REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0257.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Biodiesel; Microreactor; Transesterification; Computational Fluid Dynamics
Online: 21 February 2022 (14:53:11 CET)
Microfluidic devices or microdevices refer to systems with a characteristic length in the micrometer range. Systems in this size allow handling small quantities of reagents and samples, with reduced residence time, better control of chemical species concentration, high heat and mass transfers, and high surface/volume ratio. These characteristics led to the application of these microdevices in several areas, such as biological systems, energy, liquid-liquid extraction, food, agricultural sectors, pharmaceuticals, flow chemistry, microreactors, and biodiesel synthesis. Microreactors are devices that have interconnected microchannels, in which small amounts of reagents are manipulated and react for a certain period of time. The traditional characteristics of microreactors are less quantities of reagents and samples, high surface area in relation to volume (10000 m2 m-3), reduction of resistance to heat and mass transfer, reduced reaction times, and narrower residence time distributions. In recent years, several studies have been carried out on biodiesel production in microreactors that explore the influence of operating conditions, mixing and reaction yield, numbering, and especially the microdevices design. Despite all the advantages of microreactors, the literature shows that there are only a few applications on an industrial scale. Two main reasons that hinder the adoption of this technology are the scale-up to a large enough volume to deliver the necessary production capacity and the costs related to industrial manufacturing microreactors. It is often stated that large-scale production of microreactors can be easily achieved by numbering-up. However, researches show that an incredibly high number of microdevices would be needed, which results in a technical unfeasibility and a strong impact on the construction costs of the industrial system. The present review aims to show whether microreactors can replace conventional biodiesel production processes and how this replacement technology could be carried out. The current chapter was divided into the following sections: Introduction, Synthesis and Purification of Biodiesel in Microreactors, Fundamentals of CFD, and Fundamentals of Scale-up. Finally, conclusions and future perspectives are exposed.
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: heterogenous catalyst; biodiesel; agrowaste; microwave; optimization; transesterification
Online: 30 November 2019 (12:10:38 CET)
Application of solid catalysts synthesized from agricultural wastes provides an environmentally benign and low-cost process route to the synthesis of biodiesel. An ash containing equal mixture of cocoa pod husk, plantain peel and kola nut pod husk ashes (CPK) which was obtained by open combustion of each biomass in air and calcined at 500 oC for 4 h. The calcined CPK ash was characterized to determine its catalytic potential. Two-level transesterification technique was used to synthesize biodiesel using the developed catalyst. The process parameters involved were optimized for the microwave-aided transesterification of a blend of honne, rubber seed and neem oils in volumetric ratio 20:20:60, respectively. The study showed that ash derived from combination of various biomass wastes provides a catalyst which consists all necessary catalytic ingredients in their relative abundance. The calcined CPK consists of 47.67% of potassium, 5.56% calcium and 4.21% magnesium attesting to its heterogenous status. The physisorption isotherms reveals that it was dominantly mesoporous in structure made up of nanoparticles. Maximum of 98.45 wt.% biodiesel was obtained through MeOH:oil blend of 12:1, CPK concentration of 1.158 wt.% and reaction time of 6 min under microwave irradiation. Quality of the synthesized biodiesel satisfied the requirements stipulated by standard specifications. Thus, this work demonstrates that blend of agrowastes and mixture of non-edible oils could be used to synthesize quality and sustainable biodiesel that can replace fossil diesel.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: PVG (polyvinyl Guanidineacetic); PVA (polyvinyl alcohol); guanidineacetic groups; biodiesel; transesterification
Online: 21 September 2019 (01:38:06 CEST)
Polyvinyl guanidineacetic (PVG) was prepared by the chemical grafting between poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and guanidineacetic acid. The results showed that the guanidineacetic groups were successfully introduced into the polyvinyl alcohol by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TG). The effects of the amount of catalyst and reaction time on the PVG grafting rate were investigated. The PVG/NWF composite membrane as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production was successfully prepared by the solvent phase inversion. The effects of mass ratio of methanol/soybean oil and reaction temperature on the conversions using the composite membrane for transesterification were studied. And the reusability of the composite membrane and the kinetics of the reaction catalyzed by the composite membrane were also investigated. The conversions obtained from the model are in good agreement with the experimental data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0013.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: hydrophilic sulfonated silica catalyst; Aliquat 336; tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate; transesterification; fatty acid methyl esters, DMSO.
Online: 4 January 2022 (15:24:55 CET)
Triglycerides of waste cooking oil reacted with methanol in refluxing toluene to yield mixtures of diglycerides, monoglycerides and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in the presence of 20% (w/w) catalyst/oil using the hydrophilic sulfonated silica (SiO2-SO3H) catalyst alone or with the addition of 10% (w/w) co-catalyst/oil [(Bun4N)](BF4) or Aliquat 336]. The addition of the ammonium salts to the catalyst lead to a decrease in the amounts of diglycerides in the products, but the concentrations of monoglycerides increased. Mixtures of [(Bun4N)](BF4)/catalyst were superior to catalyst alone or Aliquat 336/catalyst for promoting the production of mixtures with high concentrations of FAMEs. The same experiments were repeated using DMSO as the solvent. The use of the more polar solvent resulted in excellent conversion of the triglycerides to FAME esters with all three-catalyst media. A simplified mechanism is presented to account for the experimental results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1505.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: fatty acids; fatty acid methyl esters; transesterification; epoxidation; catalyst; viscosity; oxidation stability; acidity; biorefinery; sustainability; circular economy
Online: 22 August 2023 (08:11:22 CEST)
The use of biolubricants as an alternative for petroleum-based products has played an important role in the last decade. Thus, due to the encouragement of global policies, which mainly support green chemistry and circular economy, there has been an increasing interest in bio-based products, including biolubricants, from scientific and industrial points of view. Due to the different applications of biolubricants for a wide range of practical uses, the raw materials, production, and characteristics might vary, making this field a continuously changing subject of study by researchers. The aim of this research work was to focus on biolubricant production from vegetable oil crops in a bio-refinery perspective, paying attention to the main raw materials used, the corresponding production methods (with special focus on double transesterification), the role of catalysts and techno-economic studies. Thus, the main factors affecting quality parameters such as viscosity or oxidative stability have been covered, including catalyst addition, reaction temperature or the use of raw materials, reagents or additives were also analyzed. The latest research trends were included, updating previous studies about this matter, considering current conclusions and future research.