an inclusive project linking society and business; second, SVLL acted as a hub putting in contact different interlocutors; third, SVLL training stimulated the acquisition of soft skill in students (interviews, managing relations, represents the project outside university, explaining the project to people, research curiosity) through contamination activities. With our study, we demonstrate the change in students participating in the SVLL may not only be cognitive but also affective, making students feel hopeful, empowered and liberated, and ready to contribute to a more profound change towards the vast array of pro-sustainability behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0247.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: university; sociology of education; economism; social institution; higher education; modernization
Online: 27 February 2019 (05:04:32 CET)
On the termination of nearly twenty years since the beginning of commercialization of the Ukrainian higher education the intensity of discussion of its purposes, results and possible amendments don't decrease neither among experts, nor among the interested public. Supporters and opponents of commercialization note that education is that social branch which participates in the formation of prerequisites of economic growth. The main point of the article is to disclose the essence of the phenomena of economism and commercialization. Economism is seen as part of globalization of education, a global corporatization of education provides training for the global labour market, using human capital economic theories. As noted by George Spring, the human capital, economists argue that investments in education lead to economic growth, reducing income inequality and increasing employment. The article confirms that the state educational policy as a component of social policy is one of instruments of influence of the state on formation of social structure and is directed to the solution of problems of societal level. It does relevant sociological examination of transformational processes in education and, in particular, results of commercialization. Thus, it is possible to claim that the educational system tests the uncommon influence of globalization, forming and building a peculiar system of the relations and interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0226.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: vertical farming; zero acreage farming; university; sustainability; economics; climate change
Online: 11 October 2018 (04:05:17 CEST)
The world is facing several global issues such as food and energy crisis, climate change and greenhouse gases emissions. To subdue these issues, many entities from academia and industries have innovated alternate techniques of performing regular activities which cause such problems. One of these innovations is the introduction of vertical and zero acreage farming in the field of sustainability. These carry the potential to solve one of the most important affairs of food security in most countries of the world. But, this technology has been in its nascent stage for many years. This paper uses a comprehensive framework proving the feasibility of initiating vertical farming on university campuses to feed the staff and students, which could also set an example to the rest of the world into using this technique on a wider scale. The study chose Huazhong University of science and technology (HUST) in Wuhan city, China for accessing the return on investment and food sufficiency if vertical farming is implemented. Using Central Limit Theorem, a statistical model was developed, and various scenarios were analyzed. The results indicated that if a separate vertical farm is constructed, the breakeven can be achieved in a range of 10-20 depending on parameters such as type of operation, number of floors and amount of vegetation. The study has shown that the use of vertical farming cannot only bring in revenue for the campus but also aid in mitigating climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0466.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Environmental psychology; Active design; Physical activity; University campus; Factor analysis; ANOVA
Online: 6 June 2023 (14:46:15 CEST)
Environmental psychology plays an important role in the overall development of human mental health. Student activism and health concerns also arose about the human health costs associated with a healthy built environment. This research focuses on recent design "trends", active design, and their relationship to environmental psychology and campus health. This study investigates how an active design approach can improve the environmental psychology of universities to achieve a healthy campus for students to be healthy. The total student participants are 428, 176 male (41.2%) and 251 female (58.8%), from ten university campuses. The methodology is a questionnaire survey including an active design approach based on physical activity categories with SPSS analyses. The results of this study revealed that only 19.7% of students were active on campus, 74.6% active off campus, and 5.7% active on and off campus. Students are more interested in social activity than in mental and physical activity. In addition, the ob-stacles to students' physical inactivity are lack of time, opportunities on campus and the psychological feeling of anxiety, depression and tension due to social activity and work performance in universities. In conclusion, a model is designed to demonstrate the relationship between environmental psychology and active design variables
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0968.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: tobacco; cigarettes; nicotine addiction; Duke University; James B. Duke; modern medicine
Online: 26 April 2023 (07:38:11 CEST)
Duke University was founded in 1930 primarily due to funds generated from James B. Duke’s tobacco business. Duke achieved great financial wealth primarily due to the early application of machine rolled cigarettes, as opposed to hand rolled. This early adoption of technology allowed Duke Tobacco to out-produce other companies still selling hand rolled cigarettes. By making smoking more inexpensive and easier than pipe smoking, the cigarette formed the foundation for nicotine addiction in the 1900s, generating huge profits for the tobacco industry. At the time Duke University was founded, little was known about the connection between nicotine, cigarettes, and respiratory diseases such as emphysema and lung cancer. Through James Duke’s philanthropy, the devastating harm from cigarettes has been mitigated in part through the founding of one of the world’s most prominent medical centers and research universities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0016.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: University libraries; marketing; library sources and services; Social media; Facebook; Whatsapp
Online: 1 March 2022 (11:05:33 CET)
