ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1476.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: psoriasis; systemic treatment; biologic treatment; immune checkpoint
Online: 22 May 2023 (08:42:21 CEST)
Programmed-death-1 (PD-1) receptor plays a major physiological role in maintainance of im-mune tolerance, and, by interaction with its ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2), prevents the develop-ment of multiple immune-mediated diseases. There is growing evidence of an important role of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in pathogenesis of psoriasis. 84 subjects with psoriasis were included into the study, together with 29 healthy subjects as a control group. 28 of psoriatic patients were treated with biologice therapy (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-12/23 or IL-17 inhibitors). Amounts of PD1 and PD-L1 positive T-cells in peripheral blood were evaluated using flow cytometry. Significantly lower levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 were found in psoriatic patients when compared to healthy individuals, i.e. CD3/PD1, CD3/PDL1, CD4/PD1, CD4/PDL1, CD8/PDL1, CD19/PD1, CD19/PDL1 positive cells. Biologic treatment resulted in elevation of CD3/PDL1, CD8/PDL1 and decrease of CD8/PD1 posi-tive PBMCs. Our results confirm previous observations of disrupted PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in psoriasis, and that this disturbances may play an important role in development of the disease. Biologic drugs may reverse several abnormalities observed within this pathway, which may ex-plain their excellent efficacy in the treatment of psoriasis. Further research should be conducted to fully explain the results obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0496.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: hypertension, comorbidity, HIV, antiretroviral treatment, treatment outcomes
Online: 28 November 2022 (06:04:48 CET)
Globally, non-communicable diseases like hypertension are on the rise, existing concurrently with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in populations, especially those in low- to middle-income countries. The introduction of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for people living with HIV was welcomed with great enthu-siasm across populations. A cross-sectional study of 100 purposively selected adult participants on an-tiretroviral treatment living in the OR Tambo district was conducted to determine factors associated with treatment outcomes among patients living with HIV and hypertension comorbidity. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, with a p-value of 0.05 considered significant. A total of 86% of the female population, with a mean age of 39.76, was studied. Participants with improved viral load and CD4 cell count after initiation of ART increased from 63% to 68% and 74% to 90%, respectively whilst viral load suppression increased from 45.1% to 90.2%. Hypertension post-ART initiation increased from 9% to 34%, exacerbated by smoking (12%), alcohol (14%), vegetable consumption (39%), skipping breakfast (50%), sugar use (62%), and vigorous physical activity (12%). The onset of hypertension was linked to the start of ART, and risky behaviors influenced treatment outcomes. Primordial prevention, like strong health promotion inter-ventions for risk factors, is needed to improve life expectancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0057.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: groundwater; Haiti; filtration; water treatment; developing country; point of use treatment; household treatment
Online: 3 August 2018 (04:03:22 CEST)
Water resources, especially safe, potable water, are limited for many Haitians. In areas where shallow groundwater is available, many household water needs such as laundry, bathing, and cooking are supplied by hand-dug wells. In order to better understand the water quality and prevalence of these household wells, 35 hand-dug wells were surveyed and sampled near the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer (HAS) in Deschapelles, Haiti. Water samples were collected and tested for fecal coliform and E. coli using the IDEXX Colilert-18 method. Of the samples collected, 89 percent were determined unsafe to use as a drinking water source based on the World Health Organization standard of 1.0 colony-forming unit (cfu) Escherichia Coli (E. coli) per 100 mL. 66 percent of the wells exceeded recreational/body contact standards for the state of Michigan (130 cfu/100 mL). Some of these wells were deemed suitable for conversion to a new well type called In-Situ Filtration (ISF) wells. ISF wells are installed with an internal sand filter pack, PVC casing, pump, and cap which seals the well from surface contamination and provides additional water treatment as water is pumped. Previous ISF installations have reduced E. coli to safe drinking water levels within 90 days.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0143.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Systemic sclerosis; treatment; Janus kinase inhibitors; fibrosis; anti-cytokine treatment
Online: 2 June 2023 (07:07:00 CEST)
Citation: Lastname, F.; Lastname, F.; Last-name, F. Title. Phar-maceuticals 2022, 15, x. https://doi.org/10.3390/xxxxx Academic Editor: Firstname Lastname Received: date Accepted: date Published: date Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdic-tional claims in pub-lished maps and insti-tutional affiliations. Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Submitted for possible open access publication under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons 1Olga Gumkowska-Sroka, 2Kacper Kotyla, 3Ewa Mojs, 2Klaudia Palka, 1,2*Przemysław Kotyla 1. Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology Voivodeship Hospital No5 in Sosnowiec Medical University of Silesia Katowice, Poland 2. Department of Internal Medicine Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology Medical University of Silesia Katowice , Poland 3. 3. Department of Clinical Psychology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences Poznan, Poland *Correspondence: Prof Przemysław Kotyla Department of Internal Medicine Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland- Summary Systemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease of unknown origin and unpredictable course, with both cutaneous and internal organ manifestations. In spite of enormous progress in rheumatology and clinical immunology, the background of diseases is largely unknown and no specific therapy exists. The therapeutic approach to the disease is aimed to treat and preserve the function of internal organs, and this approach is commonly referred to as an organ-based treatment. However, in modern times data from the other branches of medicine may help to treat disease-related complications, making it possible to find a group of drugs to be utilized in the treatment of the disease. In this review, we present possible therapeutic options aiming to stop the progression of fibrotic processes, restore aberrant immune response, stop improper signalling from proinflammatory cytokines, and halt the production of disease-related autoantibodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer treatment, resistance to treatment, evolution of resistance, background extinctions
Online: 1 February 2019 (10:29:06 CET)
We propose the traditional goal of cancer therapists to develop a single drug or drug combination that can, by itself, eliminate all cancer cells within a host has neglected potential treatments that may achieve curative outcomes by strategically combining agents that are individually effective but non-curative. We derive basic principles for such an approach from the eco-evolutionary dynamics of background extinctions in which a “first strike” reduces the size and heterogeneity of the initial population and is followed immediately by demographic and ecological “second strikes” that push the population below an extinction threshold. This proposed strategy appears identical to the empirically-derived curative therapy in childhood Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0395.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: African swine fever; pathogenesis; biomarkers; serum; saliva; virus inactivation; detergent treatment; heat treatment; impact of treatment on biomarkers
Online: 30 May 2022 (11:22:19 CEST)
African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable viral disease of domestic and wild suids. Despite intensive re-search efforts, the pathogenesis of the disease is still far from being understood. Analysis of biomarkers in different body fluids may supplement traditional pathogenesis studies. As reliable protocols are often es-tablished in laboratories with lower biosafety, reliable inactivation of samples is crucial. The objective of this study was to find a procedure that inactivates the virus while preserving the biomarkers for down-stream analyses. To this means, three different inactivation protocols were employed, namely Tergitol-type NP-40 (NP-40) and polyoxyethylene-p-t-octylphenol (Triton X-100), respectively, and one with 95 °C heating. It could be demonstrated that all samples treated with 0.5% (v/v) concentration of both deter-gents showed absence of virus infectivity. The same was true for heated samples. However, heated serum was not suitable for analyses. Next, the treatment impact on biomarker readouts was assessed. While all protocols had an impact on the detection of biomarkers, correlation was retained. Especially NP-40 could be the desired detergent for more accurate measurements while achieving efficient virus inactivation. Based on these studies, samples can be reliably inactivated for most biomarker analyses and thus broader interdisciplinary cooperation is possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0178.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: air plasma jet; PDMS plasma treatment; DBD plasma; plasma surface treatment
Online: 5 September 2023 (04:48:29 CEST)
PDMS samples may be used in various microfluidic applications by hydrophilizing their surfaces. This study examines the effects of air plasma jet (APJ) and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma on the surface hydrophilicity of polydimethylsiloxane. In order to increase the hydrophilicity of PDMS sample surfaces, two plasma sources including APJ and DBD were compared. Both DBD and APJ setups were measured for voltage and current, and their respective power was calculated and compared based on their characteristics. It is important to note that the electrical specifications of APJ and DBD were identical, and the source power rates for APJ and DBD plasma were 306W and 300W respectively. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to characterize the plasma, and an electrical characterization of the plasma's power supply was carried out. The effects of parameters such as the distance from the nozzle tip, the duration of the process, and the source voltage on the hydrophilicity of the surfaces during the treatment by APJ were also examined, and samples were then examined for a period of time to determine whether surface hydrophilicity was preserved. On the PDMS surface, a contact angle of about 5.1° was observed using short-term plasma treatments of 10 seconds. In the same conditions, the effect of DBD treatment was superior to that of APJ treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: aggressive treatment; Liver transplant; nonaggressive treatment; Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma; tumor resection
Online: 1 December 2021 (10:57:24 CET)
Background and Aims: Of all primary liver tumors, primary hepatic angiosarcoma (PHA) is a rare and aggressive malignant vascular tumor. The standard therapeutic care for hepatic angiosarcoma remains unclear. This study compared the survival outcomes of aggressive treatment (resection and liver transplant) and nonaggressive treatment (chemotherapy, transarterial chemoembolization [TACE], and conservative treatments) for patients with PHA and analyzed the prognostic factors influencing survival. Materials and Methods: Data of patients diagnosed as having PHA at our facility were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was survival time. The secondary outcome was calculated baseline characteristics. Results: We included a total of 19 patients, who were divided into 2 treatment groups: aggressive (8 patients had undergone resection or transplants) and nonaggressive (11 patients had undergone TACE, chemotherapy, or conservative treatment). The mean survival time was 233.1 ± 189.7 days in the aggressive treatment group and 146.5 ± 115.8 days in the nonaggressive treatment group. A Kaplan-Meier plot revealed no significant difference in survival time between the 2 treatment groups (P = .3256). Conclusions: The survival time of patients receiving aggressive treatment was longer than that of those receiving nonaggressive treatment. The long term survival time in some selective cases of aggressive treatment will be achieved. Thought a difference was not significant between the groups. Because the number of patients was limited, more cases are required to confirm these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1670.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water; nitrate ions; treatment
Online: 27 November 2023 (11:18:27 CET)
The aim of this research involves investigating the elimination of nitrogen ions from groundwater through the application of dynamic permeable reactive barriers (PRB) utilizing A400-nZVI. The aim also implyies determining barrier parameters, as well as assessing the overall retention capacity of nitrogen ions through percolation with a potassium nitrate solution. The research involves obtaining zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI), which were synthesized and doped onto an anionic resin support material (A400) through the reduction reaction of ferrous ions with sodium borohydride (NaBH4). This was achieved by preparing a ferrous sulfate solution, contacting it with the ion exchange resin at various solid-liquid mass ratios, and gradually adding sodium borohydride under continuous stirring in an oxygen-free environment to create the A400-nZVI barrier. The outcomes of this study, focusing on the development of permeable reactive barriers composed of nanovalent iron and ion exchangers, demonstrate significant potential in purification processes when appropriately dimensioned. The research specifically evaluated the efficacy of NO3- removal using the A400-nZVI permeable reactive barrier, conducting laboratory tests that simulated a naturally stratified aquifer with high nitrate contamination.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1545.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: pelvic floor dysfunction; physical therapy; non-surgical treatment; intelligent diagnosis and treatment
Online: 24 November 2023 (02:37:08 CET)
Abstract: Female pelvic floor dysfunction (FPFD) is a series of conditions caused by the displacement or dysfunction of the patient's pelvic organs due to defects, injuries, and deterioration of the pelvic floor supportive structures, with stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse being the most common. The mechanism of pelvic floor dysfunction is complex and not yet fully understood, and is often related to one or more functional abnormalities of muscles, connective tissues, fascia, nerves and blood vessels. Specialized clinicians are often unable to cover the comprehensive medical professional information of various specialties such as gynecology and obstetrics, urology, anus and intestines, imaging, etc., and the systematic and comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of the disease will be limited. The application of artificial intelligence concepts in the medical field not only improves the diagnostic efficiency of physicians, but also provides reference and basis for the development of comprehensive treatment programs. This article follows and draws on the diagnosis and treatment process of pelvic floor dysfunction recommended in various guidelines, incorporates physical therapy techniques into the conventional non-surgical treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction, provides guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction, and briefly introduces the clinical application and value of pelvic floor intelligent diagnosis and treatment in pelvic floor dysfunction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: celiac disease (CeD); gluten-free diet (GFD); novel treatment; non-dietary treatment
Online: 6 November 2023 (13:44:55 CET)
.Celiac disease (CeD) is a chronic, autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of gluten, affecting around 1% of the global population. It is a multifactorial disease involving both genetics and environ-mental factors. Nowadays, the only available treatment for CeD is a life-long gluten-free diet (GFD), which can cause a significant burden for patients, since symptoms and mucosal injury can persist de-spite apparent compliance with a GFD. That could also lead to psychological consequences and affect the quality of life of these patients. Thankfully, recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of CeD and the availability of various targets have made it feasible to explore pharmaceutical treatments specific to CeD. Recently, the FDA has highlighted the unmet needs of adult patients on GFD who expe-rience ongoing symptoms attributed to CeD and also show persistent duodenal villous atrophy. This re-view will outline the limitations of a GFD, describe the targets of potential novel treatment of CeD and provide an overview of the primary clinical trials involving oral and injectable agents for a non-dietary treatment of CeD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0787.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus; dyslipidaemia; metabolic disorder; pharmaceutical treatment; non-pharmaceutical treatment.
