ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0089.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: ultrasonic; cure monitoring; resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy
Online: 13 October 2017 (10:37:45 CEST)
With an ever broadening use of composite materials manufacturers are in high demand of efficient curing cycles to reduce costs and speed up production cycles. One method to to archive this goal is active cure monitoring to determine the exact time of curing needed. This article provides a novel method to measure the cure inside of closed tools by using ultrasonic spectroscopy. For this a simple experiment is used to show the change of the ultrasonic spectrum during the cure of an epoxy. The results clearly show a direct correlation of amplitude and state of cure where the amplitude reaches a global minimum at the glass point.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: force; ultrasonic vibration; modeling; milling
Online: 20 June 2019 (03:48:07 CEST)
Force reduction is one of the most important benefit of applying ultrasonic vibration on milling. However, most of studies so far are limited to experimental investigation. In the current study, an analytical predictive model on cutting forces in ultrasonic vibration-assisted milling is proposed. The three types of tool-workpiece criteria are considered based on the instantaneous position and velocity of tool center. Type I criterion indicates that there is no contact if the instantaneous velocity is opposite to tool rotation direction. Type II criterion checks whether the vibration displacement is larger than the instantaneous uncut chip thickness. Type III criterion considers the overlaps between current and previous tool paths due to vibration. If none of these criteria is satisfied, milling forces are nonzero. Then the calculation is performed by transforming milling and tool geometry configuration to orthogonal cutting at each instant. The orthogonal cutting forces are predicted through the exhaustive search of shear angle and calculation of shear flow stress on tool-chip interface. The axial force is then calculated based on tool geometry, and the milling forces in feed, cutting, and axial directions are calculated after coordinate transformation. The proposed predictive force model in ultrasonic vibration-assisted milling is validated through comparison to experimental measurements on Aluminum alloy 2A12. The predicted values are able to match the measured milling forces with high accuracy of average difference of 13.6% in feed direction and 13.8% in cutting direction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0146.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: ultrasonic vocalization; mice; masculine behavior; testosterone
Online: 4 March 2021 (09:16:50 CET)
: Testosterone masculinizes male sexual behavior through an organizational effect during the perinatal period. We previously reported that the emission of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in male mice was dependent on the organizational effects of testosterone; females treated with testosterone in the perinatal period had increased USV emissions compared to males. Recently, it was revealed that male USVs have various acoustic characteristics and these variations were related to behavioral interactions with other mice. In this regard, the detailed acoustic character changes induced by testosterone have not been fully elucidated. Here, we revealed that testosterone administered to female mice during the perinatal period modulated the acoustic characteristics of USVs. There was no clear difference in acoustic characters between males and females. Call frequencies were higher in TP-treated males and females compared to control males and females. When the calls were classified into nine types, there was also no distinctive difference between males and females, but TP increased the number of calls with a high frequency, and decreased the number of calls with a low frequency and short duration. The transition analysis by call type revealed that even though there was no statistically significant difference, TP-treated males and females had a similar pattern of transition to control males and females, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that testosterone treatment can enhance the emission of USVs in females, but the acoustic characteristics are not the same as those of intact males.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0332.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: railway; fatigue; ultrasonic; nonlinear; wave mixing
Online: 29 July 2019 (06:10:25 CEST)
Nonlinear ultrasonic testing has been accepted as a promising manner for evaluating material integrity in an early stage. Stress fatigue is the main threats to train safety, railways examinations for stress fatigue are more significant and necessary. A series of ultrasonic nonlinear wave experiments are conducted for rail specimens extracted from railhead with different degree of fatigue produced by three-point bent loading condition. The nonlinear parameter is the indicator of nonlinear waves for expressing the degree the fatigue. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of a third harmonic longitudinal wave is higher than second harmonic longitudinal wave testing. As the same time, collinear wave mixing shows strong relative with fatigue damages than a second longitudinal wave NDT method and provides more reliable results than third harmonic longitudinal waves nonlinear testing method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0181.v1
Online: 11 September 2018 (04:40:19 CEST)
The image performance of acoustic and ultrasound sensors depends on several fundamental parameters such as depth of focus or spatial resolution. There are currently two different type of acoustic diffractive lenses: those which form a diffraction-limited spot with a shallow depth of focus (zone plates) and lenses which form an extended focus (quasi-Bessel beams). In this paper, we investigate a pupil-masked Soret zone plate which allows the tunability of a normalized angular spectrum. It is shown that the depth of focus and the spatial resolution can be modified, without changing the lens structure, by choosing the size of the amplitude pupil mask. This effect is based on the transformation of spherically converging waves into quasi-conical waves, due to the apodization of the central part of the zone plate. The theoretical analysis is verified with both numerical simulations and experimental measurements. A Soret zone plate immersed in water with D/2F=2.5 and F=4.5$\lambda$, changes its depth of focus from 2.84$\lambda$ to 5.9$\lambda$ and the spatial resolution increases from 0.81$\lambda$ to 0.64$\lambda$ at a frequency of 250 kHz, by modifying the pupil mask dimensions of the Soret zone plate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0417.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: CFRP; pulse ultrasonic method; cure monitoring
Online: 23 August 2018 (15:10:16 CEST)
This article discusses the results of a series of experiments on pulse ultrasonic cure monitoring of carbon fiber reinforced plastics applied to the pultrusion process. The aim of this study is to validate the hypothesis that pulse ultrasonic cure monitoring can be applied a) for profiles having small cross sections such as 7x0.5 mm and b) within the environment of the pultrusion process. Ultrasonic transducers are adhesively bonded to the pultrusion tool as actuators and sensors. The time-of-flight and the amplitude of an ultrasonic wave are analyzed to deduce the current curing state of the epoxy matrix. The experimental results show that ultrasonic cure monitoring is indeed applicable even to very thin cross sections. However, significant challenges can be reported when the techniques are used during the pultrusion process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0341.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: microfoming; energy field assisted micro/nanoforming; ultrasonic vibration
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:53:15 CET)
Excitation of the acoustic field leading to the Blaha effect affects the plasticity of the material significantly in ultrasonic vibration-assisted forming. In a micro-forming field, the effects are more significant in the deformation in surface of materials -, in which reduction of the surface roughness based on the increasing of plastic deformation of surface asperity was effective . On the other hand, the effect on deformation behavior of the bulk region indicted reduction in the yield stress of materials, and not only acoustic effect , but also impact effect is found to generate a large amount of dislocation and produce plastic deformation . However, the effect on the bulk is more significant as that on the surface. Differences in the effect on the surface and the bulk are not clarified. In this study, the mechanism of the deformation in the surface of the material with ultrasonic vibration assistance is investigated and compared with that in the bulk. Forging tests using a newly developed ultrasonic vibrator were carried out on pure Cu foils with various process conditions. The longitudinal vibration frequency of the ultrasonic transducer is 60∓2kHz, and the vibration amplitude is in an adjustable range of 0~10μm. Forging test was carried out at different initial stress, specimen size and amplitude. The difference in acoustic softening and impact effects on the surface and the bulk was discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0073.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Ultrasonic; Carbon dioxide; Enhanced oil recovery; Unconventional reservoirs
