ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0181.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; disease severity; blood leukocyte transcriptome; WGCNA; transcriptional modules; differentially expressed genes; COVID-19 transcriptional markers
Online: 9 August 2022 (14:59:44 CEST)
The transcriptional response of human blood leukocytes to SARS-CoV-2 infection was investigated focusing on the differences between mild and severe cases and between age subgroups. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis and comparative gene expression analysis were used. Three transcriptional modules positively associated with the traits of interest and their respective high hierarchy genes were identified. Enrichment analyses showed that the yellow module, associated with severe cases and older patients, had an overrepresentation of genes involved in inflammatory and innate immune responses, and neutrophil activation. The magenta and black modules, associated with disease severity and younger patients, contained genes related to innate immunity and inflammation and genes that regulate those responses. Subnetworks for these modules were constructed using genes enriched for innate immunity, inflammation, immunoregulation and differentially expressed genes (severe vs. mild). Their analysis evidenced that immunoregulatory functions are more activated in the modules associated with younger patients, what may help to explain the better disease course and faster recovery observed in younger COVID-19 patients. Comparative gene expression analysis between severe and mild groups, followed by gene enrichment and normalized gene expression analyses, revelated a set of 23 potential biomarkers for COVID-19 severity, of which 13 are newly described.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0370.v1
Online: 19 November 2021 (15:20:13 CET)
During cartilage development, the lineage commitment and condensation of stem cells into chondrocytes and their differentiation involves a ubiquitous signaling cascades and huge numbers of transcriptional factors. The kinetic requirements and the stoichiometry for the expression of key transcriptional factors are relevant and must be met to form proper and functionally competent cartilage tissue. More interestingly also, an exact and precise spatio-temporal distribution of these molecules are as necessary in the proper tissue morphogenesis and patterning as the relevant physical conditions and micro environmental forces playing at the background during embryogenesis. A milestone of experimental achievements has been obtained over the years on several signaling pathways involved in cartilage development. Several fate determining transcriptional factors has also been investigated and determined with regards to the transition of stem cells (pluripotent, embryonic, etc.) into chondrocytes. These transcriptional factors serve as master controllers in chondrocytes proliferation and hypertrophy. Concerns that variability in signaling and transcriptional factors have detrimental effect on cartilage formation and could potentiate most cartilage related diseases have led most scientists to investigate the role of signaling molecules and transcriptional factors implicated in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other cartilage degenerative diseases. On bases of spatio-temporal distribution of transcriptional factors, there exist functional overlaps, hence, it is difficult to draw a hard line of demarcation of roles at each point of the cell’s life, nonetheless, it is also markedly established that some factors are skewed to the chondrocyte’ survival and proliferation, and others known for their master’s role in the cell’s apoptotic, necrotic and senescence. Here we review some published works on selected signaling pathways and transcriptional factors that are preferentially expressed in chondrogenic cells and their role as major players in cartilage formation, cartilage diseases, along with some highlights of unique signaling molecules that are indispensable in cartilage tissue regeneration and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0373.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Transcriptional reporters; Plasticity; Stemness; NGFR
Online: 13 January 2022 (12:43:21 CET)
Clonal evolution and cellular plasticity are the genetic and non-genetic driving forces of tumor heterogeneity that in turn determines the tumor cell response towards therapeutic drugs. Several lines of evidence suggest that therapeutic interventions foster the selection of drug resistant neural crest stem-like cells (NCSCs) that establish minimal residual disease (MRD) in melanoma. Here we established a dual reporter system enabling the tracking of NGFR expression and mRNA stability, providing insights into the maintenance of NCSC-states. We observed that the transcriptional reporter that contained a 1kb fragment of the human NGFR promoter was activated only in a minor subset (0.72±0.49%, range 0.3-1.5) and ~2-4% of A375 melanoma cells revealed stable NGFR mRNA. The combination of both reporters provided insights into phenotype switching and revealed that both cellular subsets gave rise to cellular heterogeneity. Moreover, whole transcriptome profiling and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of the minor cellular subset revealed hypoxia-associated programs that might serve as potential drivers of an in vitro switching of NGFR-associated phenotypes and relapse of post-BRAF inhibitor treated tumors. Concordantly, we observed that the minor cellular subset increased in response to dabrafenib over time. In summary, our reporter-based approach provided insights into plasticity and identified a cellular subset that might be responsible for the establishment of MRD in melanoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0395.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: Actinidia; waterlogging; RNA-sequencing; transcriptional adjustment
Online: 17 July 2020 (15:40:11 CEST)