Purpose –The basic purpose of this paper is to find out the librarians perceptions, skills, most effective and constrains to use social media for the marketing purposes in the University libraries and to examine how these libraries perceive the importance of social media marketing. Design/methodology/approach –A nation-wide online survey on University libraries in the Pakistan was conducted to flourish this study, and a total number of 161 responses were used to analyze collected data. Findings –This study revealed the application of social media in university Libraries is very high .The results also disclosed that University libraries observe social media as a substantial tool to increase marketing of library sources and services anticipate to increase their use. Practical implications –The findings of this study can help as a parameter for University libraries when engaging social media for marketing purposes in their libraries. Originality/value –This study calculated the present situation of social media use for marketing in the University Libraries environment, a background that has been under-study in the literature, from these perspectives: perceptions, Skills, effectiveness, practices and constrains
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Depression; anxiety; stress; university healthcare workers; COVID-19; post–movement lockdown
Online: 16 November 2020 (13:46:33 CET)
This study investigated the prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, and stress and determined the association between various factors, social support, and depression and anxiety among university healthcare workers in Malaysia after the government lifted the movement control order (MCO) put in place to curb the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This online, cross-sectional survey recruited 399 participants from two university hospitals, and they were administered a self-reported questionnaire on demographic, personal, and clinical characteristics; COVID-19-related stressors; and coping. In addition, they completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) to measure perceived social support, as well as the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to assess depression, anxiety, and stress. We found that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress were 21.8%, 31.6%, and 29.1%, respectively. Participants with moderate to extremely severe depression, anxiety, and stress made up 13.3%, 25.8%, and 8.1% of the sample, respectively. Being single or divorced, fear of frequent exposure to COVID-19 patients, those who agreed that their area of living had a high prevalence of COVID-19 cases, and uncertainty regarding the prevalence of COVID-19 cases in the area of living were associated with higher odds of depression and anxiety. Conversely, having more than three children and greater perceived friend support were associated with lower odds of depression and anxiety. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress remained elevated even after the MCO was lifted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy efficiency indices; data visualization; clustering algorithms; university campus; energy management
Online: 10 April 2018 (10:40:47 CEST)
In this paper, we propose a simple tool to help the energy management of a large buildings stock defining clusters of buildings with the same function, setting alert thresholds for each cluster, and easily recognizing outliers. The objective is to enable a building management system to be used for detection of abnormal energy use. First, we framed the issue of energy performance indicators, and how they feed into data visualization (Data Viz) tools for a large building stock, especially for university campuses. Both for Data Viz and clustering algorithm processes, we discussed two possible approaches to choose the right number of clusters and the identification of alert thresholds and outliers, after a brief presentation of the University of Turin's building stock case study. Different Data Viz tools have been studied to apply a specific clustering algorithm, the k-means one. An explorative analysis based on the general Multidimensional detective approach by Inselberg has been performed. Two multidimensional analysis tools, the Scatter Plot Matrix and the Parallel coordinates method have been used. Secondly, the k-means clustering algorithm has been applied on the same dataset in order to test the hypothesis made during the explorative analysis. Data Viz techniques developed in this study revealed to be very useful to explore quickly and simply a large buildings' stock, identifying the worst efficient buildings and clustering them according to their distinct functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0390.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Investment; university; campus open spaces; student experience; typology; assessment; intensity of use.
Online: 17 April 2023 (03:53:06 CEST)
As universities increasingly compete to improve students’ experience through investment in their campuses, well-designed Campus Open Spaces (COSs) become a major feature as well as a marketing tool. Well-designed and managed COSs are increasingly attractive to students and increase the number of public visits to university campuses (footfall). Current literature does not provide planners with evidence of what makes a COS add value to the student experiences. As such, this paper aims to find the nexus between the value/cost of COS and the attractiveness to - and enhanced experience of - students. This aim is approached via a three-phase integrative framework and results in a validated assessment model with a ‘COS Exp score’ that quantifies the most used/vital, best used/engaging, and most valued/beneficial COS. The data was gathered from in-depth analysis of 21 universities in the UK & USA. The conclusion offers valuable insights into improving experience-based outdoor space developments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: public policy; science policy; technology; technology commercialization; technology transfer; university technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (09:33:38 CET)
This paper presents an alternative conceptualization and definition of technology in the context of university technology transfer. The ambiguity regarding the conceptualization of technology is apparent in the technology transfer literature. An expanded conceptualization of technology potentially opens new approaches to researching the topic of technology transfer. It may also cause policymakers to think more comprehensively about what it means to successfully transfer technologies derived from federally funded research to the private sector for use that benefits the public interest. This paper integrates constructs and ideas in the related literature to provide a new perspective of technology that can support future scholarly research and public policy formulation about technology transfer in general, and university technology transfer specifically. Although the paper focuses on university technology transfer to the private sector in the United States, the insights it presents are relevant to technology transfer more broadly and applicable in other geopolitical contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0042.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: e-record; COVID-19 era; electronic memorandum; e-memo; ICT; university administration