Online: 3 August 2021 (11:25:12 CEST)
CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has been proven its capability to explore the unconventional tight oil reservoirs and potential for geological carbon storage. Meanwhile, the extremely low permeability pores exaggerate the difficulty CO2 EOR and geological storage processing in the actual field. This paper initiates the ultrasonic-assisted approach to facilitate the oil-gas miscibility development and finally contribute to unlock more tight oils. First, the physical properties of crude oil with and without ultrasonic treatments were experimentally analysed through gas chromatography (GC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and viscometer. Second, the oil-gas minimum miscibility pressures (MMPs) were measured from the slim-tube test and the miscibility developments with and without ultrasonic treatments were interpreted from the mixing-cell method. Third, the nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) assisted coreflood tests were conducted to physically model the recovery process in porous media and directly obtain the recovery factor. Basically, the ultrasonic treatment (40KHz and 200W for 8 hours) was found to substantially change the oil properties, with viscosity (at 60°C) reduced from 4.1 to 2.8mPa·s, contents of resin and asphaltene decreased from 27.94% and 6.03% to 14.2% and 3.79%, respectively. The FTIR spectrum shows the unsaturated C-H bond, C-O bond and C≡C bond in macromolecules were broken from ultrasonic, which caused the macromolecules (e.g., resin and asphaltenes) to be decomposed into smaller carbon-number molecules. Accordingly, the MMP was determined to be reduced from 15.8 to 14.9MPa from the slim-tube test and the oil recovery factor increased by over 10%. This study reveals the mechanisms of ultrasonic-assisted CO2 miscible EOR in producing tight oils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0664.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: sodium alginate; microsphere; ultrasonic atomization; Dox; pH-adjusted
Online: 29 July 2021 (14:07:33 CEST)
The objective of this study aimed to develop biodegradable calcium alginate microspheres carrying doxorubicin (Dox) at the micrometer-scale for sustained-release and the capacity of pH regulatory for transarterial chemoembolization. Ultrasonic atomization and CaCl2 cross-linking technologies were used to prepare the microspheres. A 4 by 5 experiment was first designed to identify imperative parameters. The concentration of CaCl2 and the flow rate of the pump were found to be critical to generate microspheres with a constant volume median diameter (~ 39 m) across 5 groups with different alginate:NaHCO3 ratios using each corresponding flow rate. In each group, the encapsulation efficiency was positively correlated to the Dox-loaded efficiency. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that NaHCO3 and Dox were step-by-step incorporated into the calcium alginate microspheres successfully. Microspheres containing alginate:NaHCO3 = 1 exhibited rough and porous surfaces, high Young’s modulus and hardness. In each group with the same alginate:NaHCO3 ratio, the swelling rates of microspheres were higher in PBS containing 10% FBS compared to those in PBS alone. Microspheres with relative high NaHCO3 concentrations in PBS containing 10% FBS maintained better physiological pH and higher accumulated Dox release ratios. In two distinct hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cell lines, treatments with microspheres carrying Dox demonstrated that the cell viabilities decreased in groups with relative high NaHCO3 ratios in time- and dose-dependent manners. Our results suggested that biodegradable alginate microspheres containing relative high NaHCO3 concentrations improved the cytotoxicity effects in vitro.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0269.v1
Online: 12 July 2021 (14:36:26 CEST)
Fatigue cracks in a wide array of industrial components and structures pose a significant threat to their integrity. Detecting fatigue cracks using ultrasonic inspection techniques is a widespread activity for economic reasons but there are limitations to the techniques due to the morphology of fatigue cracks. In addition to detection there is a need to measure the size of the cracks which are often within the volume of the material. Ultrasonic techniques are well-suited to look inside the volume of the material but achieving sufficient sensitivity to the tip of the cracks in particular is practically difficult. Without an accurate knowledge of where the tip of the crack lies there can be significant uncertainty in sizing measurements. Machine Learning (ML) techniques are being developed to aid in the inspection and monitoring tasks but presenting the ultrasonic data in a suitable way for machine learning is very important. This paper presents a new approach to condition the ultrasonic data for machine learning settings so that they can be used effectively and confidently to detect and size fatigue cracks. The new approach, using images termed parameter-spaces, will also aid in conventional inspections as they are able to give information to human operators as to the existence or not of these very dangerous cracks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0520.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Micro-dissection; Ultrasonic vibration; Flexure-guided; Tissue section
Online: 21 December 2020 (12:06:42 CET)
Biological micro-dissection has a wide range of applications in the field of molecular pathology. The current laser-assisted dissection technology is expensive, and laser radiation can lead to sample contamination. As an economical and pollution-free micro-dissection method, piezoelectric ultrasonic micro-dissection has a wide application prospect. However, the performance of the current piezoelectric ultrasonic micro-dissection technology is unsatisfactory. In this paper, a novel piezoelectric ultrasonic micro-dissection device based on a flexure mechanism is proposed in order to solve the problems of low dissecting precision and excessive wear of the dissecting needle caused by the harmful lateral vibration of the current piezoelectric ultrasonic micro-dissection device. By analyzing the flexibility of flexure hinge, the type of flexure beam and the optimal design parameters are determined. Through comparing the harmonic response simulation analysis of the micro-dissection device based on a flexure mechanism and the traditional micro-dissection device without the flexure mechanism, the newly designed micro-dissection device achieves the best vibration effect when the driving frequency is 28kHz, compared with the traditional micro-dissection device, the lateral vibration suppression effect is improved by 68%. Then, based on the 3D printing technology, a prototype of a novel micro-dissection device was produced, and its performance was tested. It was found that the flexure mechanism did indeed suppress the lateral vibration of the needle tip. Finally, the experiments of 5μm thick paraffin-embedded rat liver sections were carried out, and the effects of different dissecting parameters on the dissecting effect were analyzed, and the optimal dissecting parameters were obtained. By comparing the dissecting effects of the tissue sample and the wear condition of the needle tip between the novel micro-dissection device and the traditional micro-dissection device under their optimal dissecting parameters, it is proved that the suppression of harmful lateral vibration not only significantly improves the dissecting effect, but also improves the service life and durability of the dissecting needle, which is beneficial to reduce the equipment costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0330.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: elastic properties; laser ultrasonic; mechanical behavior; fiber-network
Online: 18 September 2018 (08:16:18 CEST)
For development and successful application of any material, a clear understanding of their mechanical behavior is one of the most important things, but when it comes to nanofibers networks it become a challenge due to, their high porosity, many scales in their structure, and characteristics non-linear. Therefore, an experimental methodology in conjunction with a theoretical model that can fully consider their characteristics is still needed. In this work we proposed a model that incorporates the propagation of the elastic waves in two-phase media to determine the effective elastic modulus of electrospun membranes of PLA/gelatin given the mechanical properties of nanofibers, shape, distribution and concentration. The model was verified via laser ultrasonic testing. It was found that the values predicted for the effective modulus by the model were higher than the values obtained from experimental results. One explanation is due to the experimental density. As a result, the P-Wave velocity from the model best fit to experimental results and it has the same behavior, decrees as the concentration of gelatin in the solution. These results indicate the model and experimental methodology can assist in the dressing of nanofibers networks and electrospun materials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0194.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: ultrasound; ultrasonic reactors; enzyme kinetic; enzymatic reaction; sonochemical reaction
Online: 11 January 2021 (12:49:39 CET)
