ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0006.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: urban public transportation infrastructure; utilization benefits; coupling coordination degree model; Gini coefficient
Online: 1 March 2017 (10:31:45 CET)
The economic, social and environmental benefits generated by the use of urban public transportation infrastructure constitute a complex dynamic urban public transportation infrastructure utilization benefit system. This paper evaluates the coupling coordination among these three benefits taking four Chinese autonomous municipalities as an example. These four cities have large-scale urban public transportation infrastructures but their utilization has many serious problems. The basic function of urban public transportation infrastructure has not been fully played in these cities. Whether the different benefits of urban public transportation infrastructure have been developed in harmony or not is unclear. We analyzed the coordinated development among three benefits by constructing coupling coordination degree model and used Gini coefficient to study the difference of coordinated development among three benefits of four cities. The result shows that the levels of coordinated development among three benefits of urban public transportation infrastructure were lower in these four cities and have positive correlation with it of urban public transportation infrastructure utilization benefit. Raising the level of urban public transportation infrastructure utilization benefit is the most crucial solution of promoting the coordinated development among three benefits.
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: waterway transportation; boundary conditions; AIS data; MASS; intelligent transportation
Online: 10 April 2023 (08:13:00 CEST)
This paper proposes a data-driven approach to the calculation of ship overtaking boundary conditions in narrow channels based on ship overtaking characteristics by the Automatic Identification System (AIS) data. First, we collect the ship tracking process data in a narrow channel by processing the original AIS data, followed by a normality test and correlation analysis, and finally, the boundary conditions are obtained using a weighted K-means clustering algorithm. to identify the relevant data. We applied the proposed approach to estimate the overtaking boundary conditions of ships in the straight channel section of Shanghai South Passage. The method yields boundary conditions that significantly reduce collision risk when a ship engages in pursuit behavior in narrow waterways, providing a scientific basis for the overtaking of Marine Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS) in autonomous navigation within such environments, further promoting the automation level of USVs and autonomous vessels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0011.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: absorption chiller; thermal energy transportation; solution transportation; ammonia-water; COP; simulation
Online: 4 February 2017 (07:49:12 CET)
Utilization of wasted heat instead of fuel combustion is effective to reduce primary energy consumption for mitigating global warming problem. Because wasted heat sources are not necessarily located close to areas of heat demand, one of the difficulties is that wasted heat has to be transferred from heat source side to heat demand side, which may require heat transportation over long distance. From this point we proposed and have examined new idea of heat transportation using ammonia-water as the working fluid which system is named Solution Transportation Absorption chiller, in short STA. Our previous studies of STA were mainly the experimental investigation with STA facility which cooling power was 25RT (90kW). As a result, the COP of STA was found almost same value 0.65 with the conventional absorption chiller without depending on the transportation distances. The simulation using AspenHYSYS also examined with same experimental condition. The experimental data showed good agreement with the simulation calculation. In this study, we examined the large-scale cooling power STA on simulation. The examination cooling powers were from 90 kW(25RT) to 3517 kW(1000RT). All cooling power achieved around COP 0.64 including pump power consumptions. In addition, we performed the dynamic simulation. As the results, there was no effect of pipeline size on the cooling capacities and mass flow rates. Furthermore, the stability time of the cooling capacities and mass flow rates were almost same regardless of the pipeline size and cooling capacity. In other words, STA may be achieved the same COP even though having various complex conditions compared with the conventional absorption chiller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0289.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: effectiveness; efficiency; Jakarta; transportation
Online: 10 June 2021 (11:17:14 CEST)
Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia, which has its own problems in building transportation facilities, especially on land routes. For private vehicle users, congestion is a common thing, given the very dense number of people living in Jakarta, both natives and migrants from outside the region. And for users of public transportation services such as city transportation (angkot) and transjakarta, convenience is the main obstacle. And even though it is a public vehicle, it cannot avoid congestion because it is in one lane with private vehicles except for the transjakarta bus which has its own lane. Meanwhile, for train-based public transportation such as MRT (Mass Rapid Transit), LRT (Light rail Transit), and electric railroad (KRL), the problem is the lack of integration, namely that many stations are not yet integrated with other transportation. Various policies have been implemented to overcome these problems. This study aims to determine the level of effectiveness and efficiency of public transportation in DKI Jakarta today. The method used in this research is qualitative-descriptive through a literature review on 16 journal articles and 4 websites. The results of this study indicate that congestion is a major problem in the means of transportation in Jakarta. This is due to the increase in population due to urbanization which is also accompanied by an increase in the number of private vehicles. Therefore, to overcome this, the Jakarta Provincial Government has made improvements, reforms, and developments in public transportation. And it is hoped that people who originally used private vehicles will switch to using public transportation. But in reality, various problems in public transportation in Jakarta have not been resolved properly. Especially why traffic jams still occur?, and what are the solutions to overcome them?. It is hoped that the results of the findings of this study can be used as a reference in making or designing policies and can contribute to overcoming problems in the transportation sector, especially in the DKI Jakarta area. The limit of this research is that it only focuses on land transportation facilities in Jakarta.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0663.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: identification; manufacturing; transportation; installation
Online: 28 July 2020 (04:31:56 CEST)
Construction of Pontoons is based on multiple elements, dimensions and weight. The study has addressed about how the industry of the floating reinforcement concrete precast (pontoons) installs in the factory with the combinations of utility, electricity services, and Internet service. The pontoon bridges are successfully installed in the road for transport or sea for shops. The installation process for pontoons is successfully attempted in a balanced situation above surface of the sea to the resistant of floating precast (pontoons) to any ambient effects such as weather conditions, the movement of the waves or any others effects. The findings elaborate that it is not just a military solution. Pontoon installation can significantly serve for civil purposes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: urban transportation; public transportation; bus services; quality of services; systematic literature review
Online: 12 May 2022 (10:13:53 CEST)
Bus services play a significant role as the main public transportation, especially in urban areas throughout the years. Since bus services compete greatly with other types of public transportation, such as e-hailing service and private vehicles, they have recently attracted scholars to conduct many relevant studies. However, most past research studies in the Asian region were not focused on engineering, social science, and Internet of Things (IOT). This present study concentrated on the service quality of bus services in Asia by using systematic literature review of articles. This study conducted a review based on previous studies, specifically on the service quality of performance. Several previous studies were selected by using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRIMSA) approach. SCOPUS and Science Direct were chosen as the main journal database. By using this method, 41 articles were selected for further analysis. This study was merely focused on three primary themes, such as study approach, stakeholder, and service quality attributes. Advanced analysis on these primary themes was used to formulate another 18 sub-themes. All themes and sub-themes which reflected the significant impacts of service quality towards bus services were discussed in detail. This study had addressed several qualities of bus services of bus performance towards improvement of urban transportation polices. Lastly, several recommendations that could provide necessary knowledge and information for future research were presented.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0428.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Underground mines; Rail transportation; Underground transportation; Monitoring and control system; Mining industry.
Online: 16 April 2021 (09:40:25 CEST)
With the continuous development of the mining industry, the world's major mines have gradually entered the intelligent stage. In the intelligent underground mine, the operation road of the underground transportation equipment is very complicated, and the monitoring and control of the underground traffic has become a problem to be solved in the intelligent underground mine. Therefore, on the basis of solving the practical problems of underground mines, the concept paper discusses the possibility of the rail transit monitoring system being applied to underground mines through the summary and induction of the related literature and propose the design for the CBTC system to solve the problems in the underground mine rail transportation. As the mining engineers, we put forward the concept of this design for the CBTC system in this concept paper, but we need to continue to work hard for the future development of the underground mines. And the concept paper serves as a guide to the Tossing out a brick to get a jade gem, has implications for the development and the future of the underground mine transportation.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: cognitive internet of vehicles; automotive; transportation; industrial revolution 4.0; security; intelligent transportation system
Online: 29 November 2019 (06:50:28 CET)
Over the past few years, we have experienced great technological advancements in the information and communication field, which has significantly contributed to reshaping the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) concept. Evolving from the platform of a collection of sensors aiming to collect data, the data exchanged paradigm among vehicles is shifted from the local network to the cloud. With the introduction of cloud and edge computing along with ubiquitous 5G mobile network, it is expected to see the role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in data processing and smart decision imminent. So as to fully understand the future automobile scenario in this verge of industrial revolution 4.0, it is necessary first of all to get a clear understanding of the cutting-edge technologies that going to take place in the automotive ecosystem so that the cyber-physical impact on transportation system can be measured. CIoV, which is abbreviated from Cognitive Internet of Vehicle, is one of the recently proposed architectures of the technological evolution in transportation, and it has amassed great attention. It introduces cloud-based artificial intelligence and machine learning into transportation system. What are the future expectations of CIoV? To fully contemplate this architecture’s future potentials, and milestones set to achieve, it is crucial to understand all the technologies that leaned into it. Also, the security issues to meet the security requirements of its practical implementation. Aiming to that, this paper presents the evolution of CIoV along with the layer abstractions to outline the distinctive functional parts of the proposed architecture. It also gives an investigation of the prime security and privacy issues associated with technological evolution to take measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0018.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: project logistics; transportation; simulation; autoclave
Online: 2 November 2017 (13:31:51 CET)
Project logistics is one of the specific logistics operations. Compared to other logistics operations, it needs more efficient planning and engineering applications in each operational process. On the other hand, each project logistics operation can be defined as tailor-made operations, since it has no similarity with other operations. Consequently, each project logistics operation should be planned and carried out according to its own conditions and parameters. This study focuses on the simulation of project logistics operations under the light of computerized applications from start to finish of the logistics operation. In this study, transportation operations of 600 tons of autoclave from the Petkim port to the Gördes building site were selected as a case study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0668.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: sustainable management of cargo transportation; multi-componential services; vehicular communication networks; changing transportation topology
Online: 30 August 2020 (14:31:25 CEST)
The aim of this research is forwarded for assessment of provision possibilities of the multi-componential and heterogeneous services in the fast-changing topology of cargo transportation processes. The mobile intelligent services in nowadays transport means require the development of complex infrastructure for multi-compositional service support. Our objectives are related to the investigation in data-transfer capabilities for heterogeneous service support, by offering some improvements for developing the infrastructure of transportation of vehicles by helping in the administration of transport processes. This research aims to develop an approach for assessment of infrastructure for sustainable management of cargo transportation processes by roads. Such assessment is multi-layered by including the management possibilities of cargo transportation logistic processes and electronic (smart, mobile) services by implementing of nowadays innovative software and hardware of information communication technologies (ICT). Special attention is paid for road safety, more environment cleanable, and paperless management by assessing the integration of potentials and prospects of wireless, vehicle Ad-hoc communication networks (VANET), and other communication possibilities. Some requirements are revealed for such type of infrastructure for the provision of heterogeneous services. The results of the development of infrastructure demonstrate the capacities of the potential of wireless networks for the provision of high-level of multi-component, heterogeneous services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0524.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Optimal Predictive Control; Energy Management; Electric Vehicles; Sustainable Transportation; Efficient Energy Consumption; Electrification of Transportation
Online: 7 September 2023 (13:27:36 CEST)
In this study, a novel two-layer control scheme aimed at enhancing the dynamic performance of a nonlinear vehicle through the utilization of an optimal control approach grounded in predictive control principles is presented. The first layer of our control system focuses on the computation of an optimized rotational torque that ensures lateral dynamic stability. This torque is subsequently translated into differential forces acting on the wheels, employing the inverse tire model to derive the desired longitudinal slips. These slip values are then transmitted to the second layer of our control system. In the second layer, the electric motors associated with the vehicle's wheels dynamically adjust the input torque to accurately track the desired slip, thereby ensuring the overall stability of the electric vehicle. In view of the paramount importance of energy consumption in electric vehicles, we adopt optimal control strategies to substantially minimize battery utilization. To this end, careful selection of appropriate weighting coefficients in the control laws enables us to maintain the electric motors within their permissible operational range while simultaneously minimizing battery energy consumption for desired slip tracking. Extensive simulation results validate the effectiveness of our proposed control system in proficiently managing nonlinear effects and safeguarding the vehicle's stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0573.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Mean; Mean of Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers; Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers; Transportation Problem; and Fuzzy Transportation Problem
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:17:57 CEST)
In this paper, improved matrix Reduction Method is proposed for the solution of fuzzy transportation problem in which all inputs are taken as fuzzy numbers. Since ranking fuzzy number is important tool in decision making, Fuzzy trapezoidal number is converting in to crisp set by using Mean techniques and solved by proposed method for fuzzy transportation problem. We give suitable numerical example for unbalanced and compare the optimal value with other techniques. The Result shows that the optimum profit of transportation problem using proposed technique under robust ranking method is better than the other method. Novelty: The numerical illustration demonstrates that the new projected method for managing the transportation problems on fuzzy algorithms.
