ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0912.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: tungsten, metal matrix composites, CVD, yarns, preforms, textiles, fusion
Online: 25 April 2023 (09:48:25 CEST)
The use of tungsten fiber-reinforced tungsten composites (Wf/W) has been demonstrated to significantly enhance the mechanical properties of tungsten (W) by incorporating W-fibers into the W-matrix. However, prior research has been restricted by the usage of single fiber-based textile fabrics, consisting of 150 µm warp and 50 µm weft filaments, with limited homogeneity, reproducibility, and mechanical properties in bulk structures due to the rigidity of the 150 µm fibers. To overcome this limitation, two novel textile preforms were developed utilizing radial braided yarns with 7 core- and 16 sleeve filaments (R.B. 16+7) as the warp material. In this study, bulk composites of two different fabric types were produced via a layer-by-layer CVD-process, utilizing single 50 µm filaments (type 1) and R.B. 16+7 yarns (type 2) as weft materials. The produced composites were sectioned into KLST-type specimen based on DIN EN ISO 179-1:2000 using electrical discharge machining (EDM), and subjected to three-point bending tests. Both composites demonstrated enhanced mechanical properties with pseudo-ductile behavior at room temperature and endured over 10,000 load cycles between 50-90 % of their respective maximum load without sample fracture. Composites based on fabric type 1 demonstrated superior manufacturing performance and mechanical properties, a high relative average density (>97 %), and high fiber volume fraction (14-17 %). Furthermore, a novel approach to predict the fatigue behavior of the material under cyclic loading was developed based on the high reproducibility of the mechanical properties of type 1, providing a new benchmark for upscaling endeavors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0205.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: Tungsten; MCNP; Epoxy resin; Gamma rays; shielding
Online: 11 April 2023 (06:09:34 CEST)
With the development of nuclear technology application, radiation safety has been widely concerned, and there is an urgent need for novel shielding materials. Among the various options available, non-lead organic composite shielding material has emerged as a promising solution in the field of radiation shielding due to its high strength, easy processing, and light weight. In this study, tungsten/epoxy resin (W/EP) composite samples with tungsten weight fraction from 0% to 60% were prepared. The shielding and mechanical properties of W/EP composites were investigated. The results show that the results showed that the higher the tungsten content, the greater the shielding capacity of W/EP composites, particularly for low-energy gamma ray (γ) shielding. However, the addition of tungsten reduces the impact strength and tensile properties of the material. Overall, for 300 keV γ-ray, W/EP with 30% tungsten content has comparable shielding capacity to ordinary concrete. W/EP composite materials can serve as shielding materials for low-energy γ-rays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0028.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; physical vapor deposition; X-ray diffraction; tungsten oxide; tungsten dioxide; tungsten trioxide; beryllium; tungstate; tungsten bronze
Online: 10 September 2019 (08:09:51 CEST)
Tungsten oxides play a pivotal role in a variety of modern technologies e.g., switchable glasses, wastewater treatment, and modern gas sensors. Metallic tungsten is used as armor material, for e.g., gas turbines as well as future fusion power devices. In the first case, oxides are desired as functional materials, while in the second case, oxides can lead to catastrophic failures, so avoiding the oxidation of tungsten is desired. In both cases, it is crucial to understand the reactivity of tungsten oxides with other chemicals. In this study, the different reactivities of tungsten oxides with the highly-oxophilic beryllium are studied and compared. Tungsten-(IV)-oxide and tungsten-(VI)-oxide layers are prepared on a tungsten substrate. In the next step, a thin film of beryllium is evaporated on the samples. In consecutive steps, the sample is heated in steps of 100 K from r. t. to 1273 K. The chemical composition is investigated after each experimental step by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of all involved core levels as well as the valence band. A model is developed to analyze the chemical reactions after each step. In this study, we find that tungsten trioxide was already reduced by beryllium at r. t. and started to react to form the ternary compounds BeWO3 and BeWO4 at temperatures starting from 673 K. However, tungsten dioxide is resistant to reduction at temperatures of up to 1173 K. In conclusion, we find WO2 to be much more chemically resistant to the reduction agent Be than WO3.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1366.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Tantalum alloys; Tungsten binary alloys; Irradiation; Neutron irradiation; Proton irradiation; Yield strength; Ultimate tensile strength.
