REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0134.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Methylcellulose; cellulose nanocrystal; hydrogel; birefringence; wet-spinning; optical fiber; thermoresponsive; LCST; nanocomposite
Online: 5 August 2021 (10:15:49 CEST)
Chemical modification of cellulose offers routes for structurally and functionally diverse biopolymer derivatives for numerous industrial applications. Among cellulose derivatives, cellulose ethers have found extensive use, such as emulsifiers, in food industries and biotechnology. Methylcellulose, one of the simplest cellulose derivatives, has been utilized for biomedical, construction materials and cell culture applications. Its improved water solubility, thermoresponsive gelation, and the ability to act as a matrix for various dopants also offer routes for cellulose-based functional materials. There has been a renewed interest in understanding the structural, mechanical, and optical properties of methylcellulose and its composites. This review focuses on the recent development in optically and mechanically tunable hydrogels derived from methylcellulose and methylcellulose-cellulose nanocrystal composites. We further discuss the application of the gels for preparing highly ductile and strong fibers. Finally, the emerging application of methylcellulose-based fibers as optical fibers and their application potentials are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0142.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: chitosan; thermoresponsive hydrogel; nitric oxide; s-nitrosothiols; biocompatibility; antimicrobial; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; pluronic F127
Online: 19 March 2018 (07:25:27 CET)
Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in physiological processes, including vasodilatation, wound healing and antibacterial activities. As NO is a free radical, designing drugs to generate therapeutic amounts of NO in controlled spatial and time manners is still a challenge. In this study, the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) was incorporated into the thermoresponsive Pluronic F-127 (PL) - chitosan (CS) hydrogel, with an easy and economically feasible methodology. CS is a polysaccharide with known antimicrobial properties. Scanning electron microscopy, rheology and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used for hydrogel characterization. The results demonstrated that the hydrogel has a smooth surface, thermoresponsive behavior and good mechanical stability. The kinetics of NO release and GSNO diffusion from GSNO-containing PL/CS hydrogel demonstrated a sustained NO/GSNO release, in concentrations suitable for biomedical applications. The GSNO-PL/CS hydrogel demonstrated a concentration-dependent toxicity to Vero cells, and antimicrobial activity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 0.5 µg·mL-1 of hydrogel, which corresponds to 1 mmol·L-1 of GSNO). Interestingly, the concentration range in which the NO-releasing hydrogel demonstrated an antibacterial effect was not found to be toxic to the Vero mammalian cell. Thus, the GSNO-PL/CS hydrogel is a suitable biomaterial for topical NO delivery applications.