Online: 13 September 2023 (02:57:55 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common metabolic disease characterised by insulin resistance and elevated blood glucose levels, affecting millions of people worldwide. T2DM patients with dyslipidaemia have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A complex interplay of risk factors such as hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obesity, inflammation and oxidative stress favour the development of atherosclerosis, a central mechanism in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidaemia, a hallmark of T2DM, is characterised by elevated triglycerides, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and the presence of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, all of which promote atherosclerosis. In this article, we have attempted to present various treatment strategies that include pharmacological interventions such as statins, ezetimibe, PCSK9 inhibitors, fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids. We have also tried to highlight the pivotal role of lifestyle modifications, including physical activity and dietary changes, in improving lipid profiles and overall cardiovascular health in T2DM patients. We have also tried to present the latest clinical guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemia in T2DM patients. In conclusion, the treatment of dyslipidaemia in T2DM patients is of great importance as it lowers lipid particle levels, slows the progression of atherosclerosis and ultimately reduces susceptibility to cardiovascular disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1355.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Glioblastoma; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Treatment response assessment; Treatment follow-up; Pseudoprogression; Perfusion Imaging
Online: 20 September 2023 (10:47:56 CEST)
MRI is the gold standard for treatment response assessment in glioblastoma. However, there is no consensus regarding the optimal interval for MRI follow-up during standard treatment. Moreover, reliable assessment of treatment response is hindered by the occurrence of pseudoprogression. It is unknown if a radiological follow-up strategy with 2-3 months intervals actually benefits patients and how it influences clinical decision making about continuation or discontinuation of treatment. This study assessed the consequences of scheduled follow-up scans (post-chemoradiotherapy [post-CCRT], after 3 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy [TMZ3/6], after completion of treatment [TMZ6/6]) and unscheduled scans on treatment decisions during standard concomitant and adjuvant treatment in glioblastoma patients. Additionally, we evaluated how often follow-up scans resulted in diagnostic uncertainty (tumor progression versus pseudoprogression), and whether perfusion MRI improved clinical decision making. Scheduled follow-up scans during standard treatment in glioblastoma patients rarely resulted in early termination of treatment (2.3% post-CCRT, 3.2% TMZ3/6, and 7.8% TMZ6/6), but introduced diagnostic uncertainty in 27.7% of cases. Unscheduled scans resulted in more major treatment consequences (30%; p<0.001). Perfusion MRI caused less diagnostic uncertainty (p=0.021) but did not influence treatment consequences (p=0.871). This study does not support the current pragmatic follow-up strategy and suggests a more tailored follow-up approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0493.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: treatment outcomes; DR-TB; MDR-TB; TB-HIV co-infection; treatment success rate
Online: 8 May 2023 (09:36:25 CEST)
An essential metric for determining the efficacy of tuberculosis (TB) control programs is the evaluation of TB treatment outcomes. Assessing treatment outcomes is fundamental to facilitating the End TB Strategy set target. Clinic records from 457 patients with DR-TB were examined for data collection while 101 patients were followed up prospectively. Data were analyzed using Stata version 17.0. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated to check the association between variables. P ≤ 0.05 was con-sidered statistically significant. Of the 427 participants, 65.8% had successful treatment whilst 34.2% had unsuccessful TB treatment. A total of 61.2% and 39% of the HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants had a successful TB treatment whilst 66% and 34% of both HIV-negative and positive participants had unsuccessful TB treatment. From 101 patients that were followed up, smokers had longer treatment outcomes compared to non-smokers. In the study with HIV/TB co-infection, men predominated. HIV and tuberculosis co-infection made therapy difficult with unfavorable effects on TB management. The treatment success rate (65.8%) is lower than the WHO threshold standard with a high proportion of patients lost to follow-up. The co-infection of tuberculosis and HIV resulted in undesirable treatment outcomes. Strengthening TB surveillance and control is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0362.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: VarroMed®; Varroa destructor; winter treatment; summer-autumn treatment; queen caging; brood interruption
Online: 30 August 2021 (12:52:30 CEST)
VarroMed® is a soft acaricide registered for honey bees on the European Union market since 2017 for Varroa control. Researchers involved were partners of different countries of the Varroa control task force of COLOSS Association. Our goal was to evaluate performances (acaricide efficacy and toxic effects on honey bees) of VarroMed® in different climatic conditions. Our results in the tested apiaries showed an efficacy ranging from 71.2 to 89.3 % in summer/autumn, and from 71.8 % to 95.6 % in winter. No toxic effects on bees were observed, except in one apiary, where severe cold climatic conditions played a crucial role. The treatment could be efficiently applied in brood right as well as in broodless colonies. Integrated pest management (IPM) recommendations for bee-keepers are provided in order to apply the best Varroa control protocol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1905.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Somatosensory Tinnitus; Feldenkrais; online treatment
Online: 30 October 2023 (10:24:38 CET)
In a pre-post-treatment design, this feasibility study examines the effects of twelve weekly online Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement (ATM) lessons on somatosensory tinnitus (ST), which is often associated with physical issues like neck pain. Two professional Feldenkrais teachers led online ATM lessons in two groups for a total of seventeen participants. Before and after treatment, we assessed tinnitus distress (using the Tinnitus Questionnaire, TQ), interoceptive awareness, and the short WHO quality-of-life questionnaire. We collected weekly changes in tinnitus severity (using the Tinnitus Functional Index, TFI) and neck pain (using the Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire), and assessed state anxiety and perceived tinnitus intensity directly before and after each ATM. Importantly, we found a significant reduction in tinnitus distress along with significant individual differences. Linear mixed-model analyses further suggest an overall decrease in tinnitus severity and neck pain over time. Notably, individual reductions in TFI correlated with reduced neck pain, and reductions in TQ correlated with increased interoceptive awareness. Although this study is limited in patient number, it provides valuable information about the characteristics of patients with ST and suggests a new method to reduce neck pain and perceived tinnitus in the comfort of patients’ homes. However, further studies are necessary to verify these results and to compare the effectiveness with conventional therapy approaches.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1754.v1
Online: 26 September 2023 (11:50:21 CEST)
Protein synthesis has been a very rich target for developing classes of drugs to control prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens. Despite the development of new drug formulations, treating human cutaneous and visceral Leishmaniasis still needs significant improvement due to considerable side effects and low adherence to the usual treatment regimen. In this work, we show that the di-substituted urea-derived compound I-17 is effective in inhibiting the promastigote forms and intracellular amastigotes of the Leishmania (L.) amazonensis and L. infantum species, in addition to exhibiting low macrophage cytotoxicity. We also show a potential immunomodulatory effect of I-17 in infected macrophages, which exhibited increased expression of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS2) and Nitric Oxide (NO) production. Our data suggest that I-17 and new derivatives of this compound may be helpful in developing new drugs for treating leishmaniasis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0553.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Probiotics; Cancer; tumors; treatment; immunotherapy
Online: 10 July 2023 (08:19:08 CEST)
Probiotics are now being looked at as a possible addition to cancer treatments in both study and clinical settings. This study tries to give an overview of probiotic research as it relates to cancer, with a focus on how it might help avoid cancer, treat it, and improve the health of cancer patients. We look at developmental studies that use cell culture and animal models to look at how well probiotics work in cancer. We focus on how probiotics change the immune system, inflammation, and gut bacteria. The results of clinical studies that looked at probiotics as an add-on therapy for cancer patients are looked at to see how they affected the treatment success, side effects, and quality of life of the patients. We look at the possible benefits of probiotics for certain types of cancer, such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and stomach tumors. We also find the best probiotic strains for each type of cancer. We also look at the synergistic benefits of combining probiotics with standard cancer treatments like chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy to improve the effectiveness of treatment and lower side effects. Lastly, we talk about the present problems and future directions of probiotic research for cancer. We focus on personalized methods, ideal doses and treatment plans, finding signs of treatment success, and making probiotic-based therapies. By learning more about how probiotics could be used to treat cancer, we can create personalized, successful, and well-tolerated probiotic treatments to improve cancer outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0316.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: allergens; diagnosis; allergy; treatment; management
Online: 5 July 2023 (15:08:48 CEST)
Immunology is a branch of medicine that studies the immune system and its pathology. There are known scientific informations, that in medical immunology specific tests performed in the laboratory for diagnosis. In addition good to mention that allergies include medical diagnostic methods such as blood tests. Also there are used for detection the presence and the levels of IgE antibodies. These antibodies are produced by the human immune system in contact with certain allergens. Examples of allergens include for example pollen, house dust, some herbs or molds, some animals and certain foods. If a person has an allergy, their immune system overreacts to an allergen by producing antibodies, called Immunoglobulin E (IgE). Currently within the present describtion aim to discuss some aspects reffering to fungal allergen and mold allergy diagnosis, in a briefly following steps of our purposed shortly review.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: patella; instability; diagnosis; treatment; knee
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:40:30 CEST)
The patellofemoral joint (PFJ) is a complex articulation between the patella and the femur, in-volved in the extensor mechanism of the knee. Patellofemoral disorders can be classified into ob-jective patellar instability, potential patellar instability, and patellofemoral pain syndrome. An-atomical factors such as trochlear dysplasia, patella alta, and tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance contribute to instability. Patellofemoral instability can result in various types of dislocations, and the frequency of dislocation can be categorized as recurrent, habitual, or per-manent. Primary patellar dislocation requires diagnostic framing, including physical examina-tion and imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is essential for assessing the extent of damage, such as bone bruises, osteochondral fractures, and medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) rupture. Treatment options for primary dislocation include urgent surgery for oste-ochondral fragments or conservative treatment for cases without lesions. Follow-up after treat-ment involves imaging screening and assessing principal and secondary factors of instability. Detecting and addressing these factors is crucial for preventing recurrent dislocations and opti-mizing patient outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1560.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: cancer survival; hormonal menopausal treatment
Online: 21 June 2023 (13:28:48 CEST)
Objective: to create a set of eligibility criteria for the use of MHT in non-gynecological cancer patients. Methods: We searched all articles published in peer-reviewed journals up to March 2021. The PICOS standards were used and the selection criteria as follows: menopausal women of any age with non-gynecological and non-breast cancer receiving HMT, any MHT preparation (oestrogens alone or combined with a progestogen, tibolone or tissue selective oestrogen complex) or any route of administration (oral, transdermal, vaginal or intra-nasal), recurrence and mortality, randomized controlled trials, and related extension studies or follow-up reports. Results: Women colorectal cancer survivors who use MHT have a lower risk of death from any cause than those survivors who do not use MHT. Women Skin Melanoma Survivors Using MHT Have Longer Survival than Non-MHT Survivors. There is no evidence that women lung cancer survivors who use MHT have a different survival rates than those survivors who do not use MHT. Conclusion: MHT is safe in women who have suffered from colorectal, lung or skin melanoma cancers The study was registered at www.prospero.org (CRD42020166658)
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Enterococcus faecalis; treatment; new alternatives
Online: 2 March 2023 (04:35:27 CET)
Today, enterococci (mainly Enterococcus faecalis) are one of the main causes of infective endocarditis in the world, generally affecting an elderly and fragile population, with a high mortality rate. enterococci are intrinsically resistant to many commonly used antimicrobial agents. All enterococci exhibit decreased susceptibility to penicillin and ampicillin, as well as high-level resistance to most cephalosporins and all semi-synthetic penicillins, as the result of expression of low-affinity penicillin-binding proteins, that precludes an unacceptable number of therapeutic failures with monotherapy with these drugs. For years, the synergistic combination of penicillins and aminoglycosides was the cornerstone of treatment, but the emergence of strains with high resistance to aminoglycosides led to the search for new alternatives, such as dual beta-lactam therapy. The development of multi-drug resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium is a matter of considerable concern due to its probable spread to E. faecalis and have forced the search of new alternatives with the combination of daptomycin, fosfomycin or tigecycline. Some of them have scarce clinical experience and others are still under investigation and will be analyzed in this review. In addition, the need for prolonged treatment (6-8 weeks) to avoid relapses has led to the consideration of viable options such as outpatient parenteral therapies or long-acting administrations with the new lipoglycopeptides (dalbavancin or oritavancin), and sequential oral treatments, which will also be discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Monkeypox; prevention; treatment; endemic; transmission
Online: 2 June 2022 (16:18:05 CEST)
Monkeypox virus was named so because of its detection in monkeys in 1958. It belongs to the same family as smallpox and chickenpox viruses. There had been numerous outbreaks of this malady initially in the African continent and other parts of the world. The simultaneous spread in nineteen countries in 2022 has raised some serious concerns.Monkeypox is no more a rare disease and has the potential for bioweapon use. We discuss the various ways to prevent its spread, treatment options available, diagnosis, and differentiation from other closely related diseases. We also discuss if the present outbreak could be a bioattack or if this disease is here to stay.The literature suggests that we can effectively manage Monkeypox because of the availability of drugs and vaccination against smallpox. There is also a need for active surveillance against the new resistant recombinant viral strains. The possibility of this outbreak being a bioattack seems remote, although there are questions about the transmission which still need to be answered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0105.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Diamond; Magnetic order; Laser treatment
Online: 7 December 2021 (13:32:45 CET)
In this work, we demonstrate that cutting diamond crystals with a laser (532 nm wavelength, 0.5 mJ energy, 200 ns pulse duration at 15 kHz) produces a ≲20nm thick surface layer with magnetic order at room temperature. We have measured the magnetic moment with a SQUID magnetometer of six natural and six CVD diamond crystals of different size, nitrogen content and surface orientations. A robust ferromagnetic response at 300 K is observed only for crystals that were cut with the laser along the (100) surface orientation. The magnetic signals are much weaker for the (110) and negligible for the (111) orientations. We attribute the magnetic order to the disordered graphite layer produced by the laser at the diamond surface. The ferromagnetic signal vanished after chemical etching or after moderate temperature annealing. The obtained results indicate that laser treatment of diamond may pave the way to create ferromagnetic spots at its surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0159.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: electrophoresis; protein; mechanical treatment; quantification
Online: 6 July 2021 (14:54:12 CEST)
