ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0566.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: remote sensing; evapotranspiration; CWSI; thermal images; almond; pistachio
Online: 24 October 2018 (10:45:22 CEST)
In California, water is a perennial concern. As competition for water resources increases due to growth in population, California’s tree nut farmers are committed to improving the efficiency of water used for food production. There is an imminent need to have reliable methods that provide information about the temporal and spatial variability of crop water requirements, which allow farmers to make irrigation decisions at field scale. This study focuses on estimating the actual evapotranspiration and crop coefficients of an almond and pistachio orchard located in Central Valley (California) during an entire growing season by combining a simple crop evapotranspiration model with remote sensing data. A dataset of the vegetation index NDVI derived from Landsat-8 was used to facilitate the estimation of the basal crop coefficient (Kcb), or potential crop water use. The soil water evaporation coefficient (Ke) was measured from microlysimeters. The water stress coefficient (Ks) was derived from airborne remotely sensed canopy thermal-based methods, using seasonal regressions between the crop water stress index (CWSI) and stem water potential (Ystem). These regressions were statistically-significant for both crops, indicating clear seasonal differences in pistachios, but not in almonds. In almonds, the estimated maximum Kcb values ranged between 1.05 to 0.90, while for pistachios, it ranged between 0.89 to 0.80. The model indicated a difference of 97 mm in transpiration over the season between both crops. Soil evaporation accounted for an average of 16% and 13% of the total actual evapotranspiration for almonds and pistachios, respectively. Verification of the model-based daily crop evapotranspiration estimates was done using eddy-covariance and surface renewal data collected in the same orchards, yielding an r2 >= 0.7 and average root mean square errors (RMSE) of 0.74 and 0.91 mm day-1 for almond and pistachio, respectively. It is concluded that the combination of crop evapotranspiration models with remotely-sensed data is helpful for upscaling irrigation information from plant to field scale and thus may be used by farmers for making day-to-day irrigation management decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0129.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: emissivity; land cover; land surface temperature; surface urban heat island; thermal environment; mitigation
Online: 29 January 2017 (10:38:44 CET)
In urban area, one of the great problem is the rise of temperature, which leads to form the urban heat island effect. This paper refers to the trend of the urban surface temperature extracted from the Landsat images from which to consider changes in the formation of surface urban heat island for the north of Ho Chi Minh city in period 1995-2015. Research has identified land surface temperature from thermal infrared band, according to the ability of the surface emission based on characteristics of normalized difference vegetation index NDVI. The results showed that temperature fluctuated over the city with a growing trend and the gradual expansion of the area of the high-temperature zone towards the suburbs. Within 20 years, the trend of the formation of surface urban heat island with two typical locations showed a clear difference between the surface temperature of urban areas and rural areas with space expansion of heat island in 4 times in 2015 compared to 1995. An extreme heat island located in the inner city has an area of approximately 18% compared to the total area of the region. Since then, the solution to reduce the impact of urban heat island has been proposed, in order to protect the urban environment and the lives of residents in Ho Chi Minh City becoming better
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0333.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Unobtrusive Sensing; Radar sensor; Thermal Sensor; Localisation; Home Environment.
Online: 16 August 2021 (12:13:28 CEST)
This paper proposes the localisation of room occupants in home environments using Unobtrusive Sensing Solutions (USSs). The ability to localise room occupants in home environments can help in the objective monitoring of sedentary behaviour. While wearable sensors can provide tangible information on health and wellness, they have battery life issues and the inability to perform prolonged monitoring. This work uses heterogeneous USSs in the form of an Infrared Thermopile Array (ITA-64) thermal sensor and a Multi-Chirp Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Mono-pulse (MC-FMCW-M) Radar sensor to monitor room occupants. Digital filters and background subtraction algorithms were used to process the thermal images gleaned from the ITA-64 thermal sensors. The MC-FMCW-M Radar sensor used multi-chirp and Doppler shift principles to estimate the exact location of the targeted room occupants. The estimated distances from the Radar Sensor were compared with ground truth values. Experimental results demonstrated the ability to identify thermal blobs of occupants present in the room at any particular time. Data analyses indicated no significant difference (p = 0.975) and a very strong positive correlation (r = 0.998) between the ground truth distance values and those obtained from the Radar Sensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0301.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Unobtrusive Sensing; Data Fusion; Data Mining; Radar Sensing; Thermal Sensing; Sprained Ankle; Infrared Thermopile Array; Home Environment.
Online: 13 August 2021 (15:12:24 CEST)
The ability to monitor Sprained Ankle Rehabilitation Exercises (SPAREs) in home environments can help therapists to ascertain if exercises have been performed as prescribed. Whilst wearable devices have been shown to provide advantages such as high accuracy and precision during monitoring activities, disadvantages such as limited battery life, users' inability to remember to charge and wear the devices are often the challenges for their usage. Also, video cameras, which are notable for high frame rates and granularity, are not privacy-friendly. This paper, therefore, proposes the use and fusion of unobtrusive and privacy-friendly sensing solutions for data collection and processing during SPAREs in home environments. Two Infrared Thermopile Array (ITA-32) thermal sensors and two Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) Radar sensors were used to simultaneously monitor 15 healthy participants during SPAREs which involved twisting their ankle in 4-fundamental movement patterns namely (i) extension, (ii) flexion, (iii) eversion and (iv) inversion. Experimental results indicated the ability to identify thermal blobs of participants performing the 4 fundamental movement patterns of the human ankle. Cluster-based analysis of data gleaned from the ITA-32 sensors and the FMCW Radar sensors indicated average classification accuracy of 96.9% with K-Nearest Neighbours, Neural Network, AdaBoost, Decision Tree, Stochastic Gradient Descent and Support Vector Machine, amongst others.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0301.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Nanoliquids; Nanofluids; Thermal conductivity; cylinder; shapefactor; Nanoparticles; Simulation; Thermal radiation; Thermal expansion
Online: 19 March 2020 (13:58:10 CET)
In the presented paper, a comprehensive study will be done on shape factor analysis of MoS2-GO in H2O-C2H6O2 based hybrid nanoliquids associated with effect and influence of transverse magnetic field and thermal radiation. The effect of variation in different parameters and nanoliquids shapes under temperature and velocity distribution is explored and also non-linear thermal radiation will be analyzed. Algorithms are introduced in proportion to mathematical modeling based on their numerical results and comparative curves for further explanation. In addition, it will be done research for influence and effect of new significant parameters emerged to the model to do sensitivity analysis and also their output results are demonstrated, examined and compared together by presenting graphs and tables. Based on detailed discussions, authentication of attained results designates the high accuracy of applied methods deployed to solve presented model in the paper. Our results satisfy that our used approach is accurate, highly reliable and also effective. All mentioned steps will be described throughout the literature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0272.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Thermally Activated Building System; thermal comfort; thermal mass
Online: 19 January 2022 (14:18:14 CET)
In recent years, several alternatives for improving the thermal comfort conditions inside buildings have been proposed. Among these alternatives, Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS) have become of interest due to the benefits this technology brings to the building sector. The TABS are embedded in different building components and exchange heat with building envelope to improve the indoor air temperature. This review presents relevant results presented in the literature on the thermal behavior of TABS, the different types of TABS configurations, and the main parameters of TABS studied such as pipe separation, fluid inlet temperature, fluid velocity, and volumetric flow rate. The potential of TABS to improve thermal comfort conditions and provide energy savings is also discussed. Further, this study presents the different modes of application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0528.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Carbohydrate; Menthol; Thermal Comfort; Thermal Sensation; Thirst; Water
Online: 20 November 2020 (09:30:10 CET)
Carbohydrate and menthol mouth-swilling have been used to enhance exercise performance in the heat. However, these strategies differ in mechanism and subjective experience. Participants (n=12) sat for 60 min in hot conditions (35°C; 15±2%), following a 15 min control period, participants undertook three 15 min testing blocks. A randomised swill (Carbohydrate; Menthol; Water) was administered per testing block (one swill every three minutes within each block). Heart rate, tympanic temperature, thermal comfort, thermal sensation and thirst were recorded every three minutes. Data were analysed by ANOVA, with carbohydrate intake controlled for via ANCOVA. Small elevations in heart rate were observed after carbohydrate (ES: 0.22 ± 90% CI: -0.09 to 0.52) and water swilling (0.26; -0.04 to 0.54). Menthol showed small improvements in thermal comfort relative to carbohydrate (-0.33; -0.63 to 0.03) and water (-0.40; -0.70 to -0.10), and induced moderate reductions in thermal sensation (-0.71; -1.01 to -0.40 and -0.66; -0.97 to -0.35, respectively). Menthol reduced thirst by a small to moderate extent. These effects persisted when controlling for dietary carbohydrate intake. Carbohydrate and water may elevate heart rate, whereas menthol elicits small improvements in thermal comfort, moderately improves thermal sensation and may mitigate thirst; these effects persist when dietary carbohydrate intake is controlled for.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0095.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: thermal barrier coatings; 8 %YSZ; thermal conductivity; microstructure
Online: 20 September 2017 (08:28:21 CEST)
In this paper, the effect of microstructure on the thermal conductivity of plasma-sprayed Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is investigated. Nine freestanding samples deposited on aluminum-base superalloy are studied. Cross-section morphology such as pores, cracks, m-phase content, grain boundary density of the coated samples are examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). Multiple linear regressions are used to develop quantitative models which describe the relationship between the particle parameters, m-phase content and the microstructure such as porosity, crack-porosity, the length density of small-angle-crack and the length density of big-angle-crack. Moreover, the relationship between microstructure and thermal conductivity is investigated. Results reveal that the thermal conductivity of the coating is mainly determined by the microstructure and grain boundary density at room temperature (25 ℃) and by the length density of big-angle-crack, monoclinic phase content and grain boundary density at high temperature (1200 ℃).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0117.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Thermal transport in nanocomposites; interfacial thermal conductance; graphene; borophene; multiscale modelling of thermal transport
Online: 6 January 2021 (13:26:46 CET)
Graphene and borophene are highly attractive two-dimensional materials with outstanding physical properties. In this study we employed a combined atomistic continuum multiscale modeling to explore the effective thermal conductivity of polymers nanocomposites made of PDMS polymer as the matrix and graphene and borophene as nanofillers. We first conduct classical molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interfacial thermal conductance between graphene/PDMS and borophene/PDMS interfaces. Acquired results confirm that the interfacial thermal conductance between nanosheets and polymer increases from the single-layer to multilayered nanosheets and finally converges. The data provided by the atomistic simulations were then used in the finite element method simulations to evaluate the effective thermal conductivity of polymer nanocomposites at continuum level. We explore the effects of nanofillers type, their volume content, geometry aspect ratio and thickness on the nanocomposites effective thermal conductivity. As a very interesting finding, we show that borophene nanosheets, despite almost two orders of magnitude lower thermal conductivity than graphene, can yield very close enhancement in the effective thermal conductivity in comparison with graphene, particularly for low volume content and small aspect ratios and thicknesses. We conclude that for the polymer-based nanocomposites, significant improvement in the thermal conductivity can be reached by improving the bonding between the fillers and polymer or in another word enhancing the thermal conductance at the interface. By taking into account the high electrical conductivity of borophene, our results suggest borophene nanosheets as promising nanofillers to simultaneously enhance the polymers thermal and electrical conductivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0178.v2
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: thermal mass; natural ventilation; thermal resilience; materials design; life cycle analysis; thermal optimization; low carbon
Online: 16 July 2019 (08:50:05 CEST)
What proportions should a thermally massive building have? How should the thermal mass be distributed? Should the "massing" change with the choice of material? This paper shows how to optimize the physical proportions of a building so that it synchronizes ambient heat exchanges in a natural feedback cycle. The internal mass is thermally coupled with buoyancy ventilation; the cycle is driven by the daily swing of outdoor temperature. Tripling up functions in this way—so that structural materials can reliably cool and power the ventilation for buildings—could help decarbonize the construction industry and provide an effective strategy for adapting to life-threatening heatwaves. Based on harmonic analysis, the method allows designers to thermally tune the form and mass of a building to meet chosen targets for temperature and ventilation in free-running mode. Once the optimal balance of exchange rates is known, design teams can proportionally vary the building height and ventilation openings against the surface area and thickness of an internal thermal mass. The possible permutations are infinite but parametrically constrained, allowing teams to fairly compare the functional and environmental credentials of different construction materials while they produce and evaluate preliminary options for organizing the exterior form and interior spaces of a building. An example study suggests that thin-shell structures of minimum weight, and even timber buildings, may be optimally tuned to produce ample ventilation and temperature attenuation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0225.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: 3D thermal model; image fusion; smart phone; thermal IR
Online: 16 May 2018 (08:26:39 CEST)
Thermal infrared imagery provides temperature information on target objects, and has been widely applied in non-destructive testing. However, thermal infrared imagery is not always able to display detailed textures of inspected objects, which hampers the understanding of geometric entities consisting of temperature information. Although some commercial software has been developed for 3D thermal model displays, the software requires the use of expensive specific thermal infrared sensors. This study proposes a cost-effective method for 3D thermal model reconstruction based on image-based modeling. Two smart phones and a low-cost thermal infrared camera are employed to acquire visible images and thermal images, respectively, that are fused for 3D thermal model reconstruction. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to effectively reconstruct a 3D thermal model which extremely approximates its corresponding entity. The total computation time for the 3D thermal model reconstruction is intensive while generating dense points required for the creation of a geometric entity. Future work will improve the efficiency of the proposed method in order to expand its potential applications to in-time monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0023.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Packed beds; Thermal heat; Porosity effect; Thermal contact resistance