The use of low-intensity ultrasound has gotten surprising consideration over the last decade as a method for enhancing the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Ultrasounds have the potential to significantly influence the activity of the enzymatic processes, provided that the energy input is not too high to inactivate the enzyme. By providing the variation in parameters, various physical and chemical effects can be attained that can enhance the enzymatic reaction. Ultrasonic reactors are known for their application in bioprocesses. However, the potential of their applications is still limited broadly due to the lack of proper information about their operational and performance parameters. In this review, the detailed information about ultrasonic reactors is provided by defining the different types of reactors, number and position of ultrasonic transducers. Also, it includes the mechanism of intensification and influence of ultrasonic parameters (intensity, duty cycle and frequency) and enzymatic factors (enzyme concentration, temperature and pH) on the catalytic activity of enzyme during ultrasound treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0210.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: microbubbles; nanobubbles; photoacoustic imaging; ultrasonic imaging; ROS; oxygen delivery
Online: 11 August 2018 (18:49:18 CEST)
Microbubbles and nanobubbles can be prepared using various shells, such as phospholipids, polymers, proteins, and surfactants. They are echogenic and can be used as contrast agents for ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging. These bubbles can be engineered in various sizes as vehicles for gas and drug delivery applications with novel properties and flexible structures. Hypoxic areas in tumors develop owing to an imbalance of oxygen supply and demand. In tumors, hypoxic regions have shown more resistance to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and photodynamic therapies. The efficacy of photodynamic therapy depends on the availability of oxygen in the tumor to generate reactive oxygen species. Micro/nanobubbles have been shown to reverse hypoxic conditions and increase tissue oxygen levels. This review summarizes the synthesis methods and shell compositions of micro/nanobubbles and methods deployed for oxygen delivery. In addition, the shortcomings and prospects of engineering micro/nanobubbles are discussed for their potential use in photodynamic therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: guided ultrasonic waves; fiber metal laminate; dispersion diagram; displacement field
Online: 2 June 2022 (04:41:42 CEST)
Guided ultrasonic waves are suitable for use in the context of structural health monitoring of thin-walled, plate-like structures. Hence, observing the wave propagation in the plates can provide an indication of whether damage has occurred in the structure. In this work, the wave propagation in fiber metal laminate consisting of thin steel foils and layers of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer is studied, focusing on the main propagation characteristics like dispersion diagrams and displacement fields. For this purpose, the dispersion diagrams derived from the analytical framework and numerical simulations are first determined and compared to each other. Next, the displacement fields are computed using the global matrix method for two excitation frequencies. The results derived from the analytical framework is used to validate numerically determined displacement fields based on a 2D and a 3D modeling approach. For both investigations the results of the analytical treatment and the numerical simulation show good agreement. Furthermore, the displacement field reveals the typical and well-known characteristics of the propagation of guided waves in thin-walled structures. Since the use of full 3D models involves a very high computational cost, this work also successfully investigates the possibility for model order reduction to decrease the computational time and costs of the simulation without the loss of accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0034.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Fatigue; cracks; ultrasonic; inspection; snooker algorithm; machine learning; imaging; techniques
Online: 6 April 2022 (08:26:09 CEST)
Cracking in a wide array of industrial components and structures pose a significant threat to their integrity. Detecting cracks using ultrasonic inspection techniques is a widespread activity for economic reasons but there are limitations to the techniques due to the morphology of cracks, such as fatigue cracks. In addition to detection there is a need to measure the size of the cracks which are often within the volume of the material. Ultrasonic techniques are well-suited to look inside the volume of the material but achieving sufficient sensitivity to the tip of the cracks in particular is practically difficult. Without an accurate knowledge of where the tip of the crack lies there can be significant uncertainty in sizing measurements. Machine Learning (ML) techniques are being developed to aid in the inspection and monitoring tasks but presenting the ultrasonic data in a suitable way for ML is very important. Following on from recent work presenting the development of the snooker algorithm to create images termed parameter-spaces, this paper presents how these images can be input into neural network based ML systems to automatically size these critical cracks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0705.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Ultrasonic fatigue test; aluminium alloy; size effects; VHCF; fractal geometry
Online: 29 March 2021 (15:44:22 CEST)
The present paper investigates the influence of the specimen size of EN-AW6082 wrought aluminium alloy subjected to very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) tests. The hourglass specimens were tested under fully reversed loading condition, up to 10^9 cycles, by means of the ultrasonic fatigue testing machine developed by Italsigma® (Italy). Three specimens groups were considered, with a diameter in the middle cross-section ranging from 3 mm up to 12 mm. The stress field in the specimens was determined numerically and by strain gauge measurements in correspondence of the cross-section surface. The dispersion of experimental results has been accounted for, and data are reported in P-S-N diagrams. The decrease in fatigue resistance with increasing specimen size is evident. Theoretical explanation for the observed specimen-size effect is provided, based on Fractal Geometry concepts, allowing to obtain scale independent P-S*-N curves. The fatigue life expectation in the VHCF regime of the EN-AW6082 aluminium alloy full-scale components is rather overestimated if it is assessed only from standard small specimens of 3 mm in diameter. Experimental tests carried out on larger specimen, and a proper extrapolation, are required to assure safe structural design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: horn design; ultrasonic welding; nonwoven fabric; micro-structure; tensile strength
Online: 5 June 2020 (14:01:01 CEST)
Nonwoven fabrics have been widely used in textile manufacturing industry as a sheet or web structure because of soft, water-repellent, recycle, ecological and resilient functions. Ultrasonic welding method has been applied for bonding nonwoven fabrics due to clean, fast and reliable approach. In this work, the ultrasonic stepped horn is designed to generate uniform amplitudes on the working surface by using finite element analysis (FEA) simulation. Chromium carbon steels are utilized to produce ultrasonic horns due to high wear resistant and hardness. Isotactic polypropylene nonwoven fabrics fabricated by spunbond process were bonded by continuous ultrasonic sewing machine. Ultrasonic horn with 70 mm in diameter working at 20 kHz, polypropylene (PP) nonwoven density of 80 gsm and various design of welding joints were applied. A typical image in the case of number one was investigated by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of inter-facial micro-structure. However, welding joints of totally eight roller patterns was test the tensile strength of the ultrasonic welding joints on PP nonwoven fabrics. The tensile strength of the welding joints is proportional to the area ratio between the welding area and cycling area. The results showed that the melted zone without welding defects such as crack or blowhole can be seen. Furthermore, the tensile strength of welding joints in eight cases of roller patterns (No.1-No.8) was described in details. The ultrasonic welding joints with brick structures give higher tensile strength while the solid line in the pattern gave less strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: non destructive testing; concrete structure; Sonreb; ultrasonic testing; rebound index
Online: 13 June 2019 (13:06:11 CEST)
The present paper aims to increase knowlodge of the methods of resistance estimating of concrete in situ by means of non-destructive tests used to integrate the quantitative results from cylindrical specimens (core). The results of experimental investigations carried out on concrete conglomerate samples of a school building are shown. The experimental campaign then will be presented like a case study, conducted on a series of concrete beams and pillars of an existing building. The distructive tests on cores were conducted at the Civil Structures Laboratory of the Engineering Department of the University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli". The expression obtained through the calibration procedure of the values of non-destructive tests with those provided by the core drills allowed to estimate the average values of the compressive strength of the concrete. It is highlighted how this result was achieved with a very limited core number provided that they are extracted in selected points and that there was a proportionality link with the resistances obtained from non distructive tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0111.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: pulse volume; signal noise ratio; automated ultrasonic testing; simulation software
