ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0199.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Debt dynamics; Solvency; Primary balance; Panel thresholds
Online: 3 November 2023 (04:05:43 CET)
This paper investigates the dynamic stability of public debt and its solvency condition on the face of crises periods (1980-2021) in a sample of 11-euro area countries. The focus is on the feedback loop between dynamic stability of public debt and interest rates, discounted by the economic growth, in conjunction with budget deficits during tranquil and turbulent periods. Using the GMM panel dynamic model, the results show that dynamic stability was the case before the global financial crisis (GFC), while from GFC to pandemic, dynamic instability prevailed on the evolution of public debt. Moreover, dynamic instability exerted a highly persistent effect on the evolution of debt. Furthermore, panel threshold estimates show that dynamic instability of debt starts to violate the solvency condition when the borrowing cost is above 3.29%, becomes even stronger when it is above 4.39% and exerts even more pressure when the level of debt is greater than 91%. However, the debt sustainability condition reverses course when economic growth is higher than 3.4%. The main policy implication drawn from the results is that low interest rates can create a self-reinforcing loop of high debt, which is an issue for further research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0081.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Critical speed; exercise prescription; team sports; thresholds; shuttle running
Online: 2 February 2021 (10:05:08 CET)
The overarching purpose of this review was to highlight the utility of different aerobic field tests in terms of the parameters they provide, with a specific focus on shuttle running and all-out testing. Various field tests are discussed in detail and are categorised according to linear continuous running tests (e.g. 12-minute Cooper Test, University of Montreal Track Test [UMTT], 1200/1600 m time trials, 3-minute all-out test for running [3MT]), intermittent shuttle running tests (e.g. yo-yo inter-mittent recovery test level 1 [YYIR1], 30-15 intermittent fitness test [IFT], and the intermittent all-out shuttle test [IAOST]), and continuous shuttle running tests (e.g. 1.2 km shuttle run test [1.2SRT], maximal multi-stage 20-m shuttle test [MSR], 25-m, 30 m and 50-m 3-minute all-out shuttle test [AOST]). Readers will be guided through the theoretical and practical underpinnings of the 3MT methodology, where the all-out testing methodology is stationed within the testing paradigm, and how to practically implement and interpret the results thereof.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: image segmentation; gray level thresholds; neutrosophic information; neutrosophic certainty
Online: 31 August 2020 (07:53:55 CEST)
This article presents a new method of segmenting images with gray levels. The method is based on determining several thresholds for separation of gray levels. The determination of these thresholds is done using the certainty of the neutrosophic information. The concept of this method can be stated simply: to choose the local maximums for the neutrosophic certainty.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: coffee; temperature; esophageal cancer; thermosensing; sensory thresholds; methodological study
Online: 26 April 2018 (08:05:50 CEST)
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluates “very hot (>65 °C) beverages” as probably carcinogenic to humans. However, there is a lack of research regarding what temperatures consumers actually perceive as “very hot” or as “too hot”. A methodology for organoleptical assessment of such threshold temperatures was developed. The participants were asked to mix a very hot coffee step by step into a cooler coffee. Because of that, the coffee to be tasted was incrementally getting hotter during the test. The participants took a sip at every addition, until they perceive the beverage as too hot for consumption. The protocol was evaluated using 87 participants. Interestingly, the average pain threshold of the test group (67 °C) and the preferred drinking temperature (63 °C) iterated around the IARC threshold for carcinogenicity. The developed methodology was found as fit for the purpose and may be applied in larger studies.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0126.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: hot foods; temperature; esophageal cancer; thermosensing; sensory thresholds; methodological study
Online: 9 August 2018 (12:50:40 CEST)
Epidemiological studies indicate an increased risk of cancer from the consumption of very hot foods and beverages. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has already recommended threshold values for the maximum drinking temperature of very hot beverages. The contact time and the contact temperature are decisive for the risk of injury when hot media come into contact with human skin. However, measuring the contact temperature is not easily possible in practice. In the present study, a numerical simulation based on the solution of the heat conduction equation was initially used to investigate whether and for what period of time a constant contact temperature is to be expected under oral conditions. For small circular 3-cm food samples (e.g., cooked potatoes) with 2.5 mm thickness in contact with the tongue, the simulation results in a constant contact temperature of 10 s before cooling. With a thickness of 0.5 mm, the contact temperature is only maintained 1 s. Hot beverages, which spread as a thin film and thereby increase their surface area, can therefore be consumed at higher temperatures than solid foods. Furthermore, a simple test technique with a "measuring spoon" was developed. A hot sample is placed on the tongue. Orientating measurements were used to determine which contact temperature was considered