Kiwifruit vines are generally sensitive to waterlogging stress. So far, molecular responses of different kiwifruit genotypes for waterlogging stress are less well-explored. In this study, using RNA-sequencing, we examined transcriptional regulation in the roots of a waterlogging-tolerant genotype KR5 (Actinidia valvata), and a sensitive genotype ‘Hayward’ (Actinidia deliciosa) subjected to 0, 12, 24, and 72 h of waterlogging. Compared with 0 h, transcriptional adjustments of these two genotypes occurred as early as 12 h and became notably pronounced 72 h after waterlogging. Waterlogging stress for 72 h promoted the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, sucrose and hexose transport, anaerobic fermentation, nitrate reduction, alanine accumulation, and reactive oxygen scavenging in both genotypes. The differential regulation of genes encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, phosphoglucomutase, alanine-glyoxylate transaminase, and other enzymes pointed to their diverse strategies upon waterlogging in these two genotypes. In addition, more sucrose and trehalose contents, as well as a higher activity of alcohol dehydrogenase and manganese superoxide dismutases were stimulated in KR5 roots after 72h of waterlogging than that in ‘Hayward’. Overall, our results provided more insights into the molecular basis of the waterlogging response in kiwifruit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0093.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: wheat; TaCOPT3D; Cd uptake; TaWRKY22; transcriptional regulation
Online: 4 August 2022 (03:21:28 CEST)
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic non–essential element to plants, and its accumulation in crops has significant adverse effects on human health. The cross–talk between copper (Cu) and Cd has been reported, but the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, the function of wheat Cu transporter 3D (TaCOPT3D) in Cd tolerance was investigated. The TaCOPT3D transcripts significantly accumulated in wheat roots under Cd exposure. To test whether TaCOPT3D was involved in response to Cd stress, overexpressing lines with altered expression of TaCOPT3D transporters were compared to wild–type (WT) plants. The results showed that, under 20 μM Cd treatment, TaCOPT3D–overexpression lines exhibited more biomass and lower Cd accumulation in roots, shoots, and grains compared to WT plants. In addition, the TaCOPT3D–overexpression lines demonstrated less reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a greater amount of active antioxidant enzymes under Cd conditions than WT plants. Moreover, TaCOPT3D–overexpression lines highly reduced Cd accumulation under exposure to 20 μM Cu. The regulation pathway of TaCOPT3D in response to Cd stress was investigated, and transcription factor (TF) TaWRKY22, which targeted the TaCOPT3D promoter, was identified. Therefore, TaCOPT3D can serve as a candidate gene for decreasing Cd accumulation in wheat through genetic engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0021.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: SET; I2PP2A; ZFX; transcriptional regulation; gynecologic cancers
Online: 8 October 2016 (10:52:00 CEST)
SET protein carries out multiple functions including those for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibition, histone modification, DNA repair and gene regulation. SET overexpression has been detected in brain neurons of Alzheimer's disease patients, follicle theca cells of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients, and ovarian cancer cells, indicating that SET may play a pathological role for these disorders. SET transcript 2, produced by a specific promoter, represents a major transcript variant in different cell types. In this study, we characterized the transcriptional activation of human SET transcript 2 promoter in HeLa cells. Promoter deletion experiments and co-transfection assays indicated that ZFX, the Zinc finger and X-linked transcription factor, was able to transactivate the SET promoter. A proximal promoter region containing four ZFX-binding sites was found to be critical for the ZFX-mediated transactivation. Mutagenesis study indicated that the site located closest to the transcription start site accounted for most of the ZFX-mediated transactivity. Manipulation of ZFX levels by overexpression or siRNA knockdown confirmed the significance and specificity of the ZFX-mediated SET promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation results verified the binding of ZFX to its cognate site in the SET promoter. These findings have led to identification of ZFX as an upstream factor regulating SET gene expression. More studies are required to define the in vivo significance of this mechanism, and specifically, its implication for several benign and malignant diseases related to SET dysregulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0571.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; plastid; co-maturation; post-transcriptional; Nanopore
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:48:48 CEST)
Plastid gene expression involves many post-transcriptional maturation steps resulting in a complex transcriptome composed of multiple isoforms. Although short read RNA-seq has considerably improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling these processes, it is unable to sequence full-length transcripts. This information is however crucial when it comes to understand the interplay between the various steps of plastid gene expression. Here, the study of the Arabidopsis leaf plastid transcriptome using Nanopore sequencing showed that many splicing and editing events were not independent but co-occurring. For a given transcript, maturation events also appeared to be chronologically ordered with splicing happening after most sites are edited.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0009.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Lilium spp.; anthocyanins; purple ovaries; transcriptome; transcriptional network
Online: 5 September 2016 (02:37:09 CEST)
Lily tepals have a short lifespan. Once the tepals senesce, the ornamental value of the flower is lost. Some cultivars have attractive purple ovaries and fruits which greatly enhance the ornamental value of Asiatic hybrid lilies. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Asiatic hybrid lily ovaries. To investigate the transcriptional network that governs purple ovary coloration in Asiatic hybrid lilies, we obtained transcriptome data from green ovaries (S1) and purple ovaries (S2) of Asiatic ‘Tiny Padhye’. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed 4228 differentially expressed genes. Differential expression analysis revealed that nine unigenes including four CHS genes, one CHI gene, one F3H gene, one F3′H gene, one DFR gene, and one UFGT gene were significantly up-regulated in purple ovaries. One MYB gene, LhMYB12-Lat, was identified as a key transcription factor determining the distribution of anthocyanins in Asiatic hybrid lily ovaries. Further qPCR results showed unigenes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis were highly expressed in purple ovaries of Asiatic ‘Tiny Padhye’ at stages 2 and 3, while they showed an extremely low level of expression in ovaries of Asiatic ‘Yellow Pixels’ during all developmental stages. In addition, shading treatment significantly decreased pigment accumulation by suppressing the expression of several unigenes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis in ovaries of Asiatic ‘Tiny Padhye’. These results could further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Asiatic hybrid lily ovaries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0003.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Drug resistance; Efflux pump; TetR transcriptional regulator; Mycobacteria; MmpL