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: part transportation; Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control; carrier aircraft; transportation time; stochastic demand; cross rule group
Online: 15 April 2021 (15:00:28 CEST)
The part transportation efficiency is a main factor of aircraft sortie generation rate. Part transportation is used to transport spare part from base to carrier. Transportation strategy depends on both demand on carrier and inventory in transportation base. The transportation time and stochastic demand will induce fluctuations of cost and inventory. Thus, a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system of dynamic part transportation is established considering transportation time and stochastic demand. And a novel Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy robust control is designed for dynamic part transportation, which will keep transportation cost and part inventory stable. First of all, a fuzzy model with stochastic demand and transportation time is proposed. Then, a novel robust control with cross rule groups is conducted according to production and transportation strategy, which will reduce fluctuations induced by strategies switch. Moreover, robust stability is guaranteed and part can be supplied in time under a low cost. Finally, simulation illustrates usefulness and quickness of the novel Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy robust control. Besides, the proposed method will be useful in other transportation electrification systems with delay time and uncertainty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: air transport management; transportation; bibliometric analysis
Online: 7 July 2023 (15:37:28 CEST)
A single paragraph of about 200 words maximum. For research articles, abstracts should give a pertinent overview of the work. We strongly encourage authors to use the following style of structured abstracts, but without headings: (1) Background: place the question addressed in a broad context and highlight the purpose of the study; (2) Methods: describe briefly the main methods or treatments applied; (3) Results: summarize the article’s main findings; (4) Conclusions: indicate the main conclusions or interpretations. The abstract should be an objective representation of the article, it must not contain results which are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not exaggerate the main conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0579.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: Sustainability; Transportation; Climate Change; Carbon Emissions
Online: 19 April 2023 (08:59:55 CEST)
The build-up of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is causing warmness in the Earth’s atmosphere, resulting in climate change. The transport sector is one of the active members of GHG emissions and it is imperative to use sustainable transport sources to control climate change. The measure aims to encourage citizens to stop using their private vehicles as their choice of transport and instead opt for joint sustainable mobility during traveling. In this study, a quantitative research method was used and data were collected from a sample of 410 respondents through questionnaire. On the other hand, study also took a simulation-based (N=10000) sample size of private vehicle data. The data were analyzed using structural equation modelling. The results revealed that sustainable transportation, climate change technologies and electric rail vehicles reduce climate change in the ecoregions of China. We conclude that sustainable transportation policies could be formulated and implemented to reduce climate change. In response to the research results, it is recommended that, since climate change is a multi-level governance issue and the outdated pyramidal transport industry models must be shifted to a sustainable transportation system model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0095.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: elderly study; mobility; transportation; scoping review
Online: 6 July 2022 (10:12:39 CEST)
The rapid development of transportation infrastructure in Malaysia had changed the mobility landscape of the country. While it would be a welcome advancement for many, older adults might find it difficult to keep up with their transportation uses and remain active. This study reviewed published articles on the travel behavior of older adults and its associated transportation determinants to explore how sustainable the transportation system is for this vulnerable cohort. Four databases were searched: PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and EBSCOhost. Inclusion criteria were older respondents, living in a community in Malaysia, addressing any travel behavior characteristics and written in English language. Review paper, letters, book citations, comments, editorials, and experimental and animal studies were excluded from this study. All in all, this review included seven studies extending from the year 2007 to 2020. The result showed that transportation use of older adults had shifted from relying on public transports to driving their own vehicle to move around. According to the finding of this study, besides personal and health factors, transport use of older adults was affected mainly by cost, public transport availability, road traffic and safety, the complexity of the transportation system, distance to public transit, availability of parking space, road condition and signage. It is concluded that an effective strategy to improve the transportation system is lauded to prevent unmet travel needs among the older adults in Malaysia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0137.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Government; Hospitalization; Pandemics; Public policy; Transportation.
Online: 9 February 2022 (11:04:11 CET)
To effectively combat the COVID-19 pandemic, the state government of Bahia, Brazil, has distributed intensive and non-intensive care units along the nine regions that divide the state of Bahia, such that COVID-19 patients could be easily hospitalized in health care units located at the same regions where they live. However, the observed hospitalizations networks for COVID-19 patients shows that a considerable number of COVID-19 patients had to travel beyond their region of residence to be hospitalized. Hence, this study indicates that the current distribution of health care units in Bahia, Brazil, is not sufficient to effectively reduce the distances traveled by COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization. We believe that such unnecessary travels to distant hospitals may put the sick patients as well as healthy people involved in the transportation process in risk, further delaying the stabilization of the COVID-19 pandemic in each region of the state of Bahia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0063.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Transportation; dynamic graph model; 2019-nCoV
Online: 5 February 2020 (11:33:39 CET)
Since the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) at the hardest-hit city of Wuhan, the fast-moving spread has killed over three hundred people and infected more than ten thousands in China1. There are more than one hundred cases outside of China, affecting a dozen of countries globally2. The genome sequence of 2019-nCoV has been reported and fast diagnostic kits, effective treatment as well as preventive vaccines are rapidly being developed3. Initial fast-growing confirmed cases triggered lock-down of Wuhan as well as nearby cities in Hubei Province. Mathematical models have been proposed by scientists around the world to project the numbers of infected cases in the coming days 4,5. However, major factors such as transportation and cultural customs have not been weighed enough. Our model is not set out for precise prediction of the number of infected cases, rather, it is meant for a glance of the dynamics under a public epidemic emergency situation and of different contributing factors. We hope that our model and simulation would provide more insights and perspective information to public health authorities around the globe for better informed prevention and containment solution.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0585.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Driverless Transport Vehicle; ZigBee Networks; Communication-based train control (CBTC) system; Underground transportation; Trackless transportation; Mining industry
Online: 14 April 2021 (14:05:48 CEST)
With the continuous development of Artificial Intelligence technology and Internet of Things engineering, more and more driver-less vehicles have been developed and put into the industrial production. The birth of driver-less vehicles undoubtedly brings new vitality to a large amount of industries, particularly in transportation. For the mining industry, transportation is undoubtedly an extremely important link in the whole production process. If the driver-less vehicles can be applied to the underground mines, it can not only improve the production and transportation capacity of the whole mine, but also can reduce the occurrence of many mine safety accidents. ZigBee WSN technology can play a greater role in the narrow environment like underground mines according to the relevant literature, this concept paper just like a engineering project plan mainly tries to integrate the ZigBee WSN technology and the communication-based train control (CBTC) system to explore the possibility of the driver-less vehicles to be used in the underground mines, which aims to solve practical engineering problems for the engineering projects. As the mining engineers, we put forward the concept of this integrated system in this concept paper, but we need to continue to work hard for the future of the underground mines. This concept paper serves just as a guide to the Tossing out a brick to get a jade gem, has a few implications for the development of underground mine transportation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0578.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: infrastructure damage; transportation vulnerability; roadway; risk; hazard
Online: 10 October 2023 (12:21:08 CEST)
Wildfires can be destructive to highway infrastructure. Despite the substantial number of wildfires experienced every year, research on the physical impacts of wildfire on highways has been understudied. This research examines historical and potential future highway physical damage from wildfires. To accomplish our research objectives, we examined three major areas related to physical harm to highways and the consequences of that damage – physical characteristics, roadway impacts, and traffic impacts. These categories were subsequently broken into additional metrics, the first being physical characteristics, which includes length of highway affected and reduced average daily traffic (RADT) impacts during the event. Roadway impacts were broken into the number of trees requiring removal (those that present a danger either standing or fallen), pavement damage (burning asphalt concrete), slope/rock scaling (loose hazard rocks/vegetation), and structural damage (guardrail, signs, and delineators). Traffic impacts included the need for traffic control, road closures required, and reduced annual average daily traffic (RAADT) impacts for the year. The physical characteristics on the three highways researched during the 2020 Oregon Labor Day wildfires (Beachie Creek, Archie Creek, and Holiday Farm) indicated less than 61% of the highways were affected. The highway impacts, which included damage from hazard trees, damage to various structures – guardrail, signs, and delineators as well as bridges, slope/rock scaling damage and pavement destruction – averaged 34% for the three highways, while the three of eight arterial highway routes studied in the Oregon Cascades saw a 21% reduction in AADT. Results from this study can be used not only to assess physical damage to highways from wildfires, but as a baseline for measuring and assessing potential future wildfire highway impacts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: V2X; Connected Vehicles; Communication; Environmental; Safety; Transportation
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:08:32 CET)
With the rapid development of communication technology, connected vehicles (CV) have the potential, through the sharing of data, to enhance vehicle safety and reduce vehicle energy consumption and emissions. Numerous research efforts have been conducted to quantify the impacts of CV applications, assuming instant and accurate communication among vehicles, devices, pedestrians, infrastructure, the network, the cloud, and the grid, collectively known as V2X (vehicle-to-everything). The use of cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X), to share data is emerging as an efficient means to achieve this objective. C-V2X releases 14 and 15 utilize the 4G LTE technology and release 16 utilizes the new 5G new radio (NR) technology. C-V2X can function without network infrastructure coverage and has a better communication range, improved latency, and greater data rates compared to older technologies. Such highly efficient interchange of information among all participating parts in a CV environment will not only provide timely data to enhance the capacity of the transportation system but can also be used to develop applications that enhance vehicle safety and minimize negative environmental impacts. However, before the full benefits of CV can be achieved, there is a need to thoroughly investigate the effectiveness, strengths, and weaknesses of different CV applications, the communication protocols, the varied results with different CV market penetration rates (MPRs), the interaction of CVs and human driven vehicles, the integration of multiple applications, and the errors and latencies associated with data communication. This paper reviews existing literature on the environmental, mobility and safety impacts of CV applications, identifies the gaps in our current research of CVs and recommends future research directions. The results of this paper will help shape the future research direction for CV applications to realize their full potential benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0085.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: antimicrobial coating; photodynamic inactivation; public transportation; AMC
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:26:24 CET)
Millions of people use public transportation daily worldwide and frequently touch surfaces, thereby producing a reservoir of microorganisms on surfaces increasing the risk of transmission. Constant occupation makes sufficient cleaning difficult to achieve. Thus, an autonomous, perma-nent antimicrobial coating (AMC) could keep down the microbial burden on such surfaces. A photodynamic AMC was applied to frequently touched surfaces in buses. The microbial burden (colony forming units, cfu) was determined weekly and compared to equivalent surfaces in buses without AMC (references). The microbial burden ranged from 0 – 209 cfu/cm² on references and from 0 – 54 cfu/cm² on AMC. The means were 13.4 ± 29.6 cfu/cm² on references and 4.5 ± 8.4 cfu/cm² on AMC (p<0.001). The difference of microbial burden on AMC and references was al-most constant throughout the study. Considering a hygiene benchmark of 5 cfu/cm², the data yield an absolute risk reduction of 22.6 % and a relative risk reduction of 50.7 %. In conclusion, photo-dynamic AMC kept down the microbial burden, reducing the risk of transmission of microor-ganisms. AMC permanently and autonomously contributes to hygienic conditions on surfaces in public transportation. Photodynamic AMC therefore are suitable for reducing the microbial load and closing hygiene gaps in public transportation.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0027.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: landslide; rockfall; risk; stochastic; uncertainty; transportation corridors
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:17:48 CET)
Based on a previous risk calculation study along a road corridor, risk is recalculated using stochastic simulation by introducing variability for most of the parameters in the risk equation. This leads to an exceedance curve comparable to that of catastrophe models. This approach introduces uncertainty into the risk calculation in a simple way, which can be used for poorly documented cases to fulfil lack of data. This approach seems to tend to minimize risk or to question risk calculations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; greement; Intelligent Transportation Systems
Online: 22 January 2018 (13:53:58 CET)
The era of Internet of Things (IoT) has begun to evolve and with this the devices around us are getting more and more connected. Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANETs) is one of the applications of IoT. VANET allow vehicles within these networks to communicate effectively with each another. VANETs can provide an extensive range of applications that support and enhance passenger safety and comfort. It is important that VANETs are applied within a safe and reliable network topology; however, the challenging nature of reaching reliable and trustworthy agreement in such distributed systems is one of the most important issues in designing a fault-tolerant system. Therefore, protocols are required so that systems can still be correctly executed, reaching agreement on the same values in a distributed system, even if certain components in the system fail. In this study, the agreement problem is revisited in a VANET with multiple damages. The proposed protocol allows all fault-free nodes (vehicles) to reach agreement with minimal rounds of message exchanges, and tolerates the maximal number of allowable faulty components in the VANET.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0090.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: transportation data; data interlinking; automatic schema matching
Online: 20 January 2017 (03:38:06 CET)
Multimodality requires integration of heterogeneous transportation data to construct a broad view of the transportation network. Many new transportation services are emerging with being isolated from previously existing networks. This lead them to publish their data sources to the web -- according to Linked Data Principles -- in order to gain visibility. Our interest is to use these data to construct an extended transportation network that links these new services to existing ones. The main problems we tackle in this article fall in the categories of automatic schema matching and data interlinking. We propose an approach that uses web services as mediators to help in automatically detect geospatial properties and map them between two different schemas. On the other hand, we propose a new interlinking approach that enables user to define rich semantic links between datasets in a flexible and customizable way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0182.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: transportation integration; service industry agglomeration; Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration; urban agglomeration transportation integration index system; knowledge spillover effect.