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is widely used for studying proteins and protein-containing objects. However, it is employed most frequently as a qualitative method rather than a quantitative one. In this paper, we show the feasibility of routine digital image acquisition and mathematical processing of electrophoregrams for protein quantification. Both the well-studied model protein molecules (bovine serum albumin) and more complex real-world protein-based products (casein-containing isolate for sports nutrition), which were subjected to mechanical activation in a planetary ball mill to obtain samples characterized by different protein denaturation degrees, were used as study objects. Protein quantification in the mechanically activated samples was carried out. The degree of destruction of individual protein was shown to be higher compared to that of protein-containing mixture after mechanical treatment for an identical amount of time. The methodological approach used in this study can serve as guidance for other researchers who would like to use electrophoresis for protein quantification both in individual form and in protein mixtures. The findings prove that photographic imaging of gels followed by mathematical data processing can be applied for analyzing the electrophoretic data.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0598.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: CRISPR-Cas; ESKAPE pathogens; treatment
Online: 25 May 2021 (09:58:47 CEST)
One of the biggest threats we face globally is the emergence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria, which runs in parallel with a lack in the development of new antimicrobials. Among these AMR bacteria, pathogens belonging to the ESKAPE group can be highlighted (Enterococcus spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp) due to their profile of drug resistance and virulence. Therefore, innovative lines of treatment must be developed for these bacteria. In this review, we summarize the different strategies for the treatment and study of molecular mechanisms of AMR in the ESKAPE pathogens based on the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins' technologies: loss of plasmid or cellular viability, random mutation or gene deletion as well directed mutations that lead to a gene's loss of function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0140.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: culturability; antibiotic resistance; wastewater treatment
Online: 4 March 2021 (08:20:47 CET)
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing global concern, threatening human and environ-mental health, particularly among urban populations. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are thought to be “hotspots” for antibiotic resistance dissemination. The conditions of WWTPs, in conjunction with the persistence of commonly used antibiotics, may favor the selection and trans-fer of resistance genes among bacterial populations. WWTPs provide an important ecological niche to examine the spread of antibiotic resistance. We used heterotrophic plate count methods to identify phenotypically resistant cultivable portions of these bacterial communities and charac-terized the composition of the culturable subset of these populations. Resistant taxa were more abundant in raw sewage and wastewater before the biological aeration treatment stage. While some antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) were detectable downstream of treated wastewater re-lease, these organisms are not enriched relative to effluent-free upstream water, indicating effi-cient removal during treatment. Combined culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses revealed a stark difference in community composition between culturable fractions and the envi-ronmental source material, irrespective of culturing conditions. Higher proportions of the envi-ronmental populations were recovered than predicted by the widely accepted 1% culturability paradigm. These results represent baseline abundance and compositional data for ARB commu-nities for reference in future studies addressing the dissemination of antibiotic resistance associ-ated with urban wastewater treatment ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Bio-inoculants; Consortium; Treatment; PGPB
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:10:51 CET)
Application of native PGPR as bio inoculant is an alternative sustainable agricultural practice to enhance crop productivity, grain quality, and soil fertility. In this view, a study was to examine the effect of either individual or consortium PGPR inoculation on growth, yield, and grain nutrient uptake of two teff varieties. The pot experiment was carried out in (CRD) three replication and 10 treatments. The PGPR inoculants used in this study were Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G, Enterobacter cloacae ss disolvens, and Serratia marcescens ss marcescen and their consortium. Dukem and Magna varieties were used in this study. The results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.001) among the treatment and most of the agronomic traits except number of fertile tillers and also significant different (P ≤ 0.01) for grain P and N uptake. The variety was significantly affected grain Mg, Zn and Fe uptake at 5 % probability level and did not significantly influence all agronomic traits of the two varieties. Furthermore, interaction effects of two factors (TM*VT) were significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for plant height and panicle length. Individual treatments mean comparison results showed that inoculation of native PGPR consortium significantly affected most of the PGP traits at (P ≤ 0.05). The maximum traits like plant height (189cm), panicle length (66.7cm), shoot dry biomass (9.98g), root dry biomass (2.90g) and grain yield per plant (4.55g) were observed from Dz-01-196. It could be concluded that the consortium of native PGPR inoculants for plant growth, yield and grain nutrient uptake improvement performed better than their individual strain.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Duodenum, gastrointestinal stromal tumor; treatment
Online: 26 December 2018 (12:25:28 CET)
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the mostly seen mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal system. This rare tumor in duodenum is seen 5%. The diagnosis and treatment is hard because of its rarity and location. Case: A 63-year-old man with a solid mass at the third part of the duodenum, and local segmental resection of the tumor was performed. The histopathology was reported as gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the duodenum with negative surgical margins. Discussion: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors at the duodenum are seen rarely. They can be asymptomatic or may involve symptoms of upper GI bleeding and abdominal pain at presentation. Because of the misleading clinical presentation the differential diagnosis may be difficult. Tumors less than 2 cm can be followed by endoscopic ultrasound. Local segmental resection with 1cm clear margin is the treatment choice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: sacubitril valsartan; heart failure; treatment
Online: 9 November 2017 (09:17:37 CET)
Introduction In sacubitril-valsartan (sacub/v), the effects of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) exerted by valsartan are strengthened by the addition of sacubitril, an inhibitor of neutral endopeptidases. PARADIGM - HF study proved this association to be superior to enalapril in reducing both all-cause death and cardiovascular mortality, as well as heart failure (HF) hospitalizations in patients with cardiac insufficiency and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction( HFREF) belonging to NYHA class II-IV. To test whether even in our experience sacub/v is associated with favorable outcomes concerning mortality and morbidity, an outpatient small population of HFREF patients was retrospectively studied, of whom one third was treated with sacub/v instead of conventional therapy with ACE -inhibitors or ARBs. Methods A retrospective cohort study was carried out to assess the effects of sacub/v in addition to beta-blocker and mineral receptor antagonist (MRA) in a group of HFREF patients in NYHA classes II-III compared with conventional therapy (comprising ACE inhibitor or ARB added to beta-blocker plus a MRA) administered in a second group of HFREF patients with comparable clinical features retrospectively enrolled as controls. In the two groups, the therapeutic regimen was established in accordance with the preferences of the treating physician. Additionally, in both groups, evidence-based drug therapy was supplemented by the adjunct of a loop diuretic, usually furosemide, at variable doses. The primary outcomes of interest were all-cause death and HF hospitalizations. Safety outcomes were symptomatic hypotension, angioedema, hyperkalemia and worsening renal function. Results Mortality at six months was 6.8% in patients under therapy with sacub/v versus 34% in those treated with conventional therapy (odds ratio[OR] = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.04-0.49). Moreover, HF hospitalizations in the observation period considered were 4.5% in sacub/v group versus 59% in the conventional therapy group (OR = 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01–0.14). Safety outcomes included in our study (angioedema, hyperkalemia, hypotension and worsening renal function) showed a comparable profile in the two groups, with evidence of good tolerability of sacub/v , except for the side - effect " hypotension" (PAS < 100 mm Hg) , found in 15.9% of patients under sacub/v versus 5.7% reported in controls (OR = 3.14; 95% CI: 0.94–10.55). Conclusions In our experience, sacub/v has yielded a strong protection against both all-cause death and HF hospitalizations at six months , in the absence of significant noxious side effects. Nevertheless, considering the retrospective character of the study and the relatively exiguous sample size, further post marketing observational studies would be desirable . In particular, studies aiming at exploring safety of the new pharmacologic principle, namely mainly focusing on hypotension and angioedema, are warranted, in order to validate further this very efficacious molecule for therapy of chronic HF, especially stable HFREF in NYHA classes II-III.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0019.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: TFTs; IGZO; flexible; plasma treatment
Online: 4 April 2017 (09:44:42 CEST)
Thin film transistors (TFTs) using In-Ga-Zn Oxide (IGZO) as active layer and the gate insulator was treated with NH3 plasma and N2O plasma, respectively, which is fabricated on flexible PI substrate in this work. The performance of IGZO TFTs with different plasma species and treatment time are investigated and compared. The experiment results show that the plasma species and treatment time play an important role in the threshold voltage, field-effect mobility, Ion/Ioff ratio, sub-threshold swing (SS) and bias stress stability of the devices. The TFT with a 10 seconds NH3 plasma treatment shows the best performance; specifically, threshold voltage of 0.34 V, field-effect mobility of 15.97 cm2/Vs, Ion/Ioff ratio of 6.33×107, and sub-threshold swing of 0.36 V/dec. The proposed flexible IGZO-TFTs in this paper can be used as driving devices in the next-generation flexible displays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0116.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: suicide; network analysis; symptoms; personalized treatment
Online: 13 February 2017 (11:04:49 CET)
Although suicide is a major public health issue worldwide, we understand little of the onset and development of suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior is argued to be the end result of the complex interaction between psychological, social and biological factors. Epidemiological studies resulted in a range of risk factors for suicidal behavior, but we do not yet understand how their interaction increases the risk for suicidal behavior. A new approach called network analysis can help us better understand this process as it allows to visualize and quantify complex association between many different symptoms or risk factors. A network analysis of data contain information on suicidal patients can help us understand how risk factors interact and how their interaction is related to suicidal thoughts and behaviour. A network perspective has been successfully applied to the field of depression and psychosis, but not yet to the field of suicidology. In this theoretical article, I will introduce the concept of network analysis to the field of suicide prevention, and offer directions for future applications and studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1602.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Thermal plasma; mass separation; Nuclear waste treatment; High-level radioactive waste treatment; material processing
Online: 25 July 2023 (03:22:56 CEST)
Solid spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power plants has 3.4% fission products (80-160amu), contributing to over 99.8% radioactivity. On the other hand, liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) from spent fuel reprocessing has 98.9% bulk elements (0-60amu) with 0.1% radioactivity. A separation mechanism on the mass categories as groups presents unique opportunities in managing HLRW for the long term with a considerable cost reduction. This paper proposes a thermal plasma-based separation system incorporating atmospheric pressure plasma torches for HLRW mass separation into low-resolution mass groups. Several engineering issues, such as waste preparation, waste injection into the plasma and waste collecting after mass separation, need to be addressed. Using COMSOL Multiphysics simulation, the generic system can be studied using noble gas mass separation and further analyze the mass filter capabilities. This paper provides the history of plasma-based mass separation. Functional modelling of a thermal plasma mass separation system is proposed under atmospheric pressure. Finally, aspects of mass separation simulation using noble gas Argon and Helium inside the plasma mass separation system were studied in COMSOL Multiphysics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0363.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Raw milk; CO2 treatment; Microbiomics; Metabolomics
Online: 6 December 2023 (12:30:26 CET)
Microbial community succession in raw milk determines its quality and storage period. In this study, carbon dioxide (CO2) at 2000 ppm was used to treat raw milk to investigate the mechanism of extending the shelf life of raw milk by CO2 treatment from the viewpoint of microbial colonies and metabolites. The results showed that the shelf life of CO2-treated raw milk was extended to 16 days at 4 ℃, while that of the control raw milk was only 6 days. Microbiomics analysis identified 221 Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) in raw milk, and the alpha diversity of microbial communities increased (P < 0.05) with the extension of storage time. Among them, Pseudomonas, Actinobacteria and Serratia were the major microbial genus responsible for the deterioration of raw milk, with a percentage of 85.7%. A combined metagenomics and metabolomics analysis revealed that microorganisms altered the levels of metabolites, such as pyruvic acid, glutamic acid, 5'- cmp, arginine, 2-propenoic acid, and phenylalanine in the raw milk through metabolic activities, such as ABC transporters, pyrimidine metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism and phenylalanine metabolism, and reduced the shelf life of the raw milk. CO2 treatment prolonged the shelf life of the raw milk by inhibiting the abundance of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, such as Acinetobacter guillouiae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia liquefaciens and Pseudomonas simiae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0396.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: macular degeneration; adherence; treatment; anti-VEGF
Online: 7 November 2023 (08:22:26 CET)
Background The evolution of treatment patterns in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) warrants investigation into the impact of patients’ adherence to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment on visual outcomes. This retrospective, non-randomized, non-comparative study aimed to investigate real-world adherence to anti-VEGF treatment. Methods Patients (eyes) (≥ 50 years) with a diagnosis of nAMD who had a first injection of aflibercept or ranibizumab between January 2016 and December 2018 and 12 months of follow-up were included. Visual acuity (VA; logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution letters) and duration of injection intervals were recorded. Adherence was defined as < 20% of visits deviating from the schedule by ≥ 14 days. Results Overall, 133 patient eyes were included: 129 adherent, 4 non-adherent. Mean (± standard deviation) baseline VA was 57.0 (± 23.6) and 53.8 (± 35.3) letters in adherent and non-adherent patient eyes, respectively. Mean change in VA by month 12 was higher in adherent (6.3 letters) than non-adherent patient eyes (−11 letters). In non-adherent patient eyes, no improvement in VA was recorded following completion of the loading period (month 3). Compared with the previous visit, adherent visits were associated with a mean increase in VA of 0.67 letters and non-adherent visits with a decrease of 2.30 letters. Conclusions These results emphasize the importance of adherence to appropriate dosing regimens to optimize visual outcomes in patients with nAMD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2053.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electronic, Optical And Magnetic Materials Keywords: µLED; GaN; KOH treatment; sidewall damage
Online: 31 October 2023 (09:54:40 CET)
InGaN-based red micro light-emitting diodes (µLEDs) of different sizes prepared in this work. The red GaN epilayers were grown on a 4-inch sapphire substrate through metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Etching, sidewall treatment, and p- and n- contact deposition was involved in the fabrication process. Initially, the etching process would cause undesirable damages to the GaN sidewalls, which leads to an increase in leakage current. Hence, we employed KOH wet treatment to rectify the defects on the sidewalls and conducted a comparative and systematic analysis on electrical as well as optical properties. We observed that the µLEDs with a size of 5µm exhibited substantial leakage current, which was effectively mitigated by the application of KOH wet treatment. In terms of optical performance, the arrays with KOH demonstrated improved Light Output Power (LOP). Additionally, while photoelectric performance exhibited a decline with increasing current density, the devices treated with KOH consistently outperformed their counterparts in terms of optoelectronic efficiency. It is noteworthy that the optimized devices displayed enhanced photoelectric characteristics without significantly altering their original peak wavelength and FWHM. Our findings point to the elimination of surface non-radiative recombination by KOH wet treatment, thereby enhancing the performance of small-sized red µLEDs which has significant potential in realizing full-color micro-displays in near-eye projection applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1983.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Mycobacterium avium complex; outcome; treatment; severity
