ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0587.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Pyrolysis; Kinetics; Thermal degradation; PMMA; COC.Pyrolysis; Kinetics; Thermal degradation; PMMA; COC
Online: 25 May 2021 (08:04:51 CEST)
In this investigation, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was mixed with cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) because of its hardness, strength, and transparency properties. The results of thermal analysis through TGA and DTG showed that the thermal properties of the alloy are improved using 40% cyclic olefin copolymer. Kinetics of thermal degradation (pyrolysis) of polymers have been studied and analyzed and thermal pyrolysis of polymethyl methacrylate and cyclic olefin copolymer thermoplastic polymer was conducted. The computation of kinetic analysis is measured along with the different methods used to study the kinetics. The activation energy (E) of degradation of studied materials was estimated using Ozawa Flynn and Wall (OFW), Starink and Kissinger’s methods, and evaluation of three kinetic parameters taken appropriate kinetic model in terms of percent change for both types of polymers have been proposed, and finally, simulated curves were compared with the experimental curves. Both mechanisms of degradation for COC and PMMA under nitrogen atmosphere will reflect intramolecular transfer and random scission of the main chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0355.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Thermogravimetry; Thermal Degradation; Behaviour; Afuze; Coal; Nigeria
Online: 14 May 2021 (17:08:42 CEST)
This study presents a preliminary analysis of the chemical and thermal fuel properties of Afuze (AFZ) coal extracted from coalfields in Owan East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. The chemical properties of AFZ were examined by combined scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), whereas the thermal properties were deduced by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under flash (50 °C/min heating rate) oxidative (combustion) and non-oxidative (pyrolysis) conditions. The microstructure and morphology analysis of AFZ revealed has a compact structure comprising small-to-large, irregular shaped and exfoliated grains with a vitreous appearance typically ascribed to metal elements (Ti and Fe) kaolinite, quartz, and other clay minerals. Chemical analysis revealed carbon, oxygen, aluminium, silicon, sulphur, calcium, titanium, and iron in major and minor (trace) quantities. Thermal analysis under oxidative and non-oxidative conditions revealed degradation occurs in three stages, namely; drying or demineralisation, devolatilization or maceral degradation and the formation of char/coke or ash. Lastly, the findings showed that the temperature range for the oxidative thermal degradation process (338.58 - 756.76 °C) was higher than the non-oxidative process (378.43 - 615.34 °C). This observation can be explained by the exothermic nature of the oxidative (combustion) process, which ensures greater heat supply required to thermally soften or degrade the maceral coal components. Overall, the oxidative process yielded the residual mass (RM = 21.97%) and mass loss (ML = 78.03%). The lower ML (49.03%) but higher RM (50.97%) observed during non-oxidative degradation of AFZ could be ascribed to the largely endothermic nature of the process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0255.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: polylactide; thermal degradation; hydrolytic degradation; fibres; kinetic of erosion; kinetics of degradation
Online: 16 April 2020 (05:44:45 CEST)
In this study, differences in the kinetics of thermal-supported hydrolytic degradation of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) sample wet spinning fibres due to material variance in the initial molecular and supramolecular structure were analysed. The investigation was carried out at the microstructural and molecular levels by using readily available methods such as scanning electron microscopy, mass erosion measurement and estimation of intrinsic viscosity. The results show a varying degree of influence of the initial structure on the degradation rate of studied PLA fibres. The experiment shows that hydrolytic degradation at a temperature close to the cold crystallization temperature on a macroscopic level is definitely more rapid for the amorphous material, while on a molecular scale it is similar to a semi-crystalline material. Further, for the adopted degradation temperature of 90 °C, a marginal influence of pH of the degradation medium on the degradation kinetics was also demonstrated
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1272.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: CuS/ZnS; photocatalytic degradation; p-n heterojunction; thermal decomposition; one-pot combustion; rhodamine B dye; visible light irradiation
Online: 19 June 2023 (03:31:46 CEST)
The aim of this work was to investigate a new, simple one-pot combustion synthesis technique for creating sulphur-based CuS/ZnS p-n heterojunction nanocomposite photocatalysts. The study examined the photocatalytic activity and reusability of these nanocomposites in removing rhodamine B (RhB) dye under visible light irradiation. Various methods of characterisation were employed to determine the properties of the materials, including particle morphology, crystalline phases and bandgap energy. The intrinsic reaction parameters, such as catalyst loading, pH level of the solution, and initial pollutant concentration, were varied to establish the optimal photo-degradation conditions. The results showed that a binary CuS/ZnS catalyst with a 10 gL-1 loading, at pH 5, degraded 97% of 5 ppm RhB dye after 270 minutes of visible light irradiation. Addition-ally, this composite catalyst exhibited excellent chemical stability and reusability, achieving 83% RhB dye removal after five recycling runs. Scavenger tests identified the photogenerated holes (h+) and superoxide free radicals (•O2) as the primary reactive species responsible for degradation. This study provides valuable insight into the design of highly efficient nanomaterials for removing organopollutants in wastewater, and a possible reaction mechanism is proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0250.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: data transfer; haptic thermal interface; thermoelectric cooler; thermal cues; thermal patterns; thermal pulses; thermal icons; thermal communication
Online: 5 July 2023 (14:04:06 CEST)
This research is a preliminary phase of a general effort to develop a generic-data transferring capability via human haptic thermal sensation (generic-data refers to a coded language like Morse or Braille). For the capability to be effective, it must include a large variety of short recognizable cues. Hence, we propose the concept of cues based on sequences of thermal pulses, i.e., combinations of warm and cool pulses with several levels of intensity. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of basing a generic-data-transfer capability on thermal cues composed of sequences of short pulses. The research included defining the basic characteristics of the stimuli parameters and developing practical methods for generating and measuring them. Several sequences were designed in light of the relevant data known to date, and tests were conducted. The thermal cues presented to the participants were sensed and recognized by touch. The results indicate high feasibility for a capability that is applicable in various scenarios. In addition, the low impact on human skin temperature due to short stimuli duration represents an inherent advantage for later implementation. This report presents promising findings and offers insights for further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0105.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: thermal lens spectrometry; thermal diffusivity; dispersions; thermal effects; measurement sensitivity
Online: 6 March 2023 (14:00:45 CET)
The growing interest in heat-conducting nanofluids requires highly sensitive methods for analyzing thermal properties. Thermal-lens spectrometry, despite its advantages over classical methods, does not have a general approach to measuring and interpreting results for dispersed systems. In this paper, by the example of nanofluids of silicon oxide in water in a wide range of concentrations and sizes, the selection of measurement parameters for transient and steady-state thermal lensing is justified, and the interpretation of the results of thermal diffusivity measurements is substantiated. The features of measurements of thermal diffusivity by thermal lens spectrometry under stationary state for dispersed systems are considered. Using this approach, it is possible to detect and distinguish thermal effects with high accuracy. For dispersions of silicon oxide, with increasing concentration, the thermal diffusivity passes through a minimum. Silicon oxide dispersions can be used both as a coolant or as a heat-removing liquid by selecting the particle size and concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0301.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Nanoliquids; Nanofluids; Thermal conductivity; cylinder; shapefactor; Nanoparticles; Simulation; Thermal radiation; Thermal expansion
Online: 19 March 2020 (13:58:10 CET)
In the presented paper, a comprehensive study will be done on shape factor analysis of MoS2-GO in H2O-C2H6O2 based hybrid nanoliquids associated with effect and influence of transverse magnetic field and thermal radiation. The effect of variation in different parameters and nanoliquids shapes under temperature and velocity distribution is explored and also non-linear thermal radiation will be analyzed. Algorithms are introduced in proportion to mathematical modeling based on their numerical results and comparative curves for further explanation. In addition, it will be done research for influence and effect of new significant parameters emerged to the model to do sensitivity analysis and also their output results are demonstrated, examined and compared together by presenting graphs and tables. Based on detailed discussions, authentication of attained results designates the high accuracy of applied methods deployed to solve presented model in the paper. Our results satisfy that our used approach is accurate, highly reliable and also effective. All mentioned steps will be described throughout the literature.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0948.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: UAS; thermal images; surface temperature maps; thermal target
Online: 14 July 2023 (09:42:07 CEST)
The aim of this study is to analyse problems related to thermal mapping obtained from thermal data acquired from Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) equipped with thermal cameras. We focused on an accurate analysis of uncertainties introduced by the PIX4D Mapper software used to obtain the surface temperature maps of thermal images acquired by the UAS. To achieve this aim, we used artificial thermal reference during the surveys, as well as natural hot targets, i.e. thermal anomalies in the Pisciarelli hydrothermal system in Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc). Artificial thermal targets, expressly created and designed for this goal, are a prototype here called “developed thermal target” (DTT) made by the drone Laboratory at Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV-OV). We show the results obtained by three surveys during which thermal targets were positioned on land at different flight heights of the UAS. Different heights were also necessary to test spatial resolution of the DTT with the used thermal camera as well as possible temperature differences between the raw images acquired by UAS with the thermal mapping obtained from the PIX4D Mapper software. In this work we have estimated the uncertainty that may be introduced by the mosaic procedure and furthermore we find an attenuation of the measured temperatures introduced by the different distances between the thermal anomaly and sensor. These results appear to be of great importance for the subsequent calibration phase of the thermal maps especially in cases where these methodologies are applied for monitoring purposes of volcanic/geothermal areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0272.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Thermally Activated Building System; thermal comfort; thermal mass
Online: 19 January 2022 (14:18:14 CET)
In recent years, several alternatives for improving the thermal comfort conditions inside buildings have been proposed. Among these alternatives, Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS) have become of interest due to the benefits this technology brings to the building sector. The TABS are embedded in different building components and exchange heat with building envelope to improve the indoor air temperature. This review presents relevant results presented in the literature on the thermal behavior of TABS, the different types of TABS configurations, and the main parameters of TABS studied such as pipe separation, fluid inlet temperature, fluid velocity, and volumetric flow rate. The potential of TABS to improve thermal comfort conditions and provide energy savings is also discussed. Further, this study presents the different modes of application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0528.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Carbohydrate; Menthol; Thermal Comfort; Thermal Sensation; Thirst; Water
Online: 20 November 2020 (09:30:10 CET)