Online: 19 June 2023 (13:35:12 CEST)
In the article, we are trying to find a general law that describes the physical properties of a complex compound through the same physical properties of compound elements. For metal alloys operated under extreme conditions - neutron and proton irradiations and thermal heating, the mechanical properties of these alloys and their elements have been studied. It turned out that the ultimate tensile strength of tantalum alloys used in the design of space reactors can be expressed in terms of the weighted sum of the ultimate tensile strengths of its elements in the range of neutron doses: (0 - 0.96) displacement per atom (dpa) for Ta–10W alloy and (1.4 - 1.7) dpa for T–111 alloy with a neutron energy of more than 0.1 MeV. For tungsten binary alloys used in the design of fusion reactors, the Vickers hardness can also be expressed in terms of the weighted sum of the Vickers hardnesses of the alloy elements in the range of proton irradiation doses: (0 - 0.05) dpa for W-1%Re alloy, (0.05 - 0.2) dpa for W-3%Re alloy and (0.05 - 1) dpa for W-1%Ta with a proton energy of 1 MeV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0037.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Gas Sensor, Adsorbed Oxygen, Tungsten oxide, XPS, UPS, XPEEM, Sensing Mechanism, H2, Metal Oxides, Synchrotron.
Online: 2 December 2022 (02:33:15 CET)
Oxidation reactions on semiconducting metal oxides (SMOs) surfaces have been extensively worked on in catalysis, fuel cells, and sensors. SMOs engaged powerfully in energy-related applications such as batteries, supercapacitors, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), and chemical gas sensors. The deep understanding of SMO surface and oxygen interactions and defect engineering has become significant because all those mentioned applications are based on the adsorption/absorption and consumption/transportation of adsorbed (physisorbed-chemisorbed) oxygen. More understanding of adsorbed oxygen and oxygen vacancies (〖V_O^•,V〗_O^(••)) is needed, as the former is the vital requirement for sensing chemical reactions, while the latter facilitates the replenishment of adsorbed oxygen ions on the surface. We determined the relation between sensor response (sensitivity) and the amounts of adsorbed oxygen ions (O_(2(ads))^-,O_((ads),)^- O_2(ads)^(2-),O_((ads))^(2-)), water/hydroxide groups (H2O/OH^-), oxygen vacancies (〖V_O^•,V〗_O^(••)), and ordinary lattice oxygen ions (O_lattice^(2-)) as a function of temperature. During hydrogen (H2) testing, the different oxidation states (W6+, W5+, and W4+) of WO3 were quantified and correlated with oxygen vacancy formation (〖V_O^•,V〗_O^(••)). We used a combined application of XPS, UPS, XPEEM-LEEM, and chemical, electrical and sensory analysis for H2 sensing. We established a correlation between the H2 sensing mechanism of WO3, sensor signal magnitude, the amount of adsorbed oxygen ions, and sensor testing temperature. This paper also provides a review of the detection, quantification, and identification of different adsorbed oxygen species. The different surface and bulk-sensitive characterization techniques relevant to analyzing the SMOs-based sensor are tabulated, providing the sensor designer with the chemical, physical, and electronic information extracted from each technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0153.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Composite; Fusion; Materials; Tungsten
Online: 11 October 2022 (10:41:08 CEST)
Tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites (Wf/W) have been in development to overcome the inherent brittleness of tungsten as one of the most promising candidate for the first wall and divertor armour material in a future fusion power plant. As the development of Wf/W continues, the fracture toughness of the composite is one of the main design drivers. In this contribution the efforts on size upscaling of Wf/W based on Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) is shown together with fracture mechanical tests of two different size samples of Wf/W produced by CVD. Three-point bending tests according to ASTM E399 for brittle materials were used to get a first estimation of the toughness. A provisional fracture toughness value of up to 346MPam1/2 was calculated for the as-fabricated material. As the material does not show a brittle fracture in the as-fabricated state, the J-Integral approach based on the ASTM E1820 was additionally applied for this state. A maximum value of the J-integral of 41kJ/m2 (134,8MPam1/2) was determined for the largest samples. Post mortem investigations were employed to detail the active mechanisms and crack propagation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0004.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: lubrication; ball bearings; four-ball; tungsten carbide; grease; tungsten disulfide; coatings; surface treatment; friction
Online: 2 December 2018 (10:42:14 CET)
