ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1748.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: third molar; complications; triangular flap; envelope flap
Online: 25 August 2023 (04:50:31 CEST)
The surgical extraction of the impacted third molar is frequently associated with several complications. The purpose of this study is to assess how two different surgical protocols affect post-operative complications during the extraction of the lower third molars. In order to compare and evaluate two different techniques (triangular flap vs envelope flap), and the relative post-extraction complications, two groups of 150 patients each, underwent to surgical third molar extraction and 60 days of follow-up. A complication rate founded in two groups was respectively 14,00% in group A and 17,33% in group B. There was a strong association between smoking (OR:2.8) and the use of oral contraceptives (OR:1.75) with complications. The age and sex-related incidence of complications in hard tissue healing finds great variability in the literature; the analysis performed on our data did not show a statistically significant association between them. Even though related to a higher incidence of transient changes in sensitivity, it was found that the envelope flap saw a lower percentage of complications. There is still no clarity on which is the best protocol for the extraction of the lower third molar, and the choice often depends on the surgeon’s experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0617.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: differential algebraic equations; index reduction; block triangular forms
Online: 29 October 2020 (14:34:38 CET)
A new generation of universal tools and languages for modeling and simulation multi-physical domain applications emerged and became widely accepted, which generate large-scale systems of differential algebraic equations (DAEs) automatically. Motivated by the characteristics of DAEs systems with large dimension, high index or block structures, we first propose a modified Pantelides’ algorithm (MPA) for any high order DAEs based on its Σ matrix, which is similar to Pryce’s Σ method. By introducing a vital parameter vector, a modified Pantelides’ algorithm with parameter has been presented.It leads to a block Pantelides’ algorithm (BPA) naturally which can immediately compute the crucial canonical offsets for whole (coupled) systems with block-triangular form. We illustrate these algorithms by some examples. And numerical experiments show that the time complexity of BPA can be reduced by at least O(ℓ) compared to the MPA, which is mainly consistent with the results of our analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0253.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: F-transform; triangular membership function; optimal global characteristics
Online: 23 April 2019 (11:01:56 CEST)
The main ideas of F-transform came from representing expert rules. It would be therefore re reasonable to expect that the more accurately the membership functions describe human reasoning, the more efficient will be the corresponding F-transform formulas. We know that an adequate description of our reasoning corresponds to complicated membership functions -- however, somewhat surprisingly, most efficient applications of F-transform use the simplest possible triangular membership functions. There exist some explanations for this phenomenon which are based on local behavior of the signal. In this paper, we supplement this local explanation by a global one: namely, we prove that triangular membership functions are the only one that provide the accurate description of appropriate global characteristics of the signal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0061.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: generalized triangular intuitionistic fuzzy geometric aggregation operator; triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number; intuitionistic fuzzy set; multi-criteria decision-making; attitudinal character; flexibility
Online: 14 June 2017 (05:55:52 CEST)
Intuitionistic fuzzy set, which can be represented using the triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number (TIFN), is a more generalized platform for expressing imprecise, incomplete and inconsistent information when solving multi-criteria decision-making problems, as well as for reflecting the evaluation information exactly in different dimensions. In this paper, the TIFN has been applied for solving some multi-criteria decision-making problems by developing a new triangular intuitionistic fuzzy geometric aggregation operator, that is the generalized triangular intuitionistic fuzzy ordered weighted geometric averaging (GTIFOWGA) operator, and defining some triangular intuitionistic fuzzy geometric aggregation operators including the triangular intuitionistic fuzzy weighted geometric averaging (TIFWGA) operator, the ordered weighted geometric averaging (TIFOWGA) operator and the hybrid geometric averaging (TIFHWGA) operator. Based on these operators, a new approach for solving multicriteria decision-making problems when the weight information is fixed has been proposed. Finally, the proposed method has been compared with some similar existing computational approaches by virtue of a numerical example to verify its feasibility and rationality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0494.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Neonatal Cholestasis; Liver biopsy; Biliary atresia; triangular cord sing