Online: 31 October 2023 (09:07:32 CET)
Few clinical factors can help predict spontaneous culture conversion (SCC) in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex-pulmonary disease (MAC-PD). We retrospectively classified 373 MPD patients who had undergone watchful waiting without antibiotics according to the so-called ‘body mass index (BMI), age, cavity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and sex (BACES)’ severity. We evaluated whether lower severity is associated with a higher rate of SCC. Of 373 patients, 153 (41%) achieved SCC without antibiotics during a median follow-up of 48.1 months. There was a trend toward a higher SCC rate in patients with lower BACES severity: 48% (87/183), 37% (58/157), and 24% (8/33) in the mild, moderate, and severe BACES groups, respectively. In addition, a favorable outcome, defined as maintaining SCC or having two consecutive negative sputum cultures until the last follow-up date, was also more common in patients with lower BACES severity with 53% (97/183), 34% (54/157), and 18% (6/33) in the mild, moderate, and severe BACES groups, respectively. In multivariate analysis, moderate (hazard ratio [HR]=0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44 – 0.91; p = 0.013) and severe BACES (HR 0.37; 95% CI 0.16 – 0.90; p = 0.028) had a significantly negative impact on favorable outcomes compared to mild BACES. Lower BACES severity may be associated with SCC in MAC-PD patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1876.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: nontuberculous mycobacteria; carbohydrate antigen; outcome; treatment
Online: 30 October 2023 (12:20:49 CET)
Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) levels can increase in nontuberculous mycobacteria pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) and the levels correlate with disease activity. We compared the clinical characteristics of NTM-PD patients with and without elevated CA19-9 levels and evaluated its association with the antibiotic response in a retrospective study of NTM-PD patients diagnosed between January 1994 and December 2020. We analyzed 1,112 patients who had serum CA19-9 measured: 322 with elevated CA19-9 and 790 with normal CA19-9. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in the elevated CA19-9 group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.029, respectively). The 1-year culture conversion rate after antibiotics did not differ between the elevated (n = 206) and normal (n = 377) CA19-9 groups (80% vs. 72%, p = 0.055). Analysis of a subset of 434 patients revealed that current smoking, bronchiectasis, acid-fast bacilli smear positivity, and the M. abscessus strain significantly reduced microbiological cure rates. Serum CA 19-9 levels did not have a significant association with microbiological cure in a multivariate analysis. These findings suggest that the role of serum CA19-9 in predicting antibiotic treatment outcomes is limited, and that elevated CA19-9 does not necessarily indicate a poor outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1243.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: water treatment; nanoparticles; Fe3O4; magnetic field
Online: 12 October 2023 (09:44:05 CEST)
Many of the current strategies for removing pollutants from water are based on nanomaterials and 18nanotechnology. Lower values of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen De- 19 mand (COD) in water results in reduction in the amount of oxidizable pollutants. We present a study 20 on the reduction of COD and BOD5in water from Wadi El Bey River (Tunisia), using magnetite na- 21 noparticles (MNPs) and magnetic fields. The COD and BOD5 removal reached values higher than 22 50% after 60 min, with optimum efficiency at pH values of ≈8 and for MNPs concentrations of 1 g/L. 23 The use of a permanent magnetic field (0.33 T) showed an increase of COD and BOD5 removal from 2461% to 76% and from 63% to 78%, respectively. This enhancement is discussed in terms of the MNPs 25coagulation induced by the magnetic field and the adsorption of ionic species onto the MNPs sur- 26face due to Fe3O4 affinity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0326.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: headache; migraine; diagnosis; treatment; telehealth education
Online: 6 September 2023 (03:27:30 CEST)
Algologists and neurologists play a significant role in management of headache. The study aimed to compare the headache management approaches of algologist and neurologists and evaluate the impact of telehealth education on their practices. A questionnaire was developed and sent to algologists and neurologists through social media and email. Demographic information, diagnostic and treatment approaches to a headache case, and the impact of telehealth education were evaluated 82 algologists and 97 neurologists completed the survey. There was no significant difference between diagnosis. However, the examination methods differed, with the neurologists relying on history and the algologists suggesting further investigations. Both groups agreed on the application of prophylaxis treatment, with botulinum toxin administration and classical prophylactic agents being accepted in both groups. The newest preventive treatment method was used more frequently in the Neurologists. Participants reported that online meetings had a positive impact on their daily practices, with 48% stating that they were reflected in their practice. Those who attended online meetings marked more up- to-date treatment options such as CGRP antagonists and Botulinum toxin. The study showed that algologists and neurologists had similar approaches to headache management, with differences in examination methods and the use of newer preventive treatment methods. Telehealth education had a positive impact on the participants, improving their knowledge of up-to-date treatment options.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2200.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: ADHD; hyperactivity; impulsivity; treatment; narrative review
Online: 1 September 2023 (11:55:20 CEST)
Treatment of the ADHD types (hyperactive-impulsive, inattentive, and combined) in children has rarely been studied separately, although their prognostic courses differ widely. In addition, data show that improvements in hyperactivity/impulsivity are hard to achieve. Thus, we focused on treatments tailored for hyperactivity/impulsivity. We examined meta-analyses and systematic reviews within the inter- and intra-individual treatments and found that psychoeducation and training for parents, school-based interventions, reinforcement strategies, and neurofeedback consistently showed small to moderate effect sizes in reducing hyperactivity/impulsivity in children. Conversely, emotional self-regulation, social skills, and cognitive trainings showed unsatisfactory results. In summary, we found that the quality of usual care can be surpassed when the designated interventions are purposefully combined into a multimodal treatment program.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0766.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Kawasaki disease; diagnosis; biomarkers; treatment; eosinophil
Online: 10 August 2023 (05:08:14 CEST)
Since first described by Dr. Tomisaku Kawasaki in 1967, the clinical diagnosis of Kawasaki disease (KD) has remained relatively unchanged. However, studies since then have suggested that diagnoses using only that original clinical criteria may lead to underdiagnosis. In this review, updated KD diagnostic methods, diagnostic methods for “atypical” KD, diagnostic pitfalls, and other differential diagnoses are discussed. Peripheral blood eosinophil showed important in distinguishing KD from febrile children. We review herein the current literature regarding new biomarkers, scoring systems, and microRNA panels that may aid in the diagnosis of KD, the importance of eosinophil and treatment updates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0996.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: hereditary angioedema guidelines; treatment; prophylaxis; management
Online: 14 July 2023 (08:49:28 CEST)
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a very rare and potentially life-threatening genetic disease characterized by low levels of C1-INH inhibitor esterase and involving recurrent attacks of non-pruritic angioedema that do not leave subcutaneous or mucosal wells without the presence of hives. It occurs worldwide in 1 in 50,000 to 150,000 individuals and accounts for approximately 2% of clinical angioedema. It affects both sexes equally and can affect all races without ethnic differences. Methods: We conducted a review in Pubmed regarding this disease using keywords such as: hereditary angioedema, guideline, treatment, prophylaxis, management. Results: We analysed 195 articles and we focused our study on 17 reviews about type I of HAE published in English in the last 10 years. Conclusions: Screening among the family members of affected individuals (even if symptoms are absent) is mandatory, since it is a life-threatening condition. Moreover, advances in diagnosis and management have significantly improved the outcomes and quality of life of patients with hereditary angioedema.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0258.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: vaginal microbiota transplantation; dysbiosis; treatment; mechanism
Online: 4 May 2023 (10:35:44 CEST)
Microbial communities inhabiting the human body play a crucial role in protecting the host against pathogens and inflammation. Disruptions to the microbial composition can lead to various health issues. Microbial transfer therapy (MTT) has emerged as a potential treatment option to address such issues. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the most widely used form of MTT and has been successful in treating several diseases. Another form of MTT is vaginal microbiota transplantation (VMT), which involves transferring vaginal microbiota from a healthy female donor to a diseased patient's vaginal cavity with the goal of restoring normal vaginal microbial composition. However, VMT has not been extensively studied due to safety concerns and a lack of research. This paper explores the therapeutic mechanisms of VMT and discusses future perspectives. Further research is necessary to advance the clinical applications and techniques of VMT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: vaginal microbiota transplantation; dysbiosis; treatment; mechanism
Online: 14 February 2023 (09:23:33 CET)
The human body is inhabited by unique microbial communities that protect and regulate the host against pathogens and inflammation. To address issues related to disrupted microbial composition, microbial transfer therapy (MTT) has emerged as a potential treatment option. The most popular form of MTT is fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which has been successful in treating various diseases. Another emerging form of MTT is vaginal microbiota transplantation (VMT), transferring of the vaginal microbiota from a healthy female donor to a diseased patient's vaginal cavity, which aims to restore normal vaginal microbial composition. However, VMT is vastly unexplored due to safety concerns and lack of research. This paper explores the mechanisms involved in VMT's therapeutic effect and discusses future perspectives. Further research is needed to advance VMT's clinical applications and techniques.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: gingival enlargement; nickel allergy; orthodontic treatment
Online: 2 February 2023 (04:15:48 CET)
Background: Gingival enlargement is defined as an abnormal overgrowth of gingival tissues. A case of a 34–year–old female presenting with maxillary chronic inflammatory gingival enlargement associated with a nickel wire allergy is reported here. Replacement of the wire, good oral hygiene therapy and surgical therapy was carried out to provide a good aesthetic outcome. Histopathological evaluation was done of the excised specimen. There is only one similar case reported in literature to the best of our knowledge and ours is the second case. Result: A Histopathological diagnosis of inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia was established. No recurrence was reported at the end of 1 year. Conclusion: The patient should be made aware of the allergy at the initial visit and oral hygiene instructions should be reinforced at every visit. The significance of patient compliance during and following therapy as an important factor in the success of treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0154.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: post-stroke aphasia; pharmacotherapy; cholinergic treatment
Online: 11 July 2022 (08:58:05 CEST)
Despite the relative scarcity of studies focusing on pharmacotherapy in aphasia, there is evidence in the literature indicating that remediation of language disorders via pharmaceutical agents could be a promising aphasia treatment option. Among the various agents used to treat chronic aphasic deficits, cholinergic drugs have provided interesting results. In the current review, we focused on published reports investigating the impact of acetylcholine on language and further cognitive disturbances. It has been suggested that acetylcholine plays an important role in neuroplasticity and is related to several aspects of cognition, such as memory and attention. Moreover, cholinergic input is diffused to a wide network of cortical areas, which have been associated with language sub-processes. This could be a possible explanation for the positive reported outcomes of cholinergic drugs in aphasia recovery, and specifically in distinct language processes, such as naming and comprehension, as well as overall communication competence. However, evidence with regard to functional alterations in specific brain areas after pharmacotherapy is rather limited. Finally, despite the positive results derived from the relevant studies, cholinergic pharmacotherapy treatment in post-stroke aphasia has not been widely implemented. The present review aims to provide an overview of the existing literature in cholinergic pharmacotherapy interventions in post-stroke aphasia, following an integrated approach by converging evidence from neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuropsychology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0260.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: canine; fecal microbiota transplantation; treatment; mechanism
Online: 20 June 2022 (05:49:24 CEST)
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging therapeutic option for a variety of diseases, which is characterized as transferring fecal microorganisms from a healthy donor into the intestinal tract of a diseased receipt. In human clinics, FMT has been used for treating diseases for decades with promising results. In recent years, veterinary specialists adapted FMT in canine patients, however, compared to humans, canine FMT is more inclined to research purposes than practical applications in most cases due to safety concerns. Therefore, in order to facilitate the application of fecal transplant therapy in dogs, in this paper, we aimed to review recent application of FMT in canine clinical treatments as well as possible mechanisms that are involved in the process of therapeutic effect of FMT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: male; breast; cancer; diagnosis; treatment; prognosis
Online: 24 May 2022 (09:34:47 CEST)
Male breast cancers are uncommon, as men account for less than 1 percent of all breast carcinomas. Among the predisposing risk factors for male breast cancer, the following appear to be significant: a) breast/chest radiation exposure, b) estrogen use, diseases associated with hyper-estrogenism, such as cirrhosis or Klinefelter syndrome, and c) family health history. Furthermore, there are clear familial tendencies, with a higher incidence among men who have a large number of female relatives with breast cancer and d) major inheritance susceptibility. Moreover, in families with BRCA mutations, there is an increased risk of male breast cancer, although the risk appears to be greater with inherited BRCA2 mutations than with inherited BRCA1 mutations. Due to diagnostic delays, male breast cancer is more likely to present at an advanced stage. A core biopsy or a fine needle aspiration must be performed to confirm suspicious findings. Infiltrating ductal cancer is the most prevalent form of male breast cancer, while invasive lobular carcinoma is extremely uncommon. Male breast cancer is almost always positive for hormone receptors. A worse prognosis is associated with a more advanced stage at diagnosis for men with breast cancer. And randomized controlled trials which recruit both female and male patients should be developed in order to gain more consistent data on the optimal clinical approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0785.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Trypanosomosis; Treatment; DTPa; Bordetella pertussis 3
Online: 30 April 2021 (10:40:55 CEST)
Salivarian trypanosomes are extracellular parasites causing anthroponotic and zoonotic infections. Anti-parasite vaccination in considered the only sustainable method for global trypanosomosis control. Unfortunately, not a single field applicable vaccine solution has been successful so far. Active destruction of the host’s adaptive immune system by trypanosomes is believed to contribute to this problem. Here we show Trypanosome brucei brucei infection results in the lasting obliteration of immunological memory, including vaccine-induced memory against non-related pathogens. Using the well-established DTPa vaccine model in combination with a T. b. brucei infection and diminazene diaceturate anti-parasite treatment scheme, our result demonstrate that while the latter ensured the full recovery from the T. b. brucei infection, it failed to restore an efficacious anti-pertussis vaccine recall response. DTPa vaccine failure coincided with a shift in the IgG1/IgG2a anti-pertussis antibody ratio in favor of the latter, and a striking impact on all spleen immune cell populations. Interestingly, an increased plasma IFNy level in DTPa vaccinated trypanosome infected mice did result in a temporary antibody-independent improvement of early-stage trypanosomosis control. In conclusion, our results are the first to show that trypanosome inflicted immune damage is permanent, and is not restored by successful anti-parasite treatment.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: tuberculosis; epidemiology; drug-treatment; resistance; analysis
Online: 13 September 2020 (11:20:13 CEST)