Online: 3 August 2016 (08:29:06 CEST)
Modelling water vapour flow, heat transfer and porosity in porous adsorbent is somewhat challenging simulation problem. Primary macroscopic water vapour flow models, such as Darcy's law, fail to predict the pressure drop entirely correctly for the reason that many of flow parameters not considered because of the simplifications that remain made for the multi-scale structure of the porous adsorbents. For one to develop a good physical understanding of such water vapour flows and the accuracy of existing 3D simulation models, there is a need for some accurate 3D geometry to be studied. This present work describes two-phase water vapour flow and adsorption/ desorption performed on porous adsorbent by a Dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). The CFD simulation results are associated with experiments results. It is decided that for such complex porous adsorbent CFD simulation problems the use of COMSOL Multiphysics and SolidWorks flow simulation will be utilised.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Ground coupled Heat Exchangers; Thermal Response Test; Thermal conductivity; Thermal diffusivity; Geotechnical properties; Borehole heat exchangers
Online: 11 February 2019 (16:13:18 CET)
The performance of ground heat exchangers systems depends on the knowledge of the thermal parameters of the ground like thermal conductivity, thermal capacity and diffusivity. The knowledge of these parameters often requires quite accurate experimental analysis, known under the name of Thermal Response Test (TRT). In this paper, after a general analysis of the various available types of TRT and the study of the theoretical basics of the method, the perspective of the definition of a simplified routine method of analysis based on the combination of a particular version of TRT and the routine geotechnical tests for the characterization of soil stratigraphy and of the ground characteristics, mandatory before the construction of a new buildings, even if limited to quite short drilling depth (lower than 30 m). The idea of developing TRT in connection with geotechnical test activity has the objective of promoting a widespread use of in-situ experimental analysis and of reducing TRT costs and time duration of the experimental analysis. The considerations exposed in the present paper lead to reconsider a particular variety of the TRT in particular the version known as Thermal Response Test while Drilling (TRTWD).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0524.v1
Online: 21 November 2018 (11:27:40 CET)
The study sought to determine solar irradiation in Homa Bay County which can be tapped and utilized in improving lives of residents of the region by converting the solar thermal energy in Home Bay to other forms of energy such as electric form, mechanical form and light. The study was done by assessing the local atmospheric conditions which included sunshine duration data and air temperature records for the period of two years and the data obtained subjected to statistical analysis to determine the localized characteristics of the resource. The characteristics that were examined include; seasonal and annual power expectations as well as resource reliability. The solar irradiance of Home County was found to be 768.0 W/m2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0587.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Pyrolysis; Kinetics; Thermal degradation; PMMA; COC.Pyrolysis; Kinetics; Thermal degradation; PMMA; COC
Online: 25 May 2021 (08:04:51 CEST)
In this investigation, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was mixed with cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) because of its hardness, strength, and transparency properties. The results of thermal analysis through TGA and DTG showed that the thermal properties of the alloy are improved using 40% cyclic olefin copolymer. Kinetics of thermal degradation (pyrolysis) of polymers have been studied and analyzed and thermal pyrolysis of polymethyl methacrylate and cyclic olefin copolymer thermoplastic polymer was conducted. The computation of kinetic analysis is measured along with the different methods used to study the kinetics. The activation energy (E) of degradation of studied materials was estimated using Ozawa Flynn and Wall (OFW), Starink and Kissinger’s methods, and evaluation of three kinetic parameters taken appropriate kinetic model in terms of percent change for both types of polymers have been proposed, and finally, simulated curves were compared with the experimental curves. Both mechanisms of degradation for COC and PMMA under nitrogen atmosphere will reflect intramolecular transfer and random scission of the main chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0290.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: chemical modification; electronics cooling; thermal management nanocomposites; thermal conductivity; silver nanoparticles
Online: 25 October 2018 (10:33:13 CEST)
Polymer composites with high thermal conductivity have a great potential for applications in modern electronics due to their low cost, easy process, and stable physical and chemical properties. Nevertheless, most polymer composites commonly possess unsatisfactory thermal conductivity, primarily because of the high interfacial thermal resistance between inorganic ﬁllers. Herein, we developed a novel method through silver functionalized graphene nanosheets (GNS) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites with excellent thermal properties to meet the requirements of thermal management. The effects of composites on interfacial structure and properties of the composites were identiﬁed, and the microstructures and properties of the composites were studied as a function of the volume fraction of fillers. An ultrahigh thermal conductivity of 12.3 W/mK for polymer matrix composites was obtained, which is an approximate enhancement of 69.1 times compared to the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix. Moreover, these composites showed more competitive thermal conductivities compared to untreated fillers/PVA composites applied to the desktop central processing unit, making these composites a high-performance alternative to be used for thermal management.
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: atmospheric plasma spray (APS) process; particle size; thermal insulation; thermal barrier coating (TBC); thermal diffusivity; coating microstructure; coating porosity
Online: 3 July 2019 (14:49:12 CEST)
In the present work, three different atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) alumina coatings were fabricated using three fused and crushed alumina powders of different particle size fine, medium and coarse. The influence of the particle size on thermal properties and micro-structural features of the produced coating were investigated by thermal insulation test and detailed image analysis technique, respectively. The analyzed micro-structural features include the total porosity, pore size (fine, medium, and large) and cracks. All types of cracks were considered in calculations as voids and were evaluated according to their sizes as pores. All spray parameters except the particle size were fixed throughout the spraying process. The results revealed that the fine starting powder has produced the densest coating with the lowest total porosity and that the total porosity increases with an increasing particle size. This was expected as powders of smaller particle size will reach a higher in-flight temperature and velocity than powders of bigger particle sizes as long as the same spray parameters are applied. However, a detailed image analysis investigation on the three produced coatings showed that the fraction of fine pores and cracks versus the total porosity is substantially higher in coatings produced by using fine starting powders than those produced using medium and coarse powders. In this work, a connection between the thermal insulation and the porosity fraction, which includes fine pores and cracks, was revealed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0067.v1
Online: 8 January 2020 (08:35:48 CET)
People counting applications have been used in diverse applications. The ability and accuracy of thermal imaging over conventional image cameras has led to the implementation of thermal cameras in people counting applications. This paper present a thermal people counting smart glass windows. The people counting application would be remotely monitored from a single centralized PC station as it’s connected to a multiplex of mass monitoring of 20 thermal camera, all embedded into different glass windows. The thermal cameras would then be able to detect body temperatures of all individuals who pass through any of the camera range and also count the numbers of people who passed through the camera range. The data gotten can then be further utilized in various ways, example is in the control of air conditioning and lightening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0571.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Solar energy; photovoltaic-thermal; electrical efficiency; thermal efficiency; exergetic efficiency; energy bandgap
Online: 30 November 2022 (10:07:52 CET)
We investigate the performance of a novel flat photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) module under high-vacuum through a 1D numerical model based on steady-state energy balance, with the aims of optimizing the simultaneous production of thermal and electrical energy. In the proposed design, the photovoltaic (PV) cell is positioned directly above the selective solar absorber (SSA), in a multilayer or fully integrated PV-SSA structure, which allows full exploitation of spectral solar radiation. In fact, in this configuration the losses related to non-absorption of low-energy photons and thermalization, typical of a classical single-junction PV cell, are reduced. The present study is conducted as the emittance and energy bandgap of the PV layer varied, thus admitting a wide variety of materials into the analysis. The dependence of the temperature coefficient, β(%/K), on the energy bandgap of the PV cell is also included. In the last part of the work, we discuss the performance of the proposed evacuated PV-T equipped with a SSA layer and thin film solar cells, namely those made of CdTe, CdS and GaAs. Overall, the paper highlights the great advantage of using high vacuum insulation, which suppresses conductive losses, and the versatility of the proposed system, which could be adapted to the user's needs simply by choosing the appropriate material for the photovoltaic layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Metal 3D printing; Additive manufacturing; Powder bed fusion; Thermal simulation; Thermal history
Online: 17 September 2021 (09:28:45 CEST)
The powder bed fusion (PBF) metal additive manufacturing (AM) method uses an energy source like a laser to melt the metal powders. The laser can locally melt the metal powders and creates a solid structure as it moves. The complexity of the heat distribution in laser PBF metal AM is one of the main features that need to be accurately addressed and understood to design and manage an optimized printing process. In this research, the dependency of local thermal rates and gradients on print after solidification (in the heat-affected zone) was numerically simulated and studied to provide information for designing the print process. The simulation results were validated by independent experimental results. The simulation shows that the local thermal rates are higher at higher laser power and scan speed. Also, the local thermal gradients increase if the laser power increases. The effect of scan speed on the thermal gradients is opposite during heating versus cooling times. Increasing the scan speed increases the local thermal gradients in the cooling times and decreases the local thermal gradients during the heating. In addition, these simulation results could be used in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning for developing digital additive manufacturing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0370.v1
Subject: Keywords: Seasonal Variance; Pedestrians Thermal Comfort; Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET); Adaptive Thermal Comfort
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:14:58 CET)
Season plays a key role in the development of outdoor spaces for pedestrians in hot humid cities. This research studies the influence of seasonal variations on pedestrian thermal comfort on the pedestrian level by means of meteorology and field observations of selected footpaths in the major tourist area of Malacca. This experiment was carried out on selected clear calm days indicative of each season during the development of a research project, and hourly meteorological transects from 10:00 am to 6:00 pm and questioned 200 respondents on their thermal awareness, comfort, and preferences were conducted. Adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, age, season and hour of the day were significant non-meteorological factors, apart from meteorological information. The findings of analyzes showed that the thermal experience and expectation existed and in different seasons people changed perceptions for the outside thermal environment. Almost 80% local tourist and 55 % international tourist was accepted Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) range affected by the local climate and thermal adaptation. The subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature generated an acceptable physiological equivalent temperature of 32.6°C to 36.8°C based on the seasonal variations for Malacca tourist zone in Malaysia. These findings shed light on the optimal design of outdoor spaces for increasing the utilization rate. The seasonal variation must be taken into account so that the outdoor landscape design provides more opportunities for different seasons to communicate with the atmosphere and so enhance thermal comfort and utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0247.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Ga-In; thermal conductivity; CALPHAD; comparative cut bar method; thermal interface material
Online: 11 August 2020 (03:12:07 CEST)
Thermal interface material (TIM) that can exist as liquid at the service temperature enables efficient heat transfer across two adjacent surfaces in electronic applications. In this work, the thermal conductivities of different phase regions in the Ga-In system at various compositions and temperatures are measured for the first time. A modified comparative cut bar technique is used for the measurement of the thermal conductivities of InxGa1-x (x=0, 0.1, 0.214, 0.3, and 0.9) alloys at 40, 60, 80, and 100oC that are the temperatures commonly encountered in consumer electronics. The thermal conductivity values for the liquid and semi-liquid (liquid+β) Ga-In alloys are higher than the TIM currently used in consumer electronics. These measured quantities, along with the available experimental data from the literature, served as input for the thermal conductivity parameter optimization using the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHase Diagram) method for the pure elements, solution phase, and two-phase region. A set of self-consistent parameters for the description of the thermal conductivity of the Ga-In system is obtained. There is good agreement between the measured and calculated thermal conductivity values for all the phases. Hence, it can be envisaged that liquid/semi-liquid Ga-In alloys can be considered as a potential TIM in consumer electronics due to its high thermal conductivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0155.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: cooling effect; urban park; thermal comfort; physiological equivalent temperature; perceived thermal comfort
Online: 16 September 2019 (01:17:53 CEST)
This empirical study investigates large urban park cooling effects on the thermal comfort of occupants in the vicinity of the main central park, located in Madrid, Spain. Data were gathered during hot summer days, using mobile observations and a questionnaire. The results showed that the cooling effect of this urban park of 140 ha area at a distance of 150 m is able to reduce temperature by an average of 0.63°C and 1.28°C for distances of 380 m and of 665 meters from the park. Moreover, the degree of the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) index at a distance of 150 meters from the park is on average 2°C PET and 2.3°C PET less compared to distances of 380 m and 665 m, respectively. Considering distance from the park, the correlation between occupant Perceived Thermal Comfort (PTC) and PET is inverse. That is, augmenting the distance from park increases PET, while the extent of PTC reduces accordingly. The correlation between these two factors at the nearest and furthest distances from the park is meaningful (P-value <0/05). The results also showed that large-scale urban parks generally play a significant part in creating a cognitive state of high-perceived thermal comfort spaces for residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0272.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Urban climate; thermal field; three-dimensional structure; surface temperatures; heat islands; thermal inversion