Online: 7 June 2023 (05:46:20 CEST)
Background: Neonatal cholestasis (NC) initiates in the first trimester of a newborn, comprising extra and intrahepatic medical conditions, with a high risk of fatality warranting early diagnosis and treatment to prevent morbimortality. The differential diagnosis of NC is a challenge demanding an accurate diagnosis for disease detection. The current study evaluates NC's clinical symptoms and differential diagnosis using ultrasound, liver biopsy, histopathology, and biochemistry. Methods: Infant registry data from Hevi Pediatric Teaching Hospital (January 2016 - January 2022) were obtained and screened for subject selection. The inclusion criteria include infants with direct hyperbilirubinemia within an onset of 1 to 90 days of birth. As indicated, the recruited subjects underwent liver ultrasound, blood biochemistry, and liver biopsy. Results: Seventy-two children presented with the criteria for inclusion in the study. The study found that ultrasound helped diagnose 43.1% of subjects for BA compared to 34.7% through histopathology. The histopathology confirmed 13 children (18.1%) having neonatal hepatitis. Test sensitivity of the ultrasound method for BA and NH was 60% (40.74, 76.6) and 38.46% (17.71, 64.48), respectively. Conclusion: The study found both ultrasound and liver biopsy to be critical diagnostic methods to differentiate the etiology of NC. Ultrasound has a higher specificity and sensitivity for diagnosing BA than NH. Histopathology and blood biochemistry should be considered, too, for effective diagnosis. In the future, larger sample and multicenter studies should be conducted to develop practically implementable strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0494.v3
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: RRT-Connect; triangular inequality; rewiring; optimality; robot path planning
Online: 29 December 2020 (12:10:47 CET)
This paper proposed a triangular inequality-based rewiring method for the Rapidly exploring Random Tree (RRT)-Connect robot path-planning algorithm that guarantees the planning time compared to the RRT algorithm, to bring it closer to the optimum. To check the proposed algorithm’s performance, this paper compared the RRT and RRT-Connect algorithms in various environments through simulation. From these experimental results, the proposed algorithm shows both quicker planning time and shorter path length than the RRT algorithm and shorter path length than the RRT-Connect algorithm with a similar number of samples and planning time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0254.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: robot path planning; RRT; midpoint interpolation; triangular rewiring; path smoothness
Online: 12 July 2021 (12:05:01 CEST)
To solve the problem that sampling-based Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT) method is difficult to guarantee optimality. This paper proposed the Post Triangular Processing of Midpoint Interpolation method minimized the planning time and shorter path length of the sampling-based algorithm. The proposed Post Triangular Processing of Midpoint Interpolation method makes a closer to the optimal path and somewhat solves the sharp path problem through the interpolation process. The experiments were conducted to verify the performance of the proposed method. Applying the method proposed in this paper to the RRT algorithm increases the efficiency of optimization compared to the planning time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0394.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Triangular cylinders; buoyancy-driven flow; annulus; ANSYS-CFX; cold enclosure
Online: 20 January 2021 (09:50:26 CET)
This paper studied the natural convection heat transfer from two equal-sized cylinders of triangular cross-section confined in triangular enclosure. The inner cylinders have hot surfaces and the outer enclosure has a cold surfaces. The annular space between inner cylinders and the outer one was filled with incompressible Newtonian fluid. The work examined the behavior of fluid flow in the process of transferring heat energy. The work was achieved numerically using the commercial code ANSYS-CFX. The adopted initial conditions were selected for these ranges: Prantl number (Pr = 1 to 103), Rayleigh number (Ra = 103 to 105). It was found that the increment of Ra number increases the rate of heat transfer. However, the effect of Pr number on heat transfer is almost negligible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0191.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Slope Filter; point cloud; triangular grid; KD-Tree-Based Euclidean Clustering