Online: 9 May 2019 (12:47:50 CEST)
Titanium’s accelerating usage in global markets is attributable to its distinctive combination of physical and metallurgical properties. The key to best utilizing titanium is to exploit these characteristics, especially as they complement one another in a given application, rather than to just directly substitute titanium for another metal. Titanium alloy are extensively used in aerospace applications such as components in aero-engines and space shuttles, mainly due to their superior strength to weight ratio. For these demanding applications functionality and reliability of components are of great importance. To increase flight safety, higher sensitivity inspections are sought for rotating parts. Increased sensitivity can be applied at the billet stage, the forging stage, or both. Inspection of the forging geometry affords the opportunity to apply the highest sensitivity due to the shorter material paths when compared to those required for billet inspections. Forging inspection is typically performed for titanium (Ti) rotating parts with immersion inspection and fixed-focus, single-element transducers. Increased gain is required with depth because the ultrasonic beam attenuates with distance and diverges beyond the focus position that is placed near the surface. The higher gain that is applied with depth has the effect of increasing the UT noise with depth. The relationships between the UT noise, selection of the examination technique and the smallest detectable defect are presented in this material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0085.v3
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: impact localization; composite materials; PPS; imaging method; immersion ultrasonic scanning
Online: 24 August 2018 (05:00:39 CEST)
This paper focused on impact localization of composite structures, which possess more complexity in the guided wave propagation because of the anisotropic behavior of composite materials. In this work, a composite plate was manufactured by using a compression molding process with proper pressure and temperature cycle. Eight layers of woven composite prepreg were used to manufacture the composite plate. A structural health monitoring (SHM) technique is implemented with piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) to detect and localize the impact on the plate. There are two types of impact event are considered in this paper (a) low energy impact event (b) high energy impact event. Two clusters of sensors recorded the guided acoustic waves generated from the impact. The acoustic signals are then analyzed using a wavelet transform based time-frequency analysis. The proposed SHM technique successfully detect and localize the impact event on the plate. The experimentally measured impact locations are compared with the actual impact locations. An immersion ultrasonic scanning method was used to visualize the composite plate before and after the impact event. A high frequency 10 MHz 1-inch focused transducer was used to scan the plate in the immersion tank. Scanning results show that there is no visible manufacturing damage in the composite plate. However, clear impact damage was observed after the high-energy impact event.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0071.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: remanufacture; laser cladding forming; stress; ultrasonic testing; complex factors coupling
Online: 8 January 2018 (18:42:42 CET)
Stess in laser cladding coating is an important factor affecting the safe operation of remanufacturing components. Ultrasonic testing has become a hot direction in nondestructive evaluation of stress, because it has the advantages of safety, non-destructive and on-line detection. This paper provides a review of ultrasonic testing for stress in remanufacturing laser cladding coating. It summarizes the recent research outcomes on ultrasonic testing for stress, analyzes mechanism of ultrasonic testing for stress. Remanufacturing laser cladding coating shows typical anisotropic behaviors, the ultrasonic testing signal in laser cladding coating is influenced by many complex factors, such as microstructure, defect, temperature and surface roughness, etc. At present, ultrasonic testing for stress in laser cladding coating can only be done roughly. The paper discusses active mechanism of micro / macro factors to the reliability of stress measurement and the impact of stress measurement to the quality and safety of remanufacturing components. Base on the discussion, the paper proposes strategies for acquisition of nondestructive, rapid and accurate measurement of stress in remanufacturing laser cladding coating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0428.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: evaporation; poly (vinylidene fluoride); crystallization; droplet; coffee ring effect; ultrasonic spray
Online: 28 October 2021 (09:55:59 CEST)
The evaporation of polymer solution droplet is an important in solution-based polymer film fabrications, such as inkjet print, spray coatings, and droplet casting etc. In this work, we investigated the effect of droplet size, solvent evaporation rate, and concentration on “coffee-ring” effect, crystal nucleation, polymorphism, and morphology of dried poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) solution droplets with atomic force microscopy (AFM) method. We found that the crystal structure, morphology and crystal distribution in the center and edge regions of dried PVDF droplets were different due to “coffee-ring” effect. The “coffee-ring” effect of dried PVDF droplets was mainly composited of accumulated crystals at the edge region of droplet, which was mainly made by crystallization of migrated chains. The interplay between migration of chains, crystallization and solidification of PVDF droplets significantly influenced the formation of “coffee-ring”. In addition, our results showed that the decrease of droplet size and controlling solvent evaporation rate were effective ways to improve the PVDF β-phase nucleation and decrease crystal size.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0401.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Machine learning; Ultrasonic measurements; Long Short-Term Memory; Industrial Digital technologies
Online: 18 February 2021 (09:31:43 CET)
Beer fermentation is typically monitored by periodic sampling and off-line analysis. In-line sensors would remove the need for time-consuming manual operation and provide real-time evaluation of the fermenting media. This work uses a low-cost ultrasonic sensor combined with machine learning to predict the alcohol concentration during beer fermentation. The highest accuracy model (R2=0.952, MAE=0.265, MSE=0.136) used a transmission-based ultrasonic sensing technique along with the measured temperature. However, the second most accurate model (R2=0.948, MAE=0.283, MSE=0.146) used a reflection-based technique without the temperature. Both the reflection-based technique and the omission of the temperature data are novel to this research and demonstrate the potential for a non-invasive sensor to monitor beer fermentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0259.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Solar Flat Plate Collector; Efficiency; Nanofluid; Surfactant; Al2O3-Water; Ultrasonic agitation
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:58:10 CET)
This paper investigates the improvement in solar energy collection and conversion using Al2O3-Water nanofluids in a solar flat plate collector (SFPC). The efficiency of a solar flat plate collector using water as the fluid medium is analyzed experimentally and theoretically. For theoretical analysis, a mathematical model in MATLAB is used to simulate and is validated by the experimental results. To enhance the solar energy collection and conversion efficiency of the SFPC, Al2O3-Water nanofluid was selected as the fluid medium. The nanofluid properties like density, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity and viscosity are analyzed and compared for several models of Al2O3-Water nanofluids and the best model was selected to modify the simulation. Effect of particle diameter in the nanofluid was found to be marginal on the nanofluid properties. The optimum volume concentration of the nanofluid was found to be 4% giving an efficiency increase of 7.78% in the SFPC over the use of water. This reduces the area of the SFPC by 10.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0041.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: ultrasonic wave; microwave; instant green tea; extraction rate; active components; aroma
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:38:20 CET)