Online: 24 May 2022 (11:32:52 CEST)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a leading cause of human mortality worldwide and the emergence of drug-resistantstrains, demands the discovery of new classes of antimycobacterials that can be employed in the therapeutic pipeline. Previously, a secondary metabolite Chrysomycin A, isolated from Streptomyces sp. OA161 was shown to have potent bactericidal activity against drug-resistant clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis and different species of mycobacteria. The antibiotic inhibits the mycobacterial topoisomerase I and DNA gyrase leading to bacterial death, but the mechanisms that could cause resistance are currently unknown. To further understand the resistance mechanism, spontaneous resistance mutants were isolated and subjected to whole-genome sequencing. Mutation in a TetR family transcriptional regulator MSMEG_1380 was identified in the resistant isolates and was close to an operon encoding membrane protein MSMEG_1381 and MSMEG_1382. Sequence analysis and modeling studies indicated that they are components of the Mmp family of efflux pumps and over-expression of either the operon or individual genes conferred resistance to chrysomycin A, isoniazid, and ethambutol that are in TB therapy. Our study highlights the role of membrane transporter proteins in conferring multiple drug resistance and the utility of recombinant strains overexpressing membrane transporters in the drug screening pipeline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0360.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; transcriptional inhibition; COVID-19; drug repurposing; TMPRSS2
Online: 28 April 2020 (09:39:02 CEST)
There is an urgent need to identify effective therapies for COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 host factor protease TMPRSS2 is required for viral entry and thus an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. In mouse, knockout of tmprss2 led to protection against SARS-CoV-1 with no deleterious phenotypes, and in human populations genetic loss of TMPRSS2 does not appear to be selected against. Here, we mined publicly available gene expression data to identify several compounds that down-regulate TMPRSS2. Recognizing the need for immediately available treatment options, we focused on FDA-approved drugs. We found 20 independent studies that implicate estrogenic and androgenic compounds as transcriptional modulators of TMPRSS2, suggesting these classes of drugs may be promising therapeutic candidates for clinical testing and observational studies of COVID-19. We also note that expression of TMPRSS2 is highly variable and skewed in humans, with a minority of individuals having extremely high expression. Combined with literature showing that inhibition of TMPRSS2 protease activity reduces SARS-CoV-2 viral entry in human cells, our results raise the hypothesis that modulation of TMPRSS2 expression is a promising therapeutic avenue for COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0004.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: hypoxia; chromatin; transcriptional repression; repressor complexes; JmjC; histone methylation; HIF
Online: 1 March 2018 (06:36:57 CET)
Hypoxia, or reduced oxygen availability, has been studied extensively for its ability to activate specific genes. Hypoxia induced gene expression is mediated by the HIF transcription factors, although not exclusively so. Despite the great knowledge on the mechanisms by which hypoxia activates genes, much less is known about how hypoxia promotes gene repression. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms underlying hypoxia-induced transcriptional repression responses. We highlight HIF-dependent and independent mechanisms, but also the potential roles of dioxygenases with functions at the nucleosome and DNA level. Finally, we discuss recent evidence regarding the involvement of transcriptional repressor complexes in hypoxia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0192.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: β4-galactosyltransferase 4; transcriptional mechanism; sensor cells; colon cancer; drug screening
Online: 12 June 2018 (12:51:07 CEST)
The increased expression of β4-galactosyltransferase (β4GalT) 4 was closely associated with poor prognosis of colon cancer. Recently, we showed that the expression of the β4GalT4 gene is regulated by the 0.17 kb core promoter region containing one binding site for Specificity protein 1 (Sp1). To develop a novel screening method for anti-colon cancer drugs, two sensor cell lines having the luciferase gene under the control of two β4GalT4 gene promoters that differed in length were established from SW480 human colon cancer cells. The hGT4-0.17-sensor cells possessed the luciferase reporter driven by the 0.17 kb promoter, while the hGT4-0.3-sensor cells possessed the luciferase reporter driven by the 0.3 kb promoter containing one binding site each for colon cancer-related transcription factors including activator protein 2, E2F, caudal-related homeobox transcription factors, and Runt-related transcription factors besides Sp1. Upon treatment with mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor U0126, the promoter activities of the hGT4-0.3-sensor cells decreased significantly, while those of the hGT4-0.17-sensor cells unchanged. These results suggest that the responsiveness to U0126 differs between two sensor cell lines due to the different regulation of the luciferase reporters. This study provides the novel screening method for anti-colon cancer drugs by the combination of two sensor cell lines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0100.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: feed-forward loop (FFL); cAMP receptor protein (CRP); transcriptional factor (TF).