Carbohydrate and menthol mouth-swilling have been used to enhance exercise performance in the heat. However, these strategies differ in mechanism and subjective experience. Participants (n=12) sat for 60 min in hot conditions (35°C; 15±2%), following a 15 min control period, participants undertook three 15 min testing blocks. A randomised swill (Carbohydrate; Menthol; Water) was administered per testing block (one swill every three minutes within each block). Heart rate, tympanic temperature, thermal comfort, thermal sensation and thirst were recorded every three minutes. Data were analysed by ANOVA, with carbohydrate intake controlled for via ANCOVA. Small elevations in heart rate were observed after carbohydrate (ES: 0.22 ± 90% CI: -0.09 to 0.52) and water swilling (0.26; -0.04 to 0.54). Menthol showed small improvements in thermal comfort relative to carbohydrate (-0.33; -0.63 to 0.03) and water (-0.40; -0.70 to -0.10), and induced moderate reductions in thermal sensation (-0.71; -1.01 to -0.40 and -0.66; -0.97 to -0.35, respectively). Menthol reduced thirst by a small to moderate extent. These effects persisted when controlling for dietary carbohydrate intake. Carbohydrate and water may elevate heart rate, whereas menthol elicits small improvements in thermal comfort, moderately improves thermal sensation and may mitigate thirst; these effects persist when dietary carbohydrate intake is controlled for.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0095.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: thermal barrier coatings; 8 %YSZ; thermal conductivity; microstructure
Online: 20 September 2017 (08:28:21 CEST)
In this paper, the effect of microstructure on the thermal conductivity of plasma-sprayed Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is investigated. Nine freestanding samples deposited on aluminum-base superalloy are studied. Cross-section morphology such as pores, cracks, m-phase content, grain boundary density of the coated samples are examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). Multiple linear regressions are used to develop quantitative models which describe the relationship between the particle parameters, m-phase content and the microstructure such as porosity, crack-porosity, the length density of small-angle-crack and the length density of big-angle-crack. Moreover, the relationship between microstructure and thermal conductivity is investigated. Results reveal that the thermal conductivity of the coating is mainly determined by the microstructure and grain boundary density at room temperature (25 ℃) and by the length density of big-angle-crack, monoclinic phase content and grain boundary density at high temperature (1200 ℃).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0117.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Thermal transport in nanocomposites; interfacial thermal conductance; graphene; borophene; multiscale modelling of thermal transport
Online: 6 January 2021 (13:26:46 CET)
Graphene and borophene are highly attractive two-dimensional materials with outstanding physical properties. In this study we employed a combined atomistic continuum multiscale modeling to explore the effective thermal conductivity of polymers nanocomposites made of PDMS polymer as the matrix and graphene and borophene as nanofillers. We first conduct classical molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interfacial thermal conductance between graphene/PDMS and borophene/PDMS interfaces. Acquired results confirm that the interfacial thermal conductance between nanosheets and polymer increases from the single-layer to multilayered nanosheets and finally converges. The data provided by the atomistic simulations were then used in the finite element method simulations to evaluate the effective thermal conductivity of polymer nanocomposites at continuum level. We explore the effects of nanofillers type, their volume content, geometry aspect ratio and thickness on the nanocomposites effective thermal conductivity. As a very interesting finding, we show that borophene nanosheets, despite almost two orders of magnitude lower thermal conductivity than graphene, can yield very close enhancement in the effective thermal conductivity in comparison with graphene, particularly for low volume content and small aspect ratios and thicknesses. We conclude that for the polymer-based nanocomposites, significant improvement in the thermal conductivity can be reached by improving the bonding between the fillers and polymer or in another word enhancing the thermal conductance at the interface. By taking into account the high electrical conductivity of borophene, our results suggest borophene nanosheets as promising nanofillers to simultaneously enhance the polymers thermal and electrical conductivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0178.v2
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: thermal mass; natural ventilation; thermal resilience; materials design; life cycle analysis; thermal optimization; low carbon
Online: 16 July 2019 (08:50:05 CEST)
What proportions should a thermally massive building have? How should the thermal mass be distributed? Should the "massing" change with the choice of material? This paper shows how to optimize the physical proportions of a building so that it synchronizes ambient heat exchanges in a natural feedback cycle. The internal mass is thermally coupled with buoyancy ventilation; the cycle is driven by the daily swing of outdoor temperature. Tripling up functions in this way—so that structural materials can reliably cool and power the ventilation for buildings—could help decarbonize the construction industry and provide an effective strategy for adapting to life-threatening heatwaves. Based on harmonic analysis, the method allows designers to thermally tune the form and mass of a building to meet chosen targets for temperature and ventilation in free-running mode. Once the optimal balance of exchange rates is known, design teams can proportionally vary the building height and ventilation openings against the surface area and thickness of an internal thermal mass. The possible permutations are infinite but parametrically constrained, allowing teams to fairly compare the functional and environmental credentials of different construction materials while they produce and evaluate preliminary options for organizing the exterior form and interior spaces of a building. An example study suggests that thin-shell structures of minimum weight, and even timber buildings, may be optimally tuned to produce ample ventilation and temperature attenuation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0290.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: thermal interface materials; graphene; hot-pressing; thermal annealing; bidirectional
Online: 6 November 2023 (09:34:26 CET)
Traditional graphene-based films normally possess high thermal conductivity (TC) only along single direction, which is not suitable for thermal interface materials (TIMs). Here, a graphene film with excellent bidirectional TC and mechanical properties was prepared by hot-pressing super-elastic graphene aerogel (SEGA). Thermal annealing at 1800℃ improves the further restacking of graphene sheets, bring the SEGA high structure stability for enduring the hot-pressing process. The junctions and nodes between the graphene layers in the hot-pressed SEGA (HPSEGA) film provide bidirectional heat transport paths. The in-plane TC and through-plane TC of HPSEGA film with thickness of 101μm reach 740 Wm-1K-1 and 42.5 Wm-1K-1, respectively. In addition, HPSEGA film with higher thickness still maintains excellent thermal transport properties due to the interconnected structure reducing the effect of the defects. The infrared thermal images visually manifest the excellent thermal-transfer capability and thermal dissipation efficiency of the HPSEGA films, indicating the great potential as advanced bidirectional TIMs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1147.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: ASHRAE; climate change; passive cooling; thermal comfort; thermal sensation
Online: 16 May 2023 (10:06:20 CEST)
A variety of factors ranging from ethnicity and occupants’ lifestyles to local climatic characteristics of any studied location and people’s age factors can affect thermal comfort assessment globally. Due to the detrimental impact of climate change, the building industry has started to implement energy efficiency schemes while considering the thermal comfort of vulnerable population both for the society and any sphere of economy. Although, considering human-based approaches have been neglected by other scholars in thermal comfort studies. This paper reviews energy effectiveness of state-of-the-art passive systems in providing neutral adaptive thermal comfort for elderly people, through exploring passive design strategies in four distinct climates namely, Canada, India, Abu Dhabi and the South-eastern Mediterranean basin. The aim of the study is to analyze the available data provided by the ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database II version record 2.1. The main objective of the study is to develop an effective methodological framework for the on-going development of adaptive thermal comfort theory. To this extend, this study presents a comprehensive review on the assessment of energy effectiveness of passive design systems. To accomplish this, the impact of climate change factor in passive design systems was investigated. The meta-analysis method was adopted to determine the input variables for the statistical analysis. Cramer’s V and Fisher’s Exact tests were used to assess occupants’ thermal sensation votes (TSVs). The findings revealed that there are discrepancies detected between the in-situ field experiments and the data recorded in the ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database II. According to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification, it was found from the study that the slightly high temperature fluctuations were identified in India where the weather is dry and savanna climate. The study findings contribute to the development of adaptive thermal comfort theory by reviewing the existing methodologies globally. Furthermore, a critical review on the significance of occupants’ age differences should be conducted in the identification of neutral adaptive thermal comfort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0394.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: EPDM vulcanizates; thermal-oxidative aging; thermal decomposition kinetics; antioxidant
Online: 17 April 2023 (04:07:38 CEST)
A thermal-oxidative aging test at 120°C was condutcted on Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) vulcanizates of the semi-efficient vulcanization system. The effect of thermal-oxidative aging on EPDM vulcanizates was systematically studied by curing kinetics, aging coefficient, cross-linking density, macroscopic physical properties, contact angle, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and thermal decomposition kinetics. The results show that the content of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups as well as the carbonyl index increased with increasing aging time, indicating that EPDM vulcanizates are gradually oxidized and degraded. As a result, the EPDM vulcanized rubber chains were cross-linked, and its conformational transformation was limited and its flexibility was weakened. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrates the thermal degradation of EPDM vulcanizates had competitive reactions of cross-linking and degradation, and the thermal decomposition curve can be divided into three stages, meanwhile the thermal stability of EPDM vulcanizates gradually decreases with the increase of aging time. The introduction of antioxidant in the system can promote the cross-linking speed and reduce the cross-linking density of EPDM vulcanizates, while inhibiting the surface thermal and oxygen aging reaction. This is attributed to the fact that the antioxidant can reduce the thermal degradation reaction level, but it is not conducive to the formation of a perfect crosslinking network structure and reduce the activation energy of thermal degradation of the main chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0225.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: 3D thermal model; image fusion; smart phone; thermal IR
Online: 16 May 2018 (08:26:39 CEST)
Thermal infrared imagery provides temperature information on target objects, and has been widely applied in non-destructive testing. However, thermal infrared imagery is not always able to display detailed textures of inspected objects, which hampers the understanding of geometric entities consisting of temperature information. Although some commercial software has been developed for 3D thermal model displays, the software requires the use of expensive specific thermal infrared sensors. This study proposes a cost-effective method for 3D thermal model reconstruction based on image-based modeling. Two smart phones and a low-cost thermal infrared camera are employed to acquire visible images and thermal images, respectively, that are fused for 3D thermal model reconstruction. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to effectively reconstruct a 3D thermal model which extremely approximates its corresponding entity. The total computation time for the 3D thermal model reconstruction is intensive while generating dense points required for the creation of a geometric entity. Future work will improve the efficiency of the proposed method in order to expand its potential applications to in-time monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0023.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Packed beds; Thermal heat; Porosity effect; Thermal contact resistance
Online: 3 August 2016 (08:29:06 CEST)