Online: 4 July 2022 (08:51:23 CEST)
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Straw Hat University; Farmer's Professor; Rural Transformation; Targeted poverty alleviation in China
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:40:08 CEST)
China is out of extreme poverty in 2020 on schedule and one decade in advance to fulfill the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and became the first developing country to alleviate poverty in half century. Therefore, a large numbers of effective approaches are emerging, and the intellectual’s technology-led poverty reduction, which locally known as the “Straw Hat University”initiated by “Farmer's professor”mode, is the most tried and tested approach motivated by the intellectual’s “Serve the people” tradition and supported by the all nation. This research conduct case analysis with three most remarkable organic intellectuals as Agronomist Yuan longping, Mycologist Lin Zhanxi and Plant pathologist Zhu Youyong with their bridging gaps in food security, regional imbalance and ethnic disparity respectively to sort out the sustainable modules and universal experiences. The conclusion indicates that“Farmer's Professor” Initiated “Straw Hat University” is an effective approach to solve human beings’ development problems and benefit the livelihoods, especially in the under development regions; and the authentic down to earth experiments into productivity as well as the Intellectual property transformation is the perfect path to deploy offline and online resources building the effective production and supply chain to integrate industries by intellectual’s critical innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: environmental health science; community engagement; community based participatory research; community-university partnerships
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:07:29 CET)
Community-engaged research is understood as existing on a continuum from less to more community engagement, defined by participation and decision-making authority. It has been widely assumed that more is better than less engagement. However, we argue that what makes for good community engagement is not simply the extent but the fit or alignment between the intended approach and the various contexts shaping the research projects. This article draws on case studies from three Community Engagement Cores (CECs) of NIEHS-funded Environmental Health Science Core Centers (Harvard University, UC Davis and University of Arizona,) to illustrate the ways in which community engagement approaches have been fit to different contexts and the successes and challenges experienced in each case. We analyze the processes through which the CECs work with researchers and community leaders to develop place-based community engagement approaches and find that different strategies are called for to fit distinct contexts. We find that alignment of the scale and scope of the environmental health issue and related research project, the capacities and resources of the researchers and community leaders, and the influences of the socio-political environment are critical for understanding and designing effective and equitable engagement approaches. These cases demonstrate that the types and degrees of alignment in community-engaged research projects are dynamic and evolve over time. Based on this analysis, we recommend that CBPR scholars and practitioners select a range of project planning and management techniques for designing and implementing their collaborative research approaches and both expect and allow for the dynamic and changing nature of alignment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0139.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: university course scheduling; mathematical modeling; integer programming; GAMS optimization; exacrt search; sensitivity analysis
Online: 8 March 2023 (02:49:43 CET)
University course scheduling (UCS) is one of the most important and time-consuming issues that all educational institutions face yearly. Most of the existing techniques to model and solve UCS problems have applied approximate methods, which are different in terms of efficiency, performance, and optimization speed. Accordingly, this research aims to apply an exact optimization method to provide an optimal solution to the course scheduling problem. In other words, in this research, an integer programming model is presented to solve the USC problem. In this model, hard and soft constraints include the facilities of classrooms, courses of different levels and compression of students' curriculum, courses outside the faculty and planning for them, and the limited time allocated to the professors. The objective is to maximize the weighted sum of allocating available times to professors based on their preferences in all periods. To evaluate the presented model's feasibility, it is implemented using the GAMS software. Finally, the presented model is solved in a larger dimension using a real data set from a college in China and compared with the current program in the same college. The obtained results show that considering the mathematical model's constraints and objective function, the faculty courses' timetable is reduced from 4 days a week to 3 working days. Moreover, master courses are planned in two days, and the courses in the educational groups do not interfere with each other. Furthermore, by implementing the proposed model for the real case study, the maximum teaching hours of the professors are significantly reduced. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed model and solution method in terms of optimization speed and solution accuracy.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0532.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: National Qualification Framework; education performance; university barriers; edu-cation system; Bosnia and Herzegovina
Online: 21 May 2021 (17:20:56 CEST)
Education is the bedrock of any nation. It is essential for individual and societal growth and development. This triggers the demand for quality education which simultaneously increases with a growing demand for quality assurance. This study investigated the role of quality assurance in achieving the expected outcome of education in Bosnia and Herzegovina’s higher education system. Comparative development is looked at by examining other National Qualification Frameworks. The study was based on textual reviews and descriptive analysis on student enrollment and programs of studies. Unlike the global trend, it can be seen that student enrollment is on the decline in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was found that quality assurance is an indispensable tool for strengthening the higher education system and for achieving the desired change and outcomes, that education offers. It was also found that study programs and curricula are pivotal for teaching and learning processes, and that a unified qualification framework is essential for achieving set objectives of education at all levels. The study recommended, among other things, that sound quality assurance systems as well as appropriate structure for monitoring and accreditation be put in place and be judiciously followed in order to achieve the desired outcomes in conjunction with the set objectives of higher education. Moreover, vital thoroughly analyzed pressures (i.e., democratic, economic, and systemic) barriers show signs of epistemological, political, and institutional barriers in the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0099.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: COVID–19; combat; Inter–Agency Task Force (IATF); pandemic; safety and security; university