The production of instant green tea requires hot-water extraction, which is time consuming and contributes to losses in aromatic compounds. In this study, an ultrasonic-assisted technology was used to improve the extraction efficiency of green tea, thereby shortening extraction time from 45 to 15 min. In pure water, the dissolution of caffeine and theanine did not change significantly, but total catechin dissolution increased by 0.23 mg/mL and total tea polyphenol dissolution decreased by 3.2 mg/mL. In 76.2% ethanol, the dissolution of caffeine and theanine did not change significantly, but total catechin dissolution increased by 1.57mg/mL and total tea polyphenol dissolution decreased by 1.5 mg/mL. Additionally, we used microwave-assisted technology to further improve the extraction efficiency of green tea, which shortened the extraction time to 2 min. However, the extraction rate remained unchanged. In pure water, the dissolution of caffeine and theanine did not change significantly, but the dissolution of total catechins increased by 0.41 mg/mL and the dissolution of tea polyphenols decreased by 2.9 mg/mL. Ultrasonic treatment increased the proportion of 3-hydroxybutan-2-one, (5S)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-one and 2-phenylethanol, which were the main aroma compounds in tea. Microwave treatment changed the aroma compounds in tea, causing losses in aroma compounds with low boiling point and maintaining (5S)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-one. The taste and aroma of instant green tea improved based on sensory evaluation results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0434.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: acoustic levitation; ultrasonic phased array; droplet; coalescence; lab-on-a-drop
Online: 28 February 2020 (13:02:22 CET)
The contactless coalescence of a droplet is of paramount importance for physical and industrial applications. This paper describes a coalescence method in mid-air via acoustic levitation using an ultrasonic phased array system. Acoustic levitation using ultrasonic phased arrays provides promising lab-on-a-drop applications, such as transportation, coalescence, mixing, separation, evaporation, and extraction in a continuous operation. The mechanism of droplet coalescence in mid-air may be better understood by experimentally and numerically exploring the droplet dynamics immediately before the coalescence. In this study, water droplets were experimentally levitated, transported, and coalesced by controlling acoustic fields. We observed that the edge of droplets deformed and attracted each other immediately before the coalescence. Through image processing, the radii of curvature of the droplets were quantified and the pressure difference between the inside and outside the droplet was simulated to obtain the pressure and velocity information on the droplet surface. The results revealed that the sound pressure acting on the droplet clearly decreased before the impact of the droplets. This pressure on the droplets was quantitatively analyzed from the experimental data. Our experimental and numerical results provide deeper physical insights into contactless droplet manipulation for futuristic lab-on-a-drop applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0178.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: quadcopter; ultrasonic weather station; turbulence, longitudinal and lateral spectra, scales, urban environment
Online: 12 January 2022 (16:19:23 CET)
The capabilities of a quadcopter in the hover mode for low-altitude sensing of atmospheric turbulence with high spatial resolution in urban areas characterized by complex orography are investigated. The studies were carried out in different seasons (winter, spring, summer, and fall), and the quadcopter hovered in the immediate vicinity of ultrasonic weather stations. The DJI Phantom 4 Pro quadcopter and AMK-03 ultrasonic weather stations installed in different places of the studied territory were used in the experiment. The smoothing procedure was used to main regularities in the behavior of the longitudinal and lateral spectra of turbulence in the inertial and energy production ranges. The longitudinal and lateral turbulence scales were estimated by the least-square fit method with the von Karman model as a regression curve. It is shown that the turbulence spectra obtained with DJI Phantom 4 Pro and AMK-03 generally coincide with minor differences observed in the high-frequency region of the spectrum. In the inertial range, the behavior of the turbulence spectra shows that they obey the Kolmogorov-Obukhov “5/3” law. In the energy production range, the longitudinal and lateral turbulence scales and their ratio measured by DJI Phantom 4 Pro and AMK-03 agree to a good accuracy. Discrepancies in the data obtained with the quadcopter and the ultrasonic weather stations at the territory with complex orography are explained by the partial correlation of the wind velocity series at different measurement points and the influence of the inhomogeneous surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Rebar location, FRP reinforcement, NDT Methods, GPR Testing, Ultrasonic Testing, Electromagnetic Testing
Online: 3 January 2019 (13:10:29 CET)
An increasing use of non-metallic reinforcement is problematic as it has to be detected at the stage of accepting construction works, or later when expert opinions are prepared for the building. In contrast to metallic reinforcement, location of this type of reinforcement is difficult using non-destructive techniques. Small diameters of rebars and their location in a tested element were troublesome. This article describes an attempt to locate non-metallic reinforcement in a concrete element and the masonry. Tests were performed using an ultrasonic tomograph and GPR with a broad range of frequencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0262.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: protein self-assembling; protein hydrogel; lysozyme; ultrasonic sound propagation; transient grating spectroscopy
Online: 21 December 2018 (15:02:30 CET)
In this work, we have studied the propagation of ultrasonic waves of lysozyme solutions characterized by different degrees of aggregation and networking. The experimental investigation has been performed by means of the Transient Grating (TG) spectroscopy as a function of temperature; this technique enables to measure the ultrasonic acoustic proprieties over a wide time window, ranging from nanoseconds to milliseconds. The fitting of the measured TG signal allows the extraction of several dynamic properties, here we focused on the speed and the damping rate of sound. The temperature variation induces in the lysozyme solutions a series of processes: protein folding-unfolding, aggregation and sol-gel transition. Our TG investigation shows how these self-assembling phenomena modulate the sound propagation, affecting both the velocity and the damping rate of the ultrasonic waves. In particular, the damping of ultrasonic acoustic waves proves to be a dynamic property very sensitive to the protein conformational rearrangements and aggregation processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0123.v4
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: chitosan-copper NPs; quinolone derivatives; ultrasonic irradiation; one- pot synthesis; green-sustainable perspectives
Online: 19 December 2018 (03:25:20 CET)
Chitosan decorated copper nanoparticles (CS/CuNPs) catalysts were synthesized via reduction methods utilizing green protocol. The CS/CuNPs hybrid catalysts were tested for the synthesis of quinoline derivatives utilizing one-pot multicomponent reaction (MCR) under ultrasonic irradiation. The best catalyst (CS/CuNPs) that provided good conversion reaction yield and high turnover frequency (TOF) was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), , scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Generalization of the scope of the proposed catalytic process was studied using different aldehydes. Excellent products yield and high TOF in even shorter reaction time (~5 min) was attained. Recyclability performance of the catalyst over five times re-use without detectable loss in product yield was recorded. The current method is green process utilizing environmentally benign catalyst and considered to be promising sustainable protocol for the synthesis of fine chemicals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: ultrasonic transducers; high temperature measurement; nondestructive testing; thin film sensor; sol-gel composite
Online: 2 October 2017 (09:07:32 CEST)
Continuous ultrasonic in-situ monitoring for industrial applications is difficult owing to the high operating temperatures in industrial fields. It is expected that ultrasonic transducers consisting of CaBi4Ti4O15(CBT)/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3(PZT) sol-gel composite could be one solution for ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) above 500 C because no couplant is required and CBT has a high Curie temperature. To verify the high temperature durability, CBT/PZT sol-gel composite films were fabricated on titanium substrates by spray coating, and the CBT/PZT samples were tested in a furnace at various temperatures. Reflected echoes with a high signal-to-noise ratio were observed up to 600 C. A thermal cycle test was conducted from room temperature to 600 C, and no significant deterioration was found after the second thermal cycle. To investigate the long-term high-temperature durability, a CBT/PZT ultrasonic transducer was tested in the furnace at 600 °C for 36 h. Ultrasonic responses were recorded every 3 h, and the sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio were stable throughout the experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0102.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: accelerometer; process monitoring; natural frequencies; ball burnishing; ultrasonic; piezoelectric; acoustic emission; operational deflection shape.