Online: 6 June 2018 (16:00:56 CEST)
The feed-forward loop (FFL) is an important and basic network motif to understand specific biological functions. Cyclic-AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP), a transcription factor (TF), mediates catabolite repression and regulates more than 400 genes in response to changes in intracellular concentrations of cAMP in Escherichia coli. CRP participates in some FFLs like araBAD and araFGH operons and adapt to fluctuating environmental nutrients thus enhancing the survivability of E. coli. Although computational simulations have been used to explore the potential functionality of FFLs, a comprehensive study of the functions of all structural types based on in vivo data is lacking. Also, the regulatory role of CRP-mediated feed-forward loops (CRP-FFLs) remain unclear to date. Using EcoCyc and RegulonDB, we identified 393 CRP-FFLs in the E. coli. Dose-response genomic microarray of E. coli revealed dynamic gene expression of each target gene of CRP-FFLs in response to a range of cAMP dosages. All eight types of FFLs were present in CRP regulon with various expression patterns of each CRP-FFL, that were further divided into five functional groups. Microarray and reported regulatory relationships identified 202 CRP-FFLs which were directly regulated by CRP in these eight types of FFLs. Interestingly, 30% (147/482) of genes were directly regulated by CRP and CRP-regulated TFs, indicating that these CRP-regulated genes were also regulated by other CRP-regulated TFs responding to environmental signals through CRP-FFLs. Furthermore, we applied gene ontology annotation to reveal the biological functions of CRP-FFLs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0751.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: efferocytosis; cell death; apoptosis; intracellular trafficking; transcriptional regulation; cellular metabolism; inflammation; resolution
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:28:24 CEST)
Apoptosis, the programmed and intentional death of senescent, damaged, or otherwise superfluous cells, is the natural end-point for most cells within multicellular organisms. Apoptotic cells are not inherently damaging, but if left unattended they can lyse through secondary necrosis. The resulting release of intracellular contents drives inflammation in the surrounding tissue and can lead to autoimmunity. These negative consequences of secondary necrosis are avoided by efferocytosis—the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. Efferocytosis is a product of both apoptotic cell and efferocyte mechanisms, which cooperate to ensure the rapid and complete removal of apoptotic cells. Herein, the processes used by apoptotic cells to ensure their timely removal, and the receptors, signaling, and cellular processes used by efferocytes to identify, remove, and process the apoptotic cells, are reviewed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0033.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: CRISPR interference; CRISPR/dCas9 system; crop improvement; gene silencing; RNAi; transcriptional regulation
Online: 1 February 2021 (13:31:04 CET)
RNA-guided genomic transcriptional regulation tools, namely Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats interference (CRISPRi) and CRISPR-mediated gene activation (CRISPRa), are a powerful technology for the field of functional genomics. Deriving from the CRISPR/Cas9 system, both systems comprise a catalytically dead Cas9 (dCas9) and a single guide RNA (sgRNA). This type of dCas9 is incapable of cleaving DNA but retains its ability to specifically bind to DNA. The binding of the dCas9/sgRNA complex to a target gene results in transcriptional interference. The CRISPR/dCas9 system has been explored as a tool for transcriptional modulation and genome imaging. Despite its potential applications and benefits, the challenges and limitations faced by the CRISPR/dCas9 system include the off-target effects, PAM sequence requirement, efficient delivery methods, and the CRISPR/dCas9-interfered crops being labeled as genetically modified organisms in several countries. This review highlights the progression of CRISPR/dCas9 technology as well as its applications and potential challenges in crop improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0106.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: IRF5; transcriptional factors; immuno-stimulation; nervous necrosis virus; malabar grouper (epinephelus malabaricus)
Online: 22 September 2017 (08:58:20 CEST)
Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is known to be involved in the innate immune response and pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the roles of IRF5 in immune responses in Malabar grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus) have not been extensively explored. In this study, IRF5 gene was identified and characterized from M. grouper. The full-length IRF5 cDNA consisted of a 5’ terminal untranslated region (5’-UTR) of 289 bp and a 3’-UTR of 542 bp, an open reading frame (ORF) of 1500 bp encoding a polypeptide of 499 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 56.28 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) of 5.2. The putative MgIRF5 protein consists of four important conserved domains: a helix DNA-binding domain (DBD) at the N-terminus, a middle region, an IRF association domain (IAD) and a virus activated domain (VAD) at the C-terminus. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that highest sequence similarity of IRF5 was observed between the IRF5 genes from Oplegnathus fasciatus and Miichthys miiuy. The mRNA transcripts of IRF5 were detected in a wide range of tissues types from healthy M. grouper with highest expression in muscle, liver and skin. After treatment with poly (I: C), it was significantly up-regulated in spleen and liver tissues. When infected with NNV, the expression level of MgIRF5 was up-regulated in spleen and head kidney and their transcriptional responses to IRF5 increased in the grouper kidney cells. This approach suggests that MgIRF5 is important in the underlying mechanism of the innate immune responses against antiviral response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0029.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: host-pathogen interactions; infection; viruses; translation; post-transcriptional modification; transfer RNA; bacteria; archaea