Online: 4 December 2020 (11:09:02 CET)
To define and evaluate the areas of consideration concerning in identifying the critical factors that top universities in Nueva Ecija, Philippines can be used for triangulating the courses of actions that can be applied to improve the current practices of universities towards its combat to the COVID–19 disease is the primary objective of this study. The researchers used a descriptive design of methodology by using questionnaire–checklist to scientifically describe the situation, problems, phenomenon, or program, or provide information about certain issues related to the virus outbreak. The respondents of the study were faculty and staff of five established universities in Nueva Ecija, Philippines wherein the researchers employed a non–probability sampling technique to be logically assumed as the representative of the entire population. The results of the study shown that the top universities in Nueva Ecija have made efforts to ensure the safety of university workers by complying with the Inter–Agency Task Force (IATF) protocols. It can be inferred, in reality, that there are some areas that must be improved especially when it comes to ensuring the welfare of the personnel who are still reporting to work even in this time of the pandemic. The researchers suggested an enhancement plan that can be adapted by these universities to resolve the concerns of the faculty and staff especially in reducing the spread of the virus without sacrificing the day–to–day transactions of the academic institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Leadership, management, competency-based learning, organizational performance, institutions of higher learning, university, education
Online: 15 March 2019 (10:04:47 CET)
This paper presents a brief account and rationale for implementation of competency-based learning in any form of management and leadership development programmes in South Africa. The fact that competency-based learning (CBL), also known as outcomes-based learning has been scrapped from the schooling system in South Africa is unfortunate as this method enhances critical thinking skills and practical problem-solving skills. This paper presents CBL as a model of meta-cognitive approach to learning that integrates both theory and practice into experiential learning through six dimensions, namely, active learning, constructive learning, cumulative learning, goal-oriented learning, learner-centred and curriculum design strategies. In the advent of the fast-paced global economy, managers and leaders need to seek those business schools that value real-time practical approach to curriculum for relevance and to maximize shareholder value through human resource development. This brief presentation ends by recommending an approach through CBL that fosters three critical pillars of leadership development, namely: intellectual, behavioural and emotional agenda.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0665.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: university and higher education; sustainability; change and transformation; sustainable development goals; living labs
Online: 29 October 2018 (09:43:58 CET)
Universities can do more to deliver against the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), working with faculty, staff and students as well as their wider stakeholder community and alumni body. They play a critical role in helping shape new ways for the world, educating global citizens and delivering knowledge and innovation into society – universities can be engines of societal transformation. Here, using a case study approach, different ways of strategizing sustainability in a university setting are explored with an example from the UK, Europe and USA. The first case is a public UK university that adopted enterprise and sustainability as its academic mission to secure differentiation in a disrupted and increasingly marketized global higher education sector which then became a source of inspiration for change in regional businesses and the local community. The second case study is a business sector-led sustainability-driven transformation working with a private university in Bulgaria to catalyze economic regeneration and social innovation. Finally, the case of Harvard’s Office for Sustainability engagement program is given to show how this approach connects faculty and students with institutional sustainability plans and external partners. Each case is a living lab, positioning sustainability as an intentional strategy. Leadership at all levels, and by students, was key to success in acting with purpose. Partnerships within and with universities can help accelerate delivery of the SDGs, with higher education making a fuller contribution to sustaining the economic, cultural and intellectual well-being of our global communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0276.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: entrepreneurial university; entrepreneurship; faculties of education; self-perception; triple helix; third mission; teacher training.
Online: 16 September 2021 (11:03:53 CEST)
Universities have increasingly incorporated a third mission into their strategic planning. In addition to teaching and research, they have emphasised the training of entrepreneurs. However, there is still a lot of work to be done, as this process is facing resistance. The Entrepreneurial University covers all disciplines, including faculties of education. However, it has been shown that entrepreneurship tends to be more related to the faculties of economics and engineering, with a lesser presence in the faculties of education for various reasons: they consider entrepreneurship to be alien to their teaching role, there is a lack of entrepreneurial culture, and the objective of the Entrepreneurial University is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyse the level of entrepreneurship in Spanish faculties and schools of education. Forty deans and heads of education faculties in Spain took part in the survey. The results indicated a sufficient level of entrepreneurship; the dimensions related to active methodologies, and mission and strategy were the most developed, whereas entrepreneurship funding and entrepreneurship training for faculty employees were the least developed areas. Some deans noted that entrepreneurship was alien to their professional performance, although courses and good practices for the development of entrepreneurial initiative are gradually being implemented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1763.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: cloud computing; unified theory of acceptance and use of technology model; Matomo analytics; nextcloud; university