Online: 15 November 2021 (12:30:33 CET)
This study aims to evaluate the land surface temperature (LST) and the thermal characteristics of the Urban Canopy Layer (UCL) of the urban canyon in Avenida Rio Branco in the Central Business District (CBD) of Rio de Janeiro during summer. In order to conduct this evaluation, two methods were employed: 1) TIRS Landsat-8 sensor for data selection and processing (latest generation, 2011-2020); ; 2) field survey using nine sampling points — seven along two mobile transects, one fixed point, and one vertical measurement point, which required the use of a RPA (Remotely Piloted Aircraft). Three categories of analysis were established for the field survey based on the prevailing synoptic situations: stability, instability, and post-instability. The CBD is characterized by extensive areas with surface heat islands, in which temperatures were higher than 38.9°C; the areas with milder LSTs were Campo do Santana, Avenida Rio Branco, and one of the Mixed-Use Zones (Praça Mauá). With respect to Rio Branco Avenue, the LST niches of lowest elevation were derived through building shadowing; however, the orbital data diverged from the observation data of the ten field-study days. In situ data revealed that the characteristics urban morphology of Avenida Rio Branco is susceptible to the formation of heat islands, presenting heat islands of very strong magnitude (over 6.1°C) in atmospheric stability, strong magnitude (4.1-6.0°C) in atmospheric instability, and moderate magnitude (2.1°C-4.0°C) in post-atmospheric instability. Despite the synoptic situation, thermal cores were concentrated at 1 pm. The intersection between Avenida Rio Branco, Rua do Ouvidor, and Praça Mauá stored most of the solar energy received during the day due to the greater sky obstruction caused by the verticalization. Finally, vertical analysis demonstrated the formation of a thermal inversion on the night of the highest mean air temperature (29.5°C), probably, due to the roughness and number of buildings in the urban canyon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0160.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: solar thermal systems; phase change materials; thermoplastic elastomer; mechanical property; photo-thermal performance
Online: 11 July 2019 (11:54:58 CEST)
Traditional phase change composites usually suffer poor mechanical property and easy collapsing in the phase changing process. Herein, a highly flexible phase change composite is fabricated using thermoplastic elastomer as the basic gel and the expanded graphite/paraffin as the filler. This new phase change composite shows a tensile strength of 2.1 MPa and a breaking elongation of 220%. It has a melting enthalpy of 145.4 J•g-1 and a thermal conductivity of 2.2 W•m-1•K-1 with 70% of expanded graphite/paraffin. The thermoplastic elastomer based phase change composite exhibits great reversible property after 200 heating/cooling cycles. This flexible phase change composite demonstrates good photo-thermal energy charging/discharging property and shows great potential to be applied in the solar thermal energy systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0493.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Thermal uncertainties; Disequilibrium; Husimi distributions
Online: 19 November 2020 (07:31:23 CET)
In this paper we establish information theoretical bridges between 1) Thermal Heisenberg uncertainties $\Delta x \Delta p$ (at temperature $T$), and 2) LMC structural quantifiers. After having achieved such purpose, we determine to what an extent our bridges can be extended to both the semi classical and classical realms. Also, we find a strict bound relating a special LMC structural quantifier to quantum uncertainties.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0391.v1
Online: 17 July 2020 (15:25:55 CEST)
In this scientific research, thermally stable nickel nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. Nickel nanoparticles were synthesized using phenol –formaldehyde by chemical method followed by calcination. The polymer metal complex was confirmed by FTIR and NMR. The spherical morphology of nickel nanoparticles confirmed by SEM. The crystallographic structure is confirmed by XRD and size of cobalt nanoparticles is 24.0 nm. The TGA analysis was performed over a range of 29-600OC. The TGA thermograph predicts mass decomposition of 11%, for nickel phenol-formaldehyde nanocomposite. The decomposition rate of composites is very low 2% weight loss per 100OC increment in temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0132.v1
Online: 8 March 2020 (04:40:36 CET)
Body temperature responses were recorded during phases of work (waiting to work in close proximity to search site, active work in a search site, and post-work recovery crated in vehicle) in human remains detection dogs during search training. State or federally certified human remains detection dogs (n = 8) completed eight iterations of searching, rotating through six different types of search environments to detect numerous scent sources including partial and complete, buried, hidden, or fully visible human remains. Internal temperature (Tgi) of the body was measured continuously using an ingestible thermistor in the gastrointestinal tract. Mean total phase times were: waiting to work: 9.17 minutes (± 2.27); active work: 8:58 minutes (± 2:49); and post work recovery: 24:04 minutes (± 10.59). Tgi was impacted by phase of work (P < 0.001) with a small increase during active work, with mean peak temperature 39.4 °C (± 0.34 ºC) during that period. Tgi continued to increase for a mean of 7:37 (± 6:04) minutes into the post-work recovery phase in the handler’s vehicle with a mean peak Tgi of 39.66 °C (± 0.41 ºC). No significant increase in temperature was measured during the waiting to work phase, suggesting anticipation of work did not appear to contribute to overall body temperature increase during the waiting to work recovery cycle. Continued increase of gastrointestinal body temperature several minutes after cessation of exercise indicates that risk of heat injury does not immediately stop when the dog stops exercising, although none of the dogs in this study reached clinically concerning body temperatures or displayed any behavioral signs suggestive of pending heat injury. More work is needed to better understand the impact of vehicle crating on post-work recovery temperatures in dogs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0179.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: methane; desorption; hydraulic; thermal; high pressure water injection
Online: 10 May 2018 (08:22:23 CEST)
Moisture and thermal are the key factors for influencing methane desorption during CBM exploitation. Using high pressure water injection technology into coalbed, new fractures and pathways are formed to methane transport. It is existed a phenomenon of water inhibiting gas flow. This study is focused on various water pressures impacted on gas adsorbed coal samples, then the desorption capacity could be revealed under different conditions. And the results are shown that methane desorption capacity was decreased with water pressure increased at room temperature and the downtrend would be steady until water pressure was large enough. Heating could promote gas desorption capacity effectively, with the increasing of water injection pressures, the promotion of thermal on desorption became more obvious. These results are expected to provide a clearer understanding of theoretical efficiency of heat water or steam injection into coalbed, they can provide some theoretical and experimental guidance on CBM production and methane control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0162.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal emittance; conversion efficiency; selective solar absorber; thermal energy; evacuated flat panel; solar energy
Online: 20 October 2020 (12:18:01 CEST)
This study refers to the optimization of a Selective Solar Absorber to improve the Sun-to-thermal conversion efficiency at mid temperatures in high vacuum flat thermal collectors. Efficiency has been evaluated by using analytical formula and a numerical thermal model. Both results have been experimentally validated using a commercial absorber in a custom experimental set-up. The optimization procedure aimed at obtaining Selective Solar Absorber is presented and discussed in the case of a metal dielectric multilayer based on Cr2O3 and Ti. The importance of adopting a real spectral emissivity curve to estimate high thermal efficiency at high temperatures in selective solar absorber is outlined. Optimized absorber multilayers can be 8% more efficient than the commercial alternative at 250 °C operating temperatures and up to 27% more efficient at 300 °C. Once the multilayer has been optimized the choice of a very low emissivity substrate such as copper allows to further improve efficiency and to reach stagnation temperature higher than 400 °C without Sun concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1010027
Subject: Keywords: phase change materials; cement; smart material; energy storage; buildings; thermal performance; DSC; thermal conductivity
Online: 26 April 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)
When focusing on materials science in civil engineering, the current trend is to investigate the use of innovative solutions in order to enhance thermal and energy performances. This trend is amplified with the need for a sustainable development strategy for the construction sector. This paper assesses the integration of a Phase Change Material (PCM) in cement intended for building construction. The key characteristic of PCMs is their capacity to absorb energy and restore it. In building construction, this feature could be harnessed to save energy by incorporating PCMs in the materials used. In this study, passive integration of PCM in cement was tested and thermal properties of such an integration was assessed. The results provide insights into how PCMs affect cement as part of the concrete mixture, thus identifying the contribution of PCM-based cements in concrete mixtures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0684.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Thermal updraft velocity; Thermal convection; Soaring; Atmospheric Boundary Layer; Soaring birds; Sailplane; Aviation safety.
Online: 29 October 2018 (13:10:05 CET)
A forecasting scheme of the thermal updraft velocity based on a theoretical model and data collected from flights records at gliding competitions, is presented. The forecasting scheme was based on the hypothesis that there is linear relationship between the overheat function at ground surface and the temperature difference between soil and air. The proportionality factor of this relationship was determined experimentally using observations recorded during gliding flights. The results showed that based on this simple scheme forecasting thermal convection is possible at any geographical location.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0355.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: solar energy; photovoltaic-thermal; electrical efficiency; thermal efficiency; exergetic efficiency; high-vacuum; evacuated flat plate
Online: 26 May 2022 (03:48:23 CEST)
This work deals with the performance evaluation of novel flat photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) modules under vacuum. Through a 1D (dimensional) steady-state-energy-balance numerical model developed in MATLAB, two different layouts are studied: the first consisting of a photovoltaic (PV) cell installed just below the glass encapsulating the flat panel, and the second where the PV cell is placed on the selective solar absorber (SSA). In both cases the thermal and electrical efficiencies have been evaluated at different SSA operating temperatures, in the range of 323 K to 423 K. The analysis has been conducted at different energy bandgap (Ebg) of the PV cell and assuming a variable transmittance or emittance of the PV cell, depending on the design. The two systems efficiency comparison has been carried out at the same operating temperature. Overall, this work highlights the importance of high vacuum insulation, which guarantees the reduction of convective thermal losses, and shows that the maximum energy is produced for PV cells with Ebg ≈1.5-1.7 eV, depending on layout and operating temperature, by including the thermal output in the PV-T optimization. The energy and exergy efficiencies obtainable using the proposed PV-T systems are considerably improved compared to the results previously reported in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0750.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Solar thermal; flat-plate collector; stagnation; steam range; two-phase mixture model; thermal-hydraulic model.
Online: 30 December 2020 (10:02:25 CET)
Stagnation is the transient state of a solar thermal system under high solar irradiation where the useful solar gain is zero. Both flat-plate collectors with selective absorber coatings and vacuum-tube collectors exhibit stagnation temperatures far above the saturation temperature of the glycol-based heat carriers within the range of typical system pressures. Therefore, stagnation is always associated with vaporization and propagation of vapor into the pipes of the solar circuit. It is therefore essential to design the system in such a way that vapor never reaches components that cannot withstand high temperatures. In this article, a thermal-hydraulic model based on the integral form of a two-phase mixture model and a drift-flux correlation is presented. The model is applicable to solar thermal flat-plate collectors with meander-shaped absorber tubes and selective absorber coatings. Experimental data from stagnation experiments on two systems, which are identical except for the optical properties of the absorber coating, allowed comparison with simulations carried out under the same boundary conditions. The absorber of one system features a conventional highly selective coating, while the absorber of the other system features a thermochromic coating, which exhibits a significantly lower stagnation temperature. Comparison of simulation results and experimental data show good conformity. This model is implemented into an open-source software tool called “THD” for the thermal-hydraulic dimensioning of solar systems. The latest version of THD, updated by the results of this article, enables planners to achieve cost-optimal design of solar thermal systems and to ensure failsafe operation by predicting the steam range under the initial and boundary conditions of worst-case scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0411.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Brominated butyl rubber; Thermal decomposition; Lifetime
Online: 23 September 2021 (13:15:39 CEST)
The thermal decomposition of brominated butyl rubber under air atmosphere was investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) at various heating rates. The kinetic parameters were evaluated by TG and the isoconversional method developed by Ozawa. One prominent decomposition stage was observed in the DTG curves at high heating rates while an additional small peak was observed at low heating rates. The apparent activation energy determined using the TG method ranged from 219.31–228.13 kJ·mol-1 at various heating rates. The non-isothermal degradation was found to be a first order reaction, and the activation energy, as determined by the isoconversional method, increased with an increase in mass loss. The kinetic data suggested that brominated butyl rubber had excellent thermal stability. This study will indirectly aid in improving rubber pyrolysis methods and in enhancing the heat resistance of materials.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Green roof; Sheet metal; Thermal insulation
Online: 15 March 2021 (11:28:53 CET)
The purpose of this study was to arrange a green roof on a sheet metal house to achieve winter heat preservation and summer thermal insulation using different plants and soil media, and to maintain the advantage of cost-saving and quick installation of sheet metal houses. In terms of the research method, the roof insulation, heat preservation and plant growth index were tested. Plants were grown in 10 container-type green roofs on the sheet metal house roof, and the physical environment of the building was monitored for one year. Five containers of commercially-available culture soil and five containers of sustainable composite were used as the media for growing five kinds of plants, respectively. The control group only had a sheet metal house roof. There were 11 experimental modules for testing whether the green roofs had thermal insulation, heat preservation and plant growth effects on a general sheet metal house. The results showed that, regarding the thermal insulation benefit assessment, the Sedum acre cv. robustum of green roof Groups B to D caused the temperature to be 38.29°C lower than the surface of the simple sheet metal house roof in August, showing a temperature difference of 54%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: thermal softening; nitrided layer; hot forging