Modelling water vapour flow, heat transfer and porosity in porous adsorbent is somewhat challenging simulation problem. Primary macroscopic water vapour flow models, such as Darcy's law, fail to predict the pressure drop entirely correctly for the reason that many of flow parameters not considered because of the simplifications that remain made for the multi-scale structure of the porous adsorbents. For one to develop a good physical understanding of such water vapour flows and the accuracy of existing 3D simulation models, there is a need for some accurate 3D geometry to be studied. This present work describes two-phase water vapour flow and adsorption/ desorption performed on porous adsorbent by a Dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). The CFD simulation results are associated with experiments results. It is decided that for such complex porous adsorbent CFD simulation problems the use of COMSOL Multiphysics and SolidWorks flow simulation will be utilised.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Ground coupled Heat Exchangers; Thermal Response Test; Thermal conductivity; Thermal diffusivity; Geotechnical properties; Borehole heat exchangers
Online: 11 February 2019 (16:13:18 CET)
The performance of ground heat exchangers systems depends on the knowledge of the thermal parameters of the ground like thermal conductivity, thermal capacity and diffusivity. The knowledge of these parameters often requires quite accurate experimental analysis, known under the name of Thermal Response Test (TRT). In this paper, after a general analysis of the various available types of TRT and the study of the theoretical basics of the method, the perspective of the definition of a simplified routine method of analysis based on the combination of a particular version of TRT and the routine geotechnical tests for the characterization of soil stratigraphy and of the ground characteristics, mandatory before the construction of a new buildings, even if limited to quite short drilling depth (lower than 30 m). The idea of developing TRT in connection with geotechnical test activity has the objective of promoting a widespread use of in-situ experimental analysis and of reducing TRT costs and time duration of the experimental analysis. The considerations exposed in the present paper lead to reconsider a particular variety of the TRT in particular the version known as Thermal Response Test while Drilling (TRTWD).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2071.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: thermally conducive fillers; through-plane thermal conductivity (K⊥), thermal conductivity; polymer composites; Thermally Conductive Polymer Composites (TCPC); Thermal interface materials (TIMs); thermal management
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:11:18 CEST)
The internet of things and growing demand for smaller and advanced devices has created the problem of high heat production in the electronic equipment which greatly reduces the work performance and life of the electronic instruments. Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are placed in between heat generating micro-chip and the heat dissipater to conduct all the produced heat to the heat sink. Development of suitable TIMs with excellent thermal conductivity (TC) in both in-plane and through-plane directions is a very important need at present. For efficient thermal management, polymer composites are potential candidates. But in general their thermal conductivity is low compared to that of metals. The filler integration into the polymer matrix is one of the two approaches used to increase the thermal conductivity of polymer composites and is also easy to scale up for industrial production. Another way to achieve this is to change the structure of polymer chains, which fall out of the scope of this work. In this review, considering the first approach, the authors have summarized recent development in many types of fillers with different scenarios by providing multiple cases with successful strategies to improve through-plane thermal conductivity (TPTC) (K⊥). For better understanding of TC the comprehensive background is also presented. In the end, it is given a detailed conclusion which provides drawbacks of some filler, multiple significant routes recommended by other researchers to build Thermally Conductive Polymer Composites, future aspects along with direction so that the researchers can get a guideline to design an effective polymer based Thermal interface materials. A number of methods to improve the effective (out-plane) thermal conductivity of polymer composites are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0524.v1
Online: 21 November 2018 (11:27:40 CET)
The study sought to determine solar irradiation in Homa Bay County which can be tapped and utilized in improving lives of residents of the region by converting the solar thermal energy in Home Bay to other forms of energy such as electric form, mechanical form and light. The study was done by assessing the local atmospheric conditions which included sunshine duration data and air temperature records for the period of two years and the data obtained subjected to statistical analysis to determine the localized characteristics of the resource. The characteristics that were examined include; seasonal and annual power expectations as well as resource reliability. The solar irradiance of Home County was found to be 768.0 W/m2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1871.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: thermal behavior; sandwich panels; mineral wool; heat transfer; thermal diffusivity
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:25:00 CEST)
The paper presents theoretical, experimental and numerical studies on the thermal behavior of mineral wool used in sandwich panels. The aim of this study is to investigate the thermal properties of mineral wool at elevated temperatures and provide a simple model that would allow to determine the heat propagation in sandwich panels during fire. The paper proposes a new method to experimentally evaluate thermal diffusivity, derived from theoretical premises. Experiments are conducted in a laboratory furnace, where specimens are placed and temperatures inside specimens are measured. Different methods are used to process the test results and calculate the thermal diffusivity of mineral wool. Finally, a numerical analysis of heat transfer using finite element method (FEM) is performed to validate the obtained thermal properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0290.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: chemical modification; electronics cooling; thermal management nanocomposites; thermal conductivity; silver nanoparticles
Online: 25 October 2018 (10:33:13 CEST)
Polymer composites with high thermal conductivity have a great potential for applications in modern electronics due to their low cost, easy process, and stable physical and chemical properties. Nevertheless, most polymer composites commonly possess unsatisfactory thermal conductivity, primarily because of the high interfacial thermal resistance between inorganic ﬁllers. Herein, we developed a novel method through silver functionalized graphene nanosheets (GNS) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites with excellent thermal properties to meet the requirements of thermal management. The effects of composites on interfacial structure and properties of the composites were identiﬁed, and the microstructures and properties of the composites were studied as a function of the volume fraction of fillers. An ultrahigh thermal conductivity of 12.3 W/mK for polymer matrix composites was obtained, which is an approximate enhancement of 69.1 times compared to the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix. Moreover, these composites showed more competitive thermal conductivities compared to untreated fillers/PVA composites applied to the desktop central processing unit, making these composites a high-performance alternative to be used for thermal management.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: atmospheric plasma spray (APS) process; particle size; thermal insulation; thermal barrier coating (TBC); thermal diffusivity; coating microstructure; coating porosity
Online: 3 July 2019 (14:49:12 CEST)
In the present work, three different atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) alumina coatings were fabricated using three fused and crushed alumina powders of different particle size fine, medium and coarse. The influence of the particle size on thermal properties and micro-structural features of the produced coating were investigated by thermal insulation test and detailed image analysis technique, respectively. The analyzed micro-structural features include the total porosity, pore size (fine, medium, and large) and cracks. All types of cracks were considered in calculations as voids and were evaluated according to their sizes as pores. All spray parameters except the particle size were fixed throughout the spraying process. The results revealed that the fine starting powder has produced the densest coating with the lowest total porosity and that the total porosity increases with an increasing particle size. This was expected as powders of smaller particle size will reach a higher in-flight temperature and velocity than powders of bigger particle sizes as long as the same spray parameters are applied. However, a detailed image analysis investigation on the three produced coatings showed that the fraction of fine pores and cracks versus the total porosity is substantially higher in coatings produced by using fine starting powders than those produced using medium and coarse powders. In this work, a connection between the thermal insulation and the porosity fraction, which includes fine pores and cracks, was revealed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0067.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: people; counting; thermal; sensor
Online: 8 January 2020 (08:35:48 CET)
People counting applications have been used in diverse applications. The ability and accuracy of thermal imaging over conventional image cameras has led to the implementation of thermal cameras in people counting applications. This paper present a thermal people counting smart glass windows. The people counting application would be remotely monitored from a single centralized PC station as it’s connected to a multiplex of mass monitoring of 20 thermal camera, all embedded into different glass windows. The thermal cameras would then be able to detect body temperatures of all individuals who pass through any of the camera range and also count the numbers of people who passed through the camera range. The data gotten can then be further utilized in various ways, example is in the control of air conditioning and lightening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0101.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Thermal Runaway; pouch cell; chemical composition analysis; structural analysis; thermal failure test
Online: 4 December 2023 (08:29:25 CET)
When designing the battery of an electric vehicle, different parameters must be considered to obtain the safest arrangement of the battery/modules/cells from the mechanical and thermal point of view. In this study, the thermal runaway propagation mechanism of lithium-ion cells is analyzed as a function of their arrangement within a battery pack in case of a fire propagation of a battery pack in which a thermal runaway has occurred. The objective is to identify which cell/module arrangement is most critical within the battery pack by microscopic analysis of the structure and chemical composition of the most damaged cells, both horizontally and vertically, of a battery belonging to a burnt vehicle. And their final condition has been compared with the condition of new cells of the same type. In this way the structure and chemical composition of the anode, cathode and separator after Thermal Runaway has been compared. This research has been carried out to obtain information to understand the mechanical properties of lithium-ion cells and their behavior after thermal runaway heating leading to the propagation of a fire. Through the analysis carried out, it is concluded that cells placed in a vertical arrangement have worse behavior than cells in a horizontal arrangement. Regarding the safety of the battery, the results of this study will allow to determine which arrangement and structure of the cells within the battery pack is safer against thermal runaway due to thermal failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1424.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: polyimide film; optical transparency; coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE); benzanilide; thermal properties
Online: 20 June 2023 (10:10:44 CEST)
Light-colored and transparent polyimide (PI) films with good high-temperature dimensional stability are highly desired for advanced optoelectronic applications. However, in practice, the simultaneous achievement of good optical and thermal properties in one PI film is usually difficult due to the inter-conflicting molecular design for the polymers. In the present work, a series of PI-SiO2 nanocomposite films (ABTFCPI) were developed based on the PI matrix derived from hydrogenated pyromellitic anhydride (HPMDA) and an aromatic diamine containing benzanilide and trifluoromethyl substituents in the structure, 2,2'-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4'-bis[4-(4-aminobenzamide)]biphenyl (ABTFMB). The inorganic SiO2 fillers were incorporated into the nanocomposite films with the form of colloidal nanoparticles dispersed in the good solvent of N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) for the PI matrix. The derived ABTFCPI nanocomposite films showed good film-forming ability, flexible and tough nature, good optical transparency, and good thermal properties with the loading amounts of SiO2 up to 30 wt% in the system. The ABTFCPI-30 film with the SiO2 content of 30 wt% in the film showed the optical transmittance of 79.6% at the wavelength of 400 nm (T400) with a thickness of 25 μm, the yellow index (b*) of 2.15, and the 5% weight loss temperatures (T5%) of 491 oC, which are all comparable to those the pristine ABTFCPI-0 matrix without filler (T400=81.8%; b*=1.77; T5%=492 oC). Meanwhile, the ABTFCPI-30 film exhibited obviously enhanced high-temperature dimensional stability with the linear coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of 25.4×10-6/K in the temperature range of 50 to 250 oC, which is much lower than that of the AMTFCPI-0 film (CTE=32.7×10-6/K).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0571.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Solar energy; photovoltaic-thermal; electrical efficiency; thermal efficiency; exergetic efficiency; energy bandgap