Online: 27 October 2023 (09:29:58 CEST)
Cloud platforms are widely employed in today's educational context to enhance collaborative learning and the overall quality of the teaching-learning process. In 2016, Nextcloud was im-plemented in the Faculty of Chemical Engineering at the Technological University of Havana "José Antonio Echeverría" (CUJAE), Cuba. Subsequently, an evaluative phase was conducted to ensure the continuous development of the platform. The objective was to assess the use and ac-ceptance of the Nextcloud platform from the perspective of students and professors in the Fac-ulty. An exploratory, non-experimental, and cross-sectional study was conducted. Data was col-lected through observation and a survey. Matomo Analytics tool was employed for observation, revealing low visitation numbers. The survey was based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model. Better results were obtained in positive acceptances compared to negative ones, both for professors and students. It is concluded that the evaluation of the Next-cloud platform is infrequently used by users; however, there were higher positive acceptances than negatives from the perspectives of both students and professors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0089.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Acceptance; COVID-19; Cross-sectional study; Federal University of Health Sciences Otukpo; Vaccine hesitancy; Nigeria
Online: 3 May 2023 (02:51:50 CEST)
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has had devastating impacts on the global economy and public health. This study aimed to assess the level of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, hesitancy, and associated factors among staff and students of the Federal University of Health Sciences Otukpo, Benue State, Nigeria. A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted between November 2021 and April 2022, and data were collected and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Of the 150 completed and analyzed questionnaires, the majority of respondents (80.0%) were between 16 and 45 years old. The study found that 58.4% of participants indicated vaccine hesitancy, with skepticism about the vaccine's fast production/rollout and fear of vaccine side effects being the most common reasons for hesitation. Respondents' age, religion, and category were significant factors influencing vaccine acceptance and hesitancy (P < 0.05). The university community has a high level of awareness of COVID-19 but low vaccine acceptance, resulting in high levels of vaccine hesitancy. The study recommends that policymakers and public health officials should prioritize testing and vaccination for job categories with higher risk of exposure to COVID-19. They should provide accurate information about COVID-19 testing and vaccination and implement workplace-based testing and vaccination programs. These interventions can help to increase COVID-19 testing and vaccination uptake among the university community and mitigate the spread of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0038.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; eating habits; physical activity; MEDAS-14; Emotional eating questionnaire (EEQ) and university population.
Online: 2 December 2021 (12:52:17 CET)
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic, eating and physical activity behaviours, in a University population. A healthy diet such as the Mediterranean Diet (MD) pattern, rich in fruit and vegetables can prevent degenerative diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, etc. (2) Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study, data were collected by an anonymous online questionnaire. Participants completed a survey consisting of 3 sections: sociodemographic data; dietary and physical activity behaviour; questionnaire of the Mediterranean Diet (MEDAS-14) and the emotional eater questionnaire Garaulet (EEQ). (3) Results: A total of 168 participants completed the questionnaire 66.7% women, from Spain 79.2%, 76.8% students, living in family home 76.2% and in normal weight 66.1% . Our population did the grocery 1 or less per week (76.8%); decreased or stay the same the consumption of fruits (57.1%), vegetables (58.9%), dairy products (74.4%), pulses (73.2%), fish/seafood (76.8%), white meat (83.3%), red and processed meat (91.1%), snacks (78.6%), rice/pasta/potatoes (78.6%), nuts (83.9%), low alcohol drinks (89.3%), spirits (98.8%) and sugary drinks (91.7%) . Increased cooking time (73.2%) and decreased or stay the same their physical activity (63.7%). University Employees increased more weight (1.01±0.02) than students (0.99±0.03) (p<0.05). 79.8% of the participant obtained a Medium/High Adherence to the MD. Emotional and very emotional eaters were higher in women group (p<0.01). (4) Conclusions: In the event of further confinement, strategies should be implemented to promote a balanced and healthy diet together with the practice of physical activity, taking special care of the group of women and University Employees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0468.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; critical realism; emergency remote teaching; higher education; rural-based university; unintended pedagogical consequences
Online: 31 October 2022 (06:43:22 CET)
In this empirical article, we argue that, while emergency remote teaching (ERT) may have achieved its goal of saving the academic years during the COVID-19 pandemic, it also constructed unintended pedagogical consequences that were possibly overlooked at the time of advocating it. The research question that the article attempted to answer is, what unintended pedagogical consequences did students and lecturers suffer because of the move to ERT at rural-based universities (RBUs) in South Africa? Drawing on students' and lecturers’ lived experiences of ERT, this article foregrounds unintended pedagogical consequences that arose at one RBU in South Africa during the transition from face-to-face teaching to ERT. Underpinned by the tenets of critical realism philosophy, as well as student integration theory, in-depth interviews with three lecturers and six students were conducted. The findings of the study indicate that home conditions, individual characteristics, pre-COVID-19 blended learning experiences, university training and support, and teaching, learning, and assessment practices and policies altogether contributed to the construction of unintended pedagogical consequences of ERT presented in this article. These consequences include (1) exclusion of low-income students in active teaching and learning, (2) equipping middle-class students with better chances of success than working-class students. (3) distressing female students and lecturers more than their male counterparts, and (4) unproductive assessment practices. This study may be beneficial to academics and policymakers from similar contexts in their plight to continue with remote teaching and assessment (RTA) beyond the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0060.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-Cov-2; coronavirus; disease outbreaks; students; university; health promotion; public health; mass testing