Online: 13 September 2022 (16:02:29 CEST)
This study selected the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration as the research area, combining it with the current situation of the transportation development of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration to construct the urban agglomeration transportation integration index system and evaluate the development status of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration transportation integration. The study examined the influence mechanism of transportation infrastructure on service industry agglomeration. The results are as follows: (1) From 2011–2020, the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration’s transportation integration index showed a clear upward trend. (2)The development of transport integration in urban agglomerations has heterogeneous effects on local service agglomeration. The development of the integration level of local transportation has a certain inhibitory effect on the agglomeration of local service industry. The transportation integration of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration plays an important role in promoting the agglomeration of local wholesale and retail industry, transportation, storage and postal services. (3) The transportation integration of urban agglomeration can affect the agglomeration of service industry through the knowledge spillover brought by the free flow of various factors. The knowledge spillover effect caused by local transportation integration can promote the agglomeration of local service industry to a certain extent. The Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration needs to accelerate the construction of trans-provincial and trans-municipal transportation infrastructure, and further improve the connectivity level of the urban agglomeration, so as to promote the integrated development of high-quality transportation in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: concrete cracking; hydrostatic pressure; diffusion coefficient; chloride transportation
Online: 3 November 2023 (06:38:52 CET)
The service life of the reinforced concrete structure in the marine environment can be impaired significantly due to chloride-induced corrosion. However, how the chloride diffusion in pre-cracked concrete structures is affected by the hydrostatic pressure magnitude is poorly understood. This study experimentally examined the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the chloride diffusion in pre-cracked concrete. Cracks with five different widths, i.e., 20 μm, 40 μm, 60 μm, 80 μm, and 100 μm, were manually created using a splitting tensile apparatus respectively. The chloride diffusion in the concrete with a certain crack was then studied under four different hydrostatic pressures of 0 MPa, 0.1 MPa, 0.3 MPa, and 0.5 MPa. Experimental results show that the chloride diffusion in concrete with a crack greatly relies on both the hydrostatic pressure and the crack width. The chloride concentration increases as the hydrostatic pressure grows, particularly for the wider cracks with width ranging from 60 μm to 100 μm. Surprisingly, the hydrostatic pressure has a negligible effect on the chloride distribution in the concrete with a crack width no larger than 40 μm. Both the chloride diffusion coefficient and the surface chloride concentration of concrete increased gradually as the hydrostatic pressure increased. The experimental findings enrich our understanding of the behavior of pre-cracked concrete when exposed to chloride-induced corrosion at different depths of marine environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0831.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: rabbits; animal assisted interventions; AAI; stress; transportation; cortisol
Online: 12 October 2023 (20:19:54 CEST)
(1) Background: the popularity of rabbits has increased during the last decades and became the third common companion animals in EU. Their participation in animal assisted interventions (AAI) is growing. It is highly important to ensure the well-being of the animals in AAI. Whereas the needs and the advantages of people involved in AAI are becoming more and more evident, the needs of animals are not clearly determined, it is required not to affect the animals negatively. Those animals who are used for AAI purpose need toneed to be transported regulrarly; (2) Methods: the rabbits stress – caused by transportation – were measured by non-invasive faecaesl cortisol metabolite (FCM) analysis. 18 animals were involved in the study and experienced a 30 minutes transportation every second day duringfor two weeks (total 6 times) while 128 samples were collected; (3) Results: rabbits –could handle the transportation procedure by the first and second time but subsequently the stress hormone metabolites in faeces samples increased significantly regardless of the offered treatments (hay, carrot and apple) during the carriage. (4) Conclusions: those owners who use rabbits for Animal Assisted Intervention purpose need to take into account that transportation itself is a stressful experience for the animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2055.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: Grand Canal water transport; transportation mode; collaborative development
Online: 30 August 2023 (11:29:02 CEST)
With the realization of the Grand Canal's full water supply and the strong pursuit of green and low-carbon transportation in contemporary society, the value of the Grand Canal's water transport has been further affirmed, and its coordinated development with other transportation modes has become inevitable and important. This paper analyzes and combs through the characteristics, development status and existing problems of Grand Canal water transport and other transport modes in depth, and takes Jiangsu as an example. A collaboration model of Grand Canal water transport and other transport modes was built and their collaboration degree has been calculated. It is believed that the coordinated development of Grand Canal water transport and other transport modes can be greatly promoted via four aspects: optimizing the construction and governance of Grand Canal water transport, building an integrated management platform of transport modes, improving the integrated transport network structure, and promoting the deep integration of integrated shipping and tourism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1570.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Asian dust; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; long-range transportation
Online: 23 August 2023 (03:35:05 CEST)
Asian dust (AD) events and total suspended particle (TSP) was observed at Kanazawa University Wajima Air Monitoring Station (KUWAMS), a Japanese background site, during the East Asian winter monsoon periods (from November to May of the following year) from 2010 to 2021. Nine kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in each TSP sample. In this study, a total of 54 AD events were observed. According to the different pathways of long-range transportation, AD events were divided into AD-high (transported at higher altitude, around 4000 m) and AD-low (transported at lower altitude, around 2500 m). The TSP concentrations in-creased sharply in the AD and was higher in AD-high (39.8 ± 19.5 μg/m³) than that in AD-low (23.5 ± 10.5 μg/m³). While AD didn’t have significant effect on ΣPAHs characteristic variation, as ΣPAHs concentration in non-AD periods, AD-high, AD-low were 543 ± 374, 404 ± 221, 436 ± 265 pg/m³, respectively. PAHs compositions were also consistent. As a result, TSP concentration was affected by the input air mass transported at higher altitude from the desert region while PAHs concentration was under the impact of air mass at lower altitude which carried the PAHs emitted from fossil fuels and biomass combustion in northeastern China. Moreover, the health risks of PAHs were calculated by inhalation lifetime cancer risk which ranged from 10−6 to 10−5 ng/m3, in-dicating a potential carcinogenic risk at KUWAMS during the East Asian winter monsoon period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1369.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Machine Learning; Crowd Sourcing; Event Detection; Transportation Systems
Online: 20 July 2023 (03:28:19 CEST)
Accurate detection and state analysis of traffic flows are essential for effectively reconstructing traffic flows and reducing the risk of severe injury and fatality. For this reason, several studies on resolving traffic problems have proposed the use of crowdsourcing, in which drivers provide real-time traffic information using mobile devices, to monitor traffic conditions. Using data collected via crowdsourcing for traffic event detection has advantages in terms of improved accuracy and reduced time cost in collecting relevant data. In this paper, we propose a technique that employs crowdsourcing to collect traffic-related data and uses these data to detect events that influence traffic. The proposed technique uses various machine-learning methods to more accurately identify events and find accurate location information. Therefore, it is able to resolve problems typically encountered with conventionally provided location information, such as broadly defined locations or inaccurate location information. The proposed technique has advantages in terms of reducing time and cost while increasing accuracy. Its validity and effectiveness were also demonstrated through various performance evaluations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0637.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Traditional To Smart cities; Smart Transportation; Mashhad City
Online: 8 June 2023 (10:57:47 CEST)
Background: Smart transport plays a crucial role in urban planning and the transition from traditional to smart cities in developing countries with sustainability requirements.Traditional cities in developing countries often suffer from traffic congestion,air pollution, and inadequate public transportation systems,which can impede economic growth and negatively impact the quality of life for residents. Smart transport solutions can address these challenges by providing more efficient, sustainable.Here is a possible business model for an ITS system in a high-potential city in Iran,Based on IoT analysis, Mashhad city in Iran selected as a high-potential city to be changed to a smart city in the transportation sector.In the localization business model,the Uber smart transportation business model as a successful world experience is considered the base model. Methods: Based on the literature review,various criteria and sub-criteria were identified and determined in designing a new localized transportation business model.A questionnaire was prepared and filled with the help of 11 experts,method IAHP technique; Results:The present study showed the possibility of monthly payments for customers,software development, and the addition of luxury cars are among the most important sub-criteria with high weights;Conclusions: Working with transport companies,schools and universities as key partners solves reaching a strong and sustainable smart transportation system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0408.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Public transportation; Automated vehicles; economic viability; business model
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:37:23 CEST)
During the past few years many projects and initiatives were undertaken deploying and testing automated vehicles for public transportation and logistics. However in spite of their ambition, all of these deployments stayed on the level of elaborated experimentation deploying no more than 4 maximum 5 AVs in rather small sites (few Kms of roads) and never really reached the level of large scale “commercial” deployment of transport services. The reasons for this are many, but the most important being the lack of economically viability and commercially realistic models, the lack of scalability of the business and operating models, and the lack of inclusive citizen/user centric services required for the large end-user acceptation and adoption of the solutions. In this paper, based on the experience gained in the H2020 AVENUE project, we present the missing pieces of the puzzle, ad which will be addressed in the Horizon Europe project ULTIMO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0002.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: econometrics; road transportation; telematics; survey data; fuel consumption
Online: 1 April 2021 (09:46:03 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the acceptance and the utilization of GPS/GPRS-based telematics technology in road transport companies registered in Poland. Telematics technologies are essential for management of energy saving and emissions reduction in road transport. It is in line with the European Union policy of sustainable transportation. The evaluation is based on a survey designed and carried out in 2020. The issues concerning the scope of telematics systems utilization as well as the internal and external factors affecting their use are analysed. The methodology is based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The results are checked for robustness. Based on the results, it can be reasoned that as a result of the COVID19 pandemic, the companies started to use telematics systems more widely than they did before. Furthermore, the companies employing more people recognize the higher usefulness of telematics systems and are motivated to have the systems more than smaller enterprises; however, TAMs estimated separately for small and medium-sized enterprises did not reveal any significant differences in the parameter estimates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0191.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: CODAS; Pythagorean Fuzzy Sets; Public Transportation; COVID-Criteria
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:53:01 CET)
The purpose of this research article is to provide a comprehensive method that allows the evaluation of the public transportation in their different transport lines that offer in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. This study presents a description of the public transport system as part of the literature review that describes an appropriate model based on the more outstanding publications about urban mobility and public transportation for passengers’ as well as success cases published which serves as a starting point to check the actual state of the public transportation system based on the Pythagorean Fuzzy CODAS to analyze and evaluate the alternatives through criteria that defines the general performance. The integration of these methods provides an adequate methodology for decision-making concerning urban planning and mobility to detect and improve the performance of criteria not considered within sustainable urban mobility plans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: freight transportation; future scenarios; intuitive logic; logistics; digitalization
Online: 7 December 2020 (13:00:14 CET)
Road freight transportation is a key function of modern societies. At the same time, road freight transportation accounts for significant emissions. To reach the UN sustainability goals, sustainable road freight transportation is key. Digitalization, including automation, digitized information, and AI provide opportunities to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and increase service levels in road freight transportation. Digitalization may also radically change the business ecosystem in the sector. In this paper, the question “How will digitalization change the road freight transportation landscape?” is addressed by developing four different future scenarios, using Sweden as a case study. For each of the four scenarios the impacts on the road freight transportation sector are investigated, and opportunities and barriers to reach a sustainable transportation system in each of the scenarios are discussed. In all scenarios an increase in vehicle kilometers travelled is predicted, and in three of the four scenarios significant increases of recycling and urban freight flows are predicted. The scenario development process highlighted how there are important uncertainties in the development of the society that will be highly important for the development of the digitized freight transportation landscape. One example is the sustainability paradigm, which was identified as a strategic uncertainty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0062.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Air transportation; Brazilian Amazon; Demand; Elasticity; Isolated cities
Online: 5 July 2020 (10:26:01 CEST)
The literature, aimed at understanding the income-price elasticity of air passenger demand, bases its analysis on airport movement. The diversity of studies regarding the casualty between air transportation and economic growth are examples. Some studies covering this link, estimate the income-price relationship with the demand considering international traffic. Considering a domestic setting, where this traffic is significant in Brazil, studies related to remote regions are scarce, and the existing ones focus on governmental policies and subsidies. In addition, empirical studies on the theme consenter themselves in developed regions, such as Europe, North America, and Australia. For Brazil, where we find the Amazon region, there are no empirical researches. This paper analyses the price-income elasticity of the demand regarding domestic passengers in air links from remote cities of the Brazilian Amazon. This study uses panel data regression analysis method on a database of domestic scheduled flights of Brazil´s National Civil Aviation Agency. The results show that air passengers involving remote region flights present a lower sensitiveness regarding local income and airline´s price variations than those in flights among capitals. The higher difference is in income-elasticity of the remote city of origin, which is lower than that of the air traffic among capitals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0483.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: System Dynamics; Land Use; Transportation Systems; Access Management
Online: 31 May 2018 (17:15:58 CEST)
The coordination planning between land use and transportation system is an important premise of solving urban transportation problems and realizing land use integration. This study investigates the interactive and feedback relationship between land use and transportation system from the perspective of access management. By integrating the land use and traffic data from Las Vegas Metropolitan area with the system dynamics model, the causal relationship and causal loop diagrams (CLDs) are introduced to analyze the cause-and-effect relationship and quantitative relationship between the factors of the combined system of land use and transportation, and then sub-models partition and system simulation are performed. The systems dynamics model is established by analyzing the relationship between a series of access management techniques, traffic characteristics, and land use features. The results show that system dynamics model can be used as an effective alternative to model the symbiosis relationship of land use and transportation system for urban planning and construction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1977.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: alternative fuels; biofuels; electric vehicles; natural gas; road transportation
Online: 28 September 2023 (09:29:42 CEST)
Human beings naturally move from one location to another in search of basic necessities. Road transportation is a low-cost, versatile, and widely accessible mode of transportation worldwide. However, using fossil-based (FB) fuels in transportation vehicles is inefficient, generates hazardous gases, and worsens environmental degradation. The current work assesses the application of clean fuels such as biofuels, natural gas, electricity, propane, and other emerging fuels to replace FB fuels in transport vehicles. Unlike FB fuels, the use of biohydrogen, biomethane, biodiesel, and bioethanol in transport vehicles resulted in emission reduction by 70 %, 63 %, 41 %, and 54 %, respectively, while electric vehicles lower maintenance costs, ensuring better engine performance, and better engine efficiency. The adoption of natural gas and propane as alternative fuels for transport vehicles is cost-effective, and promotes environmental sustainability. There is a need for targeted financial, infrastructural, and technical investments to further promote the application of these clean fuels for road transport application. The outcome of the study provides updated information and sensitizes automobile engineers, environmentalists, transport fleet operators, governments, and other stakeholders on the benefits derivable in the adoption of clean fuels as alternatives to FB fuels as transport vehicles fuel.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1115.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Shapley value, shortest-path games, transportation networks, drones, trucks.