Online: 30 November 2022 (10:07:52 CET)
We investigate the performance of a novel flat photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) module under high-vacuum through a 1D numerical model based on steady-state energy balance, with the aims of optimizing the simultaneous production of thermal and electrical energy. In the proposed design, the photovoltaic (PV) cell is positioned directly above the selective solar absorber (SSA), in a multilayer or fully integrated PV-SSA structure, which allows full exploitation of spectral solar radiation. In fact, in this configuration the losses related to non-absorption of low-energy photons and thermalization, typical of a classical single-junction PV cell, are reduced. The present study is conducted as the emittance and energy bandgap of the PV layer varied, thus admitting a wide variety of materials into the analysis. The dependence of the temperature coefficient, β(%/K), on the energy bandgap of the PV cell is also included. In the last part of the work, we discuss the performance of the proposed evacuated PV-T equipped with a SSA layer and thin film solar cells, namely those made of CdTe, CdS and GaAs. Overall, the paper highlights the great advantage of using high vacuum insulation, which suppresses conductive losses, and the versatility of the proposed system, which could be adapted to the user's needs simply by choosing the appropriate material for the photovoltaic layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Metal 3D printing; Additive manufacturing; Powder bed fusion; Thermal simulation; Thermal history
Online: 17 September 2021 (09:28:45 CEST)
The powder bed fusion (PBF) metal additive manufacturing (AM) method uses an energy source like a laser to melt the metal powders. The laser can locally melt the metal powders and creates a solid structure as it moves. The complexity of the heat distribution in laser PBF metal AM is one of the main features that need to be accurately addressed and understood to design and manage an optimized printing process. In this research, the dependency of local thermal rates and gradients on print after solidification (in the heat-affected zone) was numerically simulated and studied to provide information for designing the print process. The simulation results were validated by independent experimental results. The simulation shows that the local thermal rates are higher at higher laser power and scan speed. Also, the local thermal gradients increase if the laser power increases. The effect of scan speed on the thermal gradients is opposite during heating versus cooling times. Increasing the scan speed increases the local thermal gradients in the cooling times and decreases the local thermal gradients during the heating. In addition, these simulation results could be used in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning for developing digital additive manufacturing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0370.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Seasonal Variance; Pedestrians Thermal Comfort; Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET); Adaptive Thermal Comfort
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:14:58 CET)
Season plays a key role in the development of outdoor spaces for pedestrians in hot humid cities. This research studies the influence of seasonal variations on pedestrian thermal comfort on the pedestrian level by means of meteorology and field observations of selected footpaths in the major tourist area of Malacca. This experiment was carried out on selected clear calm days indicative of each season during the development of a research project, and hourly meteorological transects from 10:00 am to 6:00 pm and questioned 200 respondents on their thermal awareness, comfort, and preferences were conducted. Adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, age, season and hour of the day were significant non-meteorological factors, apart from meteorological information. The findings of analyzes showed that the thermal experience and expectation existed and in different seasons people changed perceptions for the outside thermal environment. Almost 80% local tourist and 55 % international tourist was accepted Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) range affected by the local climate and thermal adaptation. The subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature generated an acceptable physiological equivalent temperature of 32.6°C to 36.8°C based on the seasonal variations for Malacca tourist zone in Malaysia. These findings shed light on the optimal design of outdoor spaces for increasing the utilization rate. The seasonal variation must be taken into account so that the outdoor landscape design provides more opportunities for different seasons to communicate with the atmosphere and so enhance thermal comfort and utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0247.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Ga-In; thermal conductivity; CALPHAD; comparative cut bar method; thermal interface material
Online: 11 August 2020 (03:12:07 CEST)
Thermal interface material (TIM) that can exist as liquid at the service temperature enables efficient heat transfer across two adjacent surfaces in electronic applications. In this work, the thermal conductivities of different phase regions in the Ga-In system at various compositions and temperatures are measured for the first time. A modified comparative cut bar technique is used for the measurement of the thermal conductivities of InxGa1-x (x=0, 0.1, 0.214, 0.3, and 0.9) alloys at 40, 60, 80, and 100oC that are the temperatures commonly encountered in consumer electronics. The thermal conductivity values for the liquid and semi-liquid (liquid+β) Ga-In alloys are higher than the TIM currently used in consumer electronics. These measured quantities, along with the available experimental data from the literature, served as input for the thermal conductivity parameter optimization using the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHase Diagram) method for the pure elements, solution phase, and two-phase region. A set of self-consistent parameters for the description of the thermal conductivity of the Ga-In system is obtained. There is good agreement between the measured and calculated thermal conductivity values for all the phases. Hence, it can be envisaged that liquid/semi-liquid Ga-In alloys can be considered as a potential TIM in consumer electronics due to its high thermal conductivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0155.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: cooling effect; urban park; thermal comfort; physiological equivalent temperature; perceived thermal comfort
Online: 16 September 2019 (01:17:53 CEST)
This empirical study investigates large urban park cooling effects on the thermal comfort of occupants in the vicinity of the main central park, located in Madrid, Spain. Data were gathered during hot summer days, using mobile observations and a questionnaire. The results showed that the cooling effect of this urban park of 140 ha area at a distance of 150 m is able to reduce temperature by an average of 0.63°C and 1.28°C for distances of 380 m and of 665 meters from the park. Moreover, the degree of the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) index at a distance of 150 meters from the park is on average 2°C PET and 2.3°C PET less compared to distances of 380 m and 665 m, respectively. Considering distance from the park, the correlation between occupant Perceived Thermal Comfort (PTC) and PET is inverse. That is, augmenting the distance from park increases PET, while the extent of PTC reduces accordingly. The correlation between these two factors at the nearest and furthest distances from the park is meaningful (P-value <0/05). The results also showed that large-scale urban parks generally play a significant part in creating a cognitive state of high-perceived thermal comfort spaces for residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0855.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: CALTEX red engine oil; nanofluids; thermal conductivity; thermal diffusivity; volumetric heat capacity; flashpoint
Online: 13 October 2023 (08:23:53 CEST)
The efficiency, durability, and overall performance of a car engine are influenced by several critical factors. The quality and properties of engine oil play a crucial role, and oil is used in internal combustion engines for lubrication and cooling purposes. This research study aimed to compare the impact of fullerene-C60 (99.5%), Fe2O3, and TiO2 nanoparticles on the thermal properties of C.A.L.T.E.X. red engine oil with grades 10W30, 20W40, and 20W50. This study focused on the effect of a nanoparticle concentration of 0.01 wt.% in different engine oil grades at various temperature values of 30-120 ℃. The Nanofluids were prepared using the two-step direct mixing method, employing a magnetic stirrer and an ultrasonicator, ensuring uniform distribution of nanoparticles in the base fluids. The thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of the base fluids and nanofluids were measured using the FLUCON LAMBDA thermal conductivity meter. Additionally, flash points were measured using the flash point tester. It was concluded that the thermal properties of TiO2 and Fe2O3 showed considerable enhancement; in contrast, Fullerene only showed the 212 ℃ flash point.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0272.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Urban climate; thermal field; three-dimensional structure; surface temperatures; heat islands; thermal inversion
Online: 15 November 2021 (12:30:33 CET)
This study aims to evaluate the land surface temperature (LST) and the thermal characteristics of the Urban Canopy Layer (UCL) of the urban canyon in Avenida Rio Branco in the Central Business District (CBD) of Rio de Janeiro during summer. In order to conduct this evaluation, two methods were employed: 1) TIRS Landsat-8 sensor for data selection and processing (latest generation, 2011-2020); ; 2) field survey using nine sampling points — seven along two mobile transects, one fixed point, and one vertical measurement point, which required the use of a RPA (Remotely Piloted Aircraft). Three categories of analysis were established for the field survey based on the prevailing synoptic situations: stability, instability, and post-instability. The CBD is characterized by extensive areas with surface heat islands, in which temperatures were higher than 38.9°C; the areas with milder LSTs were Campo do Santana, Avenida Rio Branco, and one of the Mixed-Use Zones (Praça Mauá). With respect to Rio Branco Avenue, the LST niches of lowest elevation were derived through building shadowing; however, the orbital data diverged from the observation data of the ten field-study days. In situ data revealed that the characteristics urban morphology of Avenida Rio Branco is susceptible to the formation of heat islands, presenting heat islands of very strong magnitude (over 6.1°C) in atmospheric stability, strong magnitude (4.1-6.0°C) in atmospheric instability, and moderate magnitude (2.1°C-4.0°C) in post-atmospheric instability. Despite the synoptic situation, thermal cores were concentrated at 1 pm. The intersection between Avenida Rio Branco, Rua do Ouvidor, and Praça Mauá stored most of the solar energy received during the day due to the greater sky obstruction caused by the verticalization. Finally, vertical analysis demonstrated the formation of a thermal inversion on the night of the highest mean air temperature (29.5°C), probably, due to the roughness and number of buildings in the urban canyon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0160.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: solar thermal systems; phase change materials; thermoplastic elastomer; mechanical property; photo-thermal performance
Online: 11 July 2019 (11:54:58 CEST)
Traditional phase change composites usually suffer poor mechanical property and easy collapsing in the phase changing process. Herein, a highly flexible phase change composite is fabricated using thermoplastic elastomer as the basic gel and the expanded graphite/paraffin as the filler. This new phase change composite shows a tensile strength of 2.1 MPa and a breaking elongation of 220%. It has a melting enthalpy of 145.4 J•g-1 and a thermal conductivity of 2.2 W•m-1•K-1 with 70% of expanded graphite/paraffin. The thermoplastic elastomer based phase change composite exhibits great reversible property after 200 heating/cooling cycles. This flexible phase change composite demonstrates good photo-thermal energy charging/discharging property and shows great potential to be applied in the solar thermal energy systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: aerodynamics; airflow; humidifier; thermal uniformity
Online: 31 August 2023 (10:44:46 CEST)