Online: 2 December 2020 (11:41:01 CET)
We aimed to explore student and staff perceptions and experiences of a pilot COVID-19 asymptomatic testing service (P-ATS) in a UK university campus setting. This was a mixed-method study comprised of an online survey, and thematic analysis of qualitative data from interviews and focus groups conducted at the end of the 12-week P-ATS programme. Ninety-nine students (84.8% female, 70% first year; 93.9% P-ATS participants) completed an online survey, 41 individuals attended interviews or focus groups, including 31 students (21 first year; 10 final year) and 10 staff. All types of testing and logistics were highly acceptable (virus: swab, saliva; antibody: finger prick) and 94.9% would participate again. Reported adherence to weekly virus testing was high (92.4% completed ≥6 tests; 70.8% submitted all 10 swabs; 89.2% completed ≥1 saliva sample) and 76.9% submitted ≥3 blood samples. Students tested to ‘keep campus safe’, ‘contribute to national efforts to control COVID-19’, and ‘protect others’. 31.3% had high anxiety as measured by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) (27.1% of first year). Students with lower levels of anxiety and greater satisfaction with university communications around P-ATS were more likely to adhere to virus and antibody tests. Increased adherence to testing was associated with higher perceived risk of COVID-19 to self (virus) and others (antibody). Qualitative findings revealed 5 themes and 13 sub-themes: ‘emotional responses to COVID-19’, ‘university life during COVID-19’, ‘influences on testing participation’, ‘testing physical and logistical factors’ and ‘testing effects on mental wellbeing’. Asymptomatic COVID-19 testing (virus/antibodies) is highly acceptable to students and staff in a university campus setting. Clear communications and support for mental wellbeing is likely to be important for testing uptake and adherence. Strategies are needed to facilitate social connections and mitigate the mental health impacts of COVID-19 and self-isolation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0233.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: water; climate change; territorial context; sustainable development goals; Agenda 2030; university students; climate literacy; social representation
Online: 20 November 2019 (03:38:43 CET)
The relationship between Climate Change and Water is an obvious and key issue within the Sustainable Development Goals. This study aims to investigate the social representation created around this relationship in three different territorial contexts in order to evaluate the influence of the territory on the perception of the risk of Climate Change and its relationship with water. By means of a questionnaire completed by 1709 university students, the climatic literacy of the individual was evaluated in order to relate it to other dimensions on the relationship between Climate Change and Water (information, training previous on climate change and pro-environmental attitudes) in their different dimensions in three different territorial contexts. The results show that the socio-cultural context influences the social representation of Climate Change, but not from the climatological condition, so that it is reasonable to think that the social representation of this relationship is favoured by a common culture around this relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0073.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: research concepts; tacu; literature review model; postgraduate; challenges; C.O.S.T.A model; institutions of higher learning; university; education
Online: 8 April 2019 (06:10:38 CEST)
Postgraduate research is a massive stumbling block to students who had never had an opportunity of exposure to research methods. A study conducted by the researcher (Costa, 2018) revealed challenges in postgraduate supervision—one of these challenges was lack of exposure to research language by students. Qualitative research and its complexities due to a variety of approaches including rigour determination pose a plethora of challenges to novice researchers. This document presents C.O.S.T.A model as a tool suitable for use by academics and students, with a panoramic view of steps to be taken first to understand foundational concepts and the language of research and secondly to make informed choices on the research methods and design strategy options available for the prospective researcher. Conclusions drawn on the reliability of the model are based on empirical evidence of application of the model observed over a period of 12 months, with some students testifying to have passed their research projects satisfactorily at their respective leading universities in South Africa. Secondary research also provides voluminous sources of success of similar research supervision programmes both in South Africa and abroad.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0504.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: science policy; technology policy; technology; technology maturity level; technology readiness level; technology commercialization; technology transfer; university technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (10:45:25 CET)
This paper presents the results of a study aimed at understanding how technology maturity level influences the incidence of university technology transfer to the private sector. The study examined the topic from the perspective of private sector organizations. It used data from a random sample of patent applications filed with the United States Patent and Trademark Office and a theoretically guided sampling of multiple cases of private sector organizations that contemplated obtaining and assimilating technologies created at universities in the United States. The patent application data were analyzed using nonparametric statistical techniques and the case data were analyzed using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). The findings of the study suggest that the typical maturity level of technologies created at U.S. universities is a TRL-5 or lower on as scale adapted from the NASA technology readiness level (TRL) scale. A technology maturity level of TRL-6 or higher is likely an insufficient but necessary part of at least one unnecessary but sufficient configuration of conditions that tends to result in the occurrence of university technology transfer. However, under certain circumstances, a technology maturity level of at least TRL-6 could be a sufficient but unnecessary condition for the occurrence of university technology transfer. These findings have several important implications. First, they provide support for the notion that university technology transfer is subject to causal complexity. Moreover, it may be possible to increase the incidence of university technology transfer in the United States by implementing public policy and practices that explicitly take technology maturity level into consideration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: sustainability; transportation; fleet management; campus; university; renewable energy; energy transition; economic analysis; risk management; modelling; ghg emissions reduction