Randomized clinical trials represent the gold standard in therapeutic research. Nevertheless, observational cohorts of patients treated for multidrug-resistant (MDR) or rifampin-resistant (RR) tuberculosis (TB) also play an important role in generating evidence to guide MDR/RR TB Generally, summary exposure classifications (e.g., ‘ever versus never’, ‘exposed at baseline’) have been used to characterize drug exposure, in the absence of detailed longitudinal data on MDR-TB regimen These summary classifications, along with an absence of data on covariates that change throughout the course of treatment, constrain researchers’ ability to answer the most relevant questions while accounting for known This paper highlights the importance of regimen changes in improving inference from observational studies of longer MDR-TB treatment regimens and offers an overview of the data and analytic strategies required to do
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Adverse drug reaction; COVID-19 treatment
Online: 12 August 2020 (11:12:41 CEST)
BACKGROUND: From March to April 2020, Spain was the center of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, particularly Madrid with approximately 30% of the cases in Spain. The aim of this study is to report the suspected serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs) in COVID-19 patients versus non-COVID-19 patients detected by the prospective pharmacovigilance program based on automatic laboratory signals (ALSs) in the hospital (PPLSH) during that period. We also compared the results with the suspected SADRs detected during the same period for 2019. METHODS: All ALSs that reflected potential SADRs (including neutropenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, eosinophilia, leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid, hepatitis, pancreatitis, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis and hyponatremia were prospectively monitored in hospitalized patients during the study periods. We analyzed the incidence and the distribution of causative drugs for the COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The incidence rate of SADRs detected in the COVID-19 patients was 760.63 (95% CI 707.89–816.01) per 10,000 patients, 4.75-fold higher than the SADR rate for non-COVID-19 patients (160.15 per 10,000 patients,95% CI 137.09–186.80), and 5.84-fold higher than the SADR rate detected for the same period in 2019 (130.19 per 10,000 patients, 95% CI 109.53–154.36). The most frequently related drugs were tocilizumab (59.84%), dexketoprofen (13.93%), azithromycin (8.43%), lopinavir-ritonavir (7.35%), dexamethasone (7.62%), and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (6.91%). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of SADRs detected by the PPSLH in patients with COVID-19 was 4.75-fold higher than that of the non-COVID-19 patients. Caution is recommended when using medications for COVID-19 patients, especially drugs that are hepatotoxic, myotoxic, and those that induce thromboembolic events.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0355.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: microplastics; analysis; waste treatment; food; diet
Online: 23 May 2020 (04:58:22 CEST)
This preprint is focused in the presence of plastics and microplastics in food. We will discuss how many we eat, and how they arrive to the food, and why. We will treat many other things, such as the waste treatment in Europe and in Spain, with updated data; how much plastic waste is generated; what are microplastics and how they are analyzed, I will tell about the experience we have at the University of Alicante (UA); how they can be removed and we will estimate how many we eat over the course of a year.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0348.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: hydroxychloroquine; COVID-19; pneumonia; prophylaxis; treatment
Online: 12 May 2020 (08:06:55 CEST)
According to current literature and preliminary data, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) seems potentially effective in the treatment of patients with Covid-19 pneumonia. The concentrations of HCQ in lungs might be well above that of plasma. Most likely, this property of HCQ provides effective drug concentrations in lungs. HCQ has a gradual onset of action in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. This could be valid for the treatment of Covid-19 pneumonia. It was suggested that regular HCQ administration in animals for a certain time might result in gradual accumulation of HCQ in tissues. Reduced perfusion, somewhat distorted architecture of lung tissue, edema and, suggested gradual accumulation of HCQ in lung tissue might cause reduced HCQ concentrations in pneumonic areas of the lungs in Covid-19 pneumonia. Patients with Covid-19 pneumonia and extensive lung involvement might have less HCQ concentrations in their lungs than patients having limited lung involvement. Furthermore, patients with Covid-19 pneumonia and extensive lung involvement might have more viral load than patients having limited lung involvement. That’s why treatment of patients with advanced Covid-19 pneumonia using HCQ might result in treatment failure, however HCQ might be effective in the treatment of patients with mild and moderate Covid-19 pneumonia. Using HCQ in Covid-19 pneumonia prophylaxis seems logical since providing enough accumulation of HCQ in the healthy lungs, before the arrival of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, might prevent Covid-19 pneumonia. However, the purpose of this paper is not to recommend using or not using HCQ for the treatment or for the prophylaxis of Covid-19 pneumonia. The purpose of this paper is only to try to bring a new perspective on the role of HCQ in the treatment or in the prophylaxis of Covid-19 pneumonia. This paper proposes only hypotheses, which need further researches to be confirmed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0207.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Chinese Guidelines; COVID-19; pharmaceutical treatment
Online: 13 April 2020 (03:43:37 CEST)
Background and Objective: China has managed to control the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with confinement measurements and treatment strategies, while other countries are struggling to contain the spread. This study discusses the guidelines related to COVID-19 in China in order to provide important references for other countries in the fight against COVID-19. Methods: Chinese guidelines relevant to COVID-19 were systematically searched via the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, YiMaiTong database, and World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 database on March 20th, 2020. Guideline information was extracted, including date of publication, source, objectives and the target population. Guidelines specific to the pharmacological treatment of COVID-19 were further investigated to identify the types of antivirus drugs recommended and to report on how treatment recommendations for COVID-19 have evolved overtime. Results: A total of 114 guidelines were identified, of which 87 were national guidelines and 27 were regional guidelines. The scope of included guidelines consisted of: the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19, the management of hospital departments and specific diseases during the outbreak of COVID-19. Sixty-four of the included guidelines targeted all COVID-19 patients, while the remaining guidelines concentrated on special patient populations (i.e., geriatric population, pediatric population, and pregnant population) or patients with coexisting diseases. Twenty-three guidelines focused on the pharmacological treatments for all COVID-19 patients. Interferon, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Ribavirin, Chloroquine, and Umifenovir represented the most recommended antivirus drugs. With the emergence of encouraging results from preclinical and preliminary clinical studies, Chloroquine Phosphate was recommended in the national Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (6th version) on February 19th, 2020. Thereafter, more detailed guidelines regarding the adjustment of dosage regimens and the monitoring of adverse events of Chloroquine Phosphate were published. To date, 8 Chinese guidelines have recommended Chloroquine Phosphate or Hydroxychloroquine as mainstream antivirus drug for the treatment of COVID-19. Conclusions: China has generated a plethora of guidelines covering almost all aspects of COVID-19. Chloroquine, as one widely affordable treatment, holds great potential to become the gold standard choice as more clinical evidence is shared by researchers from China as well as other countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: inflammation; Schizophrenia; treatment resistance; neurocognition; neuroimmunomodulation
Online: 13 January 2020 (04:15:01 CET)
Background: Activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) and the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS) play a key role in SCZ and treatment resistant SCZ. There are only few data on immune and endogenous opioid system (EOS) interactions in SCZ and treatment resistant SCZ.Aim of the study: We examined serum β-endorphin, endomorphin-2 (EM2), mu-opioid (MOR) and kappa-opioid (KOR) receptors, and interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 in 60 non responders to treatment (NRTT), 55 partial RTT (PRTT) and 43 normal controls.Results: Serum EM2, KOR, MOR, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly increased in SCZ as compared with controls. β-endorphin, EM2, MOR and IL-6 were significantly higher in NRTT than in PRTT. There were significant correlations between IL-6, on the one hand, and β-endorphin, EM2, KOR, and MOR, on the other, while IL-10 was significantly correlated with MOR only. A large part of the variance in negative symptoms, psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism, psychomotor retardation and formal thought disorders was explained by the combined effects of EM2 and MOR with or without IL-6 while increased KOR was significantly associated with all symptom dimensions. Increased MOR, KOR, EM2 and IL-6 were also associated with neurocognitive impairments including in episodic, semantic and working memory and executive functions.Conclusion: The EOS contributes to SCZ symptomatology, neurocognitive impairments and a non-response to treatment. In SCZ, EOS peptides/receptors may exert CIRS functions, whereas increased KOR levels may contribute to the pathophysiology of SCZ and EM2 and KOR to a non-response to treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: absorption; oil content; water injection; treatment
Online: 9 January 2020 (09:44:35 CET)
Implementation of waterflood is with injected pressured water to reservoir to escalation oil production. Produced water is the dominated result from oil and gas mechanism in this world meanwhile 65% of water is injected back to the well for pressure maintenance, 30% for discharge aquifier condition and surface. For shaly sand, produced water usually bring coarse and suspended sand to the surface. Therefore, this sand level is needed to declining to avoid plugging in injection well until certain economic condition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0282.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: pancreatitis; epidemiology; diagnosis; complications; treatment; prognosis.
Online: 29 March 2019 (12:13:17 CET)
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas and is one of the most common ailments of the gastrointestinal system that results in significant morbidity and mortality. The main etiologic causes of AP are alcohol consumption, gallstones, hypertriglyceridemia, and biliary stones. The clinical signs and symptoms, and diagnostic criteria of AP are well established in the literature and multiple studies. Multiple scoring systems have been used to predict the severity, prognosis, and mortality associated with AP. The present review of the literature brings to light the significant and recent contributions in the etiology, risk factors, epidemiology, diagnosis, complications, prognosis and newest modalities in treatment that could be beneficial in the management of AP.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Stomach, giant, gastrointestinal stromal tumor; treatment
Online: 26 December 2018 (12:29:23 CET)
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the mostly seen mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal system and mostly seen at the stomach. We report a case of giant gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach in a 71-year-old woman. The physical examination and radiological findings revealed that a giant mass occupied most of the abdominal cavity. The patient underwent an en-block resection of this giant mass with partial resection of the distal stomach and transverse colon and, reconstruction with gastro-jejunostomy and end-to end colo-colic anatomoses. The histopathologic diagnosis was revealed as gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach. We suggest that complete surgical resection is the only effective radical treatment approach for giant gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: wastewater treatment; microbial fuel cells; bioenergy
Online: 6 June 2018 (05:38:03 CEST)
Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) representing a promising technology for the extract of energy and resources through wastewater and it also offer an economic solution to the problem of environment effluent and energy crisis in near future. The advance device is rather appealing, due its potential benefits, its practical application is, however hindered by several drawbacks, such an internally competing microbial reaction, and low power generation. This report is an endeavor to address various design connected to the MFCs application to wastewater treatment, in particular cost effective bioelectricity from waste water are reviewed and discussed with a multidisciplinary approach. The conclusions drawn herein can be of practical interest to all new researchers dealing with effluent wastewater treatment using MFCs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae; antibiotic resistance; gonorrhea; treatment
Online: 23 May 2018 (07:46:34 CEST)
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease with a high morbidity burden. Incidence of this disease is rising due to the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains. Neisseria gonorrhoeae has shown an extraordinary ability to develop resistance to all antimicrobials introduced for its treatment. In fact, it was recently classified as a “Priority 2” microorganism in the WHO Global Priority List of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria to Guide Research, Discovery and Development of New Antibiotics. Seeing as there is no gonococcal vaccine, control of the disease relies entirely on prevention, diagnosis and, especially, antibiotic treatment. Different health organizations worldwide have established treatment guidelines against gonorrhea, mostly consisting in dual therapy with a single oral or intramuscular dose. However, gonococci continue to develop resistances to all antibiotics introduced for treatment. In fact, the first strain of super-resistant N. gonorrhoeae was recently detected in the United Kingdom, which was resistant to ceftriaxone and azithromycin. This increasing detection of resistant gonococcal strains may lead to a situation where gonorrhea becomes untreatable. Seeing as drug resistance appears to be unstoppable, new treatment options are necessary in order to control the disease. Three approaches are currently being followed for the development of new therapies against drug-resistant gonococci: (1) novel combinations of already existing antibiotics, (2) development of new antibiotics and (3) development of alternative therapies which might slow down the appearance of resistances. N. gonorrhoeae is a public health threat due to the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains. Current treatment guidelines are already being challenged by this Superbug. This has lead the scientific community to develop new antibiotics and alternative therapies in order to control this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0056.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: intermediate heat treatment; boron; fabrication process
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:36:45 CET)
In this study, we evaluated the cold drawing workability of two kinds of modified 9Cr-2W steel containing different contents of boron and nitrogen, depending on the temperature and time of normalizing and tempering treatments. Using ring compression tests at room temperature, the effect of intermediate heat treatment condition on workability was investigated. It was found that the prior austenite grain size can be changed by the austenite transformation, and the grain size increases with increasing temperature during normalizing heat treatment. Alloy B and Alloy N showed different patterns after normalizing heat treatment. Alloy N had higher stress than Alloy B, and the reduction in alloy N increased, while the reduction in alloy B decreased. Alloy B showed a larger number of initially formed cracks and a larger average crack length than Alloy N. Crack length and number increased proportionally in Alloy B as the stress increased. Alloy B had lower crack resistance than Alloy N due to boron segregation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: permutation entropy; permutation complexity; pharmacological treatment
Online: 4 August 2017 (11:06:40 CEST)
In the clinical electrophysiologic practice, the reading and comparing electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings some times is insufficient and take to much time. That is why in the last years it has begun to introduce new methods of EEG analysis, that give a better and faster understanding of the EEG dynamics and allow a rapid intervention in the patient's treatment. Tools coming from the information theory or nonlinear system as an entropy and complexity have been shown to be a very good alternative to address this problem. In this work we introduce a novel method -the permutation Lempel-ziv complexity vs permutation entropy map. This method was applied to EEG of two patients with specific diagnosed pathologies during respective follow up processes of pharmacological changes in order to detect changes that are not evident with the usual inspection method. Our results show that the proposed method are useful for observing an evolutionary retrospective clinical effects of pharmacological interventions in both patients, and from these, to follow the clinical response to the proposed treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Aluminium bronze with -transformation; Cu-11Al-6Fe bronze; heat treatment; mechanical characteristics; optimisation of heat treatment
Online: 1 November 2023 (14:48:59 CET)