Online: 30 May 2023 (05:44:25 CEST)
High-precision ground point cloud data has a wide range of applications in various fields, and the separation of ground points from non-ground points is a crucial preprocessing step. Therefore, designing an efficient, accurate, and stable ground extraction algorithm is of great significance for improving the processing efficiency and analysis accuracy of point cloud data. The study area in this article was a Park in Guilin, Guangxi, China. The point cloud was obtained by utilizing the UAV platform. In order to improve the stability and accuracy of the Filter algorithm, this article proposed a triangular grid filter based on Slope Filter, found violation points by the spatial position relationship within each point in the triangulation network, improved KD-Tree-Based Euclidean Clustering, and applied it to the non-ground points extraction, this method has good accuracy, stability and achieves good results in separating ground points from non-ground points. At first, using Slope Filter to remove some non-ground points, to reduce the error of taking ground points as non-ground points; Secondly, established a triangular grid based on the triangular relationship between each point, the violation-triangle can determin through the grid, and then the corresponding violation points were found in the violation-triangle; Thirdly, according to the three-point collinear method to extract the regular points, used these points to extract the regular landmarks by KD-Tree-Based Euclidean Clustering and Convex Hull Algorithm; Finally, removed disperse points and irregular landmarks by Clustering Algorithm. In order to confirm the superiority of this algorithm, this article compared the filter effects of various algorithms on the study area and filtered the 15 sample data provided by ISPRS, and obtained an average error of 3. 46%. The results showed that the algorithm in this article have a high processing efficiency and accuracy, which can greatly improve the processing efficiency of point cloud data in practical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0385.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: polygonal number; triangular number; summation identity; generating function; partial sum; recurrence relation
Online: 26 February 2021 (09:21:39 CET)
We study various properties of the polygonal numbers; such as their recurrence relations; fundamental identities; weighted binomial and ordinary sums; partial sums and generating functions of their powers; and a continued fraction representation for them. A feature of our results is that they are presented naturally in terms of the polygonal numbers themselves and not in terms of arbitrary integers; unlike what obtains in most literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0261.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: trapezoidal flap; modified triangular flap; sinus augmentation; VAS; VRS; thermal infrared imaging
Online: 18 May 2018 (09:26:15 CEST)
Background: Post-operative pain and swelling are frequently observed after sinus lift procedures. The aim of the present study was a clinical evaluation of swelling and pain of two sinus lift different flaps technique measured through visual analogue scale (VAS), verbal rating scale (VRS) and infrared thermal imaging (i.e., thermography). Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in fifteen patients treated for a total of 30 sinus randomly allotted into two groups. In patients of Group I, a triangular flap was performed, while in Group II modified triangular flap without anterior release was performed. Postoperative pain was scored by VAS and inflammation was recorded by VRS at 2, 4, 6 and 14 days. The facial temperature was recorded before and after sinus augmentation, at 2, 4, 6 day intervals for the first week and at 14 day, to check the course of healing. Results: In group I the pain intensity was recorded at 2 days after the surgery with a score of 38.67 ± 6.4 mm. Swelling was higher at 2 and 4 day, and it was absent at day 6. Facial temperature difference before and after the procedure was 3 (4.737 °C ± 0.37). In Group II the pain was lower than in Group I (p < 0,05). Swelling scored 2 on the first and second day, and it was reduced at day 4. After the second day the difference of temperature reduced significantly compared to day of surgery (0.77 °C), at 2 and 4 days no difference was registered. Conclusion: In conclusion based on the outcome of the present study, modified triangular flap can be used with success in sinus augmentation procedures and is to be preferred to trapezoidal flap.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Furniture design; Multidimensional scaling; Kansei engineering; Modeling imagery; Factor analysis; Triangular fuzzy theory
Online: 6 March 2023 (02:02:30 CET)