Online: 28 April 2023 (04:53:07 CEST)
Transportation is a crucial component of supply chain management, responsible for delivering goods and services to customers. This paper explores the application of game theory concepts, precisely the Shapley value, to cost allocation in transportation operations involving drones and trucks. Our focus is on shortest-path games in which agents own nodes in a network and seek to transport items between nodes at the lowest possible cost. We provide a comprehensive literature review of the Shapley value and its use in shortest-path games, with particular emphasis on transportation networks. Our proposed model includes sets of customers, drones, and trucks and uses binary decision variables to indicate whether a drone or truck serves a given customer. The objective is to minimize the total cost of serving all customers while adhering to capacity and synchronization constraints. We use the Shapley value to determine the contribution and cost-sharing of each drone and truck in serving the customers. Through a combination of denitions, theorems, and examples, we explore the formal meaning of the Shapley value and its relationship to shortest-path games in transportation networks. We highlight exceptional cases and considerations that must be taken into account when applying the Shapley value in such scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: air transportation; machine learning; anomaly detection; ADS-B; clustering
Online: 17 February 2021 (14:05:25 CET)
As air traffic demand grows, robust, data-driven anomaly detection methods are required to ensure that aviation systems become safer and more efficient. The terminal airspace is identified as the most critical airspace for both individual flight-level and system-level safety and efficiency. As such, developing data-driven anomaly detection methods to analyze terminal airspace operations is paramount. With the expansion of ADS-B technology, open-source flight tracking data has become more readily available to enable larger-scale analyses of aircraft operations. This paper makes a distinction between spatial metrics in ADS-B trajectory data and energy metrics derived from ADS-B trajectory data. Motivated by the limited number of approaches that simultaneously consider both spatial and energy metrics, this paper introduces the concepts of spatial anomalies and energy anomalies. In particular, it proposes a novel, unified framework for detection of spatial and energy anomalies in ADS-B trajectory data (and associated derived metrics). The framework consists of three main parts - a data processing procedure, a spatial anomaly detection method, and an energy anomaly detection method. The framework is demonstrated utilizing four months of ADS-B trajectory data associated with arrivals at San Francisco International Airport, and the relationship between the spatial and energy anomalies in this terminal airspace is explored. The results that stem from the implementation of this framework indicate that if an aircraft is spatially not conforming to an identified set of air traffic flows representing standard spatial operations, then this aircraft is more likely to experience non-conformance to standard operations in its energy metrics. Aviation operators, such as air traffic controllers, may benefit from this observation, as it may factor into decision-making in instances where there is the potential to instruct an aircraft to spatially deviate from standard operations. Additionally, this research revealed underlying differences between trajectories that are spatially nominal yet energy-anomalous and those trajectories that are spatially anomalous and energy-anomalous. Focusing solely on energy anomaly detection does not provide insight into potential spatial-related decisions that may have been made to result in off-nominal energy behavior.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0627.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: pathfinding; algorithms; multi-criteria; multi-modal; multi-network; transportation
Online: 28 August 2020 (09:09:37 CEST)
In daily travel and activities, pathfinding is a significant process. They are often used in transportation routes calculation. They have now evolved to be able to solve most situations of the pathfinding and its related problems. This review describes previous and recent studies on the pathfinding algorithms. It reviews the development of pathfinding algorithms in a classification base on their usage. The aim is to summarize the application of the pathfinding algorithms for the readers interested in the subject that can be used as a supplement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0225.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: pipeline; transportation; trailing oil; CFD; dead-leg; modified formula;
Online: 18 December 2018 (16:21:13 CET)
Trailing oil is the tail section of contamination. There are two main reasons for the formation of trailing oil, one is the effect of laminar flow boundary layer, the other is the outflow of the preceding batch remained in the dead-legs. In the batch transportation of refined oil, under the action of viscous force, the preceding batch forms laminar boundary layer near the pipe wall and stays on the pipe wall, resulting in the phenomenon of contamination trailing and formation of trailing oil. When oil passes through the valve chamber of the oil transportation station, dead-leg will be formed. Due to gravity and convection diffusion, preceding batch flowing from dead-legs will form trailing oil in the pipeline. The phenomenon of trailing oil exists in the process of batch transportation, which will have an effect on the quality of oil. In this paper, Reynolds time-averaged method is used to simulate turbulence.Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) software is used to simulate different flow rates and bypass lengths to obtain contamination-related experimental data.Matlab software is used to perform multi-nonlinear regression for the oil substitution time, the length of the bypass and the flow rate. The formula for calculating the length of the trailing oil produced by the dead-leg is obtained. The modified formula for calculating the length of the contamination is obtained by combining the existing formula for calculating the length of the contamination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0513.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: project based learning; human powered vehicles; sustainable transportation design
Online: 23 October 2018 (03:42:42 CEST)
In this work, the decennial experience of Policumbent student team at Politecnico di Torino is summarized by focusing on the acquired knowledge in design of Human Powered Vehicles (HPVs) and on soft skills developed by both students and staff. Policumbent was funded by the authors at the end of 2008 in order to gather engineering students interested in design and construction of HPVs. In the last decade, the team has grown from 10 up to 50 students enrolled per year, exploring a range of HPV design for sports and mobility. Even when focusing on sport vehicles and extreme HPVs for speed record, such kind of projects allows students to familiarize with important concepts related to sustainable mobility: the amount of resistive forces and dissipated power, the role of vehicle weight and the impact of acceleration on the overall energetic balance as far as fundamental concepts about energy consumption, efficiency and emissions of the ``human engine'' in comparison with other kind of engines. By touching with hands such topics in the framework of a ``human-centred'' design project, the students have opportunity to develop awareness about the impact of design choices on sustainability of any kind of vehicle for transportation. Also, the paper retraces the team evolution path by focusing on a thorough analysis of what factors contributed to the success of this project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0452.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: transportation; carbon emission; carbon intensity; panel data analysis; China
Online: 30 May 2018 (16:16:35 CEST)
China’s transportation industry has made rapid progress, which has led to a mass of carbon emissions. However, it is still unclear how the carbon emission from transport sector is punctuated by shifts in underlying drivers. This paper aims to examine the process of China’s carbon emissions from transport sector as well as its major driving forces during the period of 2000 to 2015 at the provincial level. We firstly estimate the carbon emissions from transport sector at the provincial level based on the fuel and electricity consumption using a top-down method. We find that the carbon emission per capita is steadily increasing across the nation, especially in the provinces of Chongqing and Inner Mongolia. However, the carbon emission intensity is decreasing in most provinces of China, except in Yunnan, Qinghai, Chongqing, Zhejiang, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Henan and Anhui. We then quantify the effect of socio-economic factors and their regional variations on the carbon emissions using panel data model. The results show that the development of secondary industry is the most significant variable in both the entire nation level and the regional level, while the effects of the other variables vary across regions. Among these factors, population density is the main motivator of the increasing carbon emissions per capita from transport sector for both the whole nation and the western region, whereas the consumption level per capita of residents and the development of tertiary industry are the primary drivers of per capita carbon emissions for the eastern and central region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: railway; derailment; safety; assessment; long rails transportation; FEM; beam element
Online: 1 December 2023 (05:17:05 CET)
The study proposes a theoretical method for evaluating the 'safety against derailment' indicator of a specialized train composition for the transportation of very long rails. A composition of nine wagons, suitable for the transportation of rails with a length of 120 m, is considered. For the remaining recommended rail lengths, the number of wagons is reduced or increased, the method being modified depending on the required configuration. In accordance with the requirements of EN 14363:2019, the composition is in a curve with a radius of R=150 m. The rails bend, some of them contact the vertical stanchions of the wagon and cause additional transverse forces, which are balanced in the rail track. This is a prerequisite for derailment of the vehicle. The goal of the study is to determine the additional transverse forces that arise because of the bent rails. The task is statically indeterminate, and considering the dimensions of the rails, its solution becomes seriously difficult. For the purposes of the study, the finite element method was used. Based on the displacements of the support points of the rails (caused by the geometry of the curve) the bending line of the elastic load is determined and the forces in the supports are calculated. A group of five rails is considered, with results multiplied proportionally for cases other than five. The resulting forces are considered when determining the derailment safety criterion defined by EN 14363:2019.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1052.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: newborn; outborn; sick neonatal score; mortality; neonatal transportation; scoring system
Online: 17 October 2023 (12:06:27 CEST)
Background: Neonatal transportation of sick newborns is a major predictor of outcome. Prompt identification of the sickest newborns allows immediate corrective intervention and outcome optimization. Multiple severity scores were developed, however an optimal score has not yet been identified. Aim: To identify a rapid, accurate, and easy to perform score predictive for neonatal mortality in outborn neonates. Material and methods: All neonates, irrespective of gestational age, admitted by transfer in our level III regional neonatal unit between 01.01.2015 and 31.12.2021 were included. Infants with congenital critical abnormalities were excluded. Sick neonatal score (SNS) was calculated and compared between survivors and non-survivors. Gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), gender, Apgar score, place of birth, time between delivery and admission (AT), early onset sepsis were collected from medical records and compared between study groups. Subgroup analysis was performed based on gestational age (preterm versus term infants). A new score was elaborated, including GA, BW, and AT, namely MSNS-AT score, to further improve mortality prediction. The main outcomes were mortality prediction using SNS and MSNS-AT score. Univariable and multivariable analysis, including Cox regression, were performed using SPSS Statistic 22.0. P-value was considered statistically significant if <0.05, 95% confidence intervals, odds ratio and hazard ratios were calculated were appropriate. Results: A total of 418 outborn infants were admitted during study period; 15 infants were excluded due to critical congenital defects. Out of 403 outborn infants, 217 born prematurely (53.8%), 224 males (55.6%), 20 died (4.96%). Compared to the survivors, the non-survivor neonates had significantly lower GA, BW, and SNS score (p<0.05), although only SNS score remained significantly lower in all subgroups (preterm vs term infants). A SNS score ≤8 was associated with mortality both in the whole study group and in subgroups (p<0.001). Time to admission was significantly associated with increased mortality rate in the whole group (p<0.05) and in preterm infants but not in term ones (p>0.05). In univariable and multivariable Cox regression models, MSNS-AT score, with a cut-off optimal value of ≤10 was more precise in predicting mortality compared to SNS (AUC 0.735 vs. 0.775) when applied to the entire group, had a lower accuracy in the term infants (AUC 0.765 vs 0.809) and a better accuracy the preterm infants group (AUC 0.885 vs. 0.810). Conclusions: The MSNS-AT score – calculated by adding GA, BW, and AT to the SNS score - significantly improved mortality prediction at admission in the whole study group as compared to SNS score. The best accuracy prediction of MSNS-AT score was observed in preterm infants suggesting that, besides GA and BW, TA may be decisive for the outcome of outborn preterm infants. Further studies are necessary to confirm the predictive value of MSNS-AT score and to identify variables that can improve its value in term infants without affecting the simplicity, ease, and rapidity of the scoring system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0475.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: compacted clay; clay swelling; physical integrity; displacement fluid; solids transportation
Online: 9 October 2023 (11:07:02 CEST)
One of the operational challenges for the use of bentonite pellets as a sealing material in the abandonment of offshore fields consists in their disposition inside the well. This study aims to analyze the interaction of fluid media, consisting of saline solutions (NaCl, CaCl2 and KCl) and organic compounds (diesel, glycerin and olefin), with bentonite pellets, aiming its application as displacement fluid in offshore oil well abandonment operations. The physical integrity of the bentonite pellets in contact with the fluids was verified through visual inspections and dispersibility tests. Linear swelling tests were also performed to evaluate the potential for swelling of pellets in deionized water after contact with the fluid media. The results indicated that NaCl, CaCl2 and KCl solutions completely compromise the physical integrity of the pellets, while diesel and olefin showed the best responses regarding the structural preservation. Futhermore, the linear swelling tests showed that, even after the contact with diesel and olefin for 1 hour, bentonite pellets have reached a total swelling in water of 78%, after 24 hours. In this way, diesel and olefin proved to be highly promising alternatives to be used as displacement fluids for bentonite pellets in wells to be abandoned in a submarine environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0548.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: Urban congestion, Traffic flow theory , Transportation, Phase transitions, Criticality, Percolation
Online: 20 April 2023 (05:07:26 CEST)
It was recently shown that urban networks might exhibit two different critical points, one for the percolation of congested links through the network, and another one for the flow of vehicles through the network. It was observed that the percolation critical point happens after the flow critical point, where network throughput is maximized. This result is important because if a causal relationship exists between these two processes, it can be leveraged for improving control methods to avoid network collapse. This paper presents the results of numerical experiments to understand the possible causal relationship between the percolation and flow processes by focusing on the relative timing between the two critical points. The goal is to understand the impacts of important factors such as: (i) urban network type: long- and short-block networks, (ii) signal timing control type: fixed, random, responsive, and (iii) route choice: turning proportions at intersections. We find that the threshold density $k^*_c$ to determine if a link is congested has the main impact on the timing of the percolation transition, where lower values trigger earlier transitions. This implies that $k^*_c$ can be set such that the percolation transition happens before the flow critical point, opening the door for improved congestion management strategies. If $k^*_c$ is set to the average network critical density, maximum network throughput happen simultaneously with the percolation transition. Surprisingly, it appears that these results, and more generally, the relationship between the percolation and flow processes is independent of (i) and (ii) above.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0383.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: machine learning; forecast; regression models; Liquified Natural Gas; maritime transportation
Online: 26 July 2022 (03:50:12 CEST)
Recent maritime legislations demand the transformation of the sector to greener and more energy efficient transportation. Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) seems a promising alternative fuel solution that could replace the conventional fuel sources. Various studies have been focused on the prediction of LNG price, however, no previous work has been made on the forecast of spot charter rate of LNG carrier ships. An important knowledge for the maritime industries and companies when it comes to decision-making. Therefore, this study is focused on the development of a machine learning pipeline to address the aforementioned problem by: (i) forming a dataset with variables relevant to LNG; (ii) identifying the variables that impact on the freight price of LNG carrier; (iii) developing and evaluating regression models for short and mid-term forecast. The results showed that the General Regression Neural Network presented a stable overall performance for 2, 4 and 6 months forecast.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0351.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Air transportation; air traffic control; airspace capacity; cell transmission model
Online: 25 October 2021 (12:54:49 CEST)
Air traffic congestion is caused by the unbalance between increasing traffic demand and saturating capacity. Flight delay not only causes huge economical lost, but also has very negative environmental impact in the whole air transportation system. In order to identify the impact of extended TMA on airport capacity, an airspace capacity assessment method based on augmented cell transmission model was proposed. Firstly, the airspace structure was modeled with points, segments, layers, and cells. Secondly, mixed integer linear programming model was built up with maximum throughput or capacity as the objective function. Finally, genetic algorithm was used to find the optimal result, and the results were validated by comparing with the fast-time simulation results generated by total airspace and airport modeler (TAAM) software. It is found that the proposed method could achieve a relatively accurate result in a much affordable and fast way. The numerical results could be very helpful for air traffic controllers to analyze the dynamic traffic flow entering and exiting TMA, so as to make decisions via reasonable analysis and do planning in advance by referring to the airport capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0254.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: compaction; environmental impacts; life cycle assessment; municipal solid waste; transportation
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:34:29 CEST)
Municipal solid waste management is a major concern for developing countries all over the world. The collection and transportation accounts for major portion of expenditure in developing country like India. The compaction of waste is being practiced in some major cities of India as they provide economical benefit but the environmental benefits of compaction are not very clear. The preset study evaluates the environmental impacts due to transportation of non-compacted and compacted waste from the transfer station to the landfill site using life cycle assessment approach. The study compared transportation of non-compacted waste with the waste compacted by the truck mounted refuse compactor and portable stationary compactor. The functional unit defined was the amount of waste generated per day in the study area taken as Patna city and GaBi 10.5 used for impact assessment. The study found that the transportation of waste compacted by truck mounted refuse compactor had the least environmental impacts on all impact categories. The study recommends the compaction of waste by the truck mounted refuse compactor and then proceed for transportation. Also, the compaction of waste is recommended as it improve the overall environment performance of municipal solid waste management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0194.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: container terminal; simulation; simulation-based optimisation; meta-heuristic; horizontal transportation