Aluminium bronzes possess a unique combination of high strength and wear and corrosion resistance in aggressive environments; thus, these alloys find wide application in marine, shipbuilding, aviation, railway, offshore platform applications and other fields. Iron-aluminium bronzes (IABs) are the cheapest and most widely used. When the aluminium content is above 9.4 wt%, IAB is biphasic (i.e. it undergoes -transformation) and can be subjected to all heat-treatment types depending on the desired operating behaviour of the bronze component. This article presents correlations (mathematical models) between the primary mechanical characteristics (yield limit, tensile strength, elongation, hardness and impact toughness) and the ageing temperature and time of quench at 920°C in water Cu-11Al-6Fe bronze, obtained using the centrifugal casting method. The microstructure evolution was evaluated depending on the ageing temperature and time changes. Overall, the research was conducted in three successive inter-related stages: a one-factor-at-a-time study, planned experiment, and optimisations. Four optimisation tasks, which have the greatest importance for practice, were formulated and solved. The defined multiobjective optimisation tasks were solved by searching for the Pareto-optimal solution approach. The decisions were made through a nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) using QstatLab. The optimisation results were verified experimentally. Additional samples were made for this purpose, quenched at 920°C in water and subjected to subsequent ageing with the optimal values of the governing factors (ageing temperature and time) for the corresponding optimisation task. The comparison of the results for the mechanical characteristics with the theoretical optimisation results presents good agreement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1917.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: WASHR; co-treatment; high-rate treatment; high-strength wastewater; waste activated sludge-high rate; winery wastewater
Online: 28 July 2023 (13:02:22 CEST)
High-strength wastewaters from a variety of sources, including the food industry, domestic septage and landfill leachate, are often hauled to municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for co-treatment. Due to their high organic loadings, these wastewaters can cause process upsets in both the WWTP’s liquid and solids treatment trains and consume organic treatment capacity, leaving less capacity available to service customers in the catchment area. A novel pre-treatment method, the Waste Activated Sludge-High Rate (WASHR) process, is proposed to optimize the co-treatment of high-strength wastewaters. The WASHR process combines the contact stabilization and sequencing batch reactor processes. It utilizes waste activated sludge from the municipal WWTP as its biomass source, allowing rapid start-up. Bench scale treatment trials of winery wastewater confirm the WASHR process can reduce loadings on the downstream WWTP’s liquid treatment and solids treatment trains. A case study approach is used to confirm the economic viability and environmental sustainability of the WASHR process compared to direct co-treatment using life cycle cost analyses and greenhouse gas emissions estimates.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Semisolid casting; RheoMetal process; GISS process; SEED process; production; capability; surface treatment; heat treatment; tool-life; productivity
Online: 19 September 2020 (05:15:22 CEST)
Semisolid casting of Aluminum alloys is growing. For magnesium alloys, Thixomoulding became the dominant process around the world. For aluminium processing, the situation is different as semisolid processing of aluminium is more technically challenging than for magnesium. Today three processes are leading the process implementation, The GISS method, the RheoMetal process and the SEED process. These processes have all strengths and weaknesses and will fit a particular range of applications. The current paper aims at looking at the strengths and weaknesses of the processes to identify product types and niche applications for each process based on current applications and development directions taken for these processes
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1945.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: KAP; NSAIDS; pain treatment; muskosceletonal pain; complications
Online: 30 November 2023 (10:38:06 CET)
(1) Background: It is crucial to provide safe and knowledgeable healthcare practices because no research has been done on the knowledge and usage patterns of NSAIDs among the Hail population. (2) Method: Structured questionnaires were utilized to gather data from 399 individuals in Hail, Saudi Arabia for the cross-sectional analysis. The study assessed participants' knowledge regarding NSAIDs, patterns of use, reasons for use, and awareness of potential side effects. (3) Results: In the study, the gender distribution indicated that 170 participants (42.61%) were male, while 229 (57.39%) were female. Gender, occupation, and marital status showed non-significant associations (p>0.01), except for menstrual cycle and joint pain, where marital status displayed significant associations. Age had significant associations with muscle pain, menstrual cycle, and joint pain (p<0.01). Education and monthly income exhibited non-significant associations for all the reasons. The regression analysis demonstrated that gender played a significant role, with females having higher odds of knowledge (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.10-2.88) than males. Age also had a notable impact, with individuals aged 50-59 (AOR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.07-0.66) exhibiting lower odds of knowledge. Education holding a Ph.D (AOR = 3.50, 95% CI 0.54-22.51) and business as an occupation (AOR = 6.12, 95% CI 1.10-35.10) had significantly higher odds of knowledge while housewives (AOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.25-2.27) had lower odds. Meanwhile, >50% of the participants had knowledge of adverse events related to the use of NSAIDs while 25% had no knowledge. Moreover, 59 (25.766%) participants reported discomfort with the use of NSAIDs. In addition, 50% and >75% of participants’ considered NSAIDs can cause peptic ulcers and damage kidneys, respectively (4) Conclusions: This study shed light on the knowledge and patterns of NSAIDs use in the population of Hail, Saudi Arabia. While NSAIDs are commonly utilized for pain management, there exists a need for improved public awareness regarding potential risks and safe usage practices. Healthcare providers and policymakers should consider these insights to develop targeted educational initiatives and healthcare interventions to promote safe and informed NSAID utilization in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1282.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: mouse; mastitis; model; maggot antimicrobial peptide; treatment
Online: 21 November 2023 (07:38:26 CET)
Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus) is associated with mastitis in dairy cows, this study investigates the therapeutic effect of maggot antimicrobial peptides on S. aureus induced mastitis in mice. The maggot AMP was isolated and purified, tested for antimicrobial activity, and used to treat a pathological model of rat mastitis. The concentration of 1.5mg/（Kg. BW）AMP was selected as intramammary treatment in S. aureus-induced mastitis in mice. The mice were divided into four groups of 30 mice each: group I (healthy control), group II (disease control), group III (AMP), and group IV (ciprofloxacin). To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of maggot AMP in mastitis induced by S. aureus based on clinical presentation, mammary gland structure, bacterial load, histopathology, and cure. During the 7-day treatment period, all the mice in Group II died in the afternoon of the fifth day, and the clinical signs of the mice in Group III began to improve on the third day, as evidenced by the gradual recovery of the mice's mental status, dietary intake, and water intake. During the treatment period, the bacterial load count of Group III was significantly lower than that of Group II but higher than that of Group IV, while the bacterial load count of Group III gradually decreased and approached that of Group IV from the fifth to the seventh day. The levels of TNF-α in groups III and IV were significantly lower than those in group II, suggesting that maggot AMP has a certain inhibitory effect on TNF-α. Treatment with AMP@ 1.5 mg/(Kg. BW) showed restoration of clinical signs, reduced bacterial load, and lower TNF-α levels in mice, leading to significant improvement in histopathological changes as compared to disease controls. The final cure rate was 40% for mice in Group III compared to 70% for mice in Group IV, compared to all mice in Group II that died. From this study, it can be concluded that maggot AMP can be used as a potential alternative treatment option to antibiotics for the treatment of bovine mastitis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; gender; sex; susceptibility; treatment effect
Online: 16 November 2023 (03:06:31 CET)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) occurs more frequently in women than in men, and the studies that have addressed clinical and prognostic differences between sexes are scarce and have contradictory results and methodological problems. The present work aims to evaluate sex and gender-related differences in the clinical expression and prognosis of RA as well as the impact on psychosocial variables, coping behavior, and healthcare use and access. By identifying between-sex differences and gender-related outcomes in RA, it may be possible to design tailored therapeutic strategies that consider the differences and unmet needs. Being sex, together with age, the most relevant biomarker and health determinant, a so-called personalized medicine approach to RA must include clear guidance on what to do in case of differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0858.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Multiple sensors; Telerehabilitation; Assessment; Personalized Treatment; Rehabilomics
Online: 14 November 2023 (11:18:41 CET)
Telemonitoring and telerehabilitation have shown promise in delivering individualized healthcare remotely. We introduce STASISM, a Sensor-Based Telerehabilitation and Telemonitoring System, in this work. This platform has been created to facilitate individualized telerehabilitation and telemonitoring for those who need rehabilitation or ongoing monitoring. To gather and analyze pertinent and validated physiological, kinematic, and environmental data, the system combines a variety of sensors and data analytic methodologies. The platform facilitates customized rehabilitation activities based on individual needs, allows for remote monitoring of patients' progress, and offers real-time feedback. To protect the security of patient data and to safeguard patient privacy, STASISM also provides secure data transmission and storage. The platform has the potential to significantly improve the accessibility and efficacy of telerehabilitation and telemonitoring programs, enhancing patients' quality of life and allowing healthcare professionals to provide individualized care outside of traditional clinical settings/
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0312.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: intramural hematoma; superior mesenteric artery; treatment; steroid
Online: 6 November 2023 (13:42:55 CET)
(1) Background: Spontaneous isolated intramural hematoma of the superior mesenteric artery (SIHSMA) is a rare entity often considered as a subset of spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SIDSMA). It is characterized by a completely thrombosed false lumen with or without ulcer-like projection with computed tomography (CT) imaging. The recent literature describes few reports with a relatively short-term follow-up. The natural course, prognosis, and treatment options for SIHSMA still lack consensus. We present two cases of acute abdominal pain in a young man due to IMH of the superior mesenteric artery with an extensive literature review. (2) Case report: A 46-year-old male patient was submitted to an urgent CTA for acute abdominal pain, showing the presence of an isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery, determining significant stenosis of the vessel with collateral vessel patency. The patient referred to a recent COVID-19 infection, whose course was paucisymptomatic. He was treated conservatively with antiplatelet therapy and corticosteroid treatments, and, after a few days, the symptomatology completely regressed; also, 2-month- control CTA showed the complete IMH regression and the absence of any signs of residual stenosis. The second patient is a 61-year-old male patient who was submitted to an urgent CTA for acute abdominal pain, showing the presence of an isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery, not determining significant vessel stenosis. He was treated conservatively with antiplatelet therapy and corticosteroid treatment, and after a few days, the symptomatology completely regressed, and the radiological control showed a complete dissection regression. (3) Conclusion: SISHSMA is a rare entity of vascular pathology, and conservative management represents the best medical strategy. We propose corticosteroid treatment as one of the most appropriate tools in the conservative treatment of SISHSMA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1494.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: trunk melanoma; SLNB; surgical treatment; lymphatic drainage
Online: 21 July 2023 (10:07:46 CEST)
(1) Background: Melanoma is the most aggressive tumor located at the skin level and the man-agement of this pathology requires a correct staging as well as a modern oncological treatment, adapted to each patient. The main objective of the study is to determine the variability of lymphatic drainage in the case of melanomas located on the trunk; (2) Methods: This retrospective study in-cluded 62 cases of melanoma located on the trunk operated between July 2019 and March 2023 in which SLNB was performed and a total of 84 lymph node were excised; (3) Results: Patients had an average age of 54.5 years old, while melanomas had a mean Breslow index of 2.3 mm. The distri-bution of trunk melanomas was: upper trunk 54 cases, lower trunk 30 cases (64.3 % vs. 35.7%). The type of anesthesia chosen was general anesthesia in 53 cases, respectively spinal anesthesia in 9 cases (85.5% vs. 14.5%, p<0.001). The number of sentinel lymph nodes was 54 for melanomas lo-cated on the upper trunk, 8 cervical and 46 axillary, respectively 30 sentinel lymph nodes in cases of melanomas of the lower trunk, 16 at the axillary level and 14 at the inguinal level; (4) Conclusions: Lymph node involvement in melanoma represents an important prognostic factor and the different lymphatic drainage pathways in relation to the location of the primary tumor represents an im-portant objective in the management of this pathology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0665.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: surface treatment; titanium; hierarchical structures; dental implant
Online: 11 July 2023 (05:25:10 CEST)
Titanium (Ti) and Ti-based alloys are commonly used in dental implants, and surface modifications of dental implants are important for achieving osseointegration (i.e., direct connection between the implant surface and bone). This study investigated the effect of an eco-friendly etching solution—a hydrogen peroxide–sodium bicarbonate mixture—on the surface properties and contact angles of and osteoblast adhesion and proliferation on Ti surfaces. Disk-shaped Ti specimens were prepared using different surface treatments (machining, sandblasting, and sandblasting/acid-etching), and they were immersed in the etching solution and then ultrasonically cleaned. Surface characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy, digital microscopy, contact angle analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. MG-63 osteoblasts were cultured on the specimens, and their adhesion to the specimen surface and their proliferation were examined using staining and the MTT assay, respectively. Additional etching with the etching solution caused the formation of nano/micro hierarchical structures, increased the surface roughness, and enhanced the hydrophilicity. Osteoblast adhesion and proliferation were found to improve on the modified surfaces. The eco-friendly etching method has the potential to enhance the biological properties of Ti implant surfaces and to thereby improve the dental implant performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2096.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Orthodontics; Treatment duration; Machine learning; Artificial intelligence
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:28:43 CEST)
In the field of orthodontics, providing patients with accurate treatment time estimates is of utmost importance. As orthodontic practices continue to evolve and embrace new advancements, incorporating machine learning (ML) methods becomes increasingly valuable in improving orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. This study aimed to develop a novel ML model capable of predicting the orthodontic treatment duration based on essential pre-treatment variables. Patients who completed comprehensive orthodontic treatment at the Indiana University School of Dentistry were included in this retrospective study. Fifty-seven pre-treatment variables were collected and used to train and test 9 different ML models. The performance of each model was assessed using descriptive statistics, intraclass correlation coefficients, and one-way analysis of variance tests. Random Forest, Lasso, and Elastic Net were found to be the most accurate, with a mean absolute error of 7.27 months in predicting treatment duration. Extraction decision, COVID, intermaxillary relationship, lower incisor position, and additional appliances were identified as important predictors of treatment duration. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of ML in predicting orthodontic treatment duration using pre-treatment variables.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2006.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: MFCs; Wastewater treatment; Bio-sensors; Alternate energy
Online: 29 June 2023 (03:18:29 CEST)
: Microbial fuel cell (MFCs) devices utilise the metabolic processes of bacteria to generate electricity from various organic substrates. Due to the enormous amount of energy that organic waste produces, scientists are highly interested in advanced MFCs. MFCs serve as a multidisciplinary research platform at the engineering and natural sciences intersection. MFCs have various uses besides being used as energy sources, such as sensing capabilities. Despite showing considerable promise, only a few marine sediment MFCs have been deployed in real-world applications to supply current for low-power devices. It is now required to maintain track of the work being done by research groups worldwide and regularly compile significant discoveries due to the rising quantity of research publications. Review papers are a traditional beginning point for a literature review for new scholars. This review is a fast reckoner that directs readers to pertinent reviews and research publications detailing significant advances in microbial fuel cell research during the previous two decades. An overview of key advances in MFC research over the past two decades is provided as a quick reference in this review article. In addition, the report identifies research gaps that, if filled, could bring this technology closer to real-world use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0980.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Ultrasonic impact treatment; strengthening effect