Online: 5 July 2021 (14:04:48 CEST)
In this paper, a resonant system that produces a movement of low amplitude and ultrasonic frequency is used to achieve the vibration assistance in a ball-burnishing process. A full vibration characterization of this process performed in a lathe was done. It is carried out by a new tool designed in the research group of the authors. Its purpose is to demonstrate that the machine and the tool do not have any resonance problem during the process and to prevent possible failures. The analysis of this dynamic behaviour permits to validate the suitability of the tool when it is anchored to a numerical control lathe. This is very important for its future industrial implementation. It is also intended to confirm that the system adequately transmits vibrations through the material. To do this, a methodology to validate the dynamic tool behaviour was developed. Several techniques that combine the usual and ultrasonic vibration ranges through static and dynamic measurements were merged: vibration and acoustic emission measurements. An operational deflection shape (ODS) exercise has been also performed. Results show the suitability of the tool used to transmit the assistance vibrations, and that no damage is produced in the material in any case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0265.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: PZT; mixed-oxides techniques; dielectric properties; piezoelectricity; ultrasonic piezo-motor; piezoelectric cylinder; numerical simulation
Online: 22 May 2019 (08:41:12 CEST)
First of all the paper presents a solid solution of piezoelectric ceramic that was synthesized according to the general formula Pb(1-x)Srx(Ti0.48Zr0.52)(1-y)NbyO3 with x = 0.05 and y = 0.02, using wet ceramic processing technology and using an oxide mix as prime material. The effects of dopants (Sr2+ and Nb5+) on phase constitution, on microstructure and on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties were determinate. The Zr/Ti ratio was chosen near the morphotropic phase boundary of the PZT system in studied composition. The XRD data revealed that the PZT doped composition had tetragonal perovskite structure. Secondly the paper presents the design of the novel piezo-motor based on a surface wave which translates the linear extension of different piezoelectric segments of a piezoelectric cylinder into a rotational bending movement. This rotational bending of the piezoelectric cylinder is then transformed into a continuous rotation of the rotor through a calculated contact. The design of the motor takes advantage of the high piezoelectric constants of the developed material in an optimal way in order to increase the energetic efficiency. A brief mathematical model of electromechanical answer of piezoelectric materials is presented as it was used in the modeling of the material during the numerical simulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: finite element method (FEM); damage detection; surface rust; ultrasonic testing; short-time Fourier transform
Online: 10 July 2018 (11:22:00 CEST)
Detection of early stage corrosion on slender steel members is crucial for preventing buckling failures of steel structures. An active photoacoustic fiber optic sensors (FOS) system has been reported for early stage steel corrosion detection of steel plates and rebars using surface ultrasonic waves. The objective of this paper is to investigate the surface corrosion/rust detection problem on steel rods using numerically simulated surface ultrasonic waves. The finite element method (FEM) is applied in simulating the propagation of ultrasonic waves on steel rod models. Transmission mode of damage detection is adopted, in which one source (transmitter) and one sensor (receiver) are considered. In this research, radial displacements at the receiver were simulated and analyzed by short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for detecting, locating, and quantifying a surface rust located between the transmitter and the receiver. From our time domain and frequency domain analyses, it is found that the presence, location, and dimensions (length, width, and depth) of surface rust can be estimated by ultrasonic waves propagating through the surface rust.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0066.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: nuclear facility; ultrasonic interface wave; defect detection; nondestructive testing; finite element method; inaccessible nozzle
Online: 13 January 2017 (10:01:23 CET)
An effective method to inspect inaccessible nuclear power facility by interface wave which propagate along the shrink fit boundary of reactor head is proposed in this study. Reactor head is relatively thick to inspect from the outside of reactor by conventional ultrasonic testing. The proposed interface wave can propagate a long distance from the fixed transducer position. The inside of nuclear reactor is limited to access due to the high radiation, so transducers are located at outside of nuclear facility and interface wave propagates into the nuclear reactor for defect detection. The numerical simulation and experiments were carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed interface wave inspection method. Various defect cases simulating field failures are also presented with satisfactory detectability by the proposed technique with the features for defect classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0595.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: real-time electronics; structural health monitoring; Lamb wave; piezoelectric sensors; impact localization, ultrasonic guided waves
Online: 22 April 2021 (09:14:03 CEST)
The work presents a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) electronic system with real-time ac-quisition and processing for the determination of impact location in laminates. The novelty of this work is the quantitative evaluation of impact location errors using the Lamb wave guided mode S0, captured and processed in real-time by up to eight piezoelectric sensors. The differential time of arrival is used to minimize an error function for the position estimation. The impact energy is correlated to the amplitudes of the antisymmetric (A0 ) mode and the electronic design is de-scribed to avoid saturation for signal acquisition. The same electronic is designed to acquire symmetric (S0 ) low level signals by adequate gain, bandwidth and signal to noise ration. Such signals propagate into a 1.4mm thick aluminum laminate at the group velocity of 5150m/s with frequency frequency components above 270kHz and can be discriminated from the A0 mode to calculate accurately the differential arrival time. The results show that the error is not improved better than S0 wavelength in impact localization by using six out of eight sensors connected to the electronic system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0032.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: ultrasonic vibration-assisted milling(UVAM); homogenization; ball-end milling; surface integrity; high frequency cutting force
Online: 3 September 2018 (12:44:32 CEST)
This paper aims to study the surface homogenization and integrity of Ti-6Al-4V alloy by longitudinal-torsional coupled ultrasonic vibration assisted ball-end milling. A method of continuous processing between the flat surface and freeform surface connection is proposed by using ultrasonic vibration assisted ball-end precision milling, during this process, it is not necessary to exchange the cutting tool. The way has been explored for changing the homogenization of surface on Ti-6Al-4V by ultrasonic vibration-assisted milling (UVAM). Cutting experiments employing three parameters, cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut and two types of machining forms using ball-end milling with UVAM and conventional milling (CM) respectively. The high frequency cutting force, finished surface roughness, topography and residual stresses on the surface and tool wear have been measured by advanced instruments. Particularly, adopting the high frequency cutting force measurement system, it is concluded cutting force in ball-end milling decreased significantly using UVAM as against CM. Moreover, the surface roughness by UVAM with ball-end milling is much better than the CM at a high cutting speed. However, an opposite trend is observed at a low cutting speed. Especially, there is a steep decrease from Ra 0.828 μm average value at 4000 rpm to Ra 0.129 μm average value at 5000 rpm. At the same time, the homogenization of surface roughness and residual stresses decrease significantly in UVAM as compared to which in CM when taking the transversal-longitudinal ratio into consideration. Cutting experiments and measuring results are demonstrated the validity and feasibility of UVAM with ball-end milling, and this method enjoys significant advantages compared to CM process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0075.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: structural health monitoring; narrow specimen; guided ultrasonic waves; continuous wavelet transformation; numerical simulation; composite materials; GFRP
Online: 6 September 2022 (03:06:43 CEST)