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:59:50 CET)
At container terminals, many cargo handling processes are interconnected and take place in parallel. Within short time windows, many operational decisions need to be taken considering both time and equipment efficiency. During operation, many sources for disturbance exist. These are the reason why perfectly coordinated processes are possibly unraveled. An approach that considers disturbance factors while optimizing a given objective is simulation-based optimization. This study analyses simulation-based optimization as a procedure to simultaneously scale the number of utilized equipment and to adjust the choice and tuning of operational policies. The four meta-heuristics Tree-structured Parzen Estimator, Bayesian Optimization, Simulated Annealing, and Random Search guide the simulation-based optimization process. The results show that simulation-based optimization is suitable to identify the amount of required equipment and well-performing policies. Thereby, there is no clear ranking which of the meta-heuristics finds the best approximation of the optimum. The approximated optima suggest that pooling terminal trucks as well as a yard block assignment close to the quay crane is preferable. With an increasing number of quay cranes, the number of optimal terminal trucks for each quay crane decreases as well as the range of truck utilization within one experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: railway transportation; time-space network; dynamic bottleneck; car flow organization
Online: 15 April 2019 (11:44:10 CEST)
In this paper, the physical station of space network was extended in time dimension by combining the train diagram information and station technical operation standard time. At the same time, the topology of railway space-time network which considered the secondary operation process of train was constructed and an improved A* algorithm based on car flow routing was proposed to generate feasible path sets. On this basis, a dynamic car flow organization optimization model was built to simulate the railway car flow organization process under abnormal conditions, and the results of solving the model could be used to obtain the real-time quantity of cars at each station.This paper can identify the dynamic bottleneck by comparing the real-time quantity of cars with the maximum quantity of cars at the station. Finally, the feasibility of this method was analyzed and verified by a case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0179.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy discharge; bubbles burst; bubbles transportation; crystal growth rates; undercooling
Online: 3 January 2019 (09:51:52 CET)
Bio-based glass-forming materials are now considered for thermal energy storage in building applications. Among them, Xylitol appears as a biosourced seasonal thermal energy storage material with high potential. It has a high energy density, a high and stable undercooling allowing storing solar energy at ambient temperature thus, reducing thermal losses and the risk of spontaneous nucleation (i.e., the risk of losing the stored energy). Generally when the energy is needed, the discharge triggering of the storage system is very difficult as well as reaching a sufficient power delivery. Both are indeed the mains locks for the use of pure Xylitol in seasonal energy storage. Different techniques have been hence considered to crystallize highly undercooled Xylitol. Nucleation triggering of highly undercooled pure Xylitol by using an air lift reactor has been proven here. This method should allow reaching performances matching with building applications (i.e., at medium temperatures, below 100 °C). The advantages of this technique compared to other existing techniques to activate the crystallization are discussed. The mechanisms triggering the nucleation are investigated. The air bubble generation, transportation of nucleation sites and subsequent crystallization are discussed to improve the air injection operating conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0304.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Blockchain Technology; Transportation Systems; Internet of Vehicles; IoV Communication; Vehicle Security
Online: 5 May 2023 (05:09:42 CEST)
The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is an emerging field that has attracted significant attention due to its potential to transform transportation and mobility. IoV enables the development of new services and applications that can improve transportation systems' efficiency, safety, and sustainability. However, ensuring secure and trustworthy communication among the different components of an IoV system is a critical challenge that needs to be addressed. This paper proposes a blockchain-enabled communication framework for secure and trustworthy IoV applications. The proposed framework leverages the security and decentralization features of blockchain technology to provide secure communication channels for different components of the IoV system, including vehicles, infrastructure, and service providers. The proposed framework provides an identity management system to authenticate and authorize users and devices, thereby preventing unauthorized access and data breaches. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed framework, we conducted experiments using a real-world IoV scenario, and the results demonstrate that the proposed framework can provide secure and trustworthy communication for IoV applications. The proposed blockchain-enabled communication framework offers a promising approach to address the security and trust challenges in IoV communication systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0925.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems; transportation electrification; SMR; modeling and simulation
Online: 25 April 2023 (10:45:06 CEST)
The transportation sector is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. Electric vehicles (EVs) have gained popularity as a solution to reduce emissions, but the high load of charging stations poses a challenge to the power grid. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems (N-RHES) present a promising alternative to support fast charging stations, reduce grid dependency, and decrease emissions. However, the intermittent problem of renewable energy sources (RESs) limits their application, and the synergies among different technologies have not been fully exploited. This paper proposes a predictive and adaptive control strategy to optimize the energy management of N-RHES for fast charging stations, considering the integration of nuclear, photovoltaics, and wind turbine energy with a hydrogen storage fuel cell system. The proposed dynamic model of a fast-charging station predicts electricity consumption behavior during charging processes, generating probabilistic forecasting of electricity consumption time-series profiling. Key performance indicators and sensitivity analyses illustrate the practicability of the suggested system, which offers a comprehensive solution to provide reliable, sustainable, and low-emission energy to fast-charging stations while reducing emissions and dependency on the power grid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0322.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: virtual reality in education; virtual reality assisted simulation; intelligent transportation systems
Online: 19 December 2022 (04:12:24 CET)
Simulation-based education is a part of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) education. The paper discusses the experimental success of using Virtual Reality (VR) technology in simulation-based ITS education to improve the quality of education while increasing immersion and motivation. The study documents the application of VR technology to a microscopic simulation model and the methodology to capture and evaluate student experiences. The study discusses findings and ways to improve the planned VR technology implementation in the ITS laboratory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0307.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Road safety; Safety management; Road transportation; GMDH; GOA-SVM; Machine learning
Online: 20 December 2021 (10:37:05 CET)
Evaluation of road safety is a critical issue having to be conducted for successful safety management in road transport systems, whereas safety management is considered in road transportation systems as a challenging task according to the dynamic of this issue and the presence of a large number of effective parameters on road safety. Therefore, evaluation and analysis of important contributing factors affecting the number of crashes play a key role in increasing the efficiency of road safety. For this purpose, in this research work, two machine learning algorithms including the group method of data handling (GMDH)-type neural network and a combination of support vector machine (SVM) and the grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA) are employed for evaluating the number of vehicles involved in the accident based on the seven factors affecting transport safety including the Daylight (DL), Weekday (W), Type of accident (TA), Location (L), Speed limit (SL), Average speed (AS) and Annual average daily traffic (AADT) of rural roads of Cosenza in southern Italy. In this study, 564 data sets of rural areas were investigated and relevant effective parameters were measured. In the next stage, several models were developed to investigate the parameters affecting the safety management of road transportation for rural areas. The results obtained demonstrated that "Average speed" has the highest level and "Weekday" has the lowest level of importance in the investigated rural area. Finally, although the results of both algorithms were the same, the GOA-SVM model showed a better degree of accuracy and robustness than the GMDH model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Highway Beautification; Transplant Shock; Transportation; Tree Health; Tree Establishment; Urban Forestry
Online: 6 November 2018 (14:22:48 CET)
Urban tree planting initiatives can experience high levels of mortality during establishment years. Mortality tied to the stresses of transplanting can be partially negated or exacerbated depending on the species selected, nursery materials used, site conditions present, and management practices employed. Past research has quantified post-planting survival, health, and growth. However, varying climates, species, land use types, and management practices warrant additional region-specific research. The purpose of this study is to assess the success of plantings along Florida highways and identify species, site, and management factors related to tree and palm health and establishment. Results show high annual establishment survival (98.5%) across 21 planting projects ranging from 9 to 58 months after installation, (n = 2711). For transplanted palms, the presence of on-site irrigation significantly improved establishment from 96.2% to 99.4%. No establishment differences were detected with regard to irrigation treatment for small-stature trees, shade trees, and conifers. Additionally, there were significant differences in tree health response among tree groups given species, management, and site factors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0218.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: driverless buses, autonomous vehicles, intelligent transportation, legal issues of autonomous driving
Online: 1 August 2018 (13:45:25 CEST)
Urban transportation in the next few decades will shift worldwide towards electrification and automation, with the final aim of increasing energy efficiency and safety for passengers. Such a big change requires strong collaboration and efforts among public administration, research and stakeholders in developing, testing and promoting these technologies in the public transportation. Working in this direction, in the present work the impact of the introduction of driverless electric minibuses, for the first and last mile transportation, in the public service is studied. More specifically, this paper covers a state of the art in terms of technological background for automation, energy efficiency via electrification, and the current state of the legal framework in Europe with focus on the Baltic Sea Region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0056.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: li-ion batteries; higher energy density; metal-air batteries; renewable energy; transportation
Online: 1 December 2023 (07:02:32 CET)
Transportation is the primary consumer of oil, accounting for a significant portion of global energy consumption (34%) and CO2 emissions (40%). Electrifying road transportation is crucial to mitigate the effects of global warming. The abundant potential of renewable energy sources like solar and wind is hindered by their intermittent nature and incongruity with peak energy demands. This calls for the development of sophisticated energy storage solutions. Metal-air batteries (MABs), emerging as viable alternatives to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), have attracted considerable attention due to their promising applications in the transportation sector. Despite substantial progress in MAB development over the past two decades, overcoming critical challenges such as electrolyte decomposition, carbon cathode degradation, anodic dendrite growth, and air impurities remains essential for their commercial viability. This mini-review provides a comprehensive overview of MAB fundamentals and the challenges associated with their development. The insights presented in this review serve to illuminate the current landscape and future prospects of MABs in the transportation sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0778.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: environmental justice; urban heat island; extreme heat; heat vulnerability; public transportation infrastructure
Online: 12 June 2023 (07:05:42 CEST)
Extreme heat is a climate, public health, and environmental justice issue. This case study examined public transit exposure and vulnerability to extreme heat by investigating the microenvironment, land cover characteristics, and social vulnerability of heat-vulnerable bus stops in Knoxville, Tennessee. The community’s temperature and Heat Index information, bus stop point data, land cover characteristics data, and the microenvironment of bus stops (i.e., trees and shelters) were processed and mapped with ArcGIS Pro. The pictures of the microenvironment of the bus stop were collected from Google Maps, and the social vulnerability of the area where the bus stops are located was investigated by analyzing the Center for Disease and Prevention's Social Vulnerability Index. Results found that the most heat-vulnerable bus stops were concentrated in West Knoxville, South, North, Northeast, and Northwest Knoxville. In addition, the most heat-vulnerable bus stops were concentrated in commercial complexes and areas a large number of systematically marginalized populations reside.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1920.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC power systems; guideway electric transportation systems; stray current; test methods; uncertainty
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:42:05 CEST)
Stray current is a relevant phenomenon in particular for DC electrified transportation systems, affecting the track and infrastructure within the right of way and other structures and installations nearby. It worsens with time and the level of protection depend on timely maintenance, besides correct design choices. The assessment of track insulation is the starting point for both stray current monitoring systems and at commissioning or upon major changes. Standardized methods (ref. EN 50122-2, or IEC 62128-2) are almost unchanged in the last 20 years, but suffer from accuracy issues and variability due to parameters and conditions not under operator’s control. A critical discussion and analysis of the sources of variability and practical constraints is proposed, followed by the evaluation of uncertainty, with the objective not only to assess the accuracy of provided results, but to foster research on innovative, more flexible and accurate, methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0326.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: air pollution; transportation policy; vehicle fleet projections; electric vehicles; exponential smoothing; Greece
Online: 21 December 2021 (12:26:52 CET)
This study provides a thorough review and analysis of the evolution of the Greek vehicle fleet over the last ~30 years, which is next used for the generation of high granularity fleet projections and for the estimation of relevant environmental benefits by 2030. The integrated methodology developed takes also into account vehicle clustering and the Brown’s Double Simple Exponential Smoothing technique that together with the adoption of COPERT based emission factors allow for the estimation of the anticipated emissions in 2030. Expected 2030 emissions levels suggest a reduction across all pollutants in comparison to 2018, ranging from 3.7% for PM10 to 54.5% for NMVOC (and 46% for CO, 14% for SO2, 28% for NOX and 21% for CO2). We find that Greece is on track with national goals concerning the reduction of air pollution from the transportation sector, stressing the positive contribution of EVs and new, "greener" vehicles, and setting new challenges for the further improvement of the sector beyond the 2030 outlook.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0317.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Plasma keyhole arc welding; X-ray observation; Heat transportation; Eddy; Convective pattern
Online: 20 March 2020 (13:03:13 CET)
This investigation aims to discuss the formation process of eddies and the heat transportation in plasma keyhole arc welding. In order to clarify this issue, the measurement of the convection inside the weld pool, the convection on the weld pool surface, also the temperature distribution on the weld pool surface were carried out. The results showed that two eddies were found in the weld pool, which is controlled mainly through the shear force by the plasma flow acting on the weld pool surface. The magnitude, extent and direction of the shear force are thought to be determined primarily by the variation of keyhole profile. The relative shape and strength of each eddy is largely changed depending on the change of the keyhole profile when nozzle diameter changed. These relative strengths of each eddy are considered to decisively govern the heat transport in the weld pool coinciding with the direction of eddies. A larger eddy near the lower part of the keyhole inside the weld pool was found out in the case of 1.6 mm, meanwhile a upward larger eddy was found out near the upper part of the keyhole inside the weld pool in the case of 2.4 mm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: electric vehicles; fuel cell vehicles; sustainable mobility; mobility habits; sustainable urban transportation
Online: 11 April 2018 (05:29:14 CEST)
As the emission regulations get more and more stringent in the different fields of energy and environmental systems, the electric and fuel cell vehicles (FCV) have attracted growing attention by automakers, governments, and customers. Research and development efforts have been focused on devising novel concepts, low-cost systems, and reliable electric/fuel cell powertrain. In fact, electric and fuel cell vehicles coupled with low-carbon electricity sources offer the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and exposure to tailpipe emissions from personal transportation. In particular, Pedal Assisted Bicycles (PAB) popularity is rising in urban areas due to their low energy consumption and environmental impact. In fact, when electrically moved, they are zero emission vehicles with very low noise emissions, as well. These positive characteristics could be even improved by coupling a PAB with a fuel cell based power generation system, thus increasing the vehicle autonomy without influencing their emissions and consumption performances. In this paper, four types of vehicles are compared from an environmental and accessibility point of view: conventional car, bus, electric PAB and hydrogen fuel cell PAB; for such vehicles, the respective utilization stages are accounted for, i.e. without considering the manufacturing process. The analysis has been carried out comparing different vehicles performance along different routes of an Italian middle-size city, Viterbo, which represents a very good pilot case as its Municipality is adopting many solutions suggested by European Union (EU) through the planning tool called Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP). The comparison is based on an ad-hoc developed mathematical procedure, which includes environmental (greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions), health (pollutants toxicity levels) and accessibility time (waiting times) indicators. According to this analysis, electric and fuel cell PAB exhibit interesting advantages over the other vehicles. However, the global economic efficiency of electric or fuel cell apparatus depends substantially on the exploited source of electrical energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0683.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Traffic Monitoring; Intelligent Transportation System; VANETs, Cluster-Based Routing Scheme; P2P Wireless Communications