Online: 5 October 2022 (09:47:07 CEST)
Viruses feature an evolutionary shaped minimal genome that is obligately dependent on the cellular transcription and translation machinery for propagation. To suppress host cell immune responses and ensure efficient replication, viruses employ numerous tactics to favor viral gene expression and protein synthesis. This necessitates a carefully balanced network of virus- and host-encoded components, of which the RNA-based regulatory mechanisms have emerged as particularly interesting albeit insufficiently studied, especially in unicellular organisms. Here, recent advances that further our understanding of RNA-based translation regulation, mainly through post-transcriptional chemical modification of ribonucleosides, codon usage, and (virus-encoded) transfer RNAs, will be discussed in the context of viral infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0426.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Polyhydroxyalkanoates; mcl-PHA; scl-PHA; Post-transcriptional regulation; Riboregulation; Small non-coding RNAs
Online: 23 August 2021 (10:43:23 CEST)
The large production of non-degradable petrol-based plastics has become a major global issue due to its environmental pollution. Biopolymers produced by microorganisms such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are gaining potential as a sustainable alternative, but the high cost associated to their industrial production has been a limiting factor. Post-transcriptional regulation is a key step to control gene expression in changing environments and has been reported to play a major role in numerous cellular processes. However, limited reports are available concerning the regulation of PHA accumulation in bacteria, and many essential regulatory factors still need to be identified. Here, we review studies where the synthesis of PHA has been reported to be regulated at the post-transcriptional level, and we analyze the RNA-mediated networks involved. Finally, we discuss the forthcoming research on riboregulation, synthetic and metabolic engineering which could lead to improved strategies for PHAs synthesis in industrial production, thereby reducing the costs currently associated with this procedure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0322.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: TAP1; transcriptional expression; methylation analysis; survival analysis; co-expression; pathway analysis; health informatics
Online: 14 August 2020 (11:17:29 CEST)
Transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP1) gene codes for a transporter protein, which is responsible for tumor antigen presentation in the MHC I or HLA complex. A defect in the gene results in an inadequate tumor tracking. TAP1 may also influence multi drug resistance, which is an extreme threat in providing treatment by drugs which are chemotherapeutic. The gene of TAP1 was analyzed bioinformatically. It gave us prognostic data as a confirmation of whether it should be used as a biomarker. The expression level and pattern analysis were conducted using ONCOMINE, GENT2 and GEPIA2 online platforms. Samples with different clinical outcomes were investigated for expression and promoter methylation analysis was done in cancer vs normal tissues using UALCAN. The copy number alteration and mutation frequency and expression in different cancer studies were analyzed using cBioPortal. The PrognoScan and KM plotter survival analysis of significant data (p-value<0.05) was representing graphically. Pathway and Gene ontology analysis of gene correlated to TAP1 gene was presented using bar charts. After arranging the data in a single panel and correlating expression to prognosis, understanding mutational and alterations and comparing pathways, TAP1 may be a potential novel target to evade a threat against chemotherapy and the study gives new aspects to consider for immunotherapy in human breast, lung, liver and ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0363.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: autophagic cell death; curcumin; human GD3 synthase (hST8Sia I); A549 cells; transcriptional regulation
Online: 25 May 2018 (11:12:02 CEST)
Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound isolated from the plant Curcuma longa, is known to induce autophagy in various cancer cells, including lung cancer. In the present study, we also confirmed by LC3 immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses that curcumin triggers autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line. In parallel with autophagy induction, gene expression of human GD3 synthase (hST8Sia I) responsible for ganglioside GD3 synthesis was markedly elevated in response to curcumin in A549 cells. To investigate transcriptional activation of hST8Sia I associated with autophagy formation in curcumin-treated A549 cells, functional characterization of the 5’-flanking region of the hST8Sia I gene was carried out using luciferase reporter assay system. Deletion analysis demonstrated that the -1146 to -646 region, which includes putative c-Ets-1, CREB, AP-1 and NF-κB binding sites, functions as the curcumin-responsive promoter of hST8Sia I in A549 cells. Site-directed mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that the NF-κB binding site at -731 to -722 was indispensable for the curcumin-induced hST8Sia I gene expression in A549 cells. Moreover, the transcriptional activation of hST8Sia I by curcumin A549 cells was strongly inhibited by compound C, an inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). These results suggest that curcumin controls hST8Sia I gene expression via AMPK signal pathway in A549 cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0009.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: co-expression network, water deprivation, drought, systems biology, network centrality, computational simulation, Arabidopsis, transcriptional regulation
Online: 1 July 2022 (08:15:36 CEST)
