REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0081.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Critical speed; exercise prescription; team sports; thresholds; shuttle running
Online: 2 February 2021 (10:05:08 CET)
The overarching purpose of this review was to highlight the utility of different aerobic field tests in terms of the parameters they provide, with a specific focus on shuttle running and all-out testing. Various field tests are discussed in detail and are categorised according to linear continuous running tests (e.g. 12-minute Cooper Test, University of Montreal Track Test [UMTT], 1200/1600 m time trials, 3-minute all-out test for running [3MT]), intermittent shuttle running tests (e.g. yo-yo inter-mittent recovery test level 1 [YYIR1], 30-15 intermittent fitness test [IFT], and the intermittent all-out shuttle test [IAOST]), and continuous shuttle running tests (e.g. 1.2 km shuttle run test [1.2SRT], maximal multi-stage 20-m shuttle test [MSR], 25-m, 30 m and 50-m 3-minute all-out shuttle test [AOST]). Readers will be guided through the theoretical and practical underpinnings of the 3MT methodology, where the all-out testing methodology is stationed within the testing paradigm, and how to practically implement and interpret the results thereof.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: image segmentation; gray level thresholds; neutrosophic information; neutrosophic certainty
Online: 31 August 2020 (07:53:55 CEST)
This article presents a new method of segmenting images with gray levels. The method is based on determining several thresholds for separation of gray levels. The determination of these thresholds is done using the certainty of the neutrosophic information. The concept of this method can be stated simply: to choose the local maximums for the neutrosophic certainty.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: coffee; temperature; esophageal cancer; thermosensing; sensory thresholds; methodological study
Online: 26 April 2018 (08:05:50 CEST)
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluates “very hot (>65 °C) beverages” as probably carcinogenic to humans. However, there is a lack of research regarding what temperatures consumers actually perceive as “very hot” or as “too hot”. A methodology for organoleptical assessment of such threshold temperatures was developed. The participants were asked to mix a very hot coffee step by step into a cooler coffee. Because of that, the coffee to be tasted was incrementally getting hotter during the test. The participants took a sip at every addition, until they perceive the beverage as too hot for consumption. The protocol was evaluated using 87 participants. Interestingly, the average pain threshold of the test group (67 °C) and the preferred drinking temperature (63 °C) iterated around the IARC threshold for carcinogenicity. The developed methodology was found as fit for the purpose and may be applied in larger studies.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0126.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: hot foods; temperature; esophageal cancer; thermosensing; sensory thresholds; methodological study
Online: 9 August 2018 (12:50:40 CEST)
Epidemiological studies indicate an increased risk of cancer from the consumption of very hot foods and beverages. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has already recommended threshold values for the maximum drinking temperature of very hot beverages. The contact time and the contact temperature are decisive for the risk of injury when hot media come into contact with human skin. However, measuring the contact temperature is not easily possible in practice. In the present study, a numerical simulation based on the solution of the heat conduction equation was initially used to investigate whether and for what period of time a constant contact temperature is to be expected under oral conditions. For small circular 3-cm food samples (e.g., cooked potatoes) with 2.5 mm thickness in contact with the tongue, the simulation results in a constant contact temperature of 10 s before cooling. With a thickness of 0.5 mm, the contact temperature is only maintained 1 s. Hot beverages, which spread as a thin film and thereby increase their surface area, can therefore be consumed at higher temperatures than solid foods. Furthermore, a simple test technique with a "measuring spoon" was developed. A hot sample is placed on the tongue. Orientating measurements were used to determine which contact temperature was considered to be just comfortable for any period > 10 s and for which period of less than 10 s it was still just bearable. The contact temperature, which was still perceived as tolerable for periods > 10 s, was 46.5 °C. The time spans for the higher contact temperature 48 °C were between 2 and 4 s and for 49 °C between 1 and 2 s. The course of the contact temperatures determined in the experiment over time allows to calculate the corresponding threshold values of consumption temperatures for various foods. Consumption temperatures of about 56 °C for potatoes and 60 °C for cheese are still perceived as tolerable. In view of the fact that the contact temperature is obviously the determining factor for the risk of injury from burns in the oral cavity in addition to the contact time, it makes sense to reference threshold values to the contact temperature rather than to the surface or consumption temperature of a food product, which is current customary practice. If this contact temperature is defined as a threshold value, the surface or consumption temperature for any other food can be calculated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0270.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: environmental management; deep-seabed mining; International Seabed Authority; management thresholds; regulation; precaution
Online: 18 July 2022 (11:07:25 CEST)
The establishment of thresholds is integral to environmental management. This paper introduces the use of thresholds in the context of deep-seabed mining, a nascent industry for which an exploitation regime of regulations, standards and guidelines is still in the process of being developed, and for which the roles and values of thresholds have yet to be finalised. There are several options for integrating thresholds into the International Seabed Authority’s regulatory regime, from being stipulated in regulations to being part of a mining contract, each option having its own advantages and disadvantages. Here we explore the range of ways that thresholds can be derived, set out the challenges in translating ecological and management data into thresholds, highlight factors for acceptance and operationalisation of thresholds in deep-seabed mining, and explain the necessity of refining thresholds as knowledge on impacts to features improves. Some comparable marine industries already use thresholds and these could potentially be used as starting points for the development of thresholds for deep-seabed mining. In order to be acceptable to the wide range of deep-seabed mining stakeholders, thresholds need to strike a balance among levels of harm acceptable by society, levels of environmental precaution justifiable by governments, scientific robustness, and operational practicality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0247.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: fault detection; retraction/extension (R/E) hydraulic system; bond graph-linear fractional trans-formation technique; interval analytic redundancy relations; uncertainty; fault signature matrix; residuals; thresholds
Online: 17 August 2022 (03:53:54 CEST)
Various factors, such as uncertainty of component parameters and uncertainty of sensor meas-urement values, contribute to the difficulty of fault detection in the landing gear retrac-tion/extension hydraulic system. In this paper, we introduce linear fractional transformation technology and uncertainty analysis theory for the construction of the diagnostic bond graph of the landing gear retraction/extension hydraulic system. In this way, interval analytical redundancy relations and fault signature matrix can be derived. Using the fault signature matrix, existing faults of the system can be preliminarily detected and isolated. Additionally, interval analytical re-dundancy relations can be used to detect system faults in detail, and cases analysis can be carried out to determine if the actuator is externally or internally leaky, and if the landing gear selector valve is reversing stuck. Compared to the traditional analytical redundancy relations, this method takes into account the negative factors of uncertainty; and compared to the traditional absolute diagnostic threshold, the interval diagnostic threshold is more accurate and sensitive.