An investigation was made to determine the effects of tungsten surface coating on the coefficient of friction of sliding contact between lubricated steel surfaces. The four-ball test was modified, using a tungsten carbide ball bearing in the spindle to cause sliding contact onto three hard steel ball bearings coated with tungsten disulfide lamellar dry lubricant coating, with a coating of grease lubrication applied to the ball bearings. The coatings, loads, speed, and grease level was varied to best understand the impact of different conditions to the friction coefficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1050.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Energy storage properties; Tungsten bronze phase
Online: 14 June 2023 (13:45:23 CEST)
The temperature-dependent energy storage properties of four tungsten bronze phase compounds are studied together with an investigation of their structure and temperature-dependent permittivity response, i.e., Ba6Ti2Nb8O30 (BTN), Ba6Zr2Nb8O30 (BZN), Sr3TiNb4O15 (STN) and Sr3ZrNb4O15 (SZN) ceramics. It was found that BZN has smaller grains and a more porous structure than BTN. SZN shows no clear grain boundaries with the most porous structure among all samples, exhibiting a much lower permittivity response than other samples with no signs of phase transitions from room temperature to 400 °C. Though the energy storage response of those samples is generally quite low, it exhibits rather good temperature stability. It was suggested that by obtaining a denser structure through chemical modification or other methods, those tungsten bronze ceramics with good temperature stability could be promising as energy storage devices when improved energy storage properties are achieved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1121.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: tungsten carbide; spark plasma sintering; diffusion; carbon
Online: 16 May 2023 (07:54:18 CEST)
The research results conducted on binderless tungsten carbide (WC) ceramics obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of WC powders with different average particle sizes (0.095, 0.8, 3 μm) are presented. Nonuniform distribution of crystalline phases and microstructure of the WC ceramics was studied using layer-by-layer XRD analysis and SEM. Surface layers of the WC-based ceramics are characterized by nonuniform distribution of W2C crystalline phase and grain sizes, including the appearance of abnormally large grains. Thickness of the nonuniform layer was at least 50 μm. The effect under study is associated with an intense carbon diffusion from graphite foil. On the one hand, this contributed to a decrease in the intensity of W2C phase particle formation, which is transformed into α-WC phase due to the carbon. On the other hand, it caused abnormal grain growth in the layer where the carbon diffused. The obtained value of the carbon diffusion depth exceeds the values known from the literature (up to 1 μm in the case of volume diffusion even at temperature of 2370℃ and exposure time of ~ 60 h). The use of boron nitride (BN) as a protective coating on graphite mold parts did not prevent the formation of nonuniform layer on the ceramic surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0499.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: TiO2 nanorods; Tungsten trioxide; Photoelectrochemical; Water splitting
Online: 19 March 2021 (11:50:04 CET)
TiO2 nanorod as a superior nanostructure has attracted a lot of attention to exert in the photocatalytic and photoelectrocatlytic applications in recent years. Nevertheless, its practical usage is restricted by a number of limitations such as the large band gap energy, the low rate of photo-induced carriers generation and the high rate of charge carriers recombination. Therefore in this study, incorporation of TiO2 nanorod with WO3 is proposed as a suitable approach to overcome these defects. In this regard, WO3-TiO2 nanorod was constructed by a facile one pot hydrothermal method in two incessant steps and was then employed as a potent photoanode for photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen generation. The morphology, elemental compositions and optical properties were characterized by the FESEM, EDS and DRS analysis, respectively. Furthermore, voltammetry analyses were performed to assay the photoelectrochemical features of WO3-TiO2 nanorod. The results confirmed that the incorporation of TiO2 nanorod with WO3 not only significantly made the band gap energy narrower (from 3eV to 2eV), but also dramatically intensified the photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency from 1mA.cm-2 to 1.8mA.cm-2 and from 0.3% to 0.45%, respectively. As a consequence of improving optical properties and photoelectrochemical features, WO3-TiO2 nanorod could generate 2.43 mmol H2 during 100 min under UV irradiation, which was 1.71 times more than hydrogen generated over pure TiO2 nanorod
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1015.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: tungsten carbide; silicon carbide; spark plasma sintering; nanopowder
Online: 15 May 2023 (10:06:48 CEST)