The seedling plant factory requires precise environmental control to ensure uniform growth within a short time cultivation period. To provide optimal temperature, humidity, and airflow, it is necessary to interpret the internal aerodynamics. However, the analysis based on field experiments has limitations in interpreting the invisible flow patterns. To overcome this limitation, CFD simulations were employed. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a CFD model of the seedling plant factory with the porous panel for improving the internal environment and to identify the fluid dynamics issues using the validated model. Based on the field monitoring data obtained by 90 data loggers, the average temperature and humidity during the 16-hour light period and 8-hour dark period were maintained within 1% of the set values. However, regional differences occurred, which led to the design of a CFD model incorporating the porous panel to simulate these variations. The Realizable k-ε turbulence model, which exhibited an error of 4.0% in comparison with the field data, was selected through validation test among four different turbulence models with the same configuration of the seedling plant factory. The CFD simulation results were interpreted quantitatively and qualitatively, focusing on the airflow, temperature, and humidity distributions caused by the air conditioner and humidifier. Variations in average temperature of up to 0.5 degrees and velocity differences of 0.28 m/s were observed depending on the location of the cultivation shelves. The locations and causes of stagnant regions resulting from the airflow patterns were identified through the simulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0197.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: molecular dynamics; polymorph; thermal decomposition
Online: 4 July 2023 (11:34:06 CEST)
A self-consistent charge density-functional tight-binding method combined with molecular dynamics simulations is employed to reveal the effect of polymorph on the thermal decomposition stability of 1,1-Diamino-2,2-Dinitroethylene (FOX-7). Two types of heating, constant temperature heating and temperature-programmed heating, are adopted. Potential evolution indicates that γ-FOX-7 possesses the lowest thermal stability, as it is closer to the decomposition state. Crystal form has an important influence on the thermal decomposition of FOX-7, resulting in different decomposition rates and initial reactions. In general, β- and γ-FOX-7 always decompose more completely than α-FOX-7. This work emphases the importance of polymorph dependent initial decay of an energetic polymorphic compound once heated in a volume constrained condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0493.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Thermal uncertainties; Disequilibrium; Husimi distributions
Online: 19 November 2020 (07:31:23 CET)
In this paper we establish information theoretical bridges between 1) Thermal Heisenberg uncertainties $\Delta x \Delta p$ (at temperature $T$), and 2) LMC structural quantifiers. After having achieved such purpose, we determine to what an extent our bridges can be extended to both the semi classical and classical realms. Also, we find a strict bound relating a special LMC structural quantifier to quantum uncertainties.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0391.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Nickel; nanoparticles; Thermal; FTIR; SEM
Online: 17 July 2020 (15:25:55 CEST)
In this scientific research, thermally stable nickel nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. Nickel nanoparticles were synthesized using phenol –formaldehyde by chemical method followed by calcination. The polymer metal complex was confirmed by FTIR and NMR. The spherical morphology of nickel nanoparticles confirmed by SEM. The crystallographic structure is confirmed by XRD and size of cobalt nanoparticles is 24.0 nm. The TGA analysis was performed over a range of 29-600OC. The TGA thermograph predicts mass decomposition of 11%, for nickel phenol-formaldehyde nanocomposite. The decomposition rate of composites is very low 2% weight loss per 100OC increment in temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0132.v1
Online: 8 March 2020 (04:40:36 CET)
Body temperature responses were recorded during phases of work (waiting to work in close proximity to search site, active work in a search site, and post-work recovery crated in vehicle) in human remains detection dogs during search training. State or federally certified human remains detection dogs (n = 8) completed eight iterations of searching, rotating through six different types of search environments to detect numerous scent sources including partial and complete, buried, hidden, or fully visible human remains. Internal temperature (Tgi) of the body was measured continuously using an ingestible thermistor in the gastrointestinal tract. Mean total phase times were: waiting to work: 9.17 minutes (± 2.27); active work: 8:58 minutes (± 2:49); and post work recovery: 24:04 minutes (± 10.59). Tgi was impacted by phase of work (P < 0.001) with a small increase during active work, with mean peak temperature 39.4 °C (± 0.34 ºC) during that period. Tgi continued to increase for a mean of 7:37 (± 6:04) minutes into the post-work recovery phase in the handler’s vehicle with a mean peak Tgi of 39.66 °C (± 0.41 ºC). No significant increase in temperature was measured during the waiting to work phase, suggesting anticipation of work did not appear to contribute to overall body temperature increase during the waiting to work recovery cycle. Continued increase of gastrointestinal body temperature several minutes after cessation of exercise indicates that risk of heat injury does not immediately stop when the dog stops exercising, although none of the dogs in this study reached clinically concerning body temperatures or displayed any behavioral signs suggestive of pending heat injury. More work is needed to better understand the impact of vehicle crating on post-work recovery temperatures in dogs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0179.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: methane; desorption; hydraulic; thermal; high pressure water injection
Online: 10 May 2018 (08:22:23 CEST)
Moisture and thermal are the key factors for influencing methane desorption during CBM exploitation. Using high pressure water injection technology into coalbed, new fractures and pathways are formed to methane transport. It is existed a phenomenon of water inhibiting gas flow. This study is focused on various water pressures impacted on gas adsorbed coal samples, then the desorption capacity could be revealed under different conditions. And the results are shown that methane desorption capacity was decreased with water pressure increased at room temperature and the downtrend would be steady until water pressure was large enough. Heating could promote gas desorption capacity effectively, with the increasing of water injection pressures, the promotion of thermal on desorption became more obvious. These results are expected to provide a clearer understanding of theoretical efficiency of heat water or steam injection into coalbed, they can provide some theoretical and experimental guidance on CBM production and methane control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0595.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Vernacular housing; passive design strategies; indoor thermal environment; building energy performance; dynamic thermal simulations
Online: 8 June 2023 (05:17:24 CEST)
Vernacular architecture constitutes a rich source of information and ancestral knowledge that can become a key resource for sustainable development through its passive design strategies, which effectively respond to local climatic and weather conditions using locally sourced materials for the construction of its supporting structure and enveloping elements, as well as spatial organization and the incorporation of a buffer area (patio) that optimize the use of renewable resources. This qualitative study analyzes a traditional housing typology with a central patio located in the Historic Center of Azogues city, Ecuador, to evaluate its interior thermal comfort through in-situ monitoring in the different building spaces. Using the open-source software Open Studio and EnergyPlus, a simulation model was built to assess the annual thermal performance of the house. Field records were used to verify the effectiveness of the strategies that respond to the climatic conditions of the area. The analysis carried out on the passive strategies used in the selected house with regard to natural ventilation, solar protection, and thermal insulation, which depend on various aspects of the building, such as its location, internal space arrangement, design of openings (doors and windows), among others. The thermal simulations reveal that the traditional house located in the Historic Center of Azogues city is well adapted to the local climate, although interior thermal comfort is not entirely satisfactory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0162.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal emittance; conversion efficiency; selective solar absorber; thermal energy; evacuated flat panel; solar energy
Online: 20 October 2020 (12:18:01 CEST)
This study refers to the optimization of a Selective Solar Absorber to improve the Sun-to-thermal conversion efficiency at mid temperatures in high vacuum flat thermal collectors. Efficiency has been evaluated by using analytical formula and a numerical thermal model. Both results have been experimentally validated using a commercial absorber in a custom experimental set-up. The optimization procedure aimed at obtaining Selective Solar Absorber is presented and discussed in the case of a metal dielectric multilayer based on Cr2O3 and Ti. The importance of adopting a real spectral emissivity curve to estimate high thermal efficiency at high temperatures in selective solar absorber is outlined. Optimized absorber multilayers can be 8% more efficient than the commercial alternative at 250 °C operating temperatures and up to 27% more efficient at 300 °C. Once the multilayer has been optimized the choice of a very low emissivity substrate such as copper allows to further improve efficiency and to reach stagnation temperature higher than 400 °C without Sun concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1010027
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: phase change materials; cement; smart material; energy storage; buildings; thermal performance; DSC; thermal conductivity
Online: 26 April 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)
When focusing on materials science in civil engineering, the current trend is to investigate the use of innovative solutions in order to enhance thermal and energy performances. This trend is amplified with the need for a sustainable development strategy for the construction sector. This paper assesses the integration of a Phase Change Material (PCM) in cement intended for building construction. The key characteristic of PCMs is their capacity to absorb energy and restore it. In building construction, this feature could be harnessed to save energy by incorporating PCMs in the materials used. In this study, passive integration of PCM in cement was tested and thermal properties of such an integration was assessed. The results provide insights into how PCMs affect cement as part of the concrete mixture, thus identifying the contribution of PCM-based cements in concrete mixtures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0684.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Thermal updraft velocity; Thermal convection; Soaring; Atmospheric Boundary Layer; Soaring birds; Sailplane; Aviation safety.
Online: 29 October 2018 (13:10:05 CET)
A forecasting scheme of the thermal updraft velocity based on a theoretical model and data collected from flights records at gliding competitions, is presented. The forecasting scheme was based on the hypothesis that there is linear relationship between the overheat function at ground surface and the temperature difference between soil and air. The proportionality factor of this relationship was determined experimentally using observations recorded during gliding flights. The results showed that based on this simple scheme forecasting thermal convection is possible at any geographical location.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0355.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: solar energy; photovoltaic-thermal; electrical efficiency; thermal efficiency; exergetic efficiency; high-vacuum; evacuated flat plate
Online: 26 May 2022 (03:48:23 CEST)
This work deals with the performance evaluation of novel flat photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) modules under vacuum. Through a 1D (dimensional) steady-state-energy-balance numerical model developed in MATLAB, two different layouts are studied: the first consisting of a photovoltaic (PV) cell installed just below the glass encapsulating the flat panel, and the second where the PV cell is placed on the selective solar absorber (SSA). In both cases the thermal and electrical efficiencies have been evaluated at different SSA operating temperatures, in the range of 323 K to 423 K. The analysis has been conducted at different energy bandgap (Ebg) of the PV cell and assuming a variable transmittance or emittance of the PV cell, depending on the design. The two systems efficiency comparison has been carried out at the same operating temperature. Overall, this work highlights the importance of high vacuum insulation, which guarantees the reduction of convective thermal losses, and shows that the maximum energy is produced for PV cells with Ebg ≈1.5-1.7 eV, depending on layout and operating temperature, by including the thermal output in the PV-T optimization. The energy and exergy efficiencies obtainable using the proposed PV-T systems are considerably improved compared to the results previously reported in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0750.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Solar thermal; flat-plate collector; stagnation; steam range; two-phase mixture model; thermal-hydraulic model.