Online: 10 May 2023 (04:17:21 CEST)
City zones have become increasingly overcrowded as a result of the extensive population widening ratio and the swift relocation of people from villages. The traffic monitoring process is a major issue in these areas due to the massive traffic flow on the roads. This research proposed a cluster-based improved authentication and communication scheme for an Intelligent Transportation System in Vehicular AdHoc Networks (VANETs). Our primary objective is to optimize resource sharing in vehicular communication. We enhanced the reliability, scalability, and stability of fast-moving VANETs by introducing cluster-based routing schemes for Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communications. We used a third-party certification authority for vehicle authentication to address security and privacy concerns. Our proposed schemes support minimizing the end-to-end (E2E) delay and route request, in addition to reducing link failure. Our schemes’ leading yield includes throughput enhancement, TCP Socket Initialization time minimization, TCP handshake response speedup, and DNS lookup improvement. The schemes are centred on short-range peer-to-peer (P2P) wireless communication in a 400-meter radius cluster. This includes innovative P2P wireless communications on VANET using minimized resources. The proposed schemes deliver a secure authentication mechanism with a securely generated vehicle authentication key provided by a certification authority. Furthermore, we have developed RESTful APIs in vehicular communication for implementation purposes, and also offered and implemented algorithms for resource sharing regarding V2V and V2I communication. Ultimately, we evaluated the performance of our experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0514.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: urban congestion; traffic flow theory; transportation; phase transitions; surface growth; Nonequilibrium physics; criticality
Online: 28 February 2023 (09:10:18 CET)
An exact solution for the Nagel-Schreckenberg model for vmax = 1 is known since the 90s, yet for vmax > 1 it remains an open question. It is conjectured here that this general solution can be generated from the basic solution (for vmax = 1) by a linear coordinate transformation, the shear mapping, which requires no additional parameters in the deterministic case, and two additional parameters otherwise. The proposed solutions show remarkable agreement with existing numerical solutions, except in the congested regime where the Monte Carlo data shows more concavity than the more linear congested branches predicted by the theory. More research is needed to investigate this bias.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0435.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electric Vehicles; Greenhouse Gas; Climate Change; Transportation; Energy; Renewables; Lifecycle Assessment; Electricity Grid
Online: 17 December 2020 (15:52:28 CET)
An indisputable fact about our planet is that its atmospheric temperature has risen dramatically during the past century. Combustion of fossil fuels and their subsequent greenhouse gas emissions are thought to be the main contributors to recent changes within the Earth’s ecosystem. The transportation sector and electricity generating power plants are each responsible for approximately one-third of these emissions. Shifting towards a cleaner and renewable resources to generate electricity is believed to omit a big portion of polluting substances. Improvements in vehicles’ fuel efficiency and the introduction of alternative fuels besides strategic plans to control travel demand are among the most promising approaches to alleviate emissions from the transportation sector. Recent technology advancements, however, drew much attention to the production and manufacturing of alternative fuel vehicles, electric vehicles in particular. Since these vehicles use electricity as part of or all their powertrain, assessing the amount of emissions they produce is closely tied to the cleanliness of the electricity source. In order for a valid comparison to be made between internal combustion and electric vehicles, hence, a life cycle assessment procedure needs to be followed from production stages to terminal life of vehicles. Involvement of numerous affecting factors during the lifetime of a vehicle on one hand, and the ambiguity in the exact source of electricity used to charge electric vehicles on the other hand bring about more complexities. The latter case is more commonly known as the marginal grid problem, which deals with how a combination of sources used to generate electricity can influence the life cycle emissions. There are also other concerns regarding the growth in fuel-efficient and electric vehicles. Transportation planners argue that new developments in the vehicle industry may attract more people to owning and driving cars. This phenomenon which is better known as a rebound effect not only will result in increased traffic congestion, but it can also outpace the environmental benefits from utilizing electric vehicles. Moreover, since fuel taxes comprise the majority of Highway Trust Funds, alternative ways to compensate for state and federal revenues should be devised. This paper is an attempt to review the existing literature to better elaborate on the role of the transportation sector in controlling climate change threats. More specifically, issues around the use of electric vehicles and how they can contribute to more environmentally friendly communities are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0725.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: traffic monitoring; intelligent transportation systems; traffic queues; vehicle counts; artificial intelligence; deep learning
Online: 30 September 2020 (08:08:38 CEST)
Manual traffic surveillance can be a daunting task as Traffic Management Centers operate a myriad of cameras installed over a network. Injecting some level of automation could help lighten the workload of human operators performing manual surveillance and facilitate making proactive decisions which would reduce the impact of incidents and recurring congestion on roadways. This article presents a novel approach to automatically monitor real time traffic footage using deep convolutional neural networks and a stand-alone graphical user interface. The authors describe the results of research received in the process of developing models that serve as an integrated framework for an artificial intelligence enabled traffic monitoring system. The proposed system deploys several state-of-the-art deep learning algorithms to automate different traffic monitoring needs. Taking advantage of a large database of annotated video surveillance data, deep learning-based models are trained to detect queues, track stationary vehicles, and tabulate vehicle counts. A pixel-level segmentation approach is applied to detect traffic queues and predict severity. Real-time object detection algorithms coupled with different tracking systems are deployed to automatically detect stranded vehicles as well as perform vehicular counts. At each stages of development, interesting experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system. Overall, the results demonstrate that the proposed framework performs satisfactorily under varied conditions without being immensely impacted by environmental hazards such as blurry camera views, low illumination, rain, or snow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0566.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: transportation mode classification; vulnerable road users; recurrence plots; computer vision; image classification system
Online: 24 September 2020 (04:41:32 CEST)
As the Autonomous Vehicle (AV) industry is rapidly advancing, classification of non-motorized (vulnerable) road users (VRUs) becomes essential to ensure their safety and to smooth operation of road applications. The typical practice of non-motorized road users’ classification usually takes numerous training time and ignores the temporal evolution and behavior of the signal. In this research effort, we attempt to detect VRUs with high accuracy be proposing a novel framework that includes using Deep Transfer Learning, which saves training time and cost, to classify images constructed from Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) that reflect the temporal dynamics and behavior of the signal. Recurrence Plots (RPs) were constructed from low-power smartphone sensors without using GPS data. The resulted RPs were used as inputs for different pre-trained Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifiers including constructing 227×227 images to be used for AlexNet and SqueezeNet; and constructing 224×224 images to be used for VGG16 and VGG19. Results show that the classification accuracy of Convolutional Neural Network Transfer Learning (CNN-TL) reaches 98.70%, 98.62%, 98.71%, and 98.71% for AlexNet, SqueezeNet, VGG16, and VGG19, respectively. The results of the proposed framework outperform other results in the literature (to the best of our knowledge) and show that using CNN-TL is promising for VRUs classification. Because of its relative straightforwardness, ability to be generalized and transferred, and potential high accuracy, we anticipate that this framework might be able to solve various problems related to signal classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0389.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: human mobility; residential mobility; smart card; public transportation; opportunity cost of travel time
Online: 26 September 2018 (05:46:51 CEST)
This study attempts to investigate a method for creating an index from mobility data that not only correlates with the number of people who relocate to a place but also has causal influence on the number of such individuals. By creating an index based on human mobility data, it becomes possible to predict the influence of urban development on future residential movements. In this paper, we propose a method called the travel cost method for multiple places (TCM4MP) by extending the conventional travel cost method (TCM). We assume that the opportunity cost of travel time on non-working days reflects the convenience and amenities of a neighborhood. However, conventional TCM does not assume that the opportunity cost of travel time varies according to the departure place. In this paper, TCM4MP is proposed to estimate the opportunity cost of travel time with respect to the departure place. We consider such estimation to be possible due to the use of massive mobility data. We assume that the opportunity cost of travel time on non-working days reflects the convenience and amenities of the neighborhood. Therefore, we consider that the opportunity cost of travel time has a causal influence on future residential mobility. In this paper, the validity of the proposed method is tested using the smart card data of public transportation in Western Japan. Our proposed method is beneficial for urban planners in estimating the effects of urban development and detecting the shrinkage and growth of a population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0421.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: CCS; CO2 pipeline design; pressure drop; pipeline diameter models; CO2 transportation; diameter equation
Online: 26 June 2018 (13:00:01 CEST)
There is need to accurately design pipelines to transport the expected increase of CO2 captured from industrial processes after the signing of the Paris Climate Agreement in 2016. This paper reviews several aspects of CO2 pipeline design with emphasis on pressure drop and models for the calculation of pipeline diameter. Two categories of pipeline equations were identified. The first category is independent of pipeline length and has two different equations. This category is used to specify adequate pipeline diameter for the volume of fluid transported. The optimum economic pipe diameter equation (Eq. 17) with nearly uniform resultant velocity values at different flow rates performed better than the standard velocity flow equation (Eq. 20). The second category has four different equations and is used to calculate pipeline pressure drop or pipeline distance for the installation of booster stations after specifying minimum and maximum pipeline pressures. The hydraulic equation is preferred because it gave better resultant velocity values and the closest diameter value obtained using Aspen HYSYS (V.10) simulation. The effect of impurities on the pressure behaviour and optimal pipeline diameter and pressure loss due to acceleration were ignored in the development of the models. Further work is ongoing to incorporate these effects into the models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: hybrid - electric vehicle; emerging technology; sustainable mobility and transportation; consumer perception; consumer purchase intention
Online: 30 August 2023 (10:30:01 CEST)
Existence of hybrid electric vehicles nowadays is one of the emerging technologies worldwide. Different countries are using this technology on their transportation, and nowadays, a lot of other countries are gradually adapting on using this kind of innovation in their transport system. Philippines is among these countries which aims to have a sustainable mobility by embracing the use of hybrid - electric vehicles but still lots of consumers are lacking awareness on this technology. Lack of information on the social, environmental, and economic potential benefits are among the main issues of Philippines consumers that really affect its uptake. The goal of this study was to evaluate the consumer’s perception and purchase intention on the transition of hybrid - electric vehicles for sustainable mobility and transportation here in the Philippines. It aimed to assess consumer awareness with hybrid - electric vehicles and its potential benefits to human beings in terms of social, environmental, and economic aspects. The study also gauged the impact of this perception on consumer’s purchase intention on hybrid - electric vehicles. These objectives were attained using the Descriptive Statistics and Correlation Analysis. Using these methods, the results revealed that majority of the consumers believed on the positive benefits of transitioning to hybrid - electric vehicles in terms of social, environmental, and economic aspects. This study also showed that these benefits have high impact on the consumer’s intention of buying or having a hybrid – electric vehicle. Electric vehicle is one of the most effective measure of decarbonizing the transport system. Furthermore, government and automotive businesses must strengthen their drive in spreading awareness of hybrid – electric vehicle’s benefits to consumers to further support country’s effort for development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1634.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: transportation disasters; western Asia; accident frequency; road safety; data analysis; public awareness; infrastructure development
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:47:14 CEST)
Investigating transportation disasters in Western Asia over two decades (2003-2023), this study provides a meticulous examination of a comprehensive dataset, shedding light on the dynamics and nuances of these catastrophic events in terms of frequency, modality (air, rail, road, and water), and subsequent outcomes. The data reveals a concerning uptrend in mishaps from 2003 to 2010, which fortunately reverses into a notable decline in the subsequent years. Noteworthy is the predominance of road-related incidents, yet an alarming 73.8% of events are ambiguously categorized under "Unknown", hinting at potential gaps or inconsistencies in record-keeping. With Turkey being a significant epicenter, accounting for nearly 45% of all incidents, the regional distribution of these disasters becomes evident. Advanced ANOVA analyses discern marked variations in fatality rates over the years and between nations. However, the contrast in injury rates among different disaster categories did not achieve statistical significance. While the post-2010 era showcases a commendable reduction in calamities, the data punctuates the persistent necessity for robust safety measures, targeted public awareness campaigns, and infrastructural advancements. In synthesis, this study vehemently advocates for heightened regional collaboration and systematic knowledge dissemination as cornerstones for bolstering transportation safety across Western Asia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1929.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: onboard microgrid; intelligent transportation; energy management; artificial intelligence; digital twin; machine learning; reinforcement learning
Online: 28 July 2023 (07:35:21 CEST)
In the past decades, the world is actively working towards the global goal of net-zero emission. To decrease emissions, there is a notable trend of electrification in transportation, which is a transition from traditional fuel-based systems to electrical power systems onboard different transportation platforms. For this transition, it is important to study the electrical structure, specifically the onboard microgrid, powered by various energy sources. In this paper, traditional energy management strategies for onboard microgrid systems are discussed, which usually require complicated optimization algorithms and high computation capabilities. Driven by the recent advancements in information technologies, artificial intelligence and digital twin have gained much interest within the transportation sector. These technologies can effectively utilize data to achieve intelligent decision-making, optimize resource utilization, and save energy consumption. This paper presents an overview of the usage of these emerging information technologies in energy management strategies, providing an overall summary and classification of the practical applications. In addition, after examining the potential challenges associated with artificial intelligence and digital twin, this paper also discusses future trends in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: ARIMA; convolutional neural network; Kalman filter; passenger flow; transportation; short-term prediction; stochastic model
Online: 10 October 2022 (03:05:34 CEST)
The passenger prediction flow is very significant to transportation sustainability. This is due to some chaos of traffic jams encountered by the road users during their movement to the offices, schools, or markets at earlier of the days and during closing periods. This problem is peculiar to the transportation system of the Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria. However, the prevailing technique of passenger flow estimation is non-parametric which depends on the fixed planning and is easily affected by noise. In this research, we proposed the development of a hybrid intelligent passenger frequency prediction model using the Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) linear model, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), and Kalman Filter Algorithm (KFA). The passengers’ frequency of arrival at the bus terminals is obtained and enumerated through the closed-circuit television (CCTV) and demonstrated using the Markovian Queueing Systems Model (MQSM). The ARIMA model was used for learning and prediction and compared the result with the combined techniques of using CNN-KFA. The autocorrelation coefficient functions (ACF) and partial autocorrelation coefficient functions (PACF) are used to examine the stationary data with different features. The performance of the models was analyzed and evaluated in describing the short-term passenger flow frequency at each terminal using the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and Mean Squared Error (MSE) values. The CNN-Kalman-filter model was fitted into the short-term series and the MAPE values are below 10%. The Mean Square Error (MSE) shows that the CNN-Kalman Filter model has the overall best performance with 83.33% of the time better than the ARIMA model and provides high accuracy in forecasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: community-based transportation; para-transit; school going children; social security; participa-tory rural appraisal
Online: 28 February 2022 (02:57:13 CET)
Social safety, security, and comfort of school-going children during the travel time to school becomes a subject of anxiety to the parents and is a crucial issue in recent times. In this regard, community-based transport can be a significant way to address social security issues in travel at a reasonable cost and reduce the burden on private mode. In Dhaka city, school van service already exists but due to some sort of problems the service has not been proved an efficient and formal mode of transport for solving mobility problems. This study seeks to identify the existing problems and prospects of the school van service and provide a unique, healthy, safe, and reliable transport mode for children. Applying different tools of the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method, the problems and solutions have been drawn from the community. The recommendations of this study will help the school van services (a community-managed para-transit system) to be more functional in playing a vital role in solving the problems of short-distance travel. This service has great potentialities to be adopted in other trips such as trips to and from offices which will lessen the road congestion at the peak periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0112.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Road-network matching; matching precision; matching recall; network Voronoi area diagram; intelligent transportation systems.