Online: 1 December 2020 (12:44:08 CET)
This article is devoted to the issues of thermal softening of materials in the surface layer of forging tools. The research covers numerical modeling of the forging process, laboratory tests of tempering of nitrided layers and the analysis of tempering of the surface layer of tools in the actual forging process. Numerical modeling was supported by measuring the temperature inside the tools with a thermocouple inserted into the tool to measure the temperature as close to the surface as possible. The modeling results confirmed the possibility of tempering the die material. The results of laboratory tests made it possible to determine the influence of temperature on tempering at different surface layer depths. Numerical analysis and measurement of surface layer microhardness of tools revealed the destructive effect of temperature during forging on the tempering of the nitrided layer and on the material layers located deeper below the nitrided layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0394.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: thermal properties; temperature diffusivity; nano cellulose
Online: 17 July 2020 (15:36:15 CEST)
The thermal properties of novel nanomaterials play a significant role in determining the performance of the material in technological applications. Herein, direct measurement of the temperature diffusivity of cellulose nanocomposite films was carried out by the micro-contact method. Polymer films containing up to 2%wt. of nanocellulose were synthesised by a simple chemical process. Films of a high optical transmittance T ≈ 80 % (for a 200- μ m-thick film), which were up to 44% crystalline, were characterised. Two different modalities of temperature diffusivity based on: 1) a resistance change and 2) micro-thermocouple detected modulation of a heat wave, were used for the polymer films with cross-sections of ∼ 100 μ m thickness. Twice different in-plane α ‖ and out-of-plane α ⊥ temperature diffusivities were directly determined with high fidelity: α ‖ = 2 . 12 × 10 − 7 m 2 /s and α ⊥ = 1 . 13 × 10 − 7 m 2 /s. An amorphous polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber was measured for comparison α ‖ = 1 . 15 × 10 − 7 m 2 /s. This work provides an example of a direct contact measurement of thermal properties of nanocellulose composite films. The thermal diffusivity, which is usually high in strongly interconnected networks and crystals, was investigated for the first time in this composite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0226.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: polypropylene, talc, boron nitride, thermal properties
Online: 22 January 2019 (17:45:38 CET)
The preparation and thermal properties of polypropylene foils, filled with ceramic microparticles, talc or boron nitride, are described. A slow, linear increase of thermal conductivity with volume percent of filler up to 30 vol % is detected. Reduction of the foil thickness bellow 200 micrometers leads to a significant increase of thermal conductivity. Specific thermal capacities of foils are temperature dependent, they decrease with filler incorporation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0156.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: nanocomposite; melting; freezing; graphene; thermal conductivity
Online: 16 January 2019 (08:33:16 CET)
In the present work freezing and melting characteristics of water seeded with chemically functionalized graphene nano-platelets in a vertical cylindrical capsule was experimentally studied. The volume percentage of functionalized graphene nano-platelets was varied from 0.1% to 0.5% with an interval of 0.1%. The stability of the synthesised samples were carried out by zeta potential distribution. The thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite samples were experimentally measured using transient hot wire method. A maximum enhancement of ~24% in the thermal conductivity was observed for the 0.5% volume percentage in the liquid state while a ~53% enhancement in the solid state. Freezing and melting behaviour of water dispersed with graphene nanoplatelets were carried out using a cylindrical stainless steel capsule in a constant temperature bath. The bath temperatures considered for studying freezing characteristics were considered to be −6 °C and −10 °C, while to study the melting characteristics the bath temperature was set as 31 °C and 36 °C. The freezing and melting time decreased for all the test conditions when the volume percentage of GnP increased. The freezing rate was enhanced by ~ 43% and ~32% for the bath temperatures of −6 °C and −10 °C respectively at 0.5 vol % of graphene loading. The melting rate was enhanced by ~42% and ~63% for the bath temperature of 31 °C and 36 °C respectively at 0.5 vol % of graphene loading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0184.v1
Online: 10 July 2018 (14:44:48 CEST)
This study investigated the evolution of density, gas permeability and thermal conductivity of sugar maple wood during the thermo-hygro-mechanical densification process. The results suggested that the oven-dry average density of densified samples was significantly higher than that of the control samples. However, the oven-dry density did not show a linear increase with the decrease of wood samples thickness. The radial intrinsic gas permeability of the control samples was 5 to 40 times higher than that of densified samples, which indicated that the void volume of wood was reduced notably after the densification process. The thermal conductivity increased by 0.5 - 1.5% per percent increase of moisture content for densified samples. The thermal conductivity of densified wood was lower than that of the control samples. The densification time had significant effects on the oven-dry density and gas permeability. Both the densification time and the moisture content had significant effects on thermal conductivity, but their interaction effect was not significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Shadings; Thermal Performance; Iwan; experimental; EnergyPlus
Online: 12 October 2017 (05:49:55 CEST)
In this paper, the effect of an exterior shading element (Iwan) on energy consumption in four different climatic regions, and for different geographical directions, has been investigated numerically and experimentally. By applying different materials and techniques and creating various elements and spaces, architects make hard climatic conditions more tolerable for residents. Iwan is one of the cooling elements which is used in different forms and dimensions in the Islamic architecture. In the present research, Iwan has been introduced as a climatic element in traditional and contemporary architectures and its role in reducing the energy consumption in buildings has been studied. In this respect, first, the thermal loads of a building without Iwan are computed by means of EnergyPlus software. Then, four different forms of Iwan are added to the above-mentioned structure along the four principal geographical directions, and the effect of Iwan on the reduction of thermal loads is analyzed for four different climates. Finally, the design parameters of Iwan, in terms of depth and form, that can help reduce the thermal loads in different climatic conditions are presented. The results show that the best position for using an Iwan is the south direction and the use of Iwan in temperate & humid, hot & humid, cold & mountainous and hot & dry climates could reduce the energy consumption in buildings by 32%, 26%, 14%, and 29%, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0284.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Park cooling effect; Urban Heat Island; Thermal comfort; Perceived Thermal Comfort; Physiological Equivalent Temperature; Cognitive Maps
Online: 12 August 2020 (11:32:18 CEST)
The combined effects of global warming and increasing urban heat islands (UHIs) on air temperature and heat stress in cities are notable physical and mental health implications for citizens. With research having shown the effective role of urban green spaces in decreasing urban heat, this study investigated the cooling effect of a large urban park on thermal comfort outside the park area, from psychological and physiological perspectives. The studied park is located in the center of Madrid and adjacent to UHI. The study was performed by conducting field measurements and a survey with questionnaires. The measurements made on six summer days (with two-week intervals) showed that the park’s cooling effect could decrease the air temperature by 2.4-2.8°C right up to the edge of the heat island (600m), and decrease the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by about 3.9°C. By decreasing air temperature and PET, this park was also shown to increase the perceived thermal comfort (PTC) of the citizens from the psychological perspective in the defined area of effect. This perceived thermal comfort was found to have a significant inverse relationship with PET (P-value <0.05). The examination of cognitive maps drawn by citizens showed that out of the 145 respondents, 68.3% marked the park as the area that they perceive as having the greatest thermal comfort, and prefer as the place to spend time enjoying thermal comfort, irrespective of its distance from their location.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0090.v1
Subject: Keywords: earth-air heat exchanger; energy efficiency; using thermal mass; smart and integrated control systems; thermal comfort
Online: 7 December 2019 (01:48:05 CET)
Growing popularity of buildings with integrated sub-systems, requires a review of methods to optimize the preheat of ventilation air. An integrated system permits using geothermal heat storage parallel to the direct outdoor air intake with additional treatment in the mechanical room as a part of building automatic control system. Earth Air Heat Exchanger (EAHX) has many advantages but also has many unanswered questions. Some of the drawbacks are: a possible entry of radon gas, high humidity in the shoulder seasons as well as the need for two different air intake sources with a choice that depends on the actual weather conditions. While in winter, the EAHX may be used continuously to ensure thermal comfort, in other seasons, its operation must be automatically controlled. To generate the missing information about the EAHX technology we have examined two nearly identical EAHX systems, one placed in ground next to the building and the other under the basement slab. In another project, we have reinforced the ground storage action by heat exchanger placed on the return pipes of the hydronic heating system. Effectively, the information provided in this paper, shows advantages of merging both these approaches while the EAHX could be placed under the house or near the basement foundation that is using an exterior basement insulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0088.v2
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: earth-air heat exchanger; energy efficiency; using thermal mass; smart and integrated control systems, thermal comfort
Online: 29 October 2019 (09:58:31 CET)
Growing popularity of smart and integrated buildings requires a review of methods to optimize the preheat of ventilation air. An integrated system permits using heat ex-changers located in the mechanical room or in the future even using an exterior wall as a heat exchanger. One may ask the question how does the earth-air heat exchanger (EAHX) technology fitts into this function. EAHX has many advantages but also has many unanswered questions. Some of the drawbacks are: a possible entry of radon gas, high humidity in the shoulder seasons as well as the need for two different air intake sources with a choice that depends on the actual weather conditions. While in winter, the EAHX may be used continuously to ensure thermal comfort, in other seasons, its operation must be automatically controlled. To generate the missing information about the EAHX technology we reviewed literature and examined two nearly identical EAHX systems, placed either in ground next to the building or under the basement slab. Effectively, the information provided in this paper, shows advantages of merging both these approaches while the EAHX shoud be placed under the house or near the basement foundation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0015.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: electrical-thermal two-way coupling; flux-switching permanent magnet motor; thermal analysis; permanent magnet material characteristics
Online: 4 April 2017 (08:38:40 CEST)
Flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) motors have gained increasing attention in the electric vehicles (EVs) applications due to the advantages of high power density, high efficiency. However, the heat sources of both permanent magnet (PM) and armature winding are located on the limited stator space in the FSPM motors, which may result in the PM overheated and irreversible demagnetization caused by temperature rise and it is often ignored in the conventional thermal analysis. In this paper, a new electrical-thermal two-way coupling design method is proposed to analyze the electromagnetic performances, where the change of PM material characteristics under different temperatures is taken into consideration. Firstly, the motor topology and design equations are introduced. Secondly, the demagnetization curves of PM materials under different temperatures are modeled due to PM materials are sensitive to the temperature. And based on the electrical-thermal two-way coupling method, the motor performances are evaluated in details, such as the load PM flux linkage and output torque. Then, the motor is optimized, and the electromagnetic performances between initial and improved motors are compared. Finally, a prototype motor is manufactured, and the results are validated by experimental measurements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0048.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal desalination; reverse osmosis; advanced heat transfer fluids; sustainable desalination practices; integrated solar thermal nanofluids based desalination
Online: 9 January 2020 (08:39:19 CET)
Desalination accounts for 1% of the total global water consumption and is an energy-intensive process, with the majority of operational expenses attributed to energy consumption. Moreover, at present, a significant portion of the power comes from traditional fossil fuel-fired power plants and the greenhouse gas emissions associated with power production along with concentrated brine discharge from the process, pose a severe threat to the environment. Due to the dramatic impact of climate change, there is a major opportunity to develop sustainable desalination processes to combat the issues of brine discharge, greenhouse gas emissions along with a reduction in energy consumption per unit of freshwater produced. Nanotechnology can play a vital role to achieve specific energy consumption reduction as nanofluids application increases the overall heat transfer coefficient enabling the production of more water for the same size desalination plant. Furthermore, concentrated brine discharge harms the marine ecosystems, and hence, this problem must also be solved to support the objective of sustainable desalination. Several studies have been carried out in the past several years in the field of nanotechnology applications for desalination, brine treatment and the role of renewable energy in desalination. This paper aims to review the major advances in this field of nanotechnology for desalination. Furthermore, a hypothesis for developing an integrated solar thermal and nanofluid sustainable desalination system, based on the cyclic economy model is proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0389.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: skutterudites; CoSb3; thermal expansion; rattling effect; thermoelectrics
Online: 21 November 2022 (11:48:31 CET)
In this work, Gd-filled skutterudite GdxCo4Sb12 has been prepared in one-step method under high-pressure conditions in a piston-cylinder press at 3.5 GPa and moderate temperature of 800 °C. A detailed structural characterization was performed using synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD), revealing a filling fraction of x = 0.066(4) and an average <Gd–Sb> bond length of 3.3499(3) Å. The lattice thermal expansion accessed via temperature-dependent SXRD led to a precise determination of a Debye temperature of 322(3) K, from the fitting of the unit-cell volume expansion using the second order Grüneisen approximation. Such parameter, when evaluated from the mean square displacements of Co and Sb, displayed a value of 265(2) K, meaning that the application of the harmonic Debye theory underestimates the Debye temperature in skutterudites. Regarding the Gd atom, its intrinsic disorder value is ~5× and ~25× higher than those of Co and Sb, respectively, denoting that Gd has a strong rattling behavior with an Einstein temperature of θE = 67(2) K. As a result, an ultra-low thermal conductivity of ~0.89 W/m·K at 773 K was obtained, leading to a thermoelectric efficiency zT of ~0.5 at 673 K.