Online: 30 December 2020 (10:02:25 CET)
Stagnation is the transient state of a solar thermal system under high solar irradiation where the useful solar gain is zero. Both flat-plate collectors with selective absorber coatings and vacuum-tube collectors exhibit stagnation temperatures far above the saturation temperature of the glycol-based heat carriers within the range of typical system pressures. Therefore, stagnation is always associated with vaporization and propagation of vapor into the pipes of the solar circuit. It is therefore essential to design the system in such a way that vapor never reaches components that cannot withstand high temperatures. In this article, a thermal-hydraulic model based on the integral form of a two-phase mixture model and a drift-flux correlation is presented. The model is applicable to solar thermal flat-plate collectors with meander-shaped absorber tubes and selective absorber coatings. Experimental data from stagnation experiments on two systems, which are identical except for the optical properties of the absorber coating, allowed comparison with simulations carried out under the same boundary conditions. The absorber of one system features a conventional highly selective coating, while the absorber of the other system features a thermochromic coating, which exhibits a significantly lower stagnation temperature. Comparison of simulation results and experimental data show good conformity. This model is implemented into an open-source software tool called “THD” for the thermal-hydraulic dimensioning of solar systems. The latest version of THD, updated by the results of this article, enables planners to achieve cost-optimal design of solar thermal systems and to ensure failsafe operation by predicting the steam range under the initial and boundary conditions of worst-case scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0130.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: epoxy resin; ZnO nanoparticles; thermal; nanoindentation
Online: 2 November 2023 (08:40:24 CET)
In this study, the effect of ZnO nanoparticles (Zn NPs) on the performance of epoxy resin composites was investigated. The new ZnO/epoxy resin composites were synthesized using halloysite nanotubes (HNT) and different types of ZnO nanoparticles (commercial ZnO and ZnO-ODTES). These ZnO nanoparticles were utilized for intending to enhance the interfacial bonding between the epoxy resin and the reinforcement. Various methods such as FTIR, TGA, DSC, TEM-EDX, and Nanoindentation analyses were used to prove that the ZnO nanoparticles can improve the properties of epoxy resin composites. The thermal properties of the epoxy resin composites were enhanced to a greater extent by the addition of ZnO NPS. DSC testing proved that the epoxy resin composites modified with ZnO NPS are more flexible and elastic than unmodified epoxy resin. It was seen that the epoxy resin modified with ZnO-ODTES shows a much improved hardness and penetration depth compared to the other samples. These findings can pave the way for the developing of ZnO-based marine coatings with improved properties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0064.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: proteinoids; origin of life; thermal proteins
Online: 1 November 2023 (13:11:45 CET)
Understanding the origins of life involves dealing with the unresolved question of how the first informational polymers and cell-like structures emerged from prebiotic chemistry. The formation of thermal proteinoids through the heating of mixtures of amino acids, leading to the spontaneous formation of protocells enclosed by membranes, presents a compelling model for the synthesis of polypeptides in an abiogenic context. Recent research has revealed the presence of electrical excitability and signal processing capacities in proteinoids, indicating the possibility of primitive cognitive functions and problem-solving capabilities. The present study provides a comprehensive examination of the features shown by heat proteinoids and their potential significance in the context of the artificial formation of polypeptides during the early stages of Earth’s development. Experiments showcasing the possibility for unconventional computing with proteinoids as well as modelling proteinoid assemblies into synthetic proto-brains are given. Proteinoids’ robust abiogenic production, biomimetic features, and computational capability shed light on potential phases in the evolution of polypeptides and primitive life from the primordial environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0187.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: UAV; thermal images; surface temperature; calibration
Online: 4 October 2023 (11:44:26 CEST)
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) thermal imagery offers several advantages in environmental monitoring, as it can provide a low-cost, high-resolution, and flexible solution to measure the temperature of the surface of the land. Limitations related to the maximum load of the drone lead to use of lightweight uncooled thermal cameras whose internal components are not stabilized to a constant temperature. Such cameras suffer from several unwanted effects that contribute to the increase in temperature measurement error from ±0.5 °C in laboratory conditions, to ±5 °C in unstable flight conditions. This article describes a post processing procedure, that reduces the above unwanted effects. It consists of following steps: i) devignetting using single image vignette correction algorithm, ii) georeferencing of images using EXIF data, scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) stitching, and gradient descent optimisation, and iii) temperature calibration by minimisation of bias between overlapping thermal images using gradient descent optimisation. The solution was tested in several case studies of river areas, where natural water bodies were used as a reference temperature benchmark. In all tests, the precision of the measurements was increased. The root of the mean of the Square of Errors RMSE on average was reduced by 39.0% and Mean of the absolute value of Errors MAE by 40.5%. The proposed algorithm can be called self-calibrating, as in contrast to other known solutions is fully automatic, uses only field data and does not require any calibration equipment or additional operator effort. A Python implementation of the solution is available on GitHub.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1151.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: bio-based lubricant; thermal stability; tribology
Online: 19 September 2023 (04:08:53 CEST)
Castor oil may be differentiated from other non-edible vegetable oils because of its main composition of hydroxylated fatty acids. Ricinoleic acid comprises 80–90% wt. of fatty acids in castor oil (Ricinus communis). In this study, the thermo-oxidative stability and tribological behavior of bio-based lubricant samples synthesized from castor oil using isoamyl alcohol were evaluated. Initially, the compositional and physicochemical properties of the obtained samples were assessed using 1H NMR, FTIR, and ASTM methods. Oxidative stability of the samples was evaluated using Rancimat method at 110 °C under air flow. The final biolubricant sample (BL2), obtained after esterification, epoxidation, and oxirane rings opening reactions, presented an oxidation stability time (OST) of 14.3 h. The thermal stability was also evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG) from the mass variations under inert and oxidative atmosphere. BL2 showed higher thermal stability compared to the other samples, demonstrating higher decomposition temperatures in both inert (339.04 °C) and oxidative (338.47 °C) atmospheres, for a mass loss of 50%. The tribological properties of the samples were evaluated using a four-ball tribometer configuration. The BL1 and BL2 samples exhibited lower friction coefficients than the mineral oil sample (MOS) by 21.5% and 43.1%, respectively. Regarding wear, the observed wear scar diameter (WSD) was also lower in BL1 and BL2 compared to MOS by 5.2% and 40.4%, respectively. The results of the tribological evaluation suggest that both samples obtained in this study have promising potential for applications in lubricating machines and mechanical systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0499.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: thermal; object detection; conditioning; weather-aware
Online: 7 September 2023 (09:29:00 CEST)
Deployments of real-world object-detection systems often experience a degradation in performance over time due to concept drift. Systems that leverage thermal cameras are especially susceptible because the respective thermal signatures of objects and their surroundings are highly sensitive to environmental changes. In this study, a conditioning method is investigated. The method aims to guide the training loop of thermal object detection systems by leveraging an auxiliary branch to predict the weather, while directly or indirectly conditioning the baseline detection system. Leveraging such an approach to train detection networks does not necessarily improve the performance of native architectures, however, it can be observed that conditioned networks manage to extract a signal from thermal images that guides the network to detect objects that baseline models miss. As the extracted signal appears to be quite noisy and very challenging to regress accurately, further work is needed to identify an ideal optimization vector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0867.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal insulation; energy efficiency; environmental impact
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:54:19 CEST)
The thermal insulation properties of building walls are critical to the overall energy efficiency and comfort of a building. One important factor that can affect these properties is the type of bricks used in construction. Bricks can vary in their geometry and thermal coefficient, which can impact their ability to transfer heat through the wall. The geometry of a brick can affect its thermal properties by altering the amount of air trapped within it and the surface area available for heat transfer. Hollow bricks or those with complex geometries may have lower thermal conductivity than regular solid bricks due to the air pockets trapped within them. Conversely, larger surface areas on the exterior of the brick can increase heat transfer. The thermal coefficient of clay, a common material used in brick production, is another important factor. Clay has a relatively low thermal conductivity, meaning it is a poor conductor of heat. However, the quality of the clay, as well as the firing temperature and duration used in brick production, can impact its thermal coefficient. Higher firing temperatures and longer firing times can result in a more compact and dense clay brick, which can improve its thermal properties. In summary, the thermal insulation properties of building walls can be significantly affected by the type of bricks used in their construction. It is important to consider the geometry and thermal coefficient of the bricks when designing a building to achieve the desired level of thermal insulation. By selecting bricks with appropriate properties, designers can help to improve the energy efficiency and comfort of the building while reducing its environmental impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0411.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Brominated butyl rubber; Thermal decomposition; Lifetime
Online: 23 September 2021 (13:15:39 CEST)
The thermal decomposition of brominated butyl rubber under air atmosphere was investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) at various heating rates. The kinetic parameters were evaluated by TG and the isoconversional method developed by Ozawa. One prominent decomposition stage was observed in the DTG curves at high heating rates while an additional small peak was observed at low heating rates. The apparent activation energy determined using the TG method ranged from 219.31–228.13 kJ·mol-1 at various heating rates. The non-isothermal degradation was found to be a first order reaction, and the activation energy, as determined by the isoconversional method, increased with an increase in mass loss. The kinetic data suggested that brominated butyl rubber had excellent thermal stability. This study will indirectly aid in improving rubber pyrolysis methods and in enhancing the heat resistance of materials.
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Green roof; Sheet metal; Thermal insulation
Online: 15 March 2021 (11:28:53 CET)
The purpose of this study was to arrange a green roof on a sheet metal house to achieve winter heat preservation and summer thermal insulation using different plants and soil media, and to maintain the advantage of cost-saving and quick installation of sheet metal houses. In terms of the research method, the roof insulation, heat preservation and plant growth index were tested. Plants were grown in 10 container-type green roofs on the sheet metal house roof, and the physical environment of the building was monitored for one year. Five containers of commercially-available culture soil and five containers of sustainable composite were used as the media for growing five kinds of plants, respectively. The control group only had a sheet metal house roof. There were 11 experimental modules for testing whether the green roofs had thermal insulation, heat preservation and plant growth effects on a general sheet metal house. The results showed that, regarding the thermal insulation benefit assessment, the Sedum acre cv. robustum of green roof Groups B to D caused the temperature to be 38.29°C lower than the surface of the simple sheet metal house roof in August, showing a temperature difference of 54%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: thermal softening; nitrided layer; hot forging
Online: 1 December 2020 (12:44:08 CET)
This article is devoted to the issues of thermal softening of materials in the surface layer of forging tools. The research covers numerical modeling of the forging process, laboratory tests of tempering of nitrided layers and the analysis of tempering of the surface layer of tools in the actual forging process. Numerical modeling was supported by measuring the temperature inside the tools with a thermocouple inserted into the tool to measure the temperature as close to the surface as possible. The modeling results confirmed the possibility of tempering the die material. The results of laboratory tests made it possible to determine the influence of temperature on tempering at different surface layer depths. Numerical analysis and measurement of surface layer microhardness of tools revealed the destructive effect of temperature during forging on the tempering of the nitrided layer and on the material layers located deeper below the nitrided layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0394.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: thermal properties; temperature diffusivity; nano cellulose
Online: 17 July 2020 (15:36:15 CEST)
The thermal properties of novel nanomaterials play a significant role in determining the performance of the material in technological applications. Herein, direct measurement of the temperature diffusivity of cellulose nanocomposite films was carried out by the micro-contact method. Polymer films containing up to 2%wt. of nanocellulose were synthesised by a simple chemical process. Films of a high optical transmittance T ≈ 80 % (for a 200- μ m-thick film), which were up to 44% crystalline, were characterised. Two different modalities of temperature diffusivity based on: 1) a resistance change and 2) micro-thermocouple detected modulation of a heat wave, were used for the polymer films with cross-sections of ∼ 100 μ m thickness. Twice different in-plane α ‖ and out-of-plane α ⊥ temperature diffusivities were directly determined with high fidelity: α ‖ = 2 . 12 × 10 − 7 m 2 /s and α ⊥ = 1 . 13 × 10 − 7 m 2 /s. An amorphous polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber was measured for comparison α ‖ = 1 . 15 × 10 − 7 m 2 /s. This work provides an example of a direct contact measurement of thermal properties of nanocellulose composite films. The thermal diffusivity, which is usually high in strongly interconnected networks and crystals, was investigated for the first time in this composite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0226.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: polypropylene, talc, boron nitride, thermal properties