Drought is one of the most serious abiotic stressors in the environment, restricting agricultural production by reducing plant growth, development, and productivity. To investigate such a complex and multifaceted stressor and its effects on the plants, a systems biology-based approach is necessitated, entailing the generation of co-expression networks, identification of highly-priority transcription factors (TFs) dynamic mathematical modeling, and computational simulations. Here, we studied a high-resolution drought transcriptome of Arabidopsis. We revealed distinct temporal transcriptional signatures and demonstrated the involvement of specific biological pathways. Generation of a large-scale co-expression network followed by network centrality analyses identified 117 TFs that possess critical properties of hubs, bottlenecks, and high clustering coefficients nodes. Dynamic transcriptional regulatory modeling on integrated TF-target and transcriptome datasets uncovered major transcriptional events during the course of drought stress. Mathematical transcriptional simulations allowed us to ascertain the activation status of major TFs as well as the transcriptional intensity and amplitude of their target genes. Finally, we validated our predictions by providing experimental evidence of gene expression under drought stress for a set of four TFs and their major target genes using qRT-PCR. Taken together, we provided a systems-level perspective on the dynamic transcriptional regulation during drought stress in Arabidopsis and uncovered numerous novel TFs that can potentially be used in future genetic crop engineering programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0291.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: secondary epimutations; repeat associated diseases; genetic editing; epigenetic editing; transcriptional editing; DNA methylation; histone modifications
Online: 10 March 2021 (16:14:10 CET)
Epimutations are the cause of a considerable number of genetically inherited conditions in humans. All result from the mis-expression of genes due to epigenetic changes that are triggered by an underlying heritable mutation. The correction of these epigenetic defects in the context of epigenetically regulated diseases constitutes a good paradigm to probe the fundamental mechanisms underlying the development of these diseases, and the molecular basis for the establishment, maintenance and regulation of epigenetic modifications in general. Here, we review current applications of key editing tools to address the epigenetic aspects of these diseases by focusing on epimutations caused by, or relate to repetitive elements, primarily unstable noncoding repeat expansions. For each approach we summarize the efforts conducted to date, highlight their contribution to a better understanding of the molecular basis of epigenetic mechanisms, describe the limitations of each approach and suggest perspectives for further exploration in this field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0290.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Histone PTM; RNA Polymerase II; ChIP-seq; chromatin; epigenetics; transcriptional interference; plant; Transcription Cycle; Transcription
Online: 18 March 2020 (17:14:28 CET)
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone residues shape the landscape of gene expression by modulating the dynamic process of RNAPII transcription. The contribution of particular histone modifications to the definition of distinct RNAPII transcription stages remains poorly characterized in plants. Chromatin Immuno-precipitation combined with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) resolves the genomic distribution of histone modifications. Here, we review histone PTM ChIP-seq data in Arabidopsis thaliana and find support for a Genomic Positioning System (GPS) that guides RNAPII transcription. We review the roles of histone PTM “readers”, “writers” and “erasers”, with a focus on the regulation of gene expression and biological functions in plants. The distinct functions of RNAPII transcription during the plant transcription cycle may in part rely on the characteristic histone PTMs profiles that distinguish transcription stages.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0130.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: phytohormone; transcriptional regulation; apical hook; root elongation; lateral root development; root hair formation; mathematical modeling
Online: 11 December 2018 (13:50:45 CET)
Auxin and ethylene pathways cooperatively regulate a variety of developmental processes in plants. Growth responses to ethylene are largely dependent on auxin, the key regulator of plant morphogenesis. Auxin, in turn, is capable of inducing ethylene biosynthesis and signaling making the interaction of these hormones reciprocal. Recent studies discovered a bunch of molecular events underlying auxin-ethylene crosstalk. In this review, we summarize the results of fine-scale and large-scale experiments on interaction of auxin and ethylene pathways in Arabidopsis. We integrate the knowledge on the molecular crosstalk events, their tissue specificity and associated phenotypic responses to decipher the crosstalk mechanisms at a systems level. We also discuss the prospects of applying systems biology approaches to study the mechanisms of crosstalk between plant hormones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0400.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Geminivirus; bipartite begomovirus; transcriptional trans-activation; abscisic acid; promoter motifs; AC2; BV1; mungbean yellow mosaic virus
Online: 16 November 2020 (08:44:26 CET)
Geminiviruses possess single-stranded, circular DNA genomes, and control the transcription of their late genes, including BV1 of many bipartite begomoviruses, through transcriptional activation by the early expressing AC2 protein. DNA binding by AC2 is not sequence-specific, hence the specificity of AC2 activation is thought to be conferred by plant transcription factors (TFs) recruited by AC2 in infected cells. However, the exact TFs AC2 recruits are not known for most viruses. Here we report a systematic examination of the BV1 promoter (PBV1) of mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) for conserved promoter motifs. We found that MYMV PBV1 contains three abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive elements (ABREs) within its first 70 nucleotides. Deleting these ABREs, or mutating them all via site-directed mutagenesis, abolished the capacity of PBV1 to respond to AC2-mediated transcriptional activation. Furthermore, ABRE and other related ABA-responsive elements were prevalent in more than a dozen Old World begomoviruses we inspected. Together these findings suggest that ABA-responsive TFs may be recruited by AC2 to BV1 promoters of these viruses to confer specificity to AC2 activation. These observations are expected to guide the search for the actual TF(s), furthering our understanding of the mechanism of AC2 action.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0176.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: chronic hepatitis B; covalently closed circular DNA; viral integration; transcription factor; nuclear receptor; transcriptional inhibitor; RNA interference