This work investigates how integrated polyimide inlays with applied sensor bodies influence the guided ultrasonic wave propagation in narrow glass fiber-reinforced polymer specimens. Preliminary numerical simulations indicate that in a damping-free specimen, the inlays show reflections for the S0-mode propagation. Hence, an air-coupled ultrasonic technique and a 3D laser Doppler vibrometer measurement are used to measure different parts of the propagating waves’ displacement field after burst excitation at different frequencies. No significant reflections on the inlay can be seen in the experiments. However, it is shown that the reflections from the strip specimen’s narrow width cause periodical reflections that superimpose with the excited wave fronts. A continuous wavelet transformation in the time-frequency domain filters discontinuities from the measurement signal and is used for reconstruction of the time signals. The reconstructed signals are used in a spatial continuous wavelet transformation to identify the occurring wavelengths and hence to prove the assumption of reflections from the narrow edges. Since the amplitude of the reflections identified in the numerical data at the polyimide inlays are an order of magnitude smaller than the excited wave packages, it is concluded that material damping of the epoxy resin matrix extincts possible reflections from the inlays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0245.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: MEMS vibrometer; Structural Health Monitoring (SHM); Guided Ultrasonic Waves (GUW); Fiber Metal Laminates (FML); wafer bonding
Online: 17 June 2022 (03:55:30 CEST)
Structural health monitoring of lightweight constructions made of composite materials can be performed using guided ultrasonic waves. If modern fiber metal laminates are used, this requires integrated sensors that can record the inner displacement oscillations caused by the propagating guided ultrasonic waves. Therefore, we have developed a robust MEMS vibrometer that can be integrated with structural and functional compliance. This vibrometer is directly sensitive to the high-frequency displacements from structure-borne ultrasound when excited between its first and second natural frequency. The vibrometer is mostly realized by processes earlier developed for a pressure sensor but with additional femtosecond laser ablation and wafer bonding. The piezoresistive transducer made from silicon is encapsulated between top and bottom glass lids. The natural frequencies are experimentally determined using an optical micro vibrometer setup. The vibrometer functionality and usability for structural health monitoring are demonstrated on a customized test rig by recording application-relevant guided ultrasonic wave packages with a central frequency of 100 kHz at a distance of 200 mm from the exciting ultrasound transducer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0280.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC), Compressive Strength, Shape and Size of Specimen, Moisture of AAC, Ultrasonic Testing
Online: 24 December 2018 (13:59:14 CET)
Semi-destructive and non-destructive techniques are not commonly used for masonry as they are complex and difficult to perform. This paper describes validation of the following methods: semi-destructive and non-destructive, ultrasonic technique for autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). The research subject was the compressive strength of AAC test elements with declared various density classes of: 400, 500, 600 and 700 (kg/m3) and various moisture levels. Empirical data including the shape and size of specimens, were established from tests on 494 cylindrical and cuboid specimens, and standard cube specimens 100×100×100 mm using the general relationship for standard concrete (Neville’s curve). The effect of moisture on AAC was taken into account while determining the strength fBw for 127 standard specimens tested at different levels of water content (w = 100%, 67%, 33% 23% and 10%). Defined empirical relations can be used to correct the compressive strength of dry specimens. For 91 specimens 100×100×100 mm, the P-wave velocity cp was tested with the transmission method using using the ultrasonic pulse velocity method with exponential transducers. The curve (fBw – cp) for determining the compressive strength of AAC elements with any moisture level (fBw) was established.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0036.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Acer truncatum leaves; ultrasonic-assisted extraction; response surface methodology; phenolics; antioxidant activity; UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS
Online: 9 January 2017 (04:16:01 CET)
This study was designed for the first time to improve phenolic yield and antioxidant activity of ultrasonic-assisted extraction from Acer truncatum leaves (ATL) using response surface methodology, and phenolic composition in ATL extracted under the optimized condition were characterized by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Solvent and extraction time were selected based on preliminary experiments, and a four-factors-three-levels central composite design was conducted to optimize solvent concentration (X1), material-to-liquid ratio (X2), ultrasonic temperature (X3) and power (X4) for an optimal total phenol yield (Y1) and DPPH• antioxidant activity (Y2). The results showed that the optimal combination was ethanol: water (v:v) 66.21%, material-to-liquid ratio 1:15.31 g/mL, ultrasonic temperature 60 °C, power 267.30 W, and time 30 min with three extractions, giving a maximal total phenol yield of 7593.62 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g d.w. and a maximal DPPH• antioxidant activity of 74241.61 μmol Trolox equivalent/100 g d.w.. Furthermore, 22 phenolics were first identified in ATL extract obtained under the optimized conditions, indicating that gallates, gallotannins, quercetin, myricetin and chlorogenic acid derivatives were the main phenolic composition in ATL. What’s more, a gallotannins pathway existing in ATL from gallic acid to penta-O-galloyl-glucoside was interpreted. All these results provided practical information aiming at full utilization of phenolics in ATL, together with fundamental knowledge for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Fiber metal laminates; Guided ultrasonic wave; Structural health monitoring; Proper orthogonal decomposition; Model order reduction; Damage detection
Online: 17 September 2021 (12:24:40 CEST)
This paper focuses on parametric model order reduction (PMOR) of guided ultrasonic wave propagation and its interaction with damage in a fiber metal laminate (FML). Structural health monitoring in FML seeks to detect, localize and characterize the damage with high accuracy and minimal use of sensors. This can be achieved by the inverse problem analysis approach which employs the signal measurement data recorded by the embedded sensors in the structure. The inverse analysis requires to solve the forward simulation of the underlying system several thousand times. These simulations are often exorbitantly expensive and triggered the need for improving their computational efficiency. A PMOR approach hinged on the proper orthogonal decomposition method is presented in this paper. An adaptive parameter sampling technique is established with the aid of a surrogate model to efficiently update the reduced-order basis in a greedy fashion. A numerical experiment is conducted to illustrate the parametric training of the reduced-order model. The results show that the reduced-order solution based on the PMOR approach is accurately complying with that of the high fidelity solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0270.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Non-Destructive Tests, Structural Health Monitoring, Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity, Rebound Hammer, Surface Hardness, Compressive Strength, Linear regression
Online: 28 January 2019 (09:43:18 CET)
This work investigates the use of Non-destructive tests as a tool for monitoring the structural performance of concrete structures. The investigation encompassed four phases; the first of which involved the use of destructive and non-destructive mechanisms to assess concrete strength on cube specimens. The second phase research focused on site assessment for a twin engineering theatre located at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos using rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tester. The third phase was the use of linear regression analysis model with MATLAB to establish a relationship between calibrated strength as well as ultrasonic pulse velocities with their corresponding compressive strength values on cubes and values obtained from existing structures. Results show that the root-mean squared-R2 values for rebound hammer ranged between 0.275 and 0.742 while ultrasonic pulse velocity R2 values were in the range of 0.649 and 0.952 for air curing and water curing systems respectively. It initially appeared that the Ultrasonic pulse velocity was more suitable for predicting concrete strength than rebound hammer but further investigations showed that the latter was adequate for early age concrete while the former was more suited for aging concrete. Hence, a combined use is recommended in this work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0115.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ultrasonic vocalization; social buffering; 50-kHz calls; 22-kHz calls; distress; emotional contagion; fear contagion; aversive state; communication
Online: 6 May 2021 (16:32:04 CEST)
Abstract: Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are one of the evolutionarily oldest forms of animal communication. In order to study the communication architecture in an aversive social situation, we used a behavioral model in which one animal, the observer, is witnessing as his cagemate, the demonstrator, is experiencing a series of mild electrical foot-shocks (aversive stimuli). We studied the effect of foot-shocks experience in the observer and the influence of a warning sound (emit-ted shortly before the shock is applied) on USVs communication. These experiments revealed that such a warning seems to increase the arousal level, which differentiates the responses depending on previous experience. It can be identified by the emission of characteristic, short 22-kHz calls, of a duration below 100 ms. Furthermore, by analyzing temporally overlapping USVs, we found that in ‘Warned’ pairs with a naive observer, 22-kHz were mixed with 50-kHz calls. This fact, combined with a high fraction of very high-pitched 50-kHz calls (over 75-kHz), suggests the presence of the phenomenon of social buffering. On the other hand, in ‘Warned’ pairs with an experienced observer, pure 22-kHz overlaps were mostly found, signifying possible fear contagion with dis-tress sharing. Hence the importance of differentiating 22-kHz calls to long and short.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: ultrasonic cyclic testing; frequency effect; strain rate effect; 50CrMo4; SAE 4150; High Cycle Fatigue; Very High Cycle Fatigue