to be just comfortable for any period > 10 s and for which period of less than 10 s it was still just bearable. The contact temperature, which was still perceived as tolerable for periods > 10 s, was 46.5 °C. The time spans for the higher contact temperature 48 °C were between 2 and 4 s and for 49 °C between 1 and 2 s. The course of the contact temperatures determined in the experiment over time allows to calculate the corresponding threshold values of consumption temperatures for various foods. Consumption temperatures of about 56 °C for potatoes and 60 °C for cheese are still perceived as tolerable. In view of the fact that the contact temperature is obviously the determining factor for the risk of injury from burns in the oral cavity in addition to the contact time, it makes sense to reference threshold values to the contact temperature rather than to the surface or consumption temperature of a food product, which is current customary practice. If this contact temperature is defined as a threshold value, the surface or consumption temperature for any other food can be calculated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0270.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: environmental management; deep-seabed mining; International Seabed Authority; management thresholds; regulation; precaution
Online: 18 July 2022 (11:07:25 CEST)
The establishment of thresholds is integral to environmental management. This paper introduces the use of thresholds in the context of deep-seabed mining, a nascent industry for which an exploitation regime of regulations, standards and guidelines is still in the process of being developed, and for which the roles and values of thresholds have yet to be finalised. There are several options for integrating thresholds into the International Seabed Authority’s regulatory regime, from being stipulated in regulations to being part of a mining contract, each option having its own advantages and disadvantages. Here we explore the range of ways that thresholds can be derived, set out the challenges in translating ecological and management data into thresholds, highlight factors for acceptance and operationalisation of thresholds in deep-seabed mining, and explain the necessity of refining thresholds as knowledge on impacts to features improves. Some comparable marine industries already use thresholds and these could potentially be used as starting points for the development of thresholds for deep-seabed mining. In order to be acceptable to the wide range of deep-seabed mining stakeholders, thresholds need to strike a balance among levels of harm acceptable by society, levels of environmental precaution justifiable by governments, scientific robustness, and operational practicality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0388.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: rainfall thresholds; rainstorms; runoff erosion; weather radar; early warning system; risk reduction; resilience
Online: 6 May 2023 (07:55:26 CEST)
The effects of global warming combined with the progressive expansion of urbanization have considerably increased exposure to urban flooding and runoff widespread erosion risk, also causing shallow landslides and mud flows, respectively in urbanized areas of lowland and hill/foothill environments. Increasing urban flooding resilience has become a priority at virtually all levels of governance. The analysis of a different hazard scenarios, in which various hydro-meteorological conditions and management alternatives are examined, should act as the basis for the effective design and evaluation of interventions to improve urban flooding resilience. Turin Metropolitan Area (TMA), located in north-western Italy, represents a unique case due to its complex orography, with a mountainous sector in the west side and a flat or hilly part in the east side. During the warm season, these environmental conditions make the urban area prone to severe atmospheric convection causing frequent hailstorms and rainstorms of high intensity that may impact on urban infrastructures (i.e., drainage system and road network), thus requiring an adequate management as a key factor to reducing risk and losses. The urban areas of TMA are monitored by polarimetric Doppler weather radars and by a dense rain gauges network. Analyzing several case studies of urban flooding, this research work assesses the feasibility of a meteorological radar early warning system based on the identification of rainfall thresholds that characterize urban flooding, occurring in the lowlands, and the runoff erosion phenomena affecting the urbanized hills and foothills.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0351.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: VIPV; passenger car; life cycle assessment; mileage; electrical architecture; thresholds; model; losses; shading; carbon footprint
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:25:22 CEST)
Among the explored solutions to reduce the environmental impact of the transport sector, Vehicle Integrated Photovoltaics. Thus, we developed a simulation tool of the distance covered by VIPV. It considers various usage patterns and vehicle types, several characteristics of the PV system and all the losses that may decrease energy yield. Focusing on passenger car, simulations indicate the order of influence of the parameters on the outputs of the model: geographic locality, shading, thresholds due to extra-consumption to charge the vehicle battery from PV and frequency of recharge with the grid. With projections of the technology in 2030, with 30 % shading, VIPV cover up to 1444 km yearly distance. This represents up to 12 % of the driven mileage. For the best month, it can get up to 14 km/day. For average Europe and worst-case conditions, VIPV cover only 293 km per year. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of solarized passenger car shows negative balance for low-carbon electricity mix and average solar irradiance. In favorable conditions, the carbon footprint is up to 489 kg CO2-equivalent avoided emissions on 13 years lifespan. Beyond km and LCA focus, VIPV may provide useful functions in non-interconnected zones and for resilience in disaster zones.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1327.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Plum consumption; Consumer Quality Index; flesh breakdown; temperature management; critical bruising thresholds; maximum maturity; late harvest; firmness; SSC