Online: 14 June 2023 (07:54:18 CEST)
Metal fabrications experience complex physical metallurgical processes during additive manufacturing, leading to residual stress and coarse microstructure with directional growth. It significantly affects the comprehensive performance of the fabrications, which limits the application of additive manufacturing. Ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT), as a strengthening means to assist additive manufacturing, can effectively improve the stress state and refine the microstructure and the comprehensive performance. This paper introduces the effect of UIT on AM metal fabrications on microstructure morphology, stress distribution, surface roughness, internal defects, and comprehensive performance to gain a deeper understanding of the role of UIT on additively manufactured metal fabrications, which is based on the working principle and effect of process parameters. In addition, the strengthening mechanism of UIT in additive manufacturing is described from the perspective of surface plastic deformation and substructure formation, providing support for the shape and property control of metal fabrications in the process of additive manufacturing assisted by UIT. Finally, the issues that need to be studied in depth on UIT in additive manufacturing are summarized, and an outlook on future research directions is taken.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0601.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: sepsis; diagnostic; treatment; drug delivery; nanomedicine; nanotechnology
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:27:02 CEST)
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by a dysregulated host response to an invading pathogen such as multidrug-resistant bacteria. Despite recent advancements, sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, resulting in a significant global impact and burden. This condition affects all age groups, with clinical outcomes depending mainly on timely diagnosis and appropriate early therapeutic intervention. Because of the unique features of nanosized systems, there is a growing interest in developing and designing novel solutions. Nanoscale-engineered materials allow a targeted and controlled release of bioactive agents, resulting in improved efficacy with minimal side effects. Additionally, nanoparticle-based sensors provide a quicker and more reliable alternative to conventional diagnostic methods for identifying infection and organ dysfunction. Despite recent advancements, fundamental nanotechnology principles are often presented in technical formats that presuppose advanced chemistry, physics, and engineering knowledge. Consequently, clinicians may not grasp the underlying science, hindering interdisciplinary collaborations and successful translation from bench to bedside. In this review, we abridge some of the most recent and most promising nanotechnology-based solutions for sepsis diagnosis and management using an intelligible format to stimulate a seamless collaboration between engineers, scientists, and clinicians.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0519.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: FIP; FCoV; genotype; pathogenesis; diagnosis; treatment; vaccine
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:32:09 CEST)
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), caused by the feline coronavirus (FCoV), is a devastating dis-ease in cats. Based on its antigenicity, FCoV can be divided into two serotypes: FCoV-I and FCoV-II. Furthermore, according to its pathogenicity, FCoV can be divided into feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). There are numerous factors that affect the pathogenesis of FIP, among which host immunity and viral genetics can play an es-sential role in the development of FIP. Owing to the lack of specific symptoms, existing individual diagnostic methods can only support the suspicion of FIP, and multiple diagnostic methods and test data need to be combined to make a diagnosis. Although there are still no effective FIPV vaccines or commercial drugs available in the market, various studies have shown that some compounds can be used for treatment. Therefore, FIP is no longer incurable in cats
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1157.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: neonicotinoids; imidacloprid; heat treatment; rice; drinking water
Online: 28 April 2023 (09:45:10 CEST)
Neonicotinoids (NEOs) have become the most widely used insecticides in the world since the mid-1990s. According to Chinese dietary habits, rice and water are usually heated before being consumed, but the information about the alteration through the heat treatment process is very limited. In this study, the parents of NEOs (p-NEOs) accounted for >99% of the total NEOs mass (∑NEOs) in both uncooked (median: 66.8 ng/g) and cooked (median: 41.4 ng/g) rice samples from Guangdong Province, China, while the metabolites of NEOs (m-NEOs) involved in this study accounted for less than 1%. We aimed to reveal the concentration changes of NEOs through heat treatment process, thus, several groups of rice and water samples from Guangdong were cooked and boiled, respectively. Significant (p < 0.05) reductions in acetamiprid, imidacloprid (IMI), thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam (THM) have been observed after the heat treatment of the rice samples. In water samples, the concentrations of THM and dinotefuran decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after the heat treatment. These results indicate the degradation of p-NEOs and m-NEOs during the heat treatment process. However, the concentrations of IMI increased significantly in tap water samples (p < 0.05) after heat treatment process, which might be caused by the potential IMI precursors in those industrial pesticide products. The concentrations of NEOs in rice and water can be shifted by the heat treatment process, so this process should be considered in relevant human exposure studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: cavovarus foot; conservative treatment; V osteotomy; children
Online: 27 March 2023 (02:38:52 CEST)
The cavovarus deformity is characterized by a pathologic longitudinal arch elevation caused by a severe hindfoot varus and forefoot equinus deformity. This disorder includes multiple anomalies and therapies and affects 25% of the population. Cavus feet usually indicate neurologic illness, which affects sensory and motor nerves. Clinical and radiological evaluations are needed to establish each patient's optimum therapy. Failure to identify a neurologic illness may lead to inappropriate surgical treatment, recurrence, and reconstructive failure. In progressive anomalies, surgical procedures must be performed quickly in a phased protocol to prevent the malalignment from worsening. Soft tissue surgeries, osteotomies, and arthrodesis are surgical options for patients. To aid and lead practitioners in selecting the most appropriate therapy for their patients daily, we have included the most common therapeutic options currently available in this article.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0488.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; obesity; inflammation; metabolism; treatment resistance
Online: 24 March 2023 (02:09:14 CET)
White adipose tissue (WAT) represents an endocrinologically and immunologically active tissue that’s primary role is energy storage and homeostasis. Breast WAT is involved in the secretion of hormones and proinflammatory molecules that are associated with breast cancer development and progression. The role of adiposity and systemic inflammation in immune responses and resistance to anti-cancer treatment in breast cancer (BC) patients is still not clear. This review aims to evaluate the emerging evidence on the crosstalk between adiposity and the immune-tumour microenvironment in BC, its progression and treatment resistance. Adiposity, and by extension subclinical inflammation, are associated with metabolic dysfunction and changes in the immune-tumour microenvironment in BC. In oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast tumours, it is proposed that these changes are mediated via a paracrine interaction between macrophages and preadipocytes leading to elevated aromatase expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines in the breast tissue in patients who are obese or overweight. In HER2+ breast tumours, WAT inflammation has been shown to be associated with resistance to trastuzumab mediated via MAPK or PI3K pathways. Furthermore, adipose tissue in patients with obesity is associated with upregulation of immune checkpoints on T-cells that is partially mediated via immunomodulatory effects of leptin and has been paradoxically associated with improved responses to immunotherapy in several cancers. In conclusion, evidence suggests that body composition and metabolic status are associated with patient outcomes. To optimise patient stratification and personalisation of treatment, prospective studies are required to evaluate the role of body composition and metabolic parameters in metabolic immune reprogramming with and without immunotherapy in patients with BC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0027.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: coagulant dosage; fuzzy; machine-learning; water treatment
Online: 1 December 2022 (14:49:04 CET)
Coagulation is the most sensitive step in drinking water treatment. Underdosing may not yield the required water quality, whereas overdosing may result in higher costs and excess sludge. Traditionally, the coagulant dosage is set based on bath experiments performed manually. Therefore, this test does not allow real-time dosing control, and its accuracy is subject to operator experience. Alternatively, solutions based on machine-learning (ML) have been evaluated as a computer-aided alternative. Despite these advances, there is open debate on the most suitable ML method applied to the coagulation process, capable of the most highly accurate prediction. This study addresses this gap, where a comparative analysis between ML methods was performed. As a research hypothesis, a novel data-driven fuzzy inference system (FIS) should provide the best performance due to its ability to deal with uncertainties inherent to complex processes. Although ML methods have been widely investigated, only a few studies report hybrid neuro-fuzzy systems applied to coagulation. Thus, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study thus far to address the accuracy of this novel data-driven FIS for such application. The novel FIS provided the smallest error (0.86), indicating a promising alternative tool for real-time and highly accurate coagulant dosing in drinking water treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0430.v1
Online: 25 August 2022 (10:00:27 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic initiated a race to determine the best measures to control the disease and to save as many people as possible. Efforts to implement social distancing, the use of masks, and massive vaccination programs turned out to be essential in reducing the devastating effects of the pandemic. Nevertheless, the high mutation rates of SARS-CoV-2 challenge the vaccination strategy and maintain the threat of new outbreaks due to the risk of infection surges and even lethal variations able to resist the effects of vaccines and upset the balance. Most of the new therapies tested against SARS-CoV-2 came from already available formulations developed to treat other diseases, so they were not specifically developed for SARS-CoV-2. In parallel, the knowledge produced regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in this disease was vast due to massive efforts worldwide. Taking advantage of such a vast molecular understanding of virus genomes and disease mechanisms, a targeted molecular therapy based on siRNA specifically developed to reach exclusive SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences was tested in a non-transformed human cell model. Since coronavirus can escape from siRNA by producing siRNA inhibitors, a complex strategy to simultaneously strike both the viral infectious mechanism and the capability of evading siRNA therapy was developed. The combined administration of the chosen produced siRNA proved to be highly effective in successfully reducing viral load and keeping virus replication under control, even after many days of treatment, unlike the combinations of siRNAs lacking this anti-anti-siRNA capability. Additionally, the developed therapy did not harm the normal cells, which was demonstrated because, instead of testing the siRNA in nonhuman cells or in transformed human cells, a non-transformed human thyroid cell was specifically chosen for the experiment. The proposed siRNA combination deeply reduced the viral load throughout the experiment and allowed cellular recovery, thus representing a potential innovation, to be considered as an additional weapon for therapy of COVID-19 and even other infectious diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0446.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: sustainable; decentralized; wastewater; treatment; micro-nanobubbles; biomedia
Online: 29 July 2022 (03:42:31 CEST)
As the scarcity of potable water increases, recycling of treated wastewater is increasing. Small-scale, decentralized treatment can be implemented to serve local populations by keeping water within their boundaries and within reach for reuse, particularly in less dense, non-urban communities. Availability of cellular networks and high-speed internet connectivity, along with significant reduction in cost, allows ongoing monitoring of decentralized treatment systems at a central location. In this paper a decentralized treatment system using micro nanobubble aeration, moving media and membranes is able to produce reusable water with low energy consumption, thereby allowing the use of solar energy in places with unreliable electrical supply. The treatment system, which uses no external chemicals, is able to operate unattended and deliver clear, disinfected water with non-detect suspended solids, BOD5 less than 10 mg/L and nutrients below 5 mg/L.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0416.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: biofouling; deposition; hydrophobic; plasma treatment; PTFE; stickiness
Online: 27 July 2022 (08:53:19 CEST)
The spray drying process causes the buildup of an unspecified and unique pattern of wall deposits on the wall. The powder recovery of fruit juice by spray dryer is associated with stickiness problems because of the nature of food which contains low molecular weight sugars and organic acids, which have a low glass transition temperature (Tg). The surface properties of oxygen plasma treated-PTFE substrate were evaluated by using the different parameters of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) prior to spray drying analysis. In this study, the fabrication method of nearly perfect superhydrophobic surfaces through plasma treatment with oxygen gas was generated and utilized. The plasma-treated PTFE were deposited from a fixed flow rate of oxygen gas with 30 cm3/min by varying the deposition time from 1 to 15 minutes to induce the hydrophobic surface of the PTFE substrate. The characterization techniques used to determine the morphology and chemical bonding of the substrate are field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The hydrophobicity of the glass samples was determined by the water droplet contact angle. Sample prepared at radio frequency (RF) power of 90W for 15 minutes duration of treatment time showed porous and spongy like microstructure which correlates with the best performance of a good contact angle which creates the superhydrophobicity regime (171o). Surface morphology analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed changes in its roughness in the surface-treated glass substrate. The success of this method produced a huge potential for solving most of the food processing issues which relate to biofouling (e.g., powder stickiness) that would otherwise struggle to improve high productivity and recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0142.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: brachial plexus; traction injury; surgical treatment; electrostimulation
Online: 9 July 2022 (16:47:09 CEST)
As the problem of traction injuries to brachial plexus is a common one and of high socio-economic significance, the analysis of the surgical outcomes in patients with this pathology is significant for neurosurgery, neurology, traumatology-orthopedics, and rehabilitation. The aim of the research is to compare the short-term outcomes of using various surgical methods for managing patients with closed traction injuries of brachial plexus. Material and methods. The research involved 61 patients with closed traction injury of brachial plexus divided into two groups homogeneous in sex, age and severity of their neurological deficit: Group I – 33 patients who underwent microsurgical neurolysis, Group II – 28 patients who underwent microsurgical neurolysis combined with one-level electrostimulation. The dynamic assessment of clinical and functional status of upper limbs was performed using scale methods and electrophysiological monitoring. Results. The research revealed a more evident recovery of the upper limb function in Group II patients suggesting the method of microsurgical neurolysis combined with electrostimulation to be preferable in case of closed traction injuries to brachial plexus. Conclusion. The combination of microsurgical neurolysis with one-level electrostimulation improves the short-term outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with closed traction injuries of brachial plexus due to a sooner decrease in pain in postoperative period, and positive dynamics of clinical and electrophysiological parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-Cov-2; arbidol; treatment
Online: 26 April 2022 (04:07:48 CEST)
Background The spread of COVID-19 continues, the mutation of SARS-COV-2 is still difficult to control, and the need for antiviral drugs to treat COVID-19 remains urgent. The use of arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19 is limited and controversial. Methods To clarify the efficacy of arbidol on COVID-19, we collected 25 cases and 178 related studies. We analyzed the treatment information of arbidol based on the obtained cases, expanded the scope of the study, and collected current studies on the treatment of COVID-19 in various databases for in-depth analysis. Results History analysis showed that arbidol was effective (76% cure rate) compared with other drugs. However, compared with other antiviral drugs or standard therapy, the arbidol group had no significant advantage in reducing the time to negative virus transformation, length of hospital stays, or improvement in CT (MD=0.22, 95%CI -0.29-0.73; MD = 0.61, 95% CI 1.46 to 2.67; RR=1.15, 95%CI 0.88-1.50); Analysis of adverse events showed no significant difference between the arbidol group and the other groups (RR=0.82, 95%CI 0.25-2.71). Conclusion Our study showed that arbidol had no significant effect on COVID-19, but showed a slight advantage in CT improvement and adverse events. Our study objectively evaluated the efficacy of arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19 and provided some guidance for arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; bacterial vaginosis; refractory; recurrent; treatment
