ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0274.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: underground gas storage; delta-pressuring; integrated analysis; UGS characterization; UGS management; UGS monitoring
Online: 5 April 2018 (15:12:09 CEST)
The development of an underground gas storage (UGS) project and its subsequent management must ensure technical feasibility, commercial value and long-term efficiency. The UGS industry has borrowed much of its knowledge from other disciplines (primarily oil and gas reservoir engineering), but it has also developed its own technology. This paper provides a methodological approach based on current practices and available methods for designing and safely operating a UGS (including the so-called “delta-pressure” option to enhance UGS performance) and highlights what is special in UGS compared to oil and gas reservoirs.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: 3D data model; underground utility networks; underground space planning; underground mapping; utility cadastre; land administration
Online: 14 August 2019 (07:43:43 CEST)
With the pressure of the increasing density of urban areas, some public infrastructures are moving to the underground to free up space above, such as utility lines, rail lines and roads. In the big data era, the three dimensional (3D) data can be beneficial to understand the complex urban area. Comparing to spatial data and information of the above ground, we lack of the precise and detailed information about underground infrastructures, such as the spatial information of underground infrastructure, the ownership of underground objects and the interdependence of infrastructures in the above and below ground. How to map reliable 3D underground utility networks and use it in the land administration? First, to explain the importance of this work and find a possible solution, this paper observes the current issues of the existing underground utility database in Singapore. A framework for utility data governance is proposed to manage the work process from the underground utility data capture to data usage. This is the backbone to support the coordination of different roles in the utility data governance and usage. Then, an initial design of the 3D underground utility data model is introduced to describe the 3D geometric and spatial information about underground utility data and connect it to the cadastral parcel for land administration. In the case study, the newly collected data from mobile Ground Penetrating Radar is integrated with the existing utility data for 3D modelling. It is expected to explore the integration of new collected 3D data, the existing 2D data and cadastral information for land administration of underground utilities.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0428.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Underground mines; Rail transportation; Underground transportation; Monitoring and control system; Mining industry.
Online: 16 April 2021 (09:40:25 CEST)
With the continuous development of the mining industry, the world's major mines have gradually entered the intelligent stage. In the intelligent underground mine, the operation road of the underground transportation equipment is very complicated, and the monitoring and control of the underground traffic has become a problem to be solved in the intelligent underground mine. Therefore, on the basis of solving the practical problems of underground mines, the concept paper discusses the possibility of the rail transit monitoring system being applied to underground mines through the summary and induction of the related literature and propose the design for the CBTC system to solve the problems in the underground mine rail transportation. As the mining engineers, we put forward the concept of this design for the CBTC system in this concept paper, but we need to continue to work hard for the future development of the underground mines. And the concept paper serves as a guide to the Tossing out a brick to get a jade gem, has implications for the development and the future of the underground mine transportation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0023.v1
Online: 5 June 2017 (05:18:53 CEST)
The deformation of underground gateroads tends to be asymmetric and complex. Traditional instrumentation fails to accurately and conveniently monitor the full cross-sectional deformation of underground gateroads. Here, a full cross-sectional laser scanner was developed together with a visualization software package. The developed system used polar coordinate measuring method and the full cross-sectional measurement was realized by 360° rotation of laser sensor driven by an electrical motor. Later on, the potential impact of gateroad wall flatness, roughness and geometrical profile as well as coal dust environment on the performance of the developed laser scanner were evaluated. The studies show that a high-level flatness is favorable in application of the developed full cross-sectional deformation monitoring system. For a smooth surface of gateroad, the sensor cannot receive reflected light when the incidence angle of laser beam is large, causing data loss. Conversely, the roughness surface shows its priority as the diffuse reflection light can be received by the sensor. With regards to the coal dust in measurement environment, the fine particles of floating coal dust in the air can lead to the loss of measurement data to some certain due to scattering of laser beam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0198.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Availability, underground mining, radio communication system, influence
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:21:02 CEST)