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:25:20 CEST)
Plums are primarily marketed for fresh consumption, canning, freezing, jam and jelly. Unfortunately, plum consumption has remained steady or declined. Consumers complain about a lack of flavor quality but are willing to pay for higher quality. Thus, lack of flavor and cold storage disorders are the main barriers to consumption. Plum cultivars are susceptible to gel breakdown, flesh browning and ‘off flavors’. Consumer acceptance and postharvest life are highly dependent on genotype, quality attributes, harvest date and proper postharvest handling. A consumer quality index (CQI) based on soluble solids concentration (SSC) and minimum firmness is proposed to maximize flavor and postharvest life. In most cases, late harvest increases quality attributes. Our work and industry experience demonstrated that using critical bruising thresholds (CBT) based on minimum firmness measured at harvest acts as a reliable predictor of how late to harvest safely for maximum visual and sensory quality. Plums are well adapted to late harvest because of their low susceptibility to bruising damage, but proper postharvest temperature management and marketing within the potential market life are necessary to maintain flavor and avoid the onset of storage disorders. Thus, to maximize flavor and postharvest life, a CQI based on SSC and minimum firmness measured at consumption is proposed. This article provides guidance on using this CQI, combined with proper postharvest handling techniques such as correct harvest date determination and temperature management, to maintain quality and increase consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0247.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: fault detection; retraction/extension (R/E) hydraulic system; bond graph-linear fractional trans-formation technique; interval analytic redundancy relations; uncertainty; fault signature matrix; residuals; thresholds
Online: 17 August 2022 (03:53:54 CEST)
Various factors, such as uncertainty of component parameters and uncertainty of sensor meas-urement values, contribute to the difficulty of fault detection in the landing gear retrac-tion/extension hydraulic system. In this paper, we introduce linear fractional transformation technology and uncertainty analysis theory for the construction of the diagnostic bond graph of the landing gear retraction/extension hydraulic system. In this way, interval analytical redundancy relations and fault signature matrix can be derived. Using the fault signature matrix, existing faults of the system can be preliminarily detected and isolated. Additionally, interval analytical re-dundancy relations can be used to detect system faults in detail, and cases analysis can be carried out to determine if the actuator is externally or internally leaky, and if the landing gear selector valve is reversing stuck. Compared to the traditional analytical redundancy relations, this method takes into account the negative factors of uncertainty; and compared to the traditional absolute diagnostic threshold, the interval diagnostic threshold is more accurate and sensitive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0643.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; axial motor symptoms; postural instability & gait difficulties; functional limits of stability; non-motor sensory symptoms; sensorimotor integration; somatosensory system; plantar cutaneous vibration perception thresholds; deep brain stimulation; subthalamic nucleus
Online: 10 November 2023 (01:49:33 CET)
Objective: To investigate whether impaired plantar cutaneous vibration perception contributes to axial motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and whether anti-parkinsonian medication and subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS), show different effects. Methods: Three groups were tested: PD patients on medication (PD-MED), PD patients on medication and additional STN-DBS (PD-MED–DBS), and healthy subjects (HS) as reference. Motor performance was analyzed using a pressure distribution platform. Plantar cutaneous vibration perception thresholds (VPT) were investigated using a customized vibration exciter at 30 Hz. Results: Motor performance of PD-MED and PD-MED–DBS was characterized by greater postural sway, smaller limits of stability ranges, and slower gait, due to shorter strides, fewer steps per minute, and broader stride widths compared to HS. Comparing patient groups, PD-MED–DBS showed better overall motor performance than PD-MED, particularly for the functional limits of stability and gait. VPTs were significantly higher for PD-MED compared to HS, which suggests impaired plantar cutaneous vibration perception in PD. However, PD-MED–DBS showed less impaired cutaneous vibration perception than PD-MED. Conclusion: PD patients suffer from poor motor performance compared to healthy subjects. Anti-parkinsonian medication in conjunction with STN-DBS seems to be superior for normalizing axial motor symptoms compared to medication alone. Plantar cutaneous vibration perception is impaired in PD patients, whereas anti-parkinsonian medication together with STN-DBS is superior for normalizing tactile cutaneous perception compared to medication alone. Consequently, based on our results and the findings of the literature impaired plantar cutaneous vibration perception might contribute to axial motor symptoms in PD.