With the continuous improvement of people's quality of life and aesthetics, furniture products have higher requirements. Excellent solid wood chairs are the most representative products in furniture to enhance space and taste and whose design may significantly impact consumers' emo-tional experience and purchase decisions. This study aims to evaluate how the modeling imagery of solid wood chairs affects user preferences and emotional experiences. The development of the current era is inseparable from the analysis of big data. Firstly, a representative sample was ob-tained by multidimensional scaling (MDS), and the sample was analyzed and evaluated by fac-tor analysis. Moreover, five groups of adjective vocabulary were selected to describe the model-ing imagery of solid wood chairs, such as "balanced and coordinated", "unique and novel", "prac-tical and simple", "quality and detailed" and "traditional and plain". Further, the triangular fuzzy theory was applied to analyze and discuss the 12 types of solid wood chairs in the five groups of adjective vocabulary. Then the study verified that the differences in the evaluations of the 12 sam-ples in the "unique and novel" and "quality and detailed" groups were significant, but more minor differences in the groups of "traditional and plain", "balanced and coordinated" and "practical and simple". Through comprehensive comparison, five groups with similar modeling imagery were created, and solid wood chairs with different modeling imagery should be placed in suita-ble spaces. According to the results of this study, the evaluation of the modeling imagery of solid wood chairs can not only rely on subjective judgments but can be reasonably described through data analysis and mathematical algorithms. It can scientifically and effectively reflect the poten-tial perception needs of consumers on the modeling imagery of solid wood chairs, as well as help to improve the design efficiency of the furniture product development stage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: cell-based smoothed finite element method; quadratic triangular element; linear smoothing function; hyperelasticity
Online: 7 December 2019 (01:51:23 CET)
This work presents a linear smoothing scheme over high-order triangular elements in the framework of a cell-based strain smoothed finite element method for two-dimensional nonlinear problems. The main idea behind the proposed linear smoothing scheme for strain-smoothed finite element method (S-FEM) is no subdivision of finite element cells to sub-cells while the classical S-FEM needs sub-cells. Since the linear smoothing function is employed, S-FEM is able to use quadratic triangular or quadrilateral elements. The modified smoothed matrix obtained node-wise is evaluated. In the same manner with the computation of the strain-displacement matrix, the smoothed stiffness matrix and deformation graident are obtained over smoothing domains. A series of benchmark tests are investigated to demonstrate validity and stability of the proposed scheme. The validity and accuracy are confirmed by comparing the obtained numerical results with the standard FEM using 2nd-order triangular element and the exact solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0542.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: leaf surface; soil surface cover; growth rate; nitrogen leaf content; SPAD; triangular greenness index (TGI)
Online: 21 December 2020 (18:50:21 CET)
Management practices must be developed to improve yam production sustainability. Image-based phenotyping techniques could help developing such practices based on non-destructive analyses of important plant traits. Our objective was to determine the potential of image-based phenotyping methods to assess traits relevant for tuber yield formation in yam grown in glasshouse and field. We took plant and leaf pictures with consumer cameras. We used the numbers of image pixels to derive the shoot biomass and the total leaf surface and calculated the ‘triangular greenness index’ (TGI) which is an indicator of the plant nitrogen (N) nutritional status. Under glasshouse conditions, the number of pixels obtained from nadir view (image taken top down) was positively correlated to the shoot biomass, and the total leaf surface, while the TGI was negatively correlated to the N content of diagnostic leaves. Under field conditions, pictures taken from the nadir view showed an increase in soil surface cover and a decrease in TGI with time. TGI was negatively correlated to SPAD measured on specific leaves but was not correlated to the N content of these leaves. In conclusion, these phenotyping techniques deliver relevant results but need to be further developed and validated for application in yam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0304.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: core-shell particles; liquid interfaces; triangular lattice; thermodynamics; ground states; structure; line tension; phase coexistence; competing interaction; fluctuations.