Online: 27 September 2021 (11:59:11 CEST)
Heat stress during the grain-filling period is the main abiotic stress factor limiting grain yield and quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, 64 wheat genotypes were exposed to heat stress during reproduction caused by delayed sowing in two growing seasons. Grain yield, 1000 grain weight (GW), grain hardness (GH), and grain-quality related traits were investigated using wholemeal flour. Heat stress caused a significant decrease in GW through reducing starch content (SC) and a non-compensating rise in protein content (PC), and thereby resulted in lower yield. In addition, significant increases in flour water absorption (WA), Zeleny sedimentation volume (ZT), ash content (AC), lipid content (LC), loaf volume (LV), wet gluten content (WG), dry gluten content (DG), gluten index (GI), and amylopectin content (APC) were found following heat stress. In contrast, decreases in grain moisture content (MC) and amylose content (AMC) induced by heat stress were observed. The heat-tolerant genotypes were superior in grain yield, GW, SC, AMC, and MC. While the sensitive genotypes contained higher PC, LV, GI and AMP. A group of wheat genotypes characterized with a higher yield, AMC, GW, and SC as well as lower PC, WA, GH, ZT, and LV; and was found to be the most heat tolerant by principal component analysis. Decreases in the ratio of carbohydrates to proteins induced by heat stress, and lower protein content of normal grown wheat genotypes were observed. Therefore, lighter weight and smaller grains produce a smaller starchy endosperm with lower quality (less amylose) and higher grain protein content in heat stress compared to normal conditions. Heat stress caused by delayed sowing improves some of the baking-quality related traits. Whether this improvement in grain quality attributes will translate into better human health outcomes requires further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0041.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: chip-nanocalorimetry; ultrafast nanocalorimetry; interfacial thermal resistance
Online: 2 August 2021 (13:08:06 CEST)
Ultrafast chip nanocalorimetry opens up remarkable possibilities in materials science by allowing samples to be cooled and heated at extremely high rates. Due to heat transfer limitations, controlled ultrafast cooling and heating can only be achieved for tiny samples in calorimeters with a micron-thick membrane. Even if ultrafast heating can be controlled under quasi-adiabatic conditions, ultrafast controlled cooling can be performed if the calorimetric cell is located in a heat-conducting gas. It was found that the maximum possible cooling rate increases as 1/r0 with decreasing radius r0 of the hot zone of the membrane. The possibility of increasing the maximum cooling rate with decreasing r0 was successfully implemented in many experiments. In this regard, it is interesting to answer the question: what is the maximum possible cooling rate in such experiments if r0 tends to zero? Indeed, on submicron scales, the mean free path of gas molecules lmfp becomes comparable to r0, and the temperature jump that exists at the membrane/gas interface becomes significant. Considering the limitation associated with thermal resistance at the membrane/gas interface and considering the transfer of heat through the membrane, we show that the controlled cooling rate can reach billions of K/s, up to 1010 K/s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0355.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Thermogravimetry; Thermal Degradation; Behaviour; Afuze; Coal; Nigeria
Online: 14 May 2021 (17:08:42 CEST)
This study presents a preliminary analysis of the chemical and thermal fuel properties of Afuze (AFZ) coal extracted from coalfields in Owan East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. The chemical properties of AFZ were examined by combined scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), whereas the thermal properties were deduced by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under flash (50 °C/min heating rate) oxidative (combustion) and non-oxidative (pyrolysis) conditions. The microstructure and morphology analysis of AFZ revealed has a compact structure comprising small-to-large, irregular shaped and exfoliated grains with a vitreous appearance typically ascribed to metal elements (Ti and Fe) kaolinite, quartz, and other clay minerals. Chemical analysis revealed carbon, oxygen, aluminium, silicon, sulphur, calcium, titanium, and iron in major and minor (trace) quantities. Thermal analysis under oxidative and non-oxidative conditions revealed degradation occurs in three stages, namely; drying or demineralisation, devolatilization or maceral degradation and the formation of char/coke or ash. Lastly, the findings showed that the temperature range for the oxidative thermal degradation process (338.58 - 756.76 °C) was higher than the non-oxidative process (378.43 - 615.34 °C). This observation can be explained by the exothermic nature of the oxidative (combustion) process, which ensures greater heat supply required to thermally soften or degrade the maceral coal components. Overall, the oxidative process yielded the residual mass (RM = 21.97%) and mass loss (ML = 78.03%). The lower ML (49.03%) but higher RM (50.97%) observed during non-oxidative degradation of AFZ could be ascribed to the largely endothermic nature of the process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: combustion engines; thermal efficiency; fuel performance catalysts.
Online: 8 October 2020 (13:09:50 CEST)
The results from laboratory tests and field tests, available in the open literature for over ten years, despite the announcement of high efficiency translating into increased energy efficiency and such significant ecological advantages, have not so far resulted in widespread use of fuel performance catalysts (FPC) on a global scale. Wishing to explain why the above situation occurred and to verify the operation of catalytic additives for fuels; this article presents the results of research on the effect of using catalytic additives for fuel in a brand new diesel engine. The article contains an analysis of the results of exhaust gas emission tests from the Doosan MD196TI engine. During the tests, the engine was fueled with a typical diesel fuel and the same fuel with the a catalyst additive. The catalyst was added to the liquid fuel in the form of a commercially available product distributed by ProOne company under the name FMAX. The research was carried out in the form of a test, much more developed than the approval test on a stationary braking station in accordance with the requirements of ISO 8178. The article is concluded with a comparative analysis of exhaust gas emission results illustrating the effects of a catalyst in the form of reduction of solid particles, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and a slight increase in nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition, the effect of the catalyst depends on the product of thermal (brake) efficiency of the engine and the calorific value (CV) of the fuel used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0336.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Thermal conductivity; Electrical conductivity; Composite; Carbon fiber
Online: 15 September 2020 (09:00:04 CEST)
The electrical, mechanical and thermal conductivity of ethylene butene copolymer (EBC) composites with carbon fibers were studied. EBC/carbon-fiber composites can be utilized as an electro-mechanical material which is capable of changing it electric resistance with mechanical strain. Carbon fibers were introduced to EBC with different concentrations (5-25 wt%). The results showed that the addition of carbon fibers to EBC could increase the electric resistance up to 10 times. Increasing the load to 2.9 MPa could increase the electric resistance change by 4500% compared 25% fiber sample with pure EBC. It is also noted that the electric resistance of the EBC/CF composites underwent a dramatic increase with raising the strain, for example, the resistance change was around 13 times more at 15% strain in comparison to 5% of strain; The thermal conductivity tests showed that the addition of carbon fibers could increase the thermal conductivity by 40%, from 0.19 to 0.27 (Wm-1K-1). It was also observed that the addition of carbon fibers to EBC could increase the thermal conductivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0025.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: HPLC method; Curcumin; Quercetin; Thermal analysis; Nanoemulsion
Online: 2 August 2020 (12:15:13 CEST)
Biphasic oily/water nanoemulsions have been proposed as delivery systems for the intranasal administration of curcumin (CUR) and quercetin (QU), due to their high drug entrapment efficiency, the possibility of simultaneous drug administration and protection of the encapsulated compounds from the degradation. To better understand the physicochemical and biological performance of the selected formulation simultaneously co-encapsulating CUR and QU, a stability test of the compounds mixture was firstly carried out using X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analyses, such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The determination and quantification of the encapsulated active compounds was then required being an essential tool for the development of innovative nanomedicines. Thus, a new HPLC–UV/Vis method for the simultaneous determination of CUR and QU in the nanoemulsions and their evaluation in stability studies in simulated biological fluids was developed and validated. The X-ray diffraction analyses demonstrated that no interaction between the mixture of active ingredients, if any, is strong enough to take place in the solid state. Moreover, the thermal analysis demonstrated that the CUR and QU are stable in the nanoemulsion production temperature range. The proposed analytical method for the simultaneous quantification of the two actives was selective and linear for both compounds in the range of 0.5 – 12.5 µg/mL (R2 > 0.9997), precise (RSD below 3%), robust and accurate (recovery 100 ± 5 %). The method was validated in accordance with ICH Q2 R1 “Validation of Analytical Procedures” and CDER-FDA 2validation of chromatographic methods” guideline. Furthermore, the low detection (LOD < 0.005 µg/mL for CUR and <0.14 µg/mL for QU) and quantification limits (LOQ < 0.017 µg/mL for CUR and < 0.48 µg/mL for QU) of the method were suitable for the application to drug release and permeation studies planned for the development of the nanoemulsions. The method was then applied for the determination of nanoemulsions CUR and QU encapsulation efficiencies (> 99%), as well as for the stability studies of the two compounds in simulated biological fluids over time. The proposed method represents, to our knowledge, the only method for the simultaneous quantification of CUR, and QU in nanoemulsions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0340.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: thermal drilling; material; visual evaluation; macrostructure; microstructure
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:52:21 CET)
The contribution deals with the joining of various types of materials by technology of thermal drilling. In various branches of industries, also in the automotive industry must be joining operations, service, repairing, substitution or protection workpieces, components with various types of materials. Equally, the important role as joint, is also used material, and a product preparation by assembly and disassembly operations. By utilization of new friction hybrid joining technologies we can shortage the production time, provide automation in operations, increase the quality of joints, spare of economical expenses and also we can protect the environment. In this paper authors have investigated the effect of friction drilling on the tested material, aluminium alloy AlMgSi, which was used for material testing. The created joints were evaluated visually and by microscopy methods. The errors of tested joining were documented and described, too. This contribution was made with cooperation of Technical University of Kosice and with U. S. Steel Kosice, s.r.o.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: thermal comfort; draught; cooling period; open office
Online: 24 December 2019 (08:42:03 CET)
Local thermal comfort (TC) and draught rate (DR) has been studied widely. There has been more meaningful research performed in controlled boundary condition situations than in actual work environments involving occupants. TC conditions in office buildings in Estonia have been barely investigated in the past. In this paper, the results of TC and DR assessment in five office buildings in Tallinn are presented and discussed. Studied office landscapes vary in heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) system parameters, room units and elements. All sample buildings were less than six years old, equipped with dedicated outdoor air ventilation system and room conditioning units. The on-site measurements consisted of TC and DR assessment with indoor climate questionnaire (ICQ). The purpose of the survey is to assess the correspondence between HVAC design and the actual situation. Results show, whether and in what extent the standard-based criteria for TC is suitable for actual usage of the occupants. Preferring one room conditioning unit type or system may not guarantee better thermal environment without draught. Although some HVAC systems observed in this study should create the prerequisites for ensuring more comfort, results show that this is not the case for all buildings in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal battery; polyimide; cathode; slurry casting; binder
Online: 9 November 2018 (04:23:11 CET)
The polymer binder, poly(imide-co-siloxane) (PIS), was synthesized and applied to form a thin cathode layer composites for a thermal battery that has an unusually high operating temperature of 450 °C. The PIS was prepared through cross-linking of the polyimide with polysiloxane. The morphology of FeS2/PIS composites showed that FeS2 particles was coated with the PIS cross-linked gel. The FeS2/PIS composites enabled to fabricate mechanically stable thin cathode layer that was 20–10% of the thickness of a conventional pellet-type cathode. The FeS2/PIS composites were stable up to 400 °C and maintained their morphology at this temperature. PIS coating layers decomposed at 450 °C and a new residue was generated, which was observed by transmission electron microscopy and the compositional change was analyzed. The FeS2/PIS composites showed enhanced thermal stability over that of FeS2 in thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal battery with the PIS polymer binder showed a 20% discharge capacity increase when compared to a conventional pellet-type cathode.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0634.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Recreational water, spa, thermal water, innovative treatment
Online: 26 October 2018 (15:09:47 CEST)
Natural spa springs are diffused all over the world and their use in pools is known since ancient times. This review underlines the cultural and social spa context focusing on hygiene issues, public health guidelines and emerging concerns regarding water management in wellness or recreational settings. The question of the "untouchability" of therapeutic natural waters and their incompatibility with traditional disinfection processes is addressed considering the demand for effective treatments that would respect the natural properties. Available strategies and innovative treatments are reviewed, highlighting potentials and limits for a sustainable management. Alternative approaches comprise nanotechnologies, photocatalysis systems, advanced filtration. State of the art and promising perspectives are reported considering the chemical-physical component and the biological natural complexity of the spa water microbiota.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0404.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: fuel characterisation; thermal degradation; Owukpa; Benue; Nigeria
Online: 26 June 2018 (09:39:02 CEST)
Coal currently accounts for over 38% of electric power generation around the globe. Hence, it is a significant critical contributor to socio-economic growth and development, particularly in the BRIC economies. The success of the coal energy in these nations in addition to the discovery of vast new coal deposits have revived Nigeria’s interest in coal power. However, there is lack of comprehensive data on the pollution emission profiles, along with the physicochemical, thermal, and kinetic properties of Nigerian coals as required for power plant operations. Therefore, this paper presents preliminary findings on the physicochemical, microstructural, mineralogical and thermal properties of Owukpa (WKP) coal from Benue State in Nigeria. The results showed that WKP contains high compositions of combustible elements and heating value but low pollutant elements. Furthermore, thermal degradation revealed high conversion efficiencies particularly under oxidative conditions as required for electric power generation through combustion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: two-dimensional semiconductor; first-principles; mechanical; thermal
Online: 14 May 2018 (11:46:59 CEST)
In this short communication, we conducted first-principles calculations to explore the stability of boron monochalcogenides (BX, X=S, Se or Te), as a new class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. We predicted BX monolayers with two different atomic stacking sequences of ABBA and ABBC, referred in this work to 2H and 1T, respectively. Analysis of phonon dispersions confirm the dynamical stability of BX nanosheets with the both 2H and 1T atomic lattices. Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations reveal the outstanding thermal stability of all predicted monolayers at high temperatures over 1500 K. BX structures were found to exhibit high elastic modulus and tensile strengths. It was found that BS and BTe nanosheets can show high stretchability, comparable to that of the graphene. It was found that all predicted monolayers exhibit semiconducting electronic character, in which 2H structures present lower band-gaps as compared with 1T lattices. The band-gap values were found to decrease from BS to BTe. According to the HSE06 results, 1T-BS and 2H-BTe show respectively, the maximum (4.0 eV) and minimum (2.06 eV) electronic band-gaps. This investigation introduces boron monochalcogenides as a novel class of 2D semiconductors with remarkable thermal, dynamical and mechanical stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0162.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: hydrogel; thermal conductivity; 3ω method; molecular dynamics
Online: 25 October 2017 (03:54:39 CEST)
As the interface between human and machine becomes blurred, hydrogel incorporated electronics and devices have emerged to be a new class of flexible/stretchable electronic and ionic devices due to their extraordinary properties, such as soft, mechanically robust and biocompatible. However, heat dissipation in these devices could be a critical issue and remains unexplored. Here, we report the experimental measurements and equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of thermal conduction in polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels. The thermal conductivity of PAAm hydrogels can be modulated by both the crosslinking density and water content in hydrogels. The crosslinking density dependent thermal conductivity in hydrogels varies from 0.33 to 0.51 Wm-1K-1, giving a 54% enhancement. We attribute the crosslinking effect to the competition between the increased conduction pathways and the enhanced phonon scattering effect. Moreover，water content can act as filler in polymers which lead to nearly 40% enhancement in thermal conductivity in PAAm hydrogels with water content vary from 23 to 88 wt%. Furthermore，we find the thermal conductivity of PAAm hydrogel is insensitive to temperature in the range of 25 oC – 40 oC. Our study offers fundamental understanding of thermal transport in soft materials and provides design guidance for hydrogel-based devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0094.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: laser wavelength; polysilicon; laser damage; thermal shock
Online: 27 February 2017 (06:56:01 CET)
Based on PVDF (piezoelectric sensing techniques), this paper attempts to study the propagation law of shock waves in brittle materials during the process of three-wavelength laser irradiation of polysilicon, and discusses the formation mechanism of thermal shock failure. The experimental results show that the vapor pressure effect and the plasma pressure effect in the process of pulsed laser irradiation lead to the splashing of high temperature and high density melt. With the decrease of the laser wavelength, the laser breakdown threshold decreases and the shock wave is weakened. Because of pressure effect of the laser shock, the brittle fracture zone is at the edge of the irradiated area. The surface tension gradient and surface shear wave caused by the surface wave are the result of coherent coupling between optical and thermodynamics. The average propagation velocity of laser shock wave in polysilicon is 8.47×103m/s, and the experiment has reached the conclusion that the laser shock wave pressure peak exponentially distributes attenuation in the polysilicon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0085.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: thermal remote sensing; EKC theory; urban development
Online: 16 December 2016 (08:00:59 CET)
This study investigates the land surface temperature (LST) distribution from thermal infrared data for analyzing the characteristics of surface coverage using the Vegetation-Impervious-Soil (VIS) approach. A set of ten images, obtained from Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper, between 2001 and 2010, were used to study the urban environmental conditions of 47 neighborhoods of Porto Alegre city, Brazil. Porto Alegre has had the smallest population growth rate of all 27 state capitals in the last two decades in Brazil, with an increase of 11.55% in inhabitants from 1,263 million in 1991 to 1,409 million in 2010. We applied the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) theory in order to test the influence of the economically-related scenario on the spatial nature of social-environmental arrangement of the city at neighborhood scale. Our results suggest that the economically-related scenario exerts a non-negligible influence on the physically driven characteristics of the urban environmental conditions as predicted by EKC theory. The linear inverse correlation R2 between household income (HI) and LST is 0.36 and has shown to be comparable to all other studied variables. Future research may investigate the relation between other economically-related indicators to specific land surface characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal model; fast charge; lithium-ion cell
Online: 27 July 2016 (16:30:36 CEST)
The cell case temperature versus time profiles of a multistage fast charging technique (4C-1C-CV)/fast discharge (4C) in a 2.3 Ah cylindrical lithium-ion cell are analyzed using a 1D thermal model. Heat generation is dominated by the irreversible component associated to cell overpotential, although evidences of the reversible component are also observed, associated to the heat related to entropy from the electrode reactions. The final charging stages (i.e., 1C-CV) significantly reduce heat generation and cell temperature during charge, resulting in a thermally safe charging protocol. Cell heat capacity was determined from cell specific heats and cell materials thickness. The 1D model adjustment of the experimental data during the 2 min. resting period between discharge and charge allowed us to calculate both the time constant of the relaxation process and the cell thermal resistance. The obtained values of these thermal parameters used in the proposed model are almost equal to those found in the literature for the same cell model, which suggests that the proposed model is suitable for its implementation in thermal management systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0253.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: thermal management; electronics cooling; thermal energy storage; TES; duty cycle; phase change materials; PCM; cold finger technique, CFT.