Online: 7 June 2021 (12:43:06 CEST)
Approximately 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), despite four decades of an effective HBV vaccine. During chronic infection, HBV forms two distinct templates responsible for viral gene transcription: (1) episomal covalently closed circular (ccc)DNA and (2) host-genome integrated viral templates. Multiple ubiquitous and liver-specific transcription factors are recruited onto these templates and modulate viral gene transcription. This review details the latest developments in antivirals that inhibit HBV gene transcription, and their impact on the stability of viral transcripts. Notably, nuclear receptor agonists exhibit potent inhibition of viral gene transcription from cccDNA, small molecule inhibitors repress HBV X protein-mediated transcription from cccDNA and small interfering RNAs and single-stranded oligonucleotides result in transcript degradation from both cccDNA and integrant templates. These antivirals mediate their effects by reducing viral transcripts abundance, eventually leading to loss of surface antigen expression, and can potentially be added to the arsenal of drugs with demonstrable anti-HBV activity. Thus, these candidates deserve special attention for future repurposing or further development as anti-HBV therapeutics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0527.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: transcriptional regulation; reaction theory; prediction of promoters; one-dimensional diffusion; rate equation; detailed balance; antenna effect; physicochemical techniques
Online: 24 August 2020 (10:09:12 CEST)
Transcriptional regulations have been widely studied as one of the main bridges between biology and other basic sciences as well as medicine. The traffic across it has been mostly unidirectional: chemistry and physics provided a lot of tools for biology, although the supply is now saturating. The traffic in opposite direction, the supply of subjects to develop chemistry and physics, has been only a little. However, if there are any, the supply will be at least from transcription, because the notion of chemical reaction is the strongest. This topic is aimed to increase the opposite traffic by introducing the forefront of physicochemical studies of transcription.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0744.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: long non-coding RNA (lncRNA); RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription; gene regulation; tandem transcriptional interference (tTI); antisense transcription; DNA processing
Online: 31 July 2020 (10:47:08 CEST)
RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) frequently transcribes non-protein coding DNA sequences in eukaryotic genomes into long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). Here, we focus on the impact of the act of lncRNA transcription on nearby functional DNA units. Distinct molecular mechanisms linked to the position of lncRNA relative to the coding gene illustrate how non-coding transcription controls gene expression. We review the biological significance of the act of lncRNA transcription on DNA processing, highlighting common themes, such as mediating cellular responses to environmental changes. This review presents the background in chromatin signaling to appreciate examples in different organisms where we can interpret functions of non-coding DNA through the act of RNAPII transcription.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: ascending aorta aneurysm; bicuspid aorta valve; tricuspid aorta valve; ERG transcriptional factor pathway; TGF-β-SMAD, Notch, and NO pathways modulation.
Online: 2 August 2022 (03:43:22 CEST)
Abstract: The pathobiology of ascending aorta aneurysms (AAA) onset and progression is not well understood and only partially characterized. AAA are also complicated in case of bicuspid aorta valve (BAV) anatomy. There is emerging evidence about the crucial role of endothelium-related pathways, which show in AAA an altered expression and function. Here, we examined the involvement of ERG-related pathways in the differential progression of disease in aortic tissues from patients having a BAV or tricuspid aorta valve (TAV) with or without AAA. Our findings identified ERG as a novel endothelial-specific regulator of TGF-β-SMAD, Notch, and NO pathways, by modulating a differential fibrotic or calcified AAA progression in BAV and TAV aortas. We provided evidence that calcification is correlated to different ERG expression (as gene and protein), which appears to be under control of Notch signaling. The latter, when increased, associated with an early calcification in aortas with BAV valve and aneurysmatic, was demonstrated to favor the progression versus severe complications, i.e., dissection or rupture. In TAV aneurysmatic aortas, ERG appeared to modulate fibrosis. Therefore, we proposed that ERG may represent a sensitive tissue biomarker to monitor AAA progression and a target to develop therapeutic strategies and influence surgical procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0142.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; indole-3-acetic acid; jasmonic acid; plant hormone crosstalk; transcriptional regulation; wound response; biotic stress; growth-defense trade-off
Online: 6 July 2021 (12:20:15 CEST)