Online: 22 January 2019 (17:45:38 CET)
The preparation and thermal properties of polypropylene foils, filled with ceramic microparticles, talc or boron nitride, are described. A slow, linear increase of thermal conductivity with volume percent of filler up to 30 vol % is detected. Reduction of the foil thickness bellow 200 micrometers leads to a significant increase of thermal conductivity. Specific thermal capacities of foils are temperature dependent, they decrease with filler incorporation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0156.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: nanocomposite; melting; freezing; graphene; thermal conductivity
Online: 16 January 2019 (08:33:16 CET)
In the present work freezing and melting characteristics of water seeded with chemically functionalized graphene nano-platelets in a vertical cylindrical capsule was experimentally studied. The volume percentage of functionalized graphene nano-platelets was varied from 0.1% to 0.5% with an interval of 0.1%. The stability of the synthesised samples were carried out by zeta potential distribution. The thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite samples were experimentally measured using transient hot wire method. A maximum enhancement of ~24% in the thermal conductivity was observed for the 0.5% volume percentage in the liquid state while a ~53% enhancement in the solid state. Freezing and melting behaviour of water dispersed with graphene nanoplatelets were carried out using a cylindrical stainless steel capsule in a constant temperature bath. The bath temperatures considered for studying freezing characteristics were considered to be −6 °C and −10 °C, while to study the melting characteristics the bath temperature was set as 31 °C and 36 °C. The freezing and melting time decreased for all the test conditions when the volume percentage of GnP increased. The freezing rate was enhanced by ~ 43% and ~32% for the bath temperatures of −6 °C and −10 °C respectively at 0.5 vol % of graphene loading. The melting rate was enhanced by ~42% and ~63% for the bath temperature of 31 °C and 36 °C respectively at 0.5 vol % of graphene loading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0184.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: density; gas permeability; thermal conductivity; densification
Online: 10 July 2018 (14:44:48 CEST)
This study investigated the evolution of density, gas permeability and thermal conductivity of sugar maple wood during the thermo-hygro-mechanical densification process. The results suggested that the oven-dry average density of densified samples was significantly higher than that of the control samples. However, the oven-dry density did not show a linear increase with the decrease of wood samples thickness. The radial intrinsic gas permeability of the control samples was 5 to 40 times higher than that of densified samples, which indicated that the void volume of wood was reduced notably after the densification process. The thermal conductivity increased by 0.5 - 1.5% per percent increase of moisture content for densified samples. The thermal conductivity of densified wood was lower than that of the control samples. The densification time had significant effects on the oven-dry density and gas permeability. Both the densification time and the moisture content had significant effects on thermal conductivity, but their interaction effect was not significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Shadings; Thermal Performance; Iwan; experimental; EnergyPlus
Online: 12 October 2017 (05:49:55 CEST)
In this paper, the effect of an exterior shading element (Iwan) on energy consumption in four different climatic regions, and for different geographical directions, has been investigated numerically and experimentally. By applying different materials and techniques and creating various elements and spaces, architects make hard climatic conditions more tolerable for residents. Iwan is one of the cooling elements which is used in different forms and dimensions in the Islamic architecture. In the present research, Iwan has been introduced as a climatic element in traditional and contemporary architectures and its role in reducing the energy consumption in buildings has been studied. In this respect, first, the thermal loads of a building without Iwan are computed by means of EnergyPlus software. Then, four different forms of Iwan are added to the above-mentioned structure along the four principal geographical directions, and the effect of Iwan on the reduction of thermal loads is analyzed for four different climates. Finally, the design parameters of Iwan, in terms of depth and form, that can help reduce the thermal loads in different climatic conditions are presented. The results show that the best position for using an Iwan is the south direction and the use of Iwan in temperate & humid, hot & humid, cold & mountainous and hot & dry climates could reduce the energy consumption in buildings by 32%, 26%, 14%, and 29%, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0042.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: bilayer graphene; in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities; non-equilibrium molecular dynamics; anisotropic thermal transport
Online: 2 October 2023 (05:09:39 CEST)
Efficient thermal management of modern electronics requires the use of thin films with highly anisotropic thermal conductivity. Such films enable the effective dissipation of excess heat along one direction while simultaneously providing thermal insulation along the perpendicular direction. In this study, we investigate the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene (BLG) sheets using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics, examining both in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities. The in-plane thermal conductivity of 10 nm × 10 nm BLG with zigzag and armchair edges at room temperature is found to be around 204 W/m.K and 124 W/m.K, respectively. The in-plane thermal conductivity of BLG increases with sheet length. For all sizes, BLG with a zigzag edge exhibits higher thermal conductivity than that of the armchair edge, with this difference becoming more pronounced as the lengths of the sheets increase. In addition, increasing temperature from 300 K to 600 K decreases the in-plane thermal conductivity of a 10 nm× 10 nm zigzag BLG by about 34%. Similarly, the application of a 12.5% tensile strain induces a 51% reduction in its thermal conductivity compared to the strain-free values. Armchair configurations exhibit similar responses to variations in temperature and strain, but with less sensitivity. Furthermore, the cross-plane thermal conductivity of BLG at 300 K is estimated to be 0.05 W/m·K, significantly lower than the in-plane results by approximately four orders of magnitude. The cross-plane thermal conductance of BLG decreases with increasing temperatures, specifically, at 600 K, its value is almost 16% of that observed at 300 K.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2001.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: Perlite Composite-filled Paper Honeycomb Sandwich; Thermal Insulation Board; Green Sandwich Structure; Flexural Properties; Thermal Conductivity
Online: 31 July 2023 (02:21:42 CEST)
In this work, three different types of sandwich structures were manufactured using Formica sheet (a paper-based sheet) as skin and perlite/sodium silicate foam as core with/without the paper honeycomb. The sandwich structures were fabricated by attaching Formica sheets on both sides of the honeycomb, perlite/sodium silicate foam, and perlite/sodium silicate foam-filled honeycomb core panels. The flexural characteristics were studied by a three-point bending test and the thermal conductivity was measured using Lee’s thermal conductivity apparatus. The results demonstrated a significant improvement in flexural properties, including core shear stress, facing stress, bending stress, and energy absorption, when incorporating the paper honeycomb reinforcement. The thermal conductivity and flexural properties were found to be well-compatible with the existing building materials for similar applications in the literature. The failure investigation revealed that the sandwiches with paper honeycomb only prematurely failed due to core buckling, whereas the foam-filled honeycomb core-based sandwiches were able to sustain higher loads, exhibiting material failures such as core shear failure, skin rapture, and delamination. It is found that the foam-filled paper honeycomb sandwich structures can withstand higher bending loads compared to foam core-based and paper honeycomb-based sandwich structures. These developed sandwiches offer potential as green materials due to the characteristics of their constituent materials and can find valuable applications in the building thermal insulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0284.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Park cooling effect; Urban Heat Island; Thermal comfort; Perceived Thermal Comfort; Physiological Equivalent Temperature; Cognitive Maps
Online: 12 August 2020 (11:32:18 CEST)
The combined effects of global warming and increasing urban heat islands (UHIs) on air temperature and heat stress in cities are notable physical and mental health implications for citizens. With research having shown the effective role of urban green spaces in decreasing urban heat, this study investigated the cooling effect of a large urban park on thermal comfort outside the park area, from psychological and physiological perspectives. The studied park is located in the center of Madrid and adjacent to UHI. The study was performed by conducting field measurements and a survey with questionnaires. The measurements made on six summer days (with two-week intervals) showed that the park’s cooling effect could decrease the air temperature by 2.4-2.8°C right up to the edge of the heat island (600m), and decrease the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by about 3.9°C. By decreasing air temperature and PET, this park was also shown to increase the perceived thermal comfort (PTC) of the citizens from the psychological perspective in the defined area of effect. This perceived thermal comfort was found to have a significant inverse relationship with PET (P-value <0.05). The examination of cognitive maps drawn by citizens showed that out of the 145 respondents, 68.3% marked the park as the area that they perceive as having the greatest thermal comfort, and prefer as the place to spend time enjoying thermal comfort, irrespective of its distance from their location.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: earth-air heat exchanger; energy efficiency; using thermal mass; smart and integrated control systems; thermal comfort
Online: 7 December 2019 (01:48:05 CET)
Growing popularity of buildings with integrated sub-systems, requires a review of methods to optimize the preheat of ventilation air. An integrated system permits using geothermal heat storage parallel to the direct outdoor air intake with additional treatment in the mechanical room as a part of building automatic control system. Earth Air Heat Exchanger (EAHX) has many advantages but also has many unanswered questions. Some of the drawbacks are: a possible entry of radon gas, high humidity in the shoulder seasons as well as the need for two different air intake sources with a choice that depends on the actual weather conditions. While in winter, the EAHX may be used continuously to ensure thermal comfort, in other seasons, its operation must be automatically controlled. To generate the missing information about the EAHX technology we have examined two nearly identical EAHX systems, one placed in ground next to the building and the other under the basement slab. In another project, we have reinforced the ground storage action by heat exchanger placed on the return pipes of the hydronic heating system. Effectively, the information provided in this paper, shows advantages of merging both these approaches while the EAHX could be placed under the house or near the basement foundation that is using an exterior basement insulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0088.v2
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: earth-air heat exchanger; energy efficiency; using thermal mass; smart and integrated control systems, thermal comfort
Online: 29 October 2019 (09:58:31 CET)
Growing popularity of smart and integrated buildings requires a review of methods to optimize the preheat of ventilation air. An integrated system permits using heat ex-changers located in the mechanical room or in the future even using an exterior wall as a heat exchanger. One may ask the question how does the earth-air heat exchanger (EAHX) technology fitts into this function. EAHX has many advantages but also has many unanswered questions. Some of the drawbacks are: a possible entry of radon gas, high humidity in the shoulder seasons as well as the need for two different air intake sources with a choice that depends on the actual weather conditions. While in winter, the EAHX may be used continuously to ensure thermal comfort, in other seasons, its operation must be automatically controlled. To generate the missing information about the EAHX technology we reviewed literature and examined two nearly identical EAHX systems, placed either in ground next to the building or under the basement slab. Effectively, the information provided in this paper, shows advantages of merging both these approaches while the EAHX shoud be placed under the house or near the basement foundation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0015.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: electrical-thermal two-way coupling; flux-switching permanent magnet motor; thermal analysis; permanent magnet material characteristics
Online: 4 April 2017 (08:38:40 CEST)
Flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) motors have gained increasing attention in the electric vehicles (EVs) applications due to the advantages of high power density, high efficiency. However, the heat sources of both permanent magnet (PM) and armature winding are located on the limited stator space in the FSPM motors, which may result in the PM overheated and irreversible demagnetization caused by temperature rise and it is often ignored in the conventional thermal analysis. In this paper, a new electrical-thermal two-way coupling design method is proposed to analyze the electromagnetic performances, where the change of PM material characteristics under different temperatures is taken into consideration. Firstly, the motor topology and design equations are introduced. Secondly, the demagnetization curves of PM materials under different temperatures are modeled due to PM materials are sensitive to the temperature. And based on the electrical-thermal two-way coupling method, the motor performances are evaluated in details, such as the load PM flux linkage and output torque. Then, the motor is optimized, and the electromagnetic performances between initial and improved motors are compared. Finally, a prototype motor is manufactured, and the results are validated by experimental measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0097.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Aerospace, Fiber Bragg Gratings, Thermal Measurements, Thermal Control, MLI, Onboard System, Optical Fibers, Sensors Network, Smart Systems.