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:27:08 CEST)
Miniaturization of electronics devices is often limited by the concomitant high heat fluxes (cooling load) and maldistribution of temperature profiles (hot spots). Thermal energy storage (TES) platforms providing supplemental cooling can be a cost-effective solution, that often leverages phase change materials (PCM). Although salt hydrates provide higher storage capacities and power ratings (as compared to that of the organic PCMs), they suffer from reliability issues (e.g., supercooling). ‘Cold Finger Technique (CFT)’ can obviate supercooling by maintaining a small mass fraction of the PCM in solid state for enabling spontaneous nucleation. Optimization of CFT necessitates real-time forecasting of the transient values of the melt-fraction. In this study artificial neural network (ANN) is explored for real-time prediction of the time remaining to reach a target value of melt-fraction based on the prior history of the spatial distribution of the surface temperature transients. Two different approaches were explored for training the ANN model, using: (1) transient PCM-temperature data; or (2) transient surface-temperature data. When deployed in a heat sink that leverages PCM based passive thermal management systems for cooling of electronic chips and packages, this maverick approach (using the second method) affords cheaper costs, better sustainability, higher reliability and resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0128.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Spectrally selective coating; Optical properties; Thermal stability; High temperature emissivity; Energy activation; Prediction of lifetime test; Thermal aging.
Online: 6 July 2021 (09:29:09 CEST)
Optical characterization and thermal aging tests are performed on a sputter-deposited coating, consisting of SiO2/Cr2O3/Cr/Cr2O3 layers, designed and developed as a selective solar absorber to be used for unconcentrated solar thermal applications. Both measurements are performed by using a home-made apparatus, which mimics a flat plate collector under high vacuum. A Performance Criterion (PCη(T)), based on absorber efficiency is proposed, and a forecast of service lifetime is obtained. As a result of the thermal aging tests, the selective solar absorber under study appears to be highly efficient at mid temperatures (up to 573 K) and thermally stable at temperatures (up to 690 K).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0645.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: composite-metal joint; electric vehicles; carbon nanotubes; polymer adhesive; thermal strain measurement; coefficient of thermal expansion; strain mismatch
Online: 30 October 2020 (14:43:01 CET)
Metallic substrates and polymer adhesive in composite-metal joints have a relatively large coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch, which is a barrier in the growing market of electric vehicles and their battery structures. It is reported that adding carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to the adhesive reduces the CTE of the CNT enhanced polymer adhesive multi-material system, therefore when used in adhesively bonded joints it would, theoretically, result in low CTE mismatch in the joint system. The current article presents the influence of two specific mass ratios of CNTs on the CTE of the enhanced polymer. It was observed that the addition of 1.0 wt% and 2.68 wt% of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) decreased the CTE of the polymer adhesive from 7.5e-5 1/C (pristine level) to 5.87e-5 1/C and 4.43e-5 1/C, respectively by 22% and 41% reduction. The reduction in the CTE was predicted, theoretically, which showed that CTE should have been reduced to 3.6e-5 1/C (52% reduction) and 1.4e-5 1/C (81% reduction). This may be due to the fact that, Raman spectroscopy of the MWCNTs identified defects in the raw material, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) identified agglomeration of MWCNTs on the surface and cross-section of the modified polymers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0186.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Air pollution; coal-fired thermal power plant; oil thermal power plant; geocoded; lung cancer; bladder cancer; North-eastern Italy
Online: 20 June 2017 (08:50:26 CEST)
This study investigated the risk of lung and bladder cancers in people residing in proximity of a coal-oil-fired thermal power plant in an area of north-eastern Italy, covered by a population-based cancer registry. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) by sex, age, and histology were computed according to tertiles of residential exposure to benzene, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particular matter, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) among 1076 incident cases of lung and 650 cases of bladder cancers. In men of all ages and in women under 75 years of age, no significant associations were observed. Conversely, in women aged >75 years significantly increased risks of lung and bladder cancers were related to high exposure to benzene (IRR for highest vs. lowest tertile: 2.00 for lung cancer and 1.94 for bladder cancer) and NO2 (IRR: 1.72 for lung cancer; and 1.94 for bladder cancer). In these women, a 1.71-fold higher risk of lung cancer was also related to a high exposure to SO2. The findings of this descriptive study indicated that air pollution may have a role with regard to the risk of lung and bladder cancers, limited to women aged ≥ 75 years. Such increased risk warrants further analytical investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0280.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Chromium; Molybdenum; Tungstene; Empirical potentials; phonons; thermal properties
Online: 28 April 2022 (10:03:21 CEST)
Cohesion in the refractory metals Cr, Mo, and W is phenomenologically described in this work via a n-body energy functional with a set of physically motivated parameters that were optimized to reproduce selected experimental properties characteristic of perfect and defective crystals. The functional contains four terms accounting for the hard-core repulsion, the Thomas-Fermi kinetic energy repulsion and for contributions to the binding energy of s and d valence electrons. Lattice dynamics, molecular statics, and molecular dynamics calculations show that this model describes satisfactorily thermodynamic properties of the studied metals whereas, unlike other empirical approaches from the literature, predictions of phonon dispersion relations and of surface and point defect energetics reveal in fair good agreement with experiments. These results suggest that the present model is well adapted to large-scale simulations and whenever total energy calculations of thermodynamic properties are unfeasible
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0079.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: thermal neutral; acclimation; acclimatization; adaptation; health; indoor environments
Online: 4 March 2022 (11:23:44 CET)
The goal of this short communication is to analyze a published discussion that states that long-term residing at a thermoneutral indoor temperature condition hinders human thermal acclimation capacities. According to current research, human thermal acclimation and acclimatization capacities can be easily gained through repeated heat and cold exposures mixed with physical activity over a period of days (often 3–21 days). Furthermore, heat and cold adaptations are not permanent, and heat acclimation would progressively fade away if frequent heat exposures (associated with physical work/exercise) were discontinued. People who have been heat acclimatized for a long period and live in tropical places may progressively lose their physiological and perceptual benefits when they shift to temperate zones. On the other hand, the decay of cold acclimation and cold acclimatization has not been well examined, demanding future research on this area. To summarize, there is no evidence to support the claim that extended exposure to thermoneutral conditions impairs human acclimatization abilities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0424.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Cassava peels; valorisation; thermal; thermo-chemical; biochemical; biogas
Online: 28 October 2021 (07:27:14 CEST)
The large-scale processing of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) generates significant quantities of solid wastes annually. Cassava peels (CP) account for 5 wt.% - 30 wt.% of wastes from the processing of cassava tubers. The poor disposal and management of CP pose risks to human health, safety and the environment. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and examine low cost, socially acceptable and environmentally friendly strategies to mitigate the immediate and long terms disposal and management challenges. Lack of such measures results in the accumulation of CP wastes, which are currently buried, combusted, or dumped in open fields. Therefore, this paper reviewed the potential routes for the biochemical, thermochemical, and plasma valorisation of CP. The literature reviewed revealed that biochemical technologies such as anaerobic digestion (AD) and fermentation are the most widely utilised approaches currently adopted for CP valorisation. AD produces biogas (methane 50-72 vol. % and carbon dioxide 25-45 vol. %), whereas fermentation yields bioethanol. However, the numerous challenges such as substrate-induced inhibition, associated with the biochemical processes hamper microbial degradation, methane formation, and process efficiency. Furthermore, the processes generate secondary wastes or digestate/sludge, which requires additional processing before disposal. Therefore, innovative thermal, thermochemical, and plasma technologies were proposed to valorise CP into syngas, biofuels, bioenergy, biochemicals, and fertilizers, among others. However, the waste products of fermentation cannot be effectively utilised as bio-fertilizers, whereas bioethanol causes corrosion in engines. Overall, the biochemical, thermal, thermochemical and plasma technologies can effectively valorise CP for effective net energy generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0076.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: AlSi10Mg alloys, solidification, thermal analysis, microstructure, tensile properties.