Online: 21 October 2020 (15:18:48 CEST)
In this study, we investigate the influence of control type and strain rate on the lifetime of specimens manufactured from 50CrMo4. This influence is described by a strain rate dependent method that uses cyclic stress strain curves to correct displacement controlled cyclic test results. The objective of this correction is to eliminate the stress related differences between displacement controlled cyclic test results and force controlled cyclic test results. The method is applied to the results of ultrasonic fatigue tests of six different combinations of heat treatment, specimen geometry (notch factor) and atmosphere. The corrected results show an improved agreement with test results obtained on conventional fatigue testing equipment with similar specimens: the standard deviation in combined data sets is significantly reduced (p=4.1%). We discuss the literature on intrinsic and extrinsic strain rate effects in carbon steels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0138.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; additive manufacturing; assistive devices; blind; obstacle avoidance; sensors; sensory substitution; ultrasonic sensing; ultrasound sensing; visually impaired
Online: 10 July 2019 (06:24:05 CEST)
Nineteen million Americans have significant vision loss. Over 70% of these are not employed full-time, and more than a quarter live below the poverty line. Globally, there are 36 million blind people, but less than half use white canes or more costly commercial sensory substitutions. The quality of life for visually impaired people is hampered by the resultant lack of independence. To help alleviate these challenges this study reports on the development of a low-cost (<$24), open-source navigational support system to allow people with the lost vision to navigate, orient themselves in their surroundings and avoid obstacles when moving. The system can be largely made with digitally distributed manufacturing using low-cost 3-D printing/milling. It conveys point-distance information by utilizing the natural active sensing approach and modulates measurements into haptic feedback with various vibration patterns within the distance range of 3 m. The developed system allows people with lost vision to solve the primary tasks of navigation, orientation, and obstacle detection (>20 cm stationary, moving up to 0.5 m/s) to ensure their safety and mobility. Sighted blindfolded participants successfully demonstrated the device for eight primary everyday navigation and guidance tasks including indoor and outdoor navigation and avoiding collisions with other pedestrians.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: mineral physics; ultrasonic interferometry; resonant ultrasound spectroscopy; law of corresponding states; equations-of-state; Columbia University; American Geophysical Union
Online: 29 March 2019 (07:54:57 CET)
From 1964 to the early 1970s, Orson Anderson led a research program at the Lamont Geological Observatory in the newly-emerging field of “mineral physics”. In collaboration with colleagues Edward Schreiber and Naohiro Soga, Orson exploited the techniques of physical acoustics to study the behavior of the sound velocities of minerals at elevated pressures and temperatures. This research program also included semi-empirical studies of relationships between the bulk modulus and the molar volume of solids and the use of lattice dynamics to calculate the elastic moduli of cubic structures as a function of pressure to predict instabilities, as well as theoretical investigations of the Lagrangian vs. Eulerian formulations of finite strain equations of state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0131.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Citrus aurantium L. blossoms; total phenolics; ultrasonic-assisted extraction; Box-Behnken design; free radical scavenging activity; anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity
Online: 10 May 2019 (14:41:59 CEST)
The objective of this study was to develop an ultrasonic-assisted procedure for the extraction of total phenolics from Citrus aurantium L. blossoms (CAB) and evaluate the free radical scavenging activity, anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity of total phenolics. In this work, a Box-Behnken design based on the single-factor experiments was used to explore the optimum extraction process. Under the optimum conditions (extraction solvent 70.31% ethanol, extraction temperature 61.94 °C, extraction time 51.73 min and liquid-to-solid ratio 35.63 mL/g), the extraction yield of total phenolics was 95.84 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry matter (DM), which was highly consistent with the theoretical value (96.12 mg GAE/g DM). The total phenolic extract showed excellent free radical scavenging properties against DPPH·, ABTS+·, ·OH and ·O2-, with the IC50 values of 197.007, 83.878, 218.643 and 158.885 μg/mL, respectively, and the extracts also showed good inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity, with the IC50 value of 117.165 μg/mL. Total phenolics from CAB could be a potential source of natural free radical scavenger and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0215.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: visually impaired; smart mobility; sensors; LiDAR; ultrasonic; deep learning; obstacle detection; obstacle recognition; assistive tools; edge computing; green computing; sustainability; Arduino Uno; Smart App
Online: 11 August 2022 (11:12:58 CEST)
Over a billion people around the world are disabled, among them, 253 million are visually impaired or blind, and this number is greatly increasing due to ageing, chronic diseases, poor environment, and health. Despite many proposals, the current devices and systems lack maturity and do not completely fulfill user requirements and satisfaction. Increased research activity in this field is required to encourage the development, commercialization, and widespread acceptance of low-cost and affordable assistive technologies for visual impairment and other disabilities. This paper proposes a novel approach using a LiDAR with a servo motor and an ultrasonic sensor to collect data and predict objects using deep learning for environment perception and navigation. We adopted this approach in a pair of smart glasses, called LidSonic V2.0, to enable the identification of obstacles for the visually impaired. The LidSonic system consists of an Arduino Uno edge computing device integrated into the smart glasses and a smartphone app that transmits data via Bluetooth. Arduino gathers data, operates the sensors on smart glasses, detects obstacles using simple data processing, and provides buzzer feedback to visually impaired users. The smartphone application collects data from Arduino, detects and classifies items in the spatial environment, and gives spoken feedback to the user on the detected objects. In comparison to image processing-based glasses, LidSonic uses far less processing time and energy to classify obstacles using simple LiDAR data, according to several integer measurements. We comprehensively describe the proposed system's hardware and software design, construct their prototype implementations, and test them in real-world environments. Using the open platforms, WEKA and TensorFlow, the entire LidSonic system is built with affordable off-the-shelf sensors and a microcontroller board costing less than $80. Essentially, we provide designs of an inexpensive, miniature, green device that can be built into, or mounted on, any pair of glasses or even a wheelchair to help the visually impaired. Our approach affords faster inference and decision-making using relatively low energy with smaller data sizes as well as faster communications for the edge, fog, and cloud computing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0515.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: efficient ultrasonic transceivers, broadband piezoelectric transducers, industrial NDE, medical imaging, pulsed high-power spikes, HV capacitive-discharge pulsers, high-current driving, high dynamic range.
Online: 22 March 2021 (11:16:39 CET)
Ultrasonic imaging & NDE applications can greatly improve their signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) by driving each transducer (composing piezoelectric arrays) with a spike giving pulsed power of k-Watts, repetitively at a PRF = 5000 spikes/s, by using a HV capacitive-discharge generator. However very-high levels, of pulsed intensities (3-10 A) and voltages (300-700 V) must be considered for a rigorous spike modeling. Even though the consumed "average" power will be small, the intensity through each transducer achieves several amperes, so the pulsed powers delivered by each HV generator can attain levels higher than in CW high-power ultrasonic applications: e.g., up to 5 kW / spike. This is concluded here from a transient modeling of the loaded generator. Then, unforeseen phenomena rise: intense brief pulses of driving power & emitted force in transducers, and non-linearities in driver semiconductors, because their characteristic curves only include linear ranges. But fortunately, piezoelectric devices working in this intense regime do not show serious heating problems, because the average power remains being moderate. Intensity, power and voltage, driving a broadband transducer from a HV capacitive pulser, are calculated to drastically improve (in ≅ 40 dB) the ultrasonic net dynamic range available, with emitted forces ≅ 250 Newtons pp and E/R received pulses of 70 V pp.