Radio communication system in an underground mine is one of the very essential systems for the underground mine. It is required that the radio communication system must be reliable from the starting to construct the underground mine to the closure of the mine. However, underground mine radio communication systems reliability is required to be tested on an active radio communication system in a real environment. In the study was suggested a new research methodology that is studied reliability using dynamic system modeling on Vensim software instead of traditional method to study the reliability of radio communication systems calculating large-scale differential equations. In other words, we suggest a new research methodology. The Motorola Dimetra (TETRA) radio communication system's availability readiness information was used to simulate the reliability of the underground mine radio communication system probability of reliability using Vensim software for system dynamic modeling.Also, the factors that affect the reliability of underground mining radio communication systems was studied. The study was determined factors that affect the underground mine radio communication system from the following risks. The study was in the examples of the Oyu Tolgoi underground mine. The factors that affect the reliable operation of the underground mine radio communication system were determined using the failure statistics of TETRA radio communication system in the Oyu Tolgoi mine in 2015-2018.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0030.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: Coal mine; Underground reservoir; Reservoir capacity; Theoretical model
Online: 3 September 2018 (11:55:39 CEST)
The coal mine underground reservoir is an appropriate solution between coal mining and groundwater resource protection and utilization. By calculating the storage capacity of a groundwater reservoir, the storage coefficient has been proved to be always an empirical value. Based on the mathematical derivation of the vertical fracture area ratio and the horizontal fracture area rate of the collapse zone and the fissure zone in the goaf area of the coal seam, the mathematical models of tem are derived, and the model for calculating the water storage coefficient is derived. The water storage coefficient derived from the theoretical model had more basis and more advanced than the traditional empirical value. By using this method, the practical calculation of No.1 underground reservoir of the DaLliuta Coalmine in Shenhua Shendong, has got a perfect matching with the actual groundwater storage capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0249.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: well testing; detrending; harmonic pulse testing; well performance monitoring; underground gas storage
Online: 17 May 2018 (13:01:50 CEST)
In reservoir engineering, one of the main sources of information for the characterization of reservoir and well parameters is well testing. Among the unconventional well testing methodologies, Harmonic Well Testing (HPT) is appealing from an economic standpoint because it could provide well performance and reservoir behavior monitoring without having to interrupt field production. Recorded pressure analysis is performed in the frequency domain by adopting a derivative approach similar to conventional well testing. To this end, pressure and rate data must be decomposed into harmonic components. Test interpretability can be significantly improved if pressure data are detrended prior to interpretation, filtering out non periodic events such as discontinuous production from neighboring wells and flow regime variations which did not respect the designed test periodicity. Therefore, detrending offers the possibility of overcoming the limitation of HPT applicability due to the difficulty of imposing a regularly pulsing rate for the whole test duration (typically lasting several days). This makes HPT attractive for well performance monitoring, especially in gas storage fields. In this paper, the application of different detrending methodologies to synthetic HPT pressure data generated in different reservoir and operational scenarios is presented and discussed. Moreover, a real case application is also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0402.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: project scheduling; underground mine; random breakdown simulation; wolf colony algorithm; multi-objective optimization
Online: 26 January 2022 (14:02:22 CET)
Due to production space and operating environment requirements, mine production equipment often breaks down, which seriously affects the mine’s production schedule. To ensure the smooth completion of the haulage operation plan under abnormal conditions, a model of the haulage equipment rescheduling plan based on the random simulation of equipment breakdowns is established in this paper. The model aims to accomplish both the maximum completion rate of the original mining plan and the minimum fluctuation of the ore grade during the rescheduling period. This model is optimized by improving the wolf colony algorithm and changing the location update formula of the individuals in the wolf colony. Then, the optimal model solution can be used to optimize the rescheduling of the haulage plan by considering equipment breakdowns. The application of the proposed method in an underground mine revealed that the completion rate of the mine’s daily mining plan reached 83.40% without increasing the number of the equipment, while and the ore quality was stable. Moreover, the improved optimization algorithm converged fast and was characterized by high robustness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0657.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: underground engineering; numerical simulation; excavation length effect; major principal stress; displacement; damage initiation; CPU time
Online: 29 July 2021 (13:10:23 CEST)
Keywords: underground engineering; numerical simulation; excavation length effect, major principal stress; displacement; damage initiation; CPU time
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0275.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: flood; Geodesign; urban growth; development; land use/land cover; green infrastructure; drainage; stormwater; runoff; underground storage
Online: 28 April 2019 (10:35:14 CEST)