Online: 2 June 2021 (12:21:46 CEST)
This work explored and contrasted the effect of microstructure on the tensile properties of AlSi10Mg alloys generated by transient directional solidification depending on variations in cooling rate and Magnesium (Mg) content (i.e., 0.45 and 1wt.% Mg), with a focus on understanding the dendritic growth and phases constitution. Optical and Scanning electron (SEM) microscopies, CALPHAD and thermal analysis were used to describe the microstructure, forming phases and resulting tensile properties. The findings showed that the experimental evolution of the primary dendritic spacing is very similar when both directionally solidified (DS) Al-10wt.% Si-0.45wt.% Mg and Al-10wt.% Si-1wt.% Mg alloys samples are compared. The secondary dendritic spacing was lower for the alloy with more Mg, especially considering the range of high growth velocities. Moreover, a greater fraction of (Al+Si+Mg2Si) ternary eutectic islands surrounding the -Al dendritic matrix was noted for the alloy with 1wt.% Mg. As a result of primary dendritic spacings greater than 180 m related to lower cooling rates, slightly higher tensile properties were attained for the Al-10wt.% Si-0.45wt.% Mg alloy. In contrast, combining dendritic refining (< 150 m) and larger Mg2Si fraction, fast solidified DS Al-10wt.% Si-1wt.% Mg samples exhibited higher tensile strength and elongation. The control of cooling rate and fineness of the dendritic array provided a new insight related to the addition of Mg in slightly higher levels than conventional ones, capable of achieving a better balance of tensile properties in AlSi10Mg alloys.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: masonry; seismic retrofitting; textile reinforced mortar; thermal insulation
Online: 8 December 2020 (10:11:06 CET)
Taking into consideration the seismic vulnerability of older buildings and the increasing need for reducing their carbon footprint and energy consumption, the application of an innovative system is investigated; the system is based on the use of textile reinforced mortars (TRM) and thermal insulation as a means of combined seismic and energy retrofitting of existing masonry walls. Medium scale tests were carried out on masonry walls subjected to out-of-plane cyclic loading. The following parameters were investigated experimentally: placement of the TRM in a sandwich form (over and under the insulation) or outside the insulation, one-sided or two-sided TRM jacketing and/or insulation, and the displacement amplitude of the loading cycles. A simple analytical method is developed and is found in good agreement with test results. Additionally, numerical modeling is carried out and is also found in good agreement with test results. From the results obtained in this study the authors believe that TRM jacketing may be combined effectively with thermal insulation, increasing the overall strength and energy efficiency of the masonry panels in buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0633.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: wooden structures; wood-borer; thermal flow; listed buildings
Online: 25 November 2020 (11:03:39 CET)
Wood-borer extermination by a dry heat clean-up is the essential method from the point of view of sustainability of historical wooden structures like trusses and ceilings in heritage-listed buildings. The wooden components are heated by a hot air of temperature about 100°C until the temperature in the centre of the wooden structures reaches 55°C to kill the wood-borers. In this article we review the method and present solution of the heat equation for structural wooden components. We also suggest an approximate formula that enables to estimate the necessary heating time for different cross sections of wooden components and can be used in technical application of the method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0611.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cyanobacteria; thermal mud; natural products; anti-inflammatory; bioactivity
Online: 24 November 2020 (10:53:33 CET)
Background: The Balaruc-les-Bains’ thermal mud was found to be colonized predominantly by microorganisms, with cyanobacteria constituting the primary organism in the microbial biofilm observed on the mud surface. The success of cyanobacteria in colonizing this specific ecological niche can be explained in part by their taxa-specific adaptation capacities, and also the diversity of bioactive natural products that they synthesize. This array of components has physiological and ecological properties that may be exploited for various applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0480.v2
Online: 21 September 2020 (06:01:38 CEST)
Invasive species are significant threats to global agriculture and food security being the major causes of crop loss. An operative biosecurity policy requires full automation of detection and habitat identification of the potential pests and pathogens. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) mounted thermal imaging cameras can observe and detect pest animals and their habitats, and estimate their population size around the clock. However, their effectiveness becomes limited due to manual detection of cryptic species in hours of captured flight videos, failure in habitat disclosure and the requirement of expensive high-resolution cameras. Therefore, the cost and efficiency trade-off often restricts the use of these systems. In this paper, we present an invasive animal species detection system that uses cost-effectiveness of consumer-level cameras while harnessing the power of transfer learning and an optimised small object detection algorithm. Our proposed optimised object detection algorithm named Optimised YOLO (OYOLO) enhances YOLO (You Only Look Once) by improving its training and structure for remote detection of elusive targets. Our system, trained on the massive data collected from New South Wales and Western Australia, can detect invasive species (rabbits, Kangaroos and pigs) in real-time with a higher probability of detection (85–100 %), compared to the manual detection. This work will enhance the visual analysis of pest species while performing well on low, medium and high-resolution thermal imagery, and equally accessible to all stakeholders and end-users in Australia via a public cloud.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0501.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: thermal bridge; modeling and dynamic analysis; system identification
Online: 22 July 2020 (06:10:36 CEST)
It is challenging to apply heat flow through a thermal bridge, which requires the analysis of 2D or 3D heat transfer to building energy simulation(BES). Research on the dynamic analysis of thermal bridges has been underway for many years, but their utilization remains low in BESs. This paper proposes a thermal bridge modeling and a dynamic analysis method that can be easily applied to BESs. The main idea begins with an analogy of the steady-state analysis of thermal bridges. As with steady-state analysis, the proposed method first divides the thermal bridge into a clear wall, where the heat flow is uniform, and the sections that are not the clear wall (the thermal bridge part). For the clear wall part, the method used in existing BESs is applied and analyzed. The thermal bridge part (TB part) is modeled with the linear time-invariant system (LTI system) and the system identification process is performed to find the transfer function. Then, the heat flow is obtained via a linear combination of the two parts. This method is validated by comparing the step, sinusoidal and annual outdoor temperature response of the finite differential method(FDM) simulation. When the thermal bridge was modeled as a third-order model, the root mean square error(RMSE) of annual heat flow with the FDM solution of heat flow through the entire wall was about 0.1W.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0062.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Wood-filled PLA; Thermal Decomposition; Starch; 3D printing
Online: 5 May 2020 (05:44:47 CEST)
Dynamic thermogravimetric (TG) analysis under nitrogen environment was used to understand the thermal decomposition process of 3D printing filaments made of wood-filled polylactic acid (PLA)/starch blend. The characteristic temperatures and apparent activation energy (AAE) of the filaments with various starch contents were calculated with well-known kinetic models by Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Coats-Redfern and Kissinger. With the increased starch content in the filament, the onset thermal decomposition temperatures of the filaments decreased gradually from 272.4 to 155.1°C. The thermal degradation degree became smaller, and the transitional temperature interval became larger with increased starch proportion. The AAE values of the three types of filaments with different starch ratios varied between 97 kJ/mol and 114 kJ/mol, depending on material composition and method of calculation. The improved understanding of thermal decomposition behavior of PLA-starch-wood composites can help develop more biodegradable PLA/starch-based filaments for 3D printing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0349.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: verification and validation; computational thermal analysis; computational physics
Online: 26 December 2019 (02:35:47 CET)
In the power plant industry, the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) plays a key role in the efficiency of the gas turbine and, therefore, the overall—in most cases combined—thermal power cycle efficiency. Gas turbine efficiency increases by increasing TIT. However, an increase of TIT would increase the turbine component temperature which can be critical (e.g., hot gas attack). Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs)—porous media coatings—can avoid this case and protect the surface of the turbine blade. This combination of TBC and film cooling produces a better cooling performance than conventional cooling processes. The effective thermal conductivity of this composite is highly important in design and other thermal/structural assessments. In this article, the effective thermal conductivity of a simplified model of TBC is evaluated. This work details a numerical study on the steady-state thermal response of two-phase porous media in two dimensions using personal finite element analysis (FEA) code. Specifically, the system response quantity (SRQ) under investigation is the dimensionless effective thermal conductivity of the domain. A thermally conductive matrix domain is modeled with a thermally conductive circular pore arranged in a uniform packing configuration. Both the pore size and the pore thermal conductivity are varied over a range of values to investigate the relative effects on the SRQ. In this investigation, an emphasis is placed on using code and solution verification techniques to evaluate the obtained results. The method of manufactured solutions (MMS) was used to perform code verification for the study, showing the FEA code to be second-order accurate. Solution verification was performed using the grid convergence index (GCI) approach with the global deviation uncertainty estimator on a series of five systematically refined meshes for each porosity and thermal conductivity model configuration. A comparison of the SRQs across all domain configurations is made, including uncertainty derived through the GCI analysis.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: surface discharge; flashover; gas; modelling; pressure; thermal properties
Online: 27 October 2019 (04:12:23 CET)
The aim of this paper is the presentation of an analytical model of insulator flashover and its application for air at atmospheric pressure and pressurized SF6. After a review of the main existing models in air and compressed gases, we develop a relationship of flashover voltage on the basis of an electrical equivalent circuit and the thermal properties of the discharge. The model includes the discharge resistance, the insulator impedance, and the gas interface impedance. The application of this model to a cylindrical resin-epoxy insulators in air medium and SF6 gas with different pressures gives results close to the experimental measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0283.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: TEM; thermal degradation; wall paper; blowing agent; foam
Online: 27 June 2019 (06:29:11 CEST)
This study was conducted to improve the white index (WI) by preparing thermally expandable microspheres (TEMs) for wallpaper. The thermal properties, foam expansion ratio and WI were studied depending on the particle size of colloidal silica in the preparation of TEMs. As a result, the TEMs with small particles of colloidal silica showed the best results for whiteness and yellowing. Additionally, TGA results indicated that it was highly possible that colloidal silica with small particle sizes was physically or chemically attached to the surface of the TEMs that led to an improvement in whiteness at high temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0264.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: hybrid composites, thermal analysis, kenaf, carbon fibre, epoxy
Online: 21 February 2019 (03:30:31 CET)
The effects of carbon fiber hybridisation on the thermal properties of woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composites kenaf fibre were studied. Woven kenaf hybrid composites at the different weave designs of plain and satin, and fabric count of 5 × 5 and 6 × 6 were manually prepared by vacuum infusion technique. Thermal properties of pure carbon fibre and hybrid composites were conducted by using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). It was found that at high kenaf fibre content showed better thermal stability while the highest thermally stable was found in pure carbon fibre composite. The TG and DTG results showed that the amount of residue decreased in plain-designed hybrid composite compared to satin-designed hybrid composite. The DSC data revealed that the presence of woven kenaf increase decomposition temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0084.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Phase change; Composite, Thermal expansion; High temperature; Concrete
Online: 9 January 2019 (12:48:32 CET)
The expansion of concrete subjected to extreme elevated temperature is linked with intricate micro-structural variations, such as the transformation of the constituent phases. This study proposes a model to predict the thermal expansion of cement paste and concrete considering micro-structural changes under elevated temperatures ranging from 20°C to 800°C. The model presented can consider characteristics of various aggregates in the calculation of thermal expansion for concrete. The model is a combination of a multi-scale stoichiometric model and a multi-scale composite model. At the cement paste level, the model satisfactorily predicted a test result. At concrete level, upper bounds from the model were matched relatively well with test results by previous researcher. If the mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus (E), Poisson’s ratio (ν), and thermal deformation, of the aggregates used in concrete are given, it is likely that the model will reasonably predict experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0581.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: plastic recycling; filament extrusion; tensile property; thermal analysis
Online: 24 October 2018 (16:22:09 CEST)
The recyclability of polystyrene, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, polystyrene and polyvinylchloride waste and using them as a source for 3D printing were studied. Filaments of about 3 mm in diameter were extruded successfully with a small-size extruder. The processed filaments were tested on a broad range of parameters - glass transition temperature, tensile properties and a pyrolysis scenario were obtained. The measured parameters were compared with parameters of virgin counterparts presented in the literature. In order to estimate the toxicity of the recycled material, elemental analysis of the samples was done.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0382.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: magnesium alloy; accumulative roll bonding; thermal conductivity; texture
Online: 30 April 2018 (17:45:59 CEST)
Accumulative roll bonding (ARB) is one of methods of severe plastic deformation which is relevant for industrial production of sheets. While mechanical properties of several magnesium alloys subjected to ARB process have been studied, the physical properties have been reported only for some magnesium alloys. These properties are influenced by the texture developed during the ARB process and the temperature load. In the presented contribution, we studied thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of an AZ31 magnesium alloy after 1 and 2 passes through the rolling mill. Thermal diffusivity was measured with the laser-flash method in the temperature range between 20 and 350 °C. Thermal conductivity depends on the number of rolling passes. The microstructure and texture of sheets are significant factors influencing the thermal properties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: burns; treatment; pediatric; autograft; biological skin substitute; thermal
Online: 30 November 2017 (14:12:10 CET)
Burns is a pervasive and oppressive basic care issue. In children, burn injuries are a major reason for bleakness and mortality. The quirks in the physiology of liquid and electrolyte taking care of, the vital necessity and the distinctions in the different body extends in children direct that the pediatric wounds administration ought to be brought with an alternate point of view than for adults. Notwithstanding, for the intensivist, challenges regularly exist that muddle quiet help and adjustment. Moreover, burn injuries are mind-boggling and can show exceptional challenges that require deep-rooted recovery. Investigation in burn wound care has yielded progressions that will keep on improving practical recuperation. What's more, pain management all through this period is essential. Managing these wounds requires escalated therapeutic treatment for multi-organ dysfunction, and forceful surgical treatment to forestall sepsis and other inconveniences. The biological therapeutic bilayered skin substitutes with a long shelf life that recapitulates the normal barrier function of the intact human skin and stimulate wound repair and skin regeneration. A definitive objective is to accomplish a perfect skin substitute that gives a successful and without scar wound recuperating. This review article features the headway in pediatric burn wounds with an emphasis on the pathophysiology and treatment of burn wounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0112.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: PEEK; blends; thermal stability; tribological properties; mechanical properties
Online: 25 January 2017 (10:03:49 CET)
In this study, 10%PTFE/PEEK blend were modified by potassium titanate whisker (PTW) and chopped glass fiber (GF), respectively. The blends were prepared by three-screw extruder. Through the investigation of thermal stability, tribological properties, mechanical properties and rheological behavior, the effects of reinforcing agents were determined. The results illustrated that the mechanical properties of 10%PTFE/PEEK blend can be dramatically improved by adding reinforcing agent of PTW or GF, and the reinforcing effect of GF was especially obvious. As for tribological properties, 1% addition was the best proportion. The friction coefficient and wear rate of the blend with 1% PTW were 0.283 and 4.97 × 10-6 mm3/N · m, which decreased by 7.2% and 21% compared with those of the blend without reinforcing agent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0125.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: human thermal comfort-discomfort; Fanger’s model; PMV; PPD