Online: 14 October 2020 (11:02:23 CEST)
A triangular lattice model for pattern formation by core-shell particles at fluid interfaces is introduced and studied for the particle to core diameter ratio equal to 3. Repulsion for overlapping shells and attraction at larger distances due to capillary forces are assumed. Ground states and thermodynamic properties are determined analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations for soft outer- and stiffer inner shells, with different decay rates of the interparticle repulsion. We find that thermodynamic properties are qualitatively the same for slow and for fast decay of the repulsive potential, but the ordered phases are stable for temperature range depending strongly on the shape of the repulsive potential. More importantly, there are two types of patterns formed for fixed chemical potential - one for a slow and another one for a fast decay of the repulsion at small distances. In the first case two different patterns - for example clusters or stripes - occur with the same probability for some range of the chemical potential. For fixed concentration, an interface is formed between two ordered phases with the closest concentration, and the surface tension takes the same value for all stable interfaces. In the case of degeneracy, a stable interface cannot be formed for one out of four combinations of the coexisting phases, because of a larger surface tension. Our results show that by tuning the architecture of a thick polymeric shell, many different patterns can be obtained for sufficiently low temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1994.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: fuzzy logic; fuzzy implications; fuzzy negations; fuzzy disjunction; probor; t-conorm; temperature; humidity; triangular membership function; trapezium membership function
Online: 31 October 2023 (06:09:40 CET)
In this research paper an algorithm for the derivation of methods based on theorems and axioms of fuzzy logic is presented, analyzed and applied. This new proposed procedure generates fuzzy methods and evaluates the value of fuzzy propositions through fuzzy implication. The new implications of the family should satisfy a number of axioms. Also, we denote the conditions in order to satisfy the maximum number of axioms. Moreover, authors state and prove theorems focusing on fuzzy implication, observing the rule: the fuzzy function of fuzzy implication is strong and that lead to fuzzy negation. In addition, the optimal number of repetitions is calculated according to the expected truth value. The formulas produced are verified through the use of temperature and humidity values over a certain period of time and in a certain geographical area in Greece. The basic steps of the methodology are the fuzzification of the data given using four membership degree functions and the application of the membership degrees of temperature and humidity values on a new type of fuzzy implication. Finally, we observed that the isosceles trapezium gave the best results and the type of fuzzy implication can be effectively applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1702.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Triangular geometry. Radiative Heat Transfer; Form Factor Calculation Tools; Radiant interchanges. Design of radiators. Assessment and construction of LED emitters.
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:02:38 CEST)
Triangles are an ever present feature in nature, which the building construction industry duly echoes. However, an exact expression intended to offer the radiant field due to any triangle in an upright or inclined position had not been identified by previous research. In this case, the author has been able to solve by direct integration, the canonical expression of radiative transfer. This result alone confers a myriad of possibilities that had been inconceivable before, for studying in detail the three-dimensional heat transfer behavior of volumes and figures in which triangles do manifest, such as fins, windows, roof-gables and louvers of various kinds. Typically, shading devices, when tilted, give rise in their extremes to rhomboidal shapes which were difficult to take into account or had to be subject to discretization and subsequent Monte Carlo methods in order to perform an approximate calculation of their emission. This implied a lengthy and inexact procedure that induced many errors and consumed computing time. We can now avoid all the former downsides due to the advances hereby presented. As the novel expression can be converted into an algorithm it will be advantageously employed for simulation. This significant finding dovetails in the intricate puzzle of radiated heat and we believe that their consequences will greatly affect the conception and design of HVAC devices, aircraft manufacturing and specifically building or lighting industries among others.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0209.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: identity; inverse matrix; explicit formula; generating function; Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind; Catalan number; triangular matrix; classical hypergeometric function; integral representation
Online: 7 August 2017 (15:49:11 CEST)
In the paper, the authors establish two identities to express the generating function of the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind and its higher order derivatives in terms of the generating function and its derivatives each other, deduce an explicit formula and an identities for the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind, derive the inverse of an integer, unit, and lower triangular matrix, present several identities of the Catalan numbers, and give some remarks on the closely related results including connections of the Catalan numbers respectively with the Chebyshev polynomials, the central Delannoy numbers, and the Fibonacci polynomials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0120.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: simplification; coefficient; nonlinear ordinary differential equation; generating function; Catalan number; inverse matrix; lower triangular integer matrix; Faά di Bruno formula; Bell polynomial of the second kind; inversion theorem
Online: 20 November 2017 (07:20:26 CET)
In the paper, by the Faά di Bruno formula, several identities for the Bell polynomials of the second kind, and an inversion theorem, the authors simplify coefficients of two families of nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the generating function of the Catalan numbers and discover inverses of fifteen closely related lower triangular integer matrices.