This paper investigates the density, phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties (microhardness, fracture toughness) of binderless WC + SiC ceramics obtained by conventional pressureless sintering (CPS) and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). α-WC nanopowders obtained by DC arc plasma chemical synthesis and β-SiC powders have been used as raw materials. The content of SiC particles was 1, 3, 5% wt. Excess graphite (0.3, 0.5% wt.) was added to α-WC nanopowders to decrease the volume fraction of W2C particles that negatively affect the mechanical properties of ceramics. WC + 1% wt. SiC + 0.3% wt. C ceramics are shown to have a homogeneous fine-grained microstructure, high relative density, increased microhardness and Palmquist fracture toughness. The CPS and SPS activation energies of WC + SiC nanopowders at an intensive shrinkage stage are determined using the Young-Cutler model. The effect of carbon and SiC particles on the CPS and SPS activation energies of tungsten carbide nanopowders has been analyzed. The CPS activation energies of WC, WC + C and WC + SiC + C nanopowders are shown to be closer to the carbon diffusion activation energy along α-WC grain boundaries. The SPS activation energies of WC and WC + SiC nanopowders turn out to be lower than the carbon grain boundary diffusion activation energy of α-WC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0095.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: 2D materials, field effect transistors, PMMA, tungsten diselenide
Online: 5 October 2018 (09:55:00 CEST)
We study the effect of polymer coating, pressure, temperature and light on the electrical characteristics of monolayer WSe2 back-gated transistors with quasi-ohmic Ni/Au contacts. We prove that the removal of a layer of poly(methyl methacrylate) or a decrease of the pressure change the device conductivity from p to n-type. We demonstrate a gate-tunable Schottky barrier at the contacts and measure a barrier height of ~70 meV in flat-band condition. We report and discuss a temperature-driven change in the mobility and the subthreshold slope which we use to estimate the trap density at the WSe2/SiO2 interface. We study the spectral photoresponse of the device, that can be used as a photodetector with a responsivity of ~0.5 AW-1 at 700 nm wavelength and 0.37 mW/cm2 optical power.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: sulfite oxidase; molybdenum; tungsten; sulfite toxicity; tomato; SO expression
Online: 20 March 2020 (04:16:41 CET)
Plant sulfite oxidase )SO( is a molybdo-enzyme responsible for the oxidation of excess SO2/sulfite into non-toxic sulfate. The effect of toxic sulfite level on leaves and fruits was studied in tomato plants with different SO expression levels: wild-type (WT), SO overexpression (OE) and SO RNA interference (Ri) plants. Leaf discs and ripe fruit of plants lacking SO were more susceptible, whereas SO OE plants were more resistant as revealed by remaining chlorophyll content and tissue damage levels. Application of molybdenum further enhanced the tolerance of leaf discs to sulfite by enhancing SO activity in SO OE lines, but not in WT or Ri plants. Notably, incubation with tungsten, the molybdenum antagonist, overturned the effect of molybdenum spray in SO OE plants, revealed by remaining chlorophyll content and SO activity. The results indicate that SO determines, in tomato leaves and ripe fruits, the resistance to toxic sulfite and the application of molybdenum enhances sulfite resistance in OE plants by increasing SO activity. The results suggest that overexpressing SO mechanism can be employed in agriculture with or without molybdenum application, for the development of more tolerate crops and vegetables to higher concentrations of sulfite/SO2 containing postharvest treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0037.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: SAW devices; Tungsten trioxide; FEM/BEM; Harmonic admittance; elastic properties
Online: 2 February 2022 (14:53:27 CET)
This study aimed to discuss the combined theoretical and experimental results of elastic properties of the tungsten trioxide films supported on Quartz (YX)/45°/10° resonator, as surface acoustic wave (SAW) device. The SAW system with different thicknesses of WO3 thin films were imaged and structurally characterized by X-Ray diffraction, atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. The deposited WO3 films (100 nm, 200 nm and 300 nm) were crystallized in a single monoclinic phase. The acoustoelectric properties of the SAW system were obtained by combining theoretical simulations with experimental measurements. The modeling of the SAW devices has been performed by the finite element and boundary element methods (FEM/BEM). The theoretical and experimental electrical admittances responses obtained at room temperature gave access to elastic constants. The gravimetric effect of the deposited layers is observed by a resonance frequencies shift to lower values with thicknesses film. Moreover, the acoustic losses are affected by the dielectric losses of the WO3 films, while the resonant frequency decreases almost linearly. SAW devices revealed strong displacement fields with low acoustic losses as a function of WO3 thicknesses. For all the deposited layers, the Young's modulus and the Poisson coefficient obtained are respectively of 8 GPa and 0.5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0234.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: niobium tungsten oxide; pentagonal tunnels; tetragonal tungsten bronze; high-angle annular dark field detector; scanning transmission electron microscopy; HAADF-STEM; twinning; superstructure, battery material.