The consequences of growing urbanization can be perceived in multiple levels around the globe: overpopulated living conditions, water and air pollution, loss of open space, costly transportation infrastructure, food shortages, fires and floods. The Houston metropolitan area is an example of fast urban growth, with a population increase of more than sixteen percent in seven years, going from 5.8 million people in 2010 to 6.9 million in 2017 . By 2045, the robust growth of the region is projected to lead to the addition of approximately five hundred square miles of developed area, including an estimated six million parking spaces, seven hundred eighty million square feet of non-residential uses, and three and a half billion square feet of residential use . The accelerated development, in addition to physical features, geomorphic processes and human activities in the region are believed to have caused Houston to suffer through over fifty devastating floods since its settlement, despite some successful flood damage reduction projects. The present study focused on the potential outcomes of an increased use of green infrastructure in comparable urban areas, and its effects on flooding volume. Results from the research revealed that not only these measures would likely improve the performance of existing urban drainage systems and attenuate flood incidence in the area, but would also promote connectivity between areas otherwise detached or only accessible by car, improving walkability and incentivizing engagement in outdoor activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0505.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Land subsidence; urban underground space; spatial planning model; economic impact; cause-effect analysis; Shanghai; multidisciplinary; sustainability
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:00:16 CET)
There are multiple factors determined causing the land subsidence (e.g. man-made and natural-climate change) which have impact on the urban built environment economic spectrum e.g. buildings, properties, infrastructures and land. This paper presents the cause-effect investigation of the causing factors which influence the direct-indirect impacting urban economic factor via multi-regression analysis using Shanghai megacity as case study. Factors are selected based on existing UUS-subsidence-economic impact (USEM) framework as well as modification and adaptation from Shanghai Masterplan 2017-2035 (SM 2035) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030. Data are gathered secondarily via open sources e.g. scientific journal articles and reports. The results are parallel to previous studies on the current trend for rapid and unconscious UUS exploration development including tunneling seepage and leakage as leading causes for further land subsidence in Shanghai. A further concrete multi-integrated macro-scale USEM’s awareness and knowledge is needed to avoid future costlier damage. The highly regressed causing factors include increasing population, UUS-induced subsidence, underground tunnel leakage, cumulative UUS development and subsidence whereas building prices, reconstruction area ratio, land price, green buildings, tunnel settlement, loss of arable land, number of death and government revenue are the among the most impacted. Officials in Shanghai may further consider results for future USEM masterplans to prevent further unsustainability. It is also found that developing megacity may possess different factors according to their distinct condition.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0585.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Driverless Transport Vehicle; ZigBee Networks; Communication-based train control (CBTC) system; Underground transportation; Trackless transportation; Mining industry
Online: 14 April 2021 (14:05:48 CEST)
With the continuous development of Artificial Intelligence technology and Internet of Things engineering, more and more driver-less vehicles have been developed and put into the industrial production. The birth of driver-less vehicles undoubtedly brings new vitality to a large amount of industries, particularly in transportation. For the mining industry, transportation is undoubtedly an extremely important link in the whole production process. If the driver-less vehicles can be applied to the underground mines, it can not only improve the production and transportation capacity of the whole mine, but also can reduce the occurrence of many mine safety accidents. ZigBee WSN technology can play a greater role in the narrow environment like underground mines according to the relevant literature, this concept paper just like a engineering project plan mainly tries to integrate the ZigBee WSN technology and the communication-based train control (CBTC) system to explore the possibility of the driver-less vehicles to be used in the underground mines, which aims to solve practical engineering problems for the engineering projects. As the mining engineers, we put forward the concept of this integrated system in this concept paper, but we need to continue to work hard for the future of the underground mines. This concept paper serves just as a guide to the Tossing out a brick to get a jade gem, has a few implications for the development of underground mine transportation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0368.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: battery energy storage system (BESS); PV; micro CHP; microgrid; islanded operation; distribution network; network outage; reliability; underground cable
Online: 25 May 2018 (12:06:44 CEST)
Microgrids can be used for securing power supply during network outages. Underground cabling of distribution networks is another effective, but conventional and expensive alternative to enhance reliability of power supply. This paper presents firstly an analysis method for the determination of microgrid power supply adequacy during islanded operation, and secondly, a comparison method for overall cost calculation of microgrids vs. underground cabling. The microgrid power adequacy during a rather long network outage is required in order to indicate high level of reliability of supply. The overall cost calculations consider the economic benefits and costs incurred combined for both the distribution network company and the consumer. Whereas the microgrid setup determines the islanded operation power adequacy and thus the reliability of supply, the economic feasibility results from the normal operations and services. The methods are illustrated by two typical, and even critical, case studies in rural distribution networks: an electric-heated detached house and a dairy farm. These case studies show that even in case of a single consumer, a microgrid option could be more economical than network renovation by underground cabling of a branch in order to increase reliability.