Online: 7 December 2021 (23:44:09 CET)
A road network represents road objects in a given geographic area and their interconnections, and is an essential component of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) enabling emerging new applications such as dynamic route guidance, driving assistance systems, and autonomous driving. As the digitization of geospatial information becomes prevalent, a number of road networks with a wide variety of characteristics coexist. In this paper, we present an area partitioning approach to the conflation of two road networks with a large difference in level of details. Our approach first partitions the geographic area by the Network Voronoi Area Diagram (NVAD) of low-detailed road network. Next, a subgraph of high-detailed road network corresponding to a complex intersection is extracted and then aggregated into a supernode so that a high matching precision can be achieved via 1:1 node matching. To improve the matching recall, we also present a few schemes that address the problem of missing corresponding object and representation dissimilarity between these road networks. Numerical results at Yeouido, Korea's autonomous vehicle testing site, show that our area partitioning approach can significantly improve the performance of road network matching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0340.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Axial canal; reef-building coral; high resolution micro-computed tomography; Acropora muricata; calcareous transportation
Online: 14 June 2021 (09:21:47 CEST)
In Acropora, the complex canals in a coral colony connect all polyps into a holistic network to collaborate in performing biological processes, while axial canal is the largest canal amongst the network and distributes at the center of a coral branch. However, previous studies indicated that, in the non-radial symmetry transport system of Acropora, axial canal do not play a major role in the transport of hydroplasm, and the action of axial canal in coral growth is still obscure. In this study, we reconstructed six Acropora muricata samples by high resolution micro-computed tomography to investigate the growth patterns of axial canals during the processes of new branch forming and truncated branch rebuilding. We found that the axial canal of a new branch is transformed from a calice and the polyps in the new branch are budded from the polyp in the axial canal. Meanwhile, the axial canal can transport the calcareous skeletons to rebuild the tip of a truncated branch, which represents as the change in the diameter of axial canal and calcareous deposition/reduction in it. This work indicate the regulation of axial canal in the growth processes including budding, branching, and mineralising of an Acropora colony.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0013.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transportation infrastructure; concrete bridges; structural health monitoring; bridge condition index; analytical hierarchy process; prioritizing
Online: 1 April 2021 (11:14:27 CEST)
This paper proposes a method for monitoring the structural health of concrete bridges in Iran. In this method, the bridge condition index (BCI) of bridges is determined by the analytical hierarchy process. BCI constitutes eight indices that are scored based on the experts' views, including structural, hydrology and climate, safety, load impact, geotechnical and seismicity, strategic importance, facilities, and traffic and pavement. Experts' views were analyzed by Expert Choice software, and the relative importance (weight) of indices were determined using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Then, the gave scores of experts were assigned to indices for various conditions. Bridge inspectors can examine the bridge, determine the scores of indices, and compute BCI. Higher values of BCI indicate better conditions. Therefore, bridges with lower BCI take priority in maintenance activities. Five bridges in Iran, Semnan province, were selected as the case studies, and BCI calculation of these bridges was conducted.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: ADAS simulation; scenario generation; automated driving; Testing; innovation in mobility; self-driving cars; transportation
Online: 7 December 2020 (11:24:16 CET)
The increasingly used approach of combining different simulation software in testing of automated driving systems (ADS) increases the need for potential and convenient software designs. Recently developed co-simulation platforms (CSP) provide the possibility to cover the high demand on testing kilometers for ADS by combining vehicle simulation software (VSS) with traffic flow simulation software (TFSS) environments. The emphasis on the demand of testing kilometers is not enough to choose a suitable CSP. The complexity level of the used vehicle, object, sensors and environment models is essential for valid and representative simulation results. Choosing a suitable CSP raises the question of how the test procedures should be defined and constructed and what the relevant test scenarios are. Parameters of the ADS, the environments, objects, sensors in VSS as well as traffic parameters in TFSS can be used to define and generate test scenarios. In order to generate a large number of scenarios in a systematic and automated way, suitable and appropriate software designs are required. In this paper we present a software design for CSP based on the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern and implementation of a complex CSP for virtual testing of ADS. Based on this design, an implementation of a CSP is presented using the VSS from IPG Automotive called CarMaker and the TFSS from PTV Group called Vissim. The results have shown that the presented CSP design and the implementation of the co-simulation can be used to generate relevant scenarios for testing of ADS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0601.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: support vector machine; travelling time; intelligent transportation system; artificial fish swarm algorithm; big data
Online: 25 October 2018 (10:48:45 CEST)
Freeway travelling time is affected by many factors including traffic volume, adverse weather, accident, traffic control and so on. We employ the multiple source data-mining method to analyze freeway travelling time. We collected toll data, weather data, traffic accident disposal logs and other historical data of freeway G5513 in Hunan province, China. Using Support Vector Machine (SVM), we proposed the travelling time model based on these databases. The new SVM model can simulate the nonlinear relationship between travelling time and those factors. In order to improve the precision of the SVM model, we applied Artificial Fish Swarm algorithm to optimize the SVM model parameters, which include the kernel parameter σ, non-sensitive loss function parameter ε, and penalty parameter C. We compared the new optimized SVM model with Back Propagation (BP) neural network and common SVM model, using the historical data collected from freeway G5513. The results show that the accuracy of the optimized SVM model is 17.27% and 16.44% higher than those of the BP neural network model and the common SVM model respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0145.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Rényi entropy; entropy power inequalities; transportation arguments; normal distributions; escort distributions; log-concave distributions
Online: 23 August 2018 (04:24:58 CEST)
Following a recent proof of Shannon's entropy power inequality (EPI), a comprehensive framework for deriving various EPIs for the Rényi entropy is presented that uses transport arguments from normal densities and a change of variable by rotation. Simple arguments are given to recover the previously known Rényi EPIs and derive new ones, by unifying a multiplicative form with constant c and a modification with exponent α of previous works. In particular, for log-concave densities, we obtain a simple transportation proof of a sharp varentropy bound.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0709.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: LiFi; Light Fidelity; wireless communication; intra-vehicular data transmission; VLC; intelligent transportation system; LED; optics
Online: 11 October 2023 (09:20:55 CEST)
Given the recent advances in information technology, speed has become an important requirement in data transmission. Given that an LED (light emitting diode) can turn on and off several thousand or even millions of times per second, then LiFi (light fidelity) technology has strong advantages over WiFi (wireless fidelity) in terms of speed. In this research project, a consortium involving an academic institution decided to evaluate the maturity of LiFi technology and design a demonstrator that could be integrated in a vehicle via an intra-vehicle data transmission system. The demonstrator is to implement a two-way LiFi communication between the reading light of a vehicle and a portable device such as a tablet or smartphone. The nomadic device must display, via an interface, data in real time. The data is RNT (Digital Terrestrial Radio) and TNT (Digital Terrestrial Television) provided by an in-house antenna. LiFi depends on optical technology. The optical characteristics have significant influences on the system. The paper shows ways to improve the system’s throughput, communication range, and reception area. By replacing the reading light with a more powerful one with better optical characteristics, the communication range and reception area improve. By using symmetrical power supply, the throughput improves. Likewise, by using optical filters that eliminate noise, the throughput also improves. We have demonstrated that LiFi data transmission in the vehicle is feasible; low-definition videos were successfully transmitted. The paper acknowledges that there are still various avenues for this work’s improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0636.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: food insecurity; built environment; gender equality; well-being; disparities; food systems; social sustainability; transportation; walkability
Online: 11 September 2023 (07:18:37 CEST)
Food insecurity is a pervasive issue for Allegheny County as one in five residents experience food insecurity. Food insecurity is linked to chronic health conditions like heart disease and hypertension and disproportionately affects women in the United States, particularly women who are head of household. There are multiple dimensions used to measure regional food insecurity, one of which is food accessibility. Prior research has examined the linkages between food access and food insecurity, and this study aims to further explore the relationship between equitable access to sustainable food and levels of regional food insecurity. This study examines food outlets in Allegheny County to determine if there is a significant relationship between food outlet availability and food insecurity. Both the presence and accessibility of these food outlets were examined. To measure accessibility, the walking distance to the nearest public transportation stop was calculated for each public transportation stop. The minimum distance to each food outlet was compared to food insecurity rates on a Census Tract level. Results showed that communities without grocery stores did, on average, have higher rates of food insecurity. Also, communities with a higher proportion of female-headed households experienced greater food insecurity, regardless of access to food outlets. However, there was no statistically significant relationship between the distance from public transportation stops to grocery stores and rates of food insecurity. Based on these findings, we suggest that sole reliance on distance as an indicator of food insecurity can be misleading, and there should be a greater focus on walkability within the community as using opposed to physical distance alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1812.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Sudden water pollution accident; Risk assessment; Bayesian network model; Dangerous goods transportation; The Baiyangdian lake
Online: 26 July 2023 (11:47:36 CEST)
Sudden water pollution accident is a tough environmental challenge to solve due to its uncertainty, unpredictability and destructiveness. Therein, the dangerous goods transportation accidents on the cross-tributary bridges are increasing worldwide with the acceleration of industrialization and urbanization, posing threats to the water ecological environment and human health. To prevent and control the risk, this study evaluated the risk of sudden water pollution accidents associated with dangerous goods transportation on the cross-tributary bridges by using the expert judgment fuzzy language method and Bayesian network model. Baiyangdian lake as the largest freshwater shallow lake in North China was chosen as a study case. Different accident scenarios were simulated to put forward risk prevention and control measures. The results showed that the primary risk factors were divided into five categories: personnel factors, vehicle factors, tank factors, weather factors, and road environment factors. The probability of dangerous goods transportation accidents was a possible event (P=0.115), with a high risk level. Furthermore, the Baiyangdian lake would suffer from serious environmental pollution and water quality degradation without prevention and control measures by simulating the oil leakage accident. Therefore, emergency prevention and control measures are expected to be formulated and implemented before and after the occurrence of the sudden water pollution accidents. This study provides useful insights into risk prevention and control strategies for sudden water pollution accidents, and the framework can be made applicable to other rivers facing similar risk challenges worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0352.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Travel behaviour; Attitudes towards public transportation; social change; Ordinal Logistic Regression (OLR); Vision 2030; KSA
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:30:36 CEST)
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is known for its high car ownership and usage as well its high GDP per capita. This is combined with low/ or no provision of public transportation (PT) systems, has been resulting in perceptual attitudes of full dependency on private car travel. The level of awareness of the benefits of reducing car use and increasing the travel by more sustainable options, has a great impact on social change and behaviour. The Kingdom is currently progressing towards a new phase of “national transfer” through implementation of strategic and sustainable measures and programs. The city of Riyadh is construction a massive metro-system in Riyadh, that is nearing completion and operation. The public is aware of the national agenda, aware of the newly constructed projects and aware of the needed social change to realize the new vision of the country. This paper aims to assess travel behaviour and attitudes towards public transportation of Saudi travellers’ who are witnessing the new transformation in the Kingdom and who are aware of the new sustainable projects. Depicted from the theory of random utility, a discrete choice model of the intent to use public transportation is calibrated as a function of social and attitudinal factors. An online survey was designed and carried out using social media means; a completed 399 questionnaires have been obtained and studied. The methodology includes examining attitudes and preferences of the participants towards using public transportation options against participants’ socio-economic data. The analysis was carried out using ordinal logistic regression analysis (OLR) which is an efficient technique that is derived from the theory of random utility. The results show a good support for PT; a higher support for public transportation modes, form participants who are young females, lower income groups and the university graduates were reported. The level of support seems higher with the higher level of awareness about the new PT system.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: smart system; context aware services; wireless sensor networks (WSNs); information communication technologies (ICTs); cargo transportation.