Online: 6 April 2023 (12:40:41 CEST)
The utilization of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors in innovative optical sensor networks has displayed remarkable potential in providing precise and dependable thermal measurements in hostile environments on Earth. Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blankets serve as critical components of spacecraft and are employed to regulate the temperature of sensitive components by reflecting or absorbing thermal radiation. To enable accurate and continuous monitoring of temperature along the length of the insulative barrier without compromising its flexibility and lightweight, FBG sensors can be embedded within the thermal blanket, thereby enabling distributed temperature sensing. This capability can aid in optimizing the thermal regulation of the spacecraft and ensuring the reliable and safe operation of vital components. Furthermore, FBG sensors offer several advantages over traditional temperature sensors, including high sensitivity, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and the ability to operate in harsh environments. These properties make FBG sensors an excellent option for thermal blankets in space applications, where precise temperature regulation is crucial for mission success. Nevertheless, the calibration of temperature sensors in vacuum conditions poses a significant challenge due to the lack of an appropriate calibration reference. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate innovative solutions for calibrating temperature sensors in vacuum conditions. The proposed solutions have the potential to enhance the accuracy and reliability of temperature measurements in space applications, which can enable engineers to develop more resilient and dependable spacecraft systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0048.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal desalination; reverse osmosis; advanced heat transfer fluids; sustainable desalination practices; integrated solar thermal nanofluids based desalination
Online: 9 January 2020 (08:39:19 CET)
Desalination accounts for 1% of the total global water consumption and is an energy-intensive process, with the majority of operational expenses attributed to energy consumption. Moreover, at present, a significant portion of the power comes from traditional fossil fuel-fired power plants and the greenhouse gas emissions associated with power production along with concentrated brine discharge from the process, pose a severe threat to the environment. Due to the dramatic impact of climate change, there is a major opportunity to develop sustainable desalination processes to combat the issues of brine discharge, greenhouse gas emissions along with a reduction in energy consumption per unit of freshwater produced. Nanotechnology can play a vital role to achieve specific energy consumption reduction as nanofluids application increases the overall heat transfer coefficient enabling the production of more water for the same size desalination plant. Furthermore, concentrated brine discharge harms the marine ecosystems, and hence, this problem must also be solved to support the objective of sustainable desalination. Several studies have been carried out in the past several years in the field of nanotechnology applications for desalination, brine treatment and the role of renewable energy in desalination. This paper aims to review the major advances in this field of nanotechnology for desalination. Furthermore, a hypothesis for developing an integrated solar thermal and nanofluid sustainable desalination system, based on the cyclic economy model is proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1202.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: carbon nanotubes; thermal conductivity; functionalization; percolation network
Online: 20 November 2023 (03:59:30 CET)
A study on the dependence of the thermal conductivity of the percolation network of carbon nanotubes (or CNTs) on the type and degree of functionalization has been carried out. The study was focused on the influence of the more commonly used -COOH, -OH and -СОNH2 groups. A non-linear dependence of the conductivity on the number of functional groups has been revealed. A small number of functional groups can improve conductivity, and a large one can impair it. We presuppose the existence of competing processes that increase thermal conductivity (changes in the CNT geometry, improvement of the contact between them) and enhance photon scattering (emergence of defects and scattering centers). The data can be used for controlling the thermophysical properties of the CNTs as well as determining the optimal degree of functionalization during the development of composites and nanodevices.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1223.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: solar concentrator; thermal stress; material selection; receiver
Online: 17 August 2023 (09:48:03 CEST)
Solar concentration is the ability to harness solar radiation to increase the temperature of a receiver. The receiver is the component into which a heat transfer fluid can be flowed for an ORC system and produce electricity, or it can be used for high-temperature thermal storage, or even to implement thermochemical cycles. The choice of material is critical to ensure optimal performance and long-lasting operation. It is also essential that such material can operate at high temperatures and high thermal gradients. In short, material identification involves high thermal stresses that result in structural deformation. Different metal alloys were used to verify that the yield strength limit was not exceeded due to thermal stress induced by concentrated solar radiation. The problem was implemented in Matlab starting from the general heat equation. The purpose is to test whether thermal stress exceeds the yield strength, which is the condition in which elastic bonds in the material are changed, causing deformation. The best material identified was Inconel 740H, which had a high yield strength value and the lowest temperature difference. Under extreme working conditions, it can withstand thermally induced shocks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0490.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Thermal Runaway; side collision; electric vehicle battery
Online: 17 July 2023 (02:49:32 CEST)
In current electric vehicles, the traction battery is intended to store energy. When designing this battery different parameters must be taken into account in order to arrange the battery/module/cells in the mechanically and thermally safest configuration. Moreover, the battery layout must have a correct dynamic behavior in possible collisions. In the present study, different battery configurations plus added energy absorbers are analyzed. In order to do that, an internal combustion vehicle modeled with finite elements is applied as the reference model. The structural behavior of the different battery configurations in the event of a side collision is examined. Firstly, the safest arrangement is stablished, both with respect to cabin intrusion and thermal runaway propagation. Secondly, the safest arrangement that guarantees the safety of the occupants in the event of a side collision is analyzed but using the MADYMO. This software includes experimentally validated dummies which allow have an insight in the stresses experienced by occupants. On the one hand, the analysis states that the battery pack inclusion in the vehicle increases the stiffness of the car floor, resulting in fewer intrusions in the passenger compartment. Therefore, a greater safety for the occupants is reached. On the other hand, none of the configurations analyzed has shown enough safety against the phenomenon of Thermal Runaway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0458.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Combustible polymer; Carreau fluid; BSLLS; Thermal stability
Online: 7 July 2023 (10:11:28 CEST)
Despite the immense application of combustion in reactive materials, one of the challenges people are facing globally is the auto-ignition of such materials, resulting in fire and explosion hazards if proper measures are not considered. To avoid this unfortunate occurrence, a mathematical model describing the thermal decomposition of combustible polymer material in a rectangular stockpile is formulated. A nonlinear momentum equation is provided with the assumption that the combustible polymer follows Carreau constitutive relation. The chemical reaction of the polymer material is assumed exothermic; therefore, Arrhenius’s kinetic theory is considered in the energy balance equation. The bivariate spectral local linearization Scheme (BSLLS) is utilized to provide a numerical solution for the dimensionless equations governing the problem. The obtained results are validated by the collocation weighted residual method (CWRM) and a good agreement is achieved. Dimensionless velocity, temperature, and thermal stability results are presented and explained comprehensively with suitable applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0142.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Recycled PET; Crystallinity; Thermal and mechanical properties
Online: 4 July 2023 (09:51:38 CEST)
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is nowadays one of the most used polymers for packaging applications. Modifications induced by service conditions and the optimal mean to recycle this matter several times have to be perfectly understood to allow a reuse for similar application (from bottle to bottle for example). The present study aims to compare physico-chemical properties, crystalline organization, and mechanical behaviour of virgin (vPET) and recycled PET (rPET). Using different combined experimental methods (Calorimetry, Small Angle X-ray Scattering, Atomic Force Microscopy, DMA, and uni-axial tensile test), it has been proven that even if there is no change in the crystallinity of PET, the crystallisation process shows some differences (size and number of spherulites). The potential impact of these differences on local mechanical characterization, at the lamella scale, is explored and tends to demonstrate the development of homogeneous microstructure, leading to well-controlled and relevant local mechanical properties. This approach increases the understanding of crystallisation of PET and recycled PET during forming processes such as thermoforming or injection stretch blow moulding (ISBM) where elongation at break can depend on the microstructure conditioned by the crystallisation process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0098.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: Criticality, Plutonium, Solution, Temperature, Thermal Scattering Law
Online: 3 July 2023 (14:54:01 CEST)
Various theoretical studies have shown that highly diluted plutonium solutions could have a positive temperature effect, but up to now, no experimental program has confirmed this effect. The French Plutonium Temperature Effect Experimental Program (or PU+ in short) aims to effectively show that such a positive temperature effect exists for diluted plutonium solutions. The PU+ experiments were conducted in the “Apparatus B” facility at the CEA VALDUC research center in France. It involved several sub-critical approach type experiments using plutonium nitrate solutions with concentrations of 14.3, 15, and 20 g/l at temperatures ranging from 20 to 40 °C. Fourteen (five at 20 g/l, four at 15 g/l, and five at 14.3 g/l) phase-I experiments (consisting in independent subcritical approaches) were performed between 2006 and 2007. The impact of the uncertainties on solution acidity and plutonium concentration made it difficult to demonstrate the positive temperature effect, requiring an additional phase-II experiment (with a unique plutonium solution) from 22 to 28 °C, that were performed in July 2007. This phase-II experiment has shown the existence of a positive temperature effect of ~ +2.2 pcm/°C (from 22 to 28 °C for a plutonium concentration of 14.3 g/l). It has been recently possible to confirm the results of this program with MORET 5 calculations by generating thermal scattering data S(α,β) at the correct experimental temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2134.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: photovoltaics, multinary chalcogenides, thermal annealing; Kesterite, XRD
Online: 3 July 2023 (10:47:25 CEST)
In this contribution we present work on rapid thermal annealing of as-electrodeposited thin films of Cu2ZnSnS4. The treatment was carried out in cold wall tubular reactor in dynamic conditions with variations of temperature, speed and time of the specific elements of the process. The effect of annealing was investigated by X-ray diffractometry, Raman scattering and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The phase composition of the films in dependence on conditions of treatment was analysed and have been shown that in slow and prolonged high-temperature process the low temperature binaries react completely and only Kesterite and ZnS is left. In addition, structural investigations by XRD have shown gradual decrease of crystallite sizes when the temperature level and duration of the high-temperature segment increases and respectively increase in the strain, due to formation of the phases in non-equilibrium conditions. In opposite, when the speed of dynamic segments in the process decreases the both crystallite size and strain of the Kesterite decreases non-monotonically. The grain sizes of Kesterite, presented by SEM investigations, have shown increase when the temperature and the duration increase, respectively the speed decreases with exemption at higher temperature near 750 C. The set of experiments gave idea by scrupulous analysis of Raman data to elucidate the track for fine manipulating of the defects in the structure of CZTS thin films having in mind the dependences of the ratios of Q = I287/I303 and Q’= I338/(I366+I374) on the process variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1142.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: thermal stability; reusability; silica; encapsulation; nano-fructosome
Online: 16 May 2