Online: 6 January 2023 (02:27:18 CET)
The global transport sector of the world economy contributes about 15% of the Greenhouse Gas (GHGs) emissions in the world today. The University of Saskatchewan has pursued the green energy transition over the years. They have spearheaded diverse sustainability projects and agendas, due to the importance of curbing climate change and advancing sustainability. The transport system in the university campus is one area of focus where the Sustainability Office plans to introduce some innovations, as a way of curbing GHG emissions while also advancing sustainability practice in the university campus. The study carried out an economic benefit analysis on the campus fleet (consisting of 91 ICE vehicles) to determine if it is economically or financially feasible to transition from Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) or PVs (Petrol Vehicles) to Electric Vehicles (EVs). The analysis used RETScreen Expert software for analyzing renewable energy technology projects. The variables of Payback Period (PBP), cash flow projections, savings made from transitioning (fuel cost savings and energy cost savings), Benefit-Cost-ratio, GHG emission reduction potential, etc. were analyzed. The findings revealed that the GHG emission from the campus fleet will be reduced by 100% (this will result in the removal of about 298.1 tCO₂ from the environment). Also, the fleet manager will save approximately $129,049 (88.9%) in fuel costs. Apart from these, the return on investment will be achieved in year 5 (all things being equal), but can be reduced to year 2 if the vehicles are put into constant and active use (eliminating most idle times. Also, the Sustainability Office will be making a GHG reduction revenue of $14,906.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: regenerative higher education; podcasting as qualitative inquiry; ecological university; sustaina-bility transitions; regenerative education practices; regenerative education design
Online: 28 June 2022 (03:57:41 CEST)
Abstract Universities have the potential, and the responsibility, to take on more ecological and relational approaches to facilitating learning-based change in times of interconnected socio-ecological crises. Signs for a transition towards these more regenerative approaches of higher education (RHE) that include more place-based, ecological, and relational, ways of educating can already be found in niches across Europe (see for example the proliferation of education-based living labs, field labs, challenge labs). In this paper, the results of a podcast-based inquiry into the design practices and barriers of enacting such forms of RHE are shown. This study revealed seven educational practices that occurred across the innovation niches. It is important to note these practices are enacted in different ways, or are locally nested in unique expressions, For example, while the ‘practice’ of Cultivating Personal Transformations was represented across the included cases, the way these transformations were cultivated were unique expressions of each context. These RHE-design practices are derived from twenty-six narrative-based podcasts as interviews recorded in the April through June 2021 period. The resulting podcast (The Regenerative Education Podcast) was published on all major streaming platforms from October 2021 and included 21 participants active in Dutch Universities, 1 in Sweden, 1 in Germany, 1 in France, and 3 primarily online. Each episode engages with a leading practitioner, professor, teacher, and/or activist that is trying to connect their educational practice to making the world a more equitable, sustainable, and regenerative place. The episodes ranged from 30 to 70 minutes in total length and included both English (14) and Dutch (12) interviews. These episodes were analyzed through transition mapping a method based on story analysis and transition design. The results include seven design practices such as Cultivating Personal Transformations, Nurturing Ecosystems of Support, and Tackling Relevant and Urgent Transition Challenges, as well as a preliminary design tool that educational teams can use together with students and local agents in (re)designing their own RHE to connect their educational praxis with transition challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1971.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: pedestrian realm; campus design; public space; urban space; path-network; university layout; Christopher Alexander; Jane Jacobs; Visual Attention Software
Online: 31 October 2023 (03:55:42 CET)
The challenge of campus design, like other aspects of contemporary environmental design, reveals a serious problem in education and practice. The foundational design theories of a century ago have been exposed as an obsolete way of thinking about cities, human nature, biological nature, and even the nature of mathematical and physical structures. Yet in practice, these discredited models persist, obscured by new theoretical language and extravagant “neoplastic” forms, but embodying persistent though untested ideologies and driven by systems inertia. This paper considers the campus design typology (including business campuses, commercial districts, hospitals, and schools) as a design paradigm for pedestrian public space with implications for human flourishing and well-being. We propose a specific human-oriented design method to encourage the well-being of occupants and improve the outcomes for creative development, education, and health.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: mineral physics; ultrasonic interferometry; resonant ultrasound spectroscopy; law of corresponding states; equations-of-state; Columbia University; American Geophysical Union
Online: 29 March 2019 (07:54:57 CET)
From 1964 to the early 1970s, Orson Anderson led a research program at the Lamont Geological Observatory in the newly-emerging field of “mineral physics”. In collaboration with colleagues Edward Schreiber and Naohiro Soga, Orson exploited the techniques of physical acoustics to study the behavior of the sound velocities of minerals at elevated pressures and temperatures. This research program also included semi-empirical studies of relationships between the bulk modulus and the molar volume of solids and the use of lattice dynamics to calculate the elastic moduli of cubic structures as a function of pressure to predict instabilities, as well as theoretical investigations of the Lagrangian vs. Eulerian formulations of finite strain equations of state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1992.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: university business collaboration; critical thinking; curriculum co-design, development and delivery; employability; research project; labour market; higher education; soft skills