Online: 25 December 2016 (08:48:27 CET)
The Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and the Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD) indices are used to assess the indoor environment in terms of human thermal comfort-discomfort. In this study, an experimental combined objective and subjective investigation of thermal comfort perception has been performed in students between 16-18 years old, in a non-air-conditioned school building. The objective approach included instrumentation measurements and data processing according to ISO 7730, whereas, the subjective one was based on answers collection following ISO 10551. The study is mainly devoted to the verification of Fanger’s approach in a building, in free running conditions, under a mild (moderate) climate.The comparison between instrumentation data and questionnaire results presented an underestimation of the mean vote, predicting a cooler sensation than the actual one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0216.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: polymer nanocomposites; thermal conductivity; finite element analysis; ABAQUS
Online: 27 August 2016 (09:57:54 CEST)
Polymer nanocomposites are composed of polymer materials reinforced with nano fillers. In the present study the effective thermal conductivity of the composites filled with nanofillers has been investigated using commercially available finite element software ABAQUS 6.11. The nanofillers used were alumina particles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and the matrix was considered to be made of epoxy. For the analysis 2D and 3D Representative Volume Elements (RVEs) were generated using Random Sequential Adsorption (RSA) algorithm using MATLAB and Python scripts. Thermal conductivity was found out for 2D and 3D RVEs for different area and weight fractions respectively. Two different shapes of the alumina nanoparticles were considered: spherical (circular) and ellipsoidal (elliptical) for 3D (2D) analysis. It was found that the thermal conductivity was increased with the addition of nanofillers. The increase in thermal conductivity was approximately same for both types of inclusions at corresponding area or weight fractions in 2D or 3D analysis. The results showed that addition of MWNTs to the composites lead to a significant increase in thermal conductivity than spherical or ellipsoidal inclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0099.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: PET; Petroleum Coke; Mechanical Alloying; Thermal studies; XRD
Online: 9 August 2016 (14:22:43 CEST)
The thermal degradation behaviour of 10:90 and 90:10 blends of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) and petroleum coke has been investigated using mechanical alloying (milling) at 300 rpm and for periods up to 1-10 hours. Milled specimens were characterised using SEM and x-ray diffraction; their thermal degradation behaviour was investigated using thermo-gravimetric analyser (TGA) for temperatures up to 1200°C. Whereas PET specimens showed a tendency towards flattening out and increased surface area during collisions in ball mills, petroleum coke particles tended to break down into smaller particles. 10:90 and 90:10 blends of PET and coke showed significant microstructural evolution with increasing speeds and time including fracture, strain hardening and re-welding. X-ray diffraction results showed clear evidence for increasing amorphous component in petroleum coke without much influence on PET crystallinity. Thermo-gravimetric results showed a significant increase in the overall degradation and much higher weight losses associated with mechanical alloying. This study has shown that mechanical alloying could be used to modify the degradation behaviour of coke/plastic blends and corresponding yield during pyrolysis with implications for plastic waste management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0236.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: polymers; polymer composites; glass fiber reinforced plastics; elasticity; modulus of elasticity; thermal expansivity; coefficient of thermal expansion; relaxation; thermo-relaxation
Online: 13 January 2023 (06:26:49 CET)
This research is completed in development of researches devoted to relations between elastic modulus (MoE) and thermal expansivity (CTe) of different materials. This study experimentally confirmed the relation of MoE and CTe for thermosetting polymers and FRPs both under normal and heating temperatures. As the thermosetting polymers, the epoxy compositions were used and glass fiber and mineral additives for FRP. The experiment was based on dilatometric and elastic deformations’ testing. Also, the relaxation model of MoE/CTe was proposed, that is based on physical properties of polymers’ supramolecular structures. The comparative analyzing of MoE/CTes’ different models is done. The most accurate models are determined, and the relaxation model has demonstrated the high accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0608.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Fan Outlet Guide Vane Cooler (FOGVC); conjugate heat transfer (CHT); multiphysic; Ansys Fluent; ANSYS thermal (APDL); FLUID 116 thermal element; Flownex
Online: 27 July 2021 (14:25:18 CEST)
As the first time, 0D-1D-3D and fully 3D steady-state aero-thermo-fluid simulations of a structural oil-to-air Fan Outlet Guide Vane Cooler (FOGVC) in a jet engine are presented. Using the commercial softwares Ansys Fluent, the thermo-mechanical module of Ansys and the 1D fluid solver Flownex, 5 simulation types (3D fully conjugate heat transfer with and without a thin wall model, 3D with a thin wall model, 1D-3D coupled, 1D and 0D) corresponding to 4 levels of simplification in 3 possible domains (oil, oil-metal and oil-metal-air) have been compared to provide selection criteria when a determined level of accuracy in the simulations without prohibited computational times is desired. The methodologies are applied to two different oil internal cavities: an inverted U with rectangular cross section and a coil internal cavity with a circular cross section. The obtained results show that depending on the scope of the research (outlet oil temperature, dissipated heat rate or oil pressure drop) and the accuracy of the results, one method or the other may be used. Experimental data would be needed to validate the numerical results by all employed methodologies and geometries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0223.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: hyacinthus; Caulerpa taxifolia; thermal stress; physiological processes; gene expression
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:05:02 CET)
An increasing ecological phase-shift from coral dominated reefs to macroalgae dominated reefs as a result of anthropogenic impacts, such as eutrophication, sedimentation, and overfishing, has been observed in many reef systems around the world. Ocean warming is a universal threat to both corals and macroalgae, which may alter the outcome of competition between them. Therefore, in order to explore the effects of indirect and direct exposure to macroalgae on the physiological, biochemical, and genetic expression of corals at elevated temperature, the coral Acroproa hyacinthus and highly invasive green algae Caulerpa taxifolia have been chosen. Physiologically, the results exhibited that distinguish from control and direct contact treatments, the density and chlorophyll a content of zooxanthella decreased by 53.1% and 71.2% respectively, when coral indirect contacted with algae at ambient temperature (27°C). Besides, enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in coral tissue were enhanced by interacting with algae. After an increase of 3°C, the density and chlorophyll a content of zooxanthella reduced by 84.4% and 93.8% respectively, whereas the enzmy activities of SOD and CAT increased by 2.3 and 3.1-fold. However, only the zooxanthellae density and pigment content decreased when C.taxifolia co-culture with A.hyacinthus at 30°C. Molecularly, different from the control group, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) such as Rab family, ATG family and Casp7 were significantly enriched in endocytosis, autophagy and apoptosis pathways , regardless whether A.hyacinthus was indirect or indirect exposure to C.taxifolia at 27°C. Under thermal stress without algae interaction, the DEGs were significantly enriched in microbial immune signal transduction pathways, such as Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and TNF signaling pathway, while multiple cellular immunity (IFI47, TRAF family) and oxidative stress (CAT, SODC, HSP70) genes were up-regulated. Inversely, compared with corals without interaction with algae at 30°C, the DEGs of corals interacted with C.taxifolia at 30°C, were remarkably enriched in apoptosis, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, including the transcription factors such as Casp family, TRAF family. In conclusion, the density and chlorophyll a content of zooxanthella remained a fading tendency induced by macroalgae at ambient temperature. The oxidative stress and immune response levels of coral has been elevated at 30°C, but macroalgae alleviated the negative effects triggered by thermal stress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0120.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Mine Tailings; Industrial Waste; Geopolymer; Durability; Microstructure; Thermal; Leaching
Online: 5 August 2022 (09:45:36 CEST)
The mining sector generates a substantial quantity of stone waste and tailings, which constitutes an environmental risk. The most prevalent method for disposing of this industrial waste is dumping, which contributes to soil deterioration and water contamination while acquiring precious land. It can be recycled using a number of processes, such as the promising geopolymerization technique, which transforms waste into value. This study reviews current developments in the manufacturing of mine tailings-based geopolymer composites from industrial waste as a possible sustainable building material. This paper also gives in-depth studies on the characteristics and behaviors of mine tailings composites used in geopolymer manufacturing, including durability, microstructure, thermal and leaching properties. This review also identifies knowledge gaps that must be filled in order to advance mine tailings composites for geopolymers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0291.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: 2D materials; integrated optics; photo-thermal changes; graphene oxide
Online: 21 June 2022 (08:06:34 CEST)
We experimentally investigate power-sensitive photo-thermal tuning (PTT) of two-dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO) films coated on integrated optical waveguides. We measure the light power thresholds for reversible and permanent GO reduction in silicon nitride (SiN) waveguides integrated with 1 and 2 layers of GO. Raman spectra at different positions of a hybrid waveguide with permanently reduced GO are characterized, verifying the inhomogeneous GO reduction along the direction of light propagation through the waveguide. The differences between the PTT induced by a continuous-wave laser and a pulsed laser are also compared, confirming that the PTT mainly depend on the average input power. These results reveal interesting features for 2D GO films coated on integrated optical waveguides, which are of fundamental importance for the control and engineering of GO’s properties in hybrid integrated photonic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: solar distillation; intelligent artificial approach; thermal analysis; water treatment
Online: 16 May 2022 (10:06:28 CEST)
The problem of water drinking supply is very important in the world, especially for developing countries, in particular Algeria. In this work we propose to study a distillation system based on solar energy process using an artificial intelligence approach in order to enhance the performance and the daily production. For this purpose, a conventional solar still and capillary film solar still was used. The operating parameters of the two distilleries are analyzed and the neural network approach was used to predict the performance through the amount of distillate, solar radiation and ambient temperature. The sensitivity between the operating parameters of the solar still for two case have been studied through the artificial neuron network model. The obtained results are promising, analyzed and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0173.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: heat conduction; thermal properties; geothermal heat pump; damping depth
Online: 14 March 2022 (03:34:10 CET)
Undisturbed ground temperature (UGT), thermal conductivity (TC) and heat capacity (HC) are essential parameters for the design of borehole heat exchanger (BHE) and borehole thermal energy storage systems. However, field methods to assess the thermal state and properties of the sub-surface are costly and time consuming. Moreover, HC is often not evaluated but arbitrarily selected from literature considering the geological materials intercepted by boreholes. Therefore, this work aims at proposing a field heat tracing method to infer the thermal diffusivity (TD) and HC with assumption of natural transient heat conduction in the subsurface. Empirical equations were developed to reproduce a UGT profile measured along a BHE. Experimental coefficients are found with a non-linear least square solver optimization and used to calculate the damping depth and TD. Subsequently, the TD is used to evaluate HC considering TC obtained from a thermal response test (TRT). Results from this proposed heat tracing method were verified and validated against a set of TRT results and oscillatory TRT analysis using a field dual probe concept to infer HC. The example here described highlights the advantages and novelty of this fast and simple field method relying only on a single UGT profile measured before a TRT.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0051.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Electric vehicles; Battery thermal management system; Li-Ion batteries
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:39:49 CET)
Electric Vehicles (EVs) are the need of the hour due to growing climate change problems linked with the transportation sector. Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS), which is accountable for certifying safety and performance of lithium-ion batteries (LiB), is the most vital part of an EV. LiB has auspicious gravimetric energy density but the heat generation due to chemical reactions inside a LiB during charging and discharging causes temperature rise which has a direct effect on LiB performance and safety. This study specifically focuses on aircooled BTMS, defines different types of air-cooled BTMS (active and Passive), discusses limitations associated with air-cooled BTMS, and investigates different optimization techniques and parameters to improve performance of air-cooled BTMS. Maintaining temperature within optimum range and uniform temperature distribution between cells of a battery pack are the major design parameters for improving the performance and efficiency of air-cooled BTMS. Various optimization techniques including cell arrangement with a battery pack, air-flow channel optimization, and air inlet/outlet position variations are discussed and each technique is thoroughly reviewed. Finally, it’s noted that passive air-cooled BTMS is not that effective for long-distance vehicles so most researchers shifted their focus toward active air-cooled BTMS. Active air-cooled BTMS requires a lot of power for effective performance. Lastly, the most recent field of air-cooled BTMS technology which is Air-Hybrid BTMS is discussed and declared a very promising solution for overcoming major limitations associated with air-cooled BTMS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0169.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Soultz-sous-Forêts; EGS; Hydro-thermal modeling; Wellbore coupling
Online: 11 October 2021 (15:22:10 CEST)
The deep geothermal industrial project at Soultz-sous-Forêts is located in the Upper Rhine Graben, France. As part of the MEET project, this study aims to evaluate the possibility of extracting higher amounts of energy from the existing industrial infrastructure. To achieve this objective, the effect of reinjecting fluid at lower temperature than the current fluid injection temperature of 70 ℃ was modelled and the drop in the production wellhead temperature for 100 years of operation was quantified. Two injection-production rate scenarios were considered and compared for their effect on overall production wellhead temperature. For each scenario, reinjection temperatures of 40 ℃, 50 ℃ and 60 ℃ were chosen and compared with the 70 ℃ injection case. For the lower production rate scenario, the results show that the production wellhead temperature is approximately 1-1.5 ℃ higher than for the higher production rate scenario after 100 years of operation. In conclusion, no significant thermal breakthrough has been observed with the applied flow rates and lowered injection temperatures even after 100 years of operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0561.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: lignocellulosic fiber; thermal degradation; kinetic analysis; artificial neural network
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:46:21 CEST)
Lignocellulosic fibers are widely applied as composite reinforcement due to their properties. The thermal degradation behavior determines the maximum temperature in which the fiber can be applied without significant mass loss. It is possible to determine these temperatures using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG). In particular, when curves are obtained at different heating rates, kinetic parameters can be determined and more detailed characteristics of the material are obtained. However, every curve obtained at a distinct heating rate demands material, cost, and time. Methods to predict thermogravimetric curves can be very useful in the materials science field and in this sense mathematical approaches are powerful tools if well employed. For this reason, in the present study, curaua TG curves were obtained at three different heating rates (5, 10, 20, and 40 °C.min-1) and Vyazovkin kinetic parameters were obtained. After, the experimental curves were fitted using an artificial neural network (ANN) approach followed by a Surface Response Methodology (SRM). Curves at any heating rate between the minimum and maximum experimental heating rates were obtained with high reliability. Finally, Vyazovkin kinetic parameters were tested again with the new curves showing similar kinetic parameters from the experimental ones. In conclusion, due to the capability to learn from the own data, ANN combined with SRM seems to be an excellent alternative to predict TG curves that do not test experimentally, opening the range of applications.