Online: 25 June 2021 (11:38:30 CEST)
The issues concerning the development of the smart systems for the management of freight transport are related to many factors which are influencing by properties of such a complex processes and ICT development. We are concerned with the recognition of a wide spectrum of services and provision specifics under conditions of wireless communication networks. Also, we are investigated for the adequate provision of context data with problematic of a definition of such context data and with possibilities to apply formalized artificial intelligence methods for recognition of this context information needs for transportation. In this stage of application of the smart system, we are solving the problem of priority of provision of possible providing services, ensuring of quite optimal quality of data supply channels and restriction of flooding of wireless communication channels. The proposed methodology is based on methods of indication of con-text-aware situations and integration of such data into the situation recognition algorithms. The constructions of smart service provision system are developed for more safety management of transportation. The experimental results are demonstrated on analysis of heterogeneity of smart services, construction of schemas for service provision priorities, and extension of potential of intelligent transport with intellectual recognition possibilities of context-aware information in the transportation process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0411.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transportation infrastructure; flexible pavement; structural number prediction; Gaussian process regression; m5p model tree; random forest
Online: 9 June 2020 (11:35:32 CEST)
The most common index for representing structural condition of the pavement is the structural number. The current procedure for determining structural numbers involves utilizing falling weight deflectometer and ground-penetrating radar tests, recording pavement surface deflections, and analyzing recorded deflections by back-calculation manners. This procedure has two drawbacks: 1. falling weight deflectometer and ground-penetrating radar are expensive tests, 2. back-calculation ways has some inherent shortcomings compared to exact methods as they adopt a trial and error approach. In this study, three machine learning methods entitled Gaussian process regression, m5p model tree, and random forest used for the prediction of structural numbers in flexible pavements. Dataset of this paper is related to 759 flexible pavement sections at Semnan and Khuzestan provinces in Iran and includes “structural number” as output and “surface deflections and surface temperature” as inputs. The accuracy of results was examined based on three criteria of R, MAE, and RMSE. Among the methods employed in this paper, random forest is the most accurate as it yields the best values for above criteria (R=0.841, MAE=0.592, and RMSE=0.760). The proposed method does not require to use ground penetrating radar test, which in turn reduce costs and work difficulty. Using machine learning methods instead of back-calculation improves the calculation process quality and accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0420.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transportation infrastructure; bridge management system; concrete bridges; bridge condition index; analytical hierarchy process; expert system
Online: 29 March 2020 (04:55:22 CEST)
This paper proposes a method for determining the bridge condition index (BCI) in concrete bridges, which is based on the views of bridge experts. First, eight indices were defined for a concrete bridge including structure, hydrology, safety, load impact, geotechnical and seismicity, strategic importance, facilities, and finally traffic and pavement. Each index consists of several sub-indices. Next, a series of questionnaires about the relative importance of indices and their sub-indices were prepared and distributed among bridge experts. Experts’ views were analyzed by Expert Choice software and the relative importance (weight) of each index and each sub-index was determined using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Then, based on experts’ views, an average score was assigned to each sub-index for any condition. Now the bridge inspectors can examine the bridge and determine the scores of sub-indices. Each index’s score is the sum of the weighted score assigned to its’ sub-indices and BCI is the sum of weighted scores assigned to indices. Higher values of BCI indicate a better condition. Therefore, bridges with lower BCI take priority in maintenance activities. To apply the proposed method, five bridges were selected in Semnan province, Iran, and BCI calculation of these bridges were conducted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0335.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: active transportation; health impact assessment; physical activity; air pollution; traffic safety; carbon emissions; monetization; online tool
Online: 15 September 2020 (08:40:57 CEST)
The World Health Organization’s Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) for walking and cycling is a user-friendly web-based tool to assess health impacts of active travel. HEAT, developed over 10 years ago, has been used by researchers, planners and policymakers alike in appraisals of walking and cycling policies of both national and more local scales. HEAT has undergone regular upgrades adopting the latest scientific evidence. This article presents the most recent upgrades of the tool. Health impacts of walking and/or cycling in a specified population are quantified in terms of premature deaths avoided (or caused). In addition to the calculation of benefits from physical activity, HEAT was recently expanded to include assessments of the burden associated with air pollution exposure and crash risks while walking or cycling. Further, impacts on carbon emissions from mode shift to active travel modes can now be assessed. Monetization of impacts using Value of Statistical Life and Social Costs of Carbon now uses country-specific values. As active travel inherently results in often substantial health benefits as well as not always negligible risks, assessments of active travel behaviour or policies are incomplete without considering health implications. The recent developments of HEAT make it easier than ever to obtain ballpark estimates of health impacts and carbon emissions related to walking and cycling.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric vehicles charging navigation system; charging path; road transportation network; distribution network; real-time electricity price
Online: 30 November 2019 (09:39:27 CET)
Aiming at the current optimization problem of electric vehicle charging path planning, a charging path optimization strategy for electric vehicles under the "Traffic-Price-Distribution" mode is proposed. This strategy builds an electric vehicle charging and navigation system based on road traffic network model, real-time electricity price model and distribution network model. Based on Dijkstra shortest path algorithm and Monte Carlo time-space prediction method, the goal is to minimize the charging cost of electric vehicles. Optimal charging path. The simulation results of MATLAB and MATPOWER show that the electric vehicle charging path optimization strategy can better solve the local traffic congestion problem and improve the safety and stability of the distribution network on the basic of fully considering the convenience of electric vehicle charging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: traffic management; transportation sustainability; real time traffic signal settings; traffic simulation; cooperative ITS; ITS; traffic flow
Online: 6 November 2018 (13:55:18 CET)
New technologies such as "connected" and "autonomous" vehicles are going to change the future of traffic signal control and management and possibly will introduce new traffic signal systems that will be based on floating car data (FCD). The use of floating car data to regulate, in real-time, traffic signal systems has the potential for an increased sustainability of transportation in terms of energy efficiency, traffic safety and environmental issues. However, research has never explored how not "connected" vehicles would benefit by the implementation of such systems. This paper explores the use of floating car data to regulate in real-time traffic signal systems in terms of cooperative-competitive paradigm between "connected" vehicles and conventional vehicles. In a dedicated laboratory, developed for testing regulation algorithms, results show that "invisible vehicles" for the system (which are not "connected") in most simulated cases also benefit when real time traffic signal settings based on floating car data are introduced. Moreover, the study estimates the energy and air quality impacts of signal regulation by evaluating fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Specifically, the study demonstrates that significant improvements in air quality are possible with the introduction of FCD regulated traffic signals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0245.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Natural language processing (NLP); topic modelling; BERT; transportation; newspaper; magazine; academic research; journalism; deep learning; smart cities
Online: 17 March 2022 (07:58:15 CET)
We live in a complex world characterised by complex people, complex times, and complex social, technological, and ecological environments. There is clear evidence that governments are failing at most public matters. The recent COVID-19 pandemic is a high example of global governance failure both at preventing such pandemics and managing the COVID-19 pandemic. It is time that all of us take responsibility and look into ways of collaboratively improving the governance of public matters, our matters. While there are many reasons for government failures, we believe the lack of information availability is a fundamental reason that limits the government’s ability to act smartly and allows the lack of transparency to creep into policy and action leading to corruption and failure. To this end, this paper introduces the concept of deep journalism, a data-driven deep learning-based approach for discovering multi-perspective parameters related to a topic of interest. We build three datasets (a newspaper, a technology magazine, and a Web of Science dataset) and discover the academic, industrial, public, governance, and political parameters for the transportation sector as a case study to introduce deep journalism and our tool DeepJournal (Version 1.0) that implements our proposed approach. We elaborate on 89 transportation parameters and hundreds of dimensions reviewing 400 technical, academic, and news articles. The findings related to the multi-perspective view of transportation reported in this paper show that there are many important problems seen by the public that industry and academia seem to not place their focus on. On the other hand, academia produces much broader and deeper knowledge on the subject such as a wide range of pollutions affecting the people and planet do not get to reach the public eye. Our deep journalism approach could find the gaps and highlight them to the public and other stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0673.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: life cycle assessment; agent-based traffic simulation; battery electric vehicles; sustainability; urban transportation; urban mobility; environmental engineering
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:13:30 CEST)
The transport sector in Germany causes one-quarter of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. One potential solution to reduce these emissions is the use of battery electric vehicles. Although a number of life cycle assessments have been conducted for these vehicles, the influence of a transport system wide transition has not been researched sufficiently. Therefore, we developed a method which combines life cycle assessment with an agent-based transport simulation and synthetic electric, diesel and gasoline powered vehicle models. We use the transport simulation to obtain the number of vehicles, their lifetime mileage and road-specific consumption. Subsequently we analyze the product systems’ vehicle production, use phase and End-of-Life. The results are scaled depending on the covered distance, the vehicle weight and the consumption for the whole life cycle. The results indicate that the sole transition of drive trains is insufficient to significantly lower the greenhouse gas emissions. However, sensitivity analyses demonstrate that there is a considerable potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with higher shares of renewable energies, a different vehicle distribution and a higher lifetime mileage. The method facilitates the assessment of the ecological impacts of the complete car based transportation in urban agglomerations and is able to analyze different transport sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0977.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Intelligent Transportation Systems; OFDM; Doppler-induced Inter-Carrier Interference; Conjugate Gradient Least Squares; Nonlinear Equalization; Doubly Dispersive Fading
Online: 17 October 2023 (02:27:32 CEST)
Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) have recently evolved rapidly, which requires development of highly trustworthy and effective communication technologies for uses, including vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication; where Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is regarded as a strong candidate and highly popular option technique among these methods. However, the movement of vehicles introduces Doppler frequencies which produce inter-carrier interference (ICI), that is frequently occurs in V2X channels. This interference has the potential to compromise the integrity of subcarrier orthogonality within OFDM, leading to lower-quality communication and an increased likelihood of data transmission errors. When employing channels with doubly dispersive fading, OFDM necessitates the usage of a complex equalization based on the minimum mean-square error (MMSE) equalizer, which requires channel matrix inversion. Several low-complexity equalizers for OFDM have been developed and are based on band factorization, time domain LSQR (Least-Square QR) iterative computing, and banded minimum mean squared error (BMMSE). This paper proposes Conjugate Gradient Least Squares (CGLS), which is a novel iterative computation algorithm integrated with nonlinear equalizers. The suggested nonlinear equalization technique determines the trade-off between computations and performance. According to simulation data, the suggested nonlinear equalizer performs better than the current BMMSE and linear CGLS algorithms across doubly dispersive fading channels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: sustainability; transportation; fleet management; campus; university; renewable energy; energy transition; economic analysis; risk management; modelling; ghg emissions reduction
Online: 6 January 2023 (02:27:18 CET)
The global transport sector of the world economy contributes about 15% of the Greenhouse Gas (GHGs) emissions in the world today. The University of Saskatchewan has pursued the green energy transition over the years. They have spearheaded diverse sustainability projects and agendas, due to the importance of curbing climate change and advancing sustainability. The transport system in the university campus is one area of focus where the Sustainability Office plans to introduce some innovations, as a way of curbing GHG emissions while also advancing sustainability practice in the university campus. The study carried out an economic benefit analysis on the campus fleet (consisting of 91 ICE vehicles) to determine if it is economically or financially feasible to transition from Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) or PVs (Petrol Vehicles) to Electric Vehicles (EVs). The analysis used RETScreen Expert software for analyzing renewable energy technology projects. The variables of Payback Period (PBP), cash flow projections, savings made from transitioning (fuel cost savings and energy cost savings), Benefit-Cost-ratio, GHG emission reduction potential, etc. were analyzed. The findings revealed that the GHG emission from the campus fleet will be reduced by 100% (this will result in the removal of about 298.1 tCO₂ from the environment). Also, the fleet manager will save approximately $129,049 (88.9%) in fuel costs. Apart from these, the return on investment will be achieved in year 5 (all things being equal), but can be reduced to year 2 if the vehicles are put into constant and active use (eliminating most idle times. Also, the Sustainability Office will be making a GHG reduction revenue of $14,906.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0343.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: unmanned aircraft (UAV); sensing; intelligent transportation; image fusion; signal alignment; runway detection; image registration; wavelet transform; Hough transform
Online: 16 October 2018 (08:49:55 CEST)
UAV network operation enables gathering and fusion from disparate information sources for flight control in both manned and unmanned platforms. In this investigation, a novel procedure for detecting runways and horizons as well as enhancing surrounding terrain is introduced based on fusion of enhanced vision system (EVS) and synthetic vision system (SVS) images. EVS and SVS image fusion has yet to be implemented real-world situations due to signal misalignment. We address this through a registration step to align the EVS and SVS images. Four fusion rules combining discrete wavelet transform (DWT) sub-bands are formulated, implemented and evaluated. The resulting procedure is tested on real EVS-SVS image pairs and pairs containing simulated turbulence. Evaluations reveal that runways and horizons can be detected accurately even in poor visibility. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that different aspects of the EVS and SVS images can be emphasized by using different DWT fusion rules. The procedure is autonomous throughout landing, irrespective of weather. We believe the fusion architecture developed holds promise for incorporation into head-up displays (HUDs) and UAV remote displays to assist pilots landing aircraft in poor lighting and varying weather. The algorithm also provided a basis rule selection in other signal fusion applications.