Online: 30 August 2023 (04:07:19 CEST)
University-Business partnership for collaborative curriculum design, development and delivery is possibly the less explored dimension of University Business Collaboration (UBC). Even if some models for curricular design and development might be available, scarce information exists on how the partnership is constructed, the new curricula are designed, developed and how they are implemented. This article intends to present and discuss the experience obtained during a three-year European funded Project, namely Think4Jobs. This project exemplifies the significance and benefits of UBC in the design, development and delivery of curricula that meet the evolving demands of the labour market while promoting Critical Thinking (CT) as a foundational 21st century skill to contribute to graduates' employability. Think4Jobs project brought together a multidisciplinary team of researchers and business organisations from five European countries (Germany, Greece, Lithuania, Portugal and Romania) with interests in promoting and developing CT and mitigating eventual competence gaps. The project's success was attributed to key practices, including defining a common conceptualization of CT, employing participatory co-design, and providing common training for university and business partners. Clear objectives, explicit roles, effective communication, and ongoing evaluation further enhanced the collaboration. Experiential learning, real-work problems, and case studies reinforced the curricula, bridging the gap between academia and the labour market. By embracing these insights, future UBC initiatives can empower graduates with the necessary skills to stand out in an ever-changing labour market, contributing to enhanced education and successful careers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0229.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI); CLOs; educational tools; hybrid learning; integrated management system; learning management system; PLOs; technology-embedded teaching; web-based teaching
Online: 26 January 2022 (11:54:27 CET)
With the rapid surge in technological advancements, an equal amount of investment in technology-embedded teaching has become vital to pace up with the ongoing educational needs. Distance education has evolved from the era of postal services to the use of ICT tools in current times. With the aid of globally updated content across the board, technology usage ensures all students receive equal attention without any discrimination. Importantly, web-based teaching allows all kind of students to learn at their own pace, without the fear of being judged, including professionals who can learn remotely without disturbing their job schedules. Having web-based content allows low-cost and robust implementation of the content upgradation. An improved, yet effective, version of the education using such tools is Hybrid Learning (HL). This learning mode aims to provide luxurious reinforcement to its legitimate candidates while maintaining the quality standards of various elements. Incorporated with both traditional and distance learning methods, along with exploiting social media tools for increased comfort level and peer-to-peer collaboration, HL ultimately facilitates the end user and educational setup. The structure of such a hybrid model is realized by delivering the study material via a learning management system (LMS) designed in compliance with quality standards, which is one of the fundamental tackling techniques for controlling quality constraints. In this paper, we present the recently piloted project by COMSATS University Islamabad (previously known as COMSATS Institute of Information Technology) which is driven by technology-embedded teaching model. This model is an amalgam of the traditional class room model with the aid of state-of-the-art online learning technologies. The students are enrolled as full-time students, with all the courses in traditional classroom mode, except one course offered as hybrid course. This globally adapted model helps the students to benefit from both face-to-face learning as well as gaining hands-on experience on technology-enriched education model providing flexibility of timings, learning pace, and boundaries. Our HL model is equipped with two major synchronous and asynchronous blocks. The synchronous block delivers real-time live interaction scenarios using discussion boards, thereby providing a face-to-face environment. Interactions via social network has witnessed equally surging improvement in the output performance. The asynchronous block refers to the lecture videos, slides and handouts, prepared by imminent professors, available 24/7 for students. To ensure quality output, our HL model follows the course learning outcomes (CLOs), and program learning outcomes (PLOs) as per international standards. As a proof of concept, we have deployed a mechanism at the end of each semester to verify the effectiveness of our model. This mechanism fundamentally surveys the satisfaction levels of all the students enrolled in the HL courses. With the surveys already conducted, a significant level of satisfaction has been noted. Extensive results from these surveys are presented in the paper to further validate the efficiency and robustness of our proposed HL model.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: digital competence; teacher education; privacy; cyber security; Internet; teachers; university; initial training; Competencia digital; formación del profesorado; privacidad; seguridad cibernética; Internet; docentes; universidad; formación inicial
Online: 17 October 2019 (12:22:39 CEST)
The use of technologies and the Internet poses problems and risks related to digital security. This article presents the results of a study on the evaluation of the digital competence of future teachers in the DigCompEdu European framework. 317 undergraduate students from Spain and Portugal answered a questionnaire with 59 items, validated by experts, in order to assess the level and predominant competence profile in initial training (including knowledge, uses and interactions and attitudinal patterns). The results show that 47% of the participants belong to the profile of teachers at medium digital risk, evidencing habitual practices that involve risks such as sharing information and digital content inappropriately, not using strong passwords, and ignoring concepts such as identity, digital “footprint” and digital reputation. The average valuations of each item in the seven categories show that future teachers have an average competence in the area of digital security. They have good attitudes toward security but less knowledge and fewer skills and practices related to the safe and responsible use of the Internet. Future lines of work are proposed, aimed at responding to the demand for a better prepared and more digitally competent citizenry. The demand for education in security, privacy and digital identity is becoming increasingly important, and these elements form an essential part of initial training.