Online: 2 March 2022 (10:11:03 CET)
Bacterial vaginosis (BV), the most common cause of vaginal discharge, is characterized by a shift in the vaginal microbiota from lactobacillus dominance to a diverse array of facultative and strict anaerobic bacteria which form a multi-species biofilm on vaginal epithelial cells. The rate of recurrence after therapy is high, often >60%. While the BV biofilm itself likely contributes to recurrent and/or refractory disease after treatment by reducing antimicrobial penetration, antimicrobial resistance in BV-associated bacteria including those, both within the biofilm and the vaginal canal, may be the result of independent, unrelated bacterial properties which are discussed in this paper. Our current recommendations for the treatment of refractory and recurrent BV are also provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0439.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: geopolymer; plasma; surface treatment; fly ash; wettability
Online: 1 March 2022 (12:42:26 CET)
This paper deals with investigation of changes in geopolymer wettability with increasing mass fraction of high-carbon fly ash and surface treatment by cold atmospheric plasma (CAP). In this study, multiple samples of geopolymers were prepared, including those with 5% and 10% of high-carbon fly ash from coal-fired power station. Wettability of samples was then measured before and after plasma treatment, both on surface and cut surface. While addition of fly ash only had low effect on the wettability, as in most cases, it only lowered the initial contact angle without speeding up the speed of soaking for compact geopolymer and actually slowed the soaking for foamed geopolymer, plasma treatment had significant impact and made the geopolymer hydrophobic.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: granulomatous cheilitis; latent tuberculosis; IGRA; antibiotic treatment
Online: 23 February 2022 (12:08:19 CET)
The granulomatous cheilitis (GC) presents a heterogeneous group of disorders characterised by a granulomatous inflammation/reaction of the lips to various stimuli. Numerous etiologies have been proposed, including genetic, immunologic, allergic and infectious. Among the secondary causes of GC, a distant infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis should be considered. The GC could be the clinical presentation of a tuberculide resulting from a hypersensitivity reaction to an underlying focus of active or latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). This communication describes a woman diagnosed with GC related to LTBI, who responded well to antituberculosis treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0451.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: coping; pain; children; sedation; analgesia; treatment effects
Online: 31 January 2022 (11:43:26 CET)
Children with leukaemia experience difficulties adapting to medical procedures and to the chemotherapy’s adverse effects. Study’s objectives were to identify which coping strategies could be associated with the treatments’ factors and with the dosage of sedation analgesic drugs during bone marrow aspirates. 125 patients (M = 6.79 years; SD = 3.40), majority with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (90.4%) and their parents received, one month after diagnosis, the PPCI. Data on the severe treatment effects and on the dosage of drugs in sedation-analgesia were also collected. An ANCOVA model (R2=0.25) showed that, weighing the age factor (F=3.47; df=3; p=0.02), the number of episodes of fever (F=4.78; df=1; p=0.03), nausea (F=4.71; df=1; p=0.03) and mucositis (F=5.81; df=1; p=0.02) influenced the use of distraction. Cognitive self-instructions (R2=0.22) were influenced by the number of hospitalizations (F=5.14; df=1; p=0.03) and mucositis (F=8.48; df=3; p=0.004) and by child’s age (F=3.76; df=3; p=0.01). Children who sought parental support more frequently (F=9.7; df=2; p=0.0001) and who tended not to succumb to a catastrophic attitude (F=13.33; df=2; p=0.001) during the induction treatment phase required lower drug dosages, especially propofol. The clinical application of these results could be to encourage the use of cognitive self-instructions and search for social support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: acromegaly; somatostatin analogues; presurgical treatment; surgical remission
Online: 2 July 2021 (14:52:23 CEST)
Purpose: To determine whether pre-surgical treatment using long-acting somatostatin analogues (SSAs) may improve surgical outcomes in acromegaly. Methods: Retrospective study of 48 patients with acromegaly operated by endoscopic transsphenoidal approach and for first time. Surgical remission was evaluated based on the 2010 criteria. Results: Most patients, 83.3% (n=40), harboured macroadenomas and 31.3% (n=15) invasive pitu-itary adenomas. Fourteen patients were treated with lanreotide LAR and 6 with octreotide LAR, median monthly doses of 97.5 [range 60-120] and 20 [range 20-30] mg, respectively, for at least 3 months preoperatively. Presurgical variables were comparable between pre-treated and un-treatred patients (P>0.05). Surgical remission was more frequent in those pre-treated with monthly doses ≥90 mg of lanre-otide or ≥30 mg of octreotide than in untreated or pre-treated with lower doses (OR=4.64, P=0.025). However, no differences were found between pre-treated and untreated patients when lower doses were included or between those treated for longer than 6 months compared to those untreated or pre-treated for shorter than 6 months. Similarly, no differences were found either in terms of surgical or endocrine complications (OR=0.65, P=0.570)), independently of the doses and the duration of SSA treatment (P>0.05). Conclusions: The dose of SSAs is a key factor during pre-surgical treatment, since the beneficial effects in surgical remission were observed with monthly doses equal or higher than 90 mg of lanreotide and 30 mg of octreotide, but not with lower doses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0620.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: adipogenesis; signaling pathways; anti-obesity treatment; obesity
Online: 25 June 2021 (12:09:51 CEST)
Abstract: As a risk factor, obesity is a threat to human well-being and related metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. adipogenesis is defined as the proliferation and maturation of adipocyte predecessor cells to adipocyte. As the adipogenesis process decides adipocyte production, it may be considered a therapeutic target for obesity and obesity-related disorders. White adipose tissue abnormal expansion increases the size and number of adipocytes. For that reason, this review aims to spot the molecular mechanisms implicated in adipogenesis that lead to application in the therapeutic targets. Keywords: adipogenesis, signaling pathways, anti-obesity treatment, obesity
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0583.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: CNC Machine Tool; Plasma; Surface Heat Treatment
Online: 23 June 2021 (12:47:11 CEST)
The mechanical engineering requires heat treatment after rough machining to reach the mechanical strength, but the heat treatment can induce workpiece deformation, so that the workpiece cannot be reworked. In this study, the plasma was integrated with a lathe, and the on line heat treatment was performed to achieve the mechanical strength and hardness, so as to reduce the machining process and handling. However, for on line heat treatment, it is important to study the machine and plasma parameters of the lathe and plasma, and the research method is used eventually to optimize the process, reduce the machining cost and machining error. The variable factors in surface on line real-time heat treatment are revolution, feed rate and current, the objective function is the hardness of mechanical properties. In the screening experiment, the interaction of factors was discussed using full factorial experiment. The Central Composite Design was combined with the Lack-of-Fit test for optimization experiment, the R2 coefficient was used to determine whether the regression model is appropriate. The optimum parameters were derived from the contour diagram and response surface diagram. The experimental results show that the significant factors include revolution, feed rate and current, the optimum parameters include revolution 168rpm, feed rate 0.068mm/rev and current 86A. The experimental results of optimum parameters show that the surface hardness is increased from 306HLD to 806HLD, the surface hardening effect is enhanced by 163%, so the on line real-time heat treatment equipment has a best hardening effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0568.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: die forging; isothermal annealing; thermo-mechanical treatment
Online: 22 December 2020 (16:13:53 CET)
The article discusses the results of investigations performed during a thermo-mechanical treatment of forgings made of chromium-molybdenum 42CrMo4 grade steel. The treatment was realized during a regular series production. The forging process was combined with a heat treatment carried out directly after forging on a specially adapted station. Such a production technology will make it possible to eliminate the step of repeated heating of the forgings. On the example of an element of a steering gear, it was demonstrated how it is possible to perform an isothermal annealing process starting from the temperature at which the trimming of the forgings ends. During the cooling of the forgings, it is enough to maintain the temperature at the proper level in order for the exothermal phase transformation of austenite into pearlite to take place. With an appropriate design of the processing line, the heat released during the transformation could be used to maintain the applied temperature, thus limiting the consumption of energy needed to power the devices. The test results show that, with the properly selected temperature of isothermal annealing, it is possible to obtain an equilibrial ferritic-pearlitic structure in the required hardness scope. Introducing such a solution into the industrial practice would allow significant savings of the energy used for the heat treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0393.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Equine theileriosis; Theileria haneyi; treatment; imidocarb diproprionate
Online: 13 November 2020 (20:48:27 CET)
Control of Theileria equi, the primary cause of equine theileriosis, is largely reliant on acaracide use and chemosterilization with imidocarb dipropionate (ID). However, it is currently unknown if ID is effective against Theileria haneyi, the recently identified second causative agent of equine theileriosis, or if the drug maintains effectiveness against T. equi in the presence of T. haneyi co-infection. The purpose of this study was address these questions using ID treatment of the following three groups of horses: 1. Five T. haneyi infected horses; 2. Three T. haneyi-T. equi infected horses; and 3. Three T. equi-T. haneyi infected horses. Clearance was first evaluated using nPCR for each Theileria sp. on peripheral blood samples. ID failed to clear T. haneyi in all three groups of horses, and failed to clear T. equi in 2/3 horses in group two. For definitive confirmation of infection status, horses in groups two and three underwent splenectomy post-treatment. The T. equi-nPCR-positive horses in group two developed severe clinical signs and were euthanized. Remaining horses exhibited moderate signs consistent with T. haneyi. Our results demonstrate that ID therapy lacks efficacy against T. haneyi, and T. haneyi-T. equi co-infection may interfere with ID clearance of T. equi.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0379.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Equine theileriosis; Theileria haneyi; treatment; imidocarb diproprionate
Online: 13 November 2020 (13:19:37 CET)
Control of Theileria equi, the primary cause of equine theileriosis, is largely reliant on acaracide use and chemosterilization with imidocarb dipropionate (ID). However, it is currently unknown if ID is effective against Theileria haneyi, the recently identified second causative agent of equine theileriosis, or if the drug maintains effectiveness against T. equi in the presence of T. haneyi co-infection. The purpose of this study was address these questions using ID treatment of the following three groups of horses: 1. Five T. haneyi infected horses; 2. Three T. haneyi-T. equi infected horses; and 3. Three T. equi-T. haneyi infected horses. Clearance was first evaluated using nPCR for each Theileria sp. on peripheral blood samples. ID failed to clear T. haneyi in all three groups of horses, and failed to clear T. equi in 2/3 horses in group two. For definitive confirmation of infection status, horses in groups two and three underwent splenectomy post-treatment. The T. equi-nPCR-positive horses in group two developed severe clinical signs and were euthanized. Remaining horses exhibited moderate signs consistent with T. haneyi. Our results demonstrate that ID therapy lacks efficacy against T. haneyi, and T. haneyi-T. equi co-infection may interfere with ID clearance of T. equi.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0273.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Mycobacterium abscessus, drug treatment, experimental therapy, review,
Online: 12 August 2020 (08:01:41 CEST)
Mycobacterium abscessus is a non-tuberculous mycobacteria notoriously known for causing severe, chronic infections. Treatment of these infections is challenging due to either intrinsic or acquired resistance of M. abscessus to multiple antibiotics. Despite prolonged poly-antimicrobial therapy, treatment of M. abscessus infections often fails, leading to progressive morbidity and eventual mortality. Great research efforts are invested in finding new therapeutic options for M. abscessus. Clofazimine and rifabutin are known anti-mycobacterial antibiotics, repurposed for use against M. abscessus. Novel antimicrobials active against M. abscessus include delamanid, pretomanid and PIPD1 and the recently approved beta-lactamase inhibitors avibactam, relebactam and vaborbactam. Previously unused antimicrobial combinations e.g. vancomycin-clarithromycin and dual beta-lactam therapy have been shown to have synergistic effect against M. abscessus in experimental models, suggesting their possible use in multiple-drug regimens. Finally, engineered phage therapy has been reported to be clinically successful in a severe case of disseminated M. abscessus infection. While many of these experimental therapeutics have shown activity against M. abscessus in vitro, as well as intracellular and/or animal models, most have little if any evidence of effect in humans infections. Clinical studies of M. abscesssus treatments are needed in order to reliably determine the value of their incorporation in therapeutic regimens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: pandrug-resistant; treatment; carbapanemase; Acinetobacter; Klebsiella; Pseudomonas
Online: 14 June 2020 (13:19:32 CEST)
The management of carbapenem-resistant infections is often based on colistin, tigecycline, aminoglycosides and their combinations. However, in a recent systematic review we found that Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) co-resistant to carbapanems, aminoglycosides, colistin and tigecycline (CACT-resistant) are increasingly being reported worldwide. Clinical data to guide the treatment of CACT-resistant GNB are scarce and based exclusively on few case reports and small case series but seem to indicate that appropriate (in vitro active) antimicrobial regimens, including newer antibiotics and synergistic combinations, may be associated with lower mortality. In this review we consolidate the available literature to inform clinicians dealing with CACT-resistant GNB about treatment options by considering the mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems. In combination with rapid diagnostic methods that allow fast detection of carbapenemase production, the approach proposed in this review may guide a timely and targeted treatment of patients with infections by CACT-resistant GNB. Specifically, we focus on the three most problematic species, namely Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Several treatment options are currently available for CACT-resistant K. pneumonia. Newer β-lactam-β-lactamase combinations, including the combination of ceftazidime/avibactam with aztreonam against metallo-β-lactamase-producing isolates, appear to be more effective compared to combinations of older agents. Options for P. aeruginosa (especially metallo-β-lactamase-producing strains) and A. baumannii remain limited. Synergistic combination of older agents (e.g. colistin- or fosfomycin-based synergistic combinations) may represent a last resort option but their use against CACT-resistant GNB requires further study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0057.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; treatment; drug; survival; antiviral; hydroxychloroquine
Online: 9 May 2020 (04:45:37 CEST)
Background: Although no specific treatment for COVID 19 has been proven effective yet, some drugs with in vitro potential against SARS-CoV-2 virus have been proposed for clinical use. Hydroxychloroquine has in vitro anti-viral and immunomodulatory activity, but there is no current clinical evidence of its effectiveness on the outcome of the disease. Methods: We enrolled all 18-85 years old inpatients from Central Defense Hospital, Madrid, Spain, who were hospitalised due to COVID-19 and had a definitive outcome (either dead or discharged). We used a statistical survival analysis. Results: We analysed 220 medical records. 166 patients met the inclusion criteria. 48,8 % of patients not treated with HCQ died, versus 22% in the group of hydroxychloroquine (p=0,002). According to clinical picture at admission, hydroxychloroquine increased the mean cumulative survival in all groups from 1,4 to 1,8 times. This difference was statistically significant in the mild group. Conclusions: in a cohort of 166 patients between 18 to 85 years hospitalised with COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine treatment with an initial loading dose of 800mg improved patient survival when admitted in early stages of the disease. There was a non-statistically significant trend towards survival in all groups, which will need to be clarified in subsequent studies.