The indole-3-pyruvic acid pathway is the major route for auxin biosynthesis in higher plants. Tryptophan aminotransferases (TAA1/TAR) and members of the YUCCA family of flavin-containing monooxygenases catalyze the conversion of L-tryptophan via indole-3-pyruvic acid into indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). It has been described that locally produced jasmonic acid (JA) in response to mechanical wounding, triggers de novo-formation of IAA through the induction of two YUCCA genes, YUC8 and YUC9. Here, we report the direct involvement of a small number of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors of the MYC family in this process. We show that the JA-mediated regulation of YUC8 and YUC9 gene expression depends on the abundance of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4. In support of this observation, seedlings of myc knockout mutants displayed a strongly reduced response to JA-mediated IAA formation. In addition, transactivation assays provided experimental evidence for the binding of the MYC transcription factors to a particular tandem G-box motif abundant in the promoter regions of YUC8 and YUC9, but not in those of the other YUCCA genes. Moreover, we clearly demonstrate that YUC8ox and YUC9ox overexpressing plants show less damage after spider mite infestation, thereby underlining a role of auxin in plant responses toward biotic stress cues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0280.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: purine-rich element binding protein A gene; PURA; MIM: 600473; transcriptional activator protein Pur-alpha; cognitive developmental delay; mental retardation; Mutation c.697_699del p.Phe233del
Online: 20 May 2022 (16:58:04 CEST)
A whole-exome capture and next-generation sequencing applied to an 11 y/o patient with a clinical history of congenital hypotonia, generalized motor and cognitive neurodevelopmental delay, severe cognitive deficit, without any identifiable Syndromic pattern, and to her parents, disclosed a de novo heterozygous pathogenic mutation, c.697_699del p.Phe233del (rs786204835)(ACMG classification PS2, PM1, PM2, PP5), harbored in the PURA gene (MIM*600473) (5q31.3), associated to Autosomal Dominant Mental Retardation 31 (MIM # 616158). We used the significant improvement in the accuracy of protein structure prediction recently implemented in AlphaFold that incorporates novel neural network architectures and training procedures based on the evolutionary, physical, and geometric constraints of protein structures. The wild-type (WT) sequence and the mutated one, missing the Phe233, were reconstructed. The predicted local Distance Difference Test (lDDT) for the PURA WT and the PURA-Phe233del showed that the occurrence of the Phe233del affects between 220-320 amino acids. The distortion in the PURA structural confor-mation in the ~5Å surrounding area after the p.Phe233del produces a conspicuous disruption of the repeat III, where the DNA and RNA helix unwinding capability occurs. PURA Protein-DNA Docking corroborated these results in silico Analysis that showed a loss of the contact of the PURA-Phe233del III repeat domain model with the DNA. Together, i) the energetic and stereochemical, ii) the hydropathic indices and polarity surfaces, and iii) the hybrid Quantum Mechanics-Molecular Mechanics (QM-MM) analyses of the PURA molecular models demarcate at the atomic resolution the specific surrounding region affected by these mutations and paves the way for future cell-based functional analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a de novo mutation underpinning a PURA syndrome in a Latin American patient and highlights the importance of predicting the molecular effects in protein structure using artificial intelligence algorithms and molecular and atomic resolution stereochemical analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0061.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: rett syndrome; intrinsically disordered region; phylogenetic profile analysis; post-transcriptional modification; methyl-cpg-binding protein 2; cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5; forkhead box protein g1
Online: 6 November 2019 (10:58:54 CET)
Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder, is mainly caused by mutations in methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2), which alter the functions of domains to either bind to methylated DNA or interact with a transcriptional co-repressor complex. It has been established that alterations in cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) or forkhead box protein G1 (FOXG1) correspond to distinct neurodevelopmental disorders, given that a series of studies have indicated that RTT is also caused by alterations in either one of these genes. We tried to elucidate RTT through evolution and structure assessment of MeCP2, CDKL5, and FOXG1, by focusing on their binding partners and disordered structures. Here, we provide insight into the similarities of the FOXG1 and MECP2 binding partners evolution and function. On the other hand, we suggest that CDKL5 could be a potential candidate for a classical RTT treatment, particularly based on its disordered structure that spans after the catalytic domain to the C-terminus, which shows abundant linear motifs that can bind to molecules with divergent structures of similar affinity. Additionally, we provide insight into the relationship between disordered structure and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0013.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Rett Syndrome; intrinsically disordered region; phylogenetic profile analysis; post-transcriptional modification; methyl-CpG-binding protein 2; cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5; forkhead box protein G1
Online: 1 July 2019 (11:59:56 CEST)
Rett syndrome (RTT) is mainly caused by mutations in methyl CpG-binding protein 2, cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5, or forkhead box protein G1. These RTT-causing proteins harbor an intrinsically disordered region (IDR) whose conformation exhibits spatiotemporal heterogeneity, which not only confer versatility to the protein, but also implicates them in diseases. The IDR generally evolves more rapidly than an ordered structure. In this study, we examined the relationship between pathogenic RTT-associated point mutations in RTT-causing proteins and the evolutionary dynamics of sequence features including structural order–disorder, phosphorylation sites, and evolutionary rates. We also analyzed the molecular properties and evolution of proteins that interact with RTT-causing proteins in terms of phylogenetic profiles, tissue specificity, subcellular localization, expression level, and functions. The results indicate that constrained IDRs may function by forming contacts with other regions in the protein sequence causing pathogenic missense mutations likely to arise in the rapidly evolving IDR and affect molecular networks, leading to disease. The results also provide novel insights into the genetic basis for RTT and the evolution of the neocortex in higher vertebrates.