Online: 12 November 2021 (15:17:48 CET)
The evaluation of HAADF-STEM images of a sample with the composition Nb18W16O93 provided new insights in its real structure. The basic structure comprises an intact octahedral framework of the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) type. The partial occupation of the pentagonal tunnels (PT) by metal-oxygen strings determines the oxygen to metal ratio (O/SM with M = Nb,W). For a large area, the O/SM was determined to be 2.755 which is smaller than the value of Nb18W16O93 which is O/SM = 2. 735. To a large extent, the threefold TTB superstructure structure of Nb8W9O47 with a high oxygen content is present (O/SM = 2.765). In addition, a new fourfold TTB superstructure was found in small domains: Nb12W11O63 with an O/SM = 2.739 obviously accommodates a part of the sample’s metal excess compared to the stable phase Nb8W9O47.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0503.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: tungsten alloys; nanopowders; high energy ball milling; spark plasma sintering; strength
Online: 18 April 2023 (08:12:49 CEST)
The present work was aimed at the investigation of effect of High Energy Ball Milling (HEBM) time on the sintering kinetics, structure, and properties of heavy tungsten alloy (HTA) W-7%Ni-3%Fe. The HTA samples were obtained from the nanopowders (20-80 nm) by conventional liquid phase sintering (LPS) in hydrogen and by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) in vacuum. The HTA density was shown to depend on the HEBM time non-monotonously that originates from the formation of non-equilibrium solid solutions in the W-Ni-Fe systems during HEBM. The SPS kinetics of the HTA nanopowders was shown to have a two-stage character, the intensity of which depends on the Coble diffusion creep rate and on the intensity of diffusion of the tungsten atoms in the crystal lattice of the -phase. The kinetics of sintering of the initial submicron powders have a single-stage character originating from the intensity of the grain boundary diffusion in the -phase. The dependencies of the hardness and of the yield strength on the grain sizes were found to obey the Hall-Petch relation. The hardness, strength, and dynamic strength in the compression tests of the fine-grained tungsten alloys obtained by SPS and LPS were studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: tungsten; zinc; tailings re-processing; multi-criteria optimization; modelling regression; Pareto optimal
Online: 1 August 2019 (11:43:59 CEST)
The growth of demand for metallic minerals has faced with the need for new techniques and improving technologies for all mine life cycle operations. Nowadays, the exploitation of old tailings and mine wastes facilities could represent a solution to this demand, with economic and environmental advantages. W-Sn Panasqueira Mine has been operating for more than 100 years. Its first processing plant “Rio” was located near Zêrere river being the mineral processing residues deposited on the top hillside on the margin of this river in Cabeço do Pião tailings dam. The lack of maintenance and monitoring of this enormous structure in the last twenty years represents high risks to the environment and population of the surrounding region. The re-mining of the tailings by hydrometallurgical methods was considered, in order to satisfy these two enounced conditions - metals demand and environmental risk, aiming for the sale of the metal to pay the environmental intervention. Field samples campaign allowed collecting data and results from laboratory tests driving to use regression optimization. The re-mining solution was studied, taking into account the technical, economic, social, and environmental aspects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0069.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: machine learning; mineral prospectivity mapping; few-shot learning; SMOTE; tungsten mineralization; southern Jiangxi Province
Online: 2 May 2023 (07:55:40 CEST)
Mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM), aiming to outline and prioritize mineral exploration targets, has been spurred by data-driven machine learning algorithms. Supervised data-driven MPM is a typical few-shot task, suffering from the scarcity of labeled data, over-fitting of models and uncertainty of predictions. The main objective of this contribution is to propose a robust framework of few-shot learning (FSL) combining data augmentation and transfer learning, which enables generation of prospectivity models with excellent predictive efficiency and low uncertainty. The mineral systems approach was used to transfer a conceptual mineral system into mappable exploration criteria. Synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) was employed to augment and balance the labeled dataset, allowing for model pre-training with a large synthetic training dataset of source domain. The knowledge derived from pre-trained models was then transferred to the target domain by fine-tuning, and the prospectivity model was generated in light of over-fitting and uncertainty assessment. The proposed FSL framework was applied to tungsten prospectivity mapping in southern Jiangxi Province. The results indicate that the SMOTE-ed balanced dataset boosts the classification accuracy in the training process. The FSL models yield an arch-shaped prediction point pattern favorable for focusing potential targets with high probability and low uncertainty. The FSL models achieve a high predictive performance (test AUC=0.9172) and the lowest quantitative over-fitting value, compared to the models derived from the benchmark algorithms of random forest and support vector machine. Four levels of potential targeting zones, considering both predictive efficiency and uncertainty, are extracted from the resulting FSL prospectivity map. The final high-potential and low-risk exploration targets only cover 4.27% of the area, but capture 41.53% known tungsten deposits, achieving superior predictive performance. This study highlights the capability of FSL framework for controlling over-fitting and generating high-confidence exploration targets with low uncertainty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0389.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: micro machining; cutting tools; tungsten carbide; high speed steels; surface roughness; surface finish; edge preparation
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:39:15 CEST)
The performance and lifespan of cutting tools are significantly influenced by their surface quality. The present report highlights recent advances in enhancing the surface characteristics of tungsten carbide and high-speed steel cutting tools using a novel micro-machining technique for polishing and edge-honing. Notably, the main aim is to reduce the surface roughness while maintaining the hardness of the materials at an optimal level. By conducting a thorough analysis, of surfaces obtained with different techniques. It was that micro-machining method effectively decreased the surface roughness of the cutting tools, most effectively of the techniques investigated. Significantly, the surface roughness is reduced from an initial measurement of 400 nm to an impressive value of 60 nm. No significant change in hardness was observed, which guarantees the maintenance of the mechanical properties of the cutting tools. This analysis enhances the comprehension of surface enhancement methodologies for cutting tools through the presentation of these findings. The observed decrease in surface roughness, along with the consistent hardness, exhibits potential for improving tool performance. These enhancements possess the capacity to optimise manufacturing processes, increase tool reliability, and minimise waste generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0021.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: paper electronics; strain gauge; sensor; low-cost electronics; van der Waals materials; tungsten disulfide WS2
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:27:41 CEST)
Environmentally friendly and low-cost sensors are needed for the next generation disposable electronics applications. Given its low-cost, availability and biodegradability, paper-based devices are a very promising. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a tungsten disulphide (WS2) strain sensor on standard copy paper. The WS2 is deposited through direct abrasion of WS2 powder against the paper surface making the fabrication of the device low-tech and cost effective. The fabricated strain gauge devices present gauge factors up to ~70 for strains in the ± 0.5 % range. These values are ~ 9 times larger than that obtained on devices with the same geometry but using a graphite film instead a WS2 as a sensitive material. We demonstrate the potential of these WS2-on-paper strain gauges by integrating them directly on a paper cantilever to sense mass and forces. We show how this very simple device can detect sub-milligram masses. Moreover, we also demonstrate the capability of transducing motion in mechanical resonators by gluing a WS2-on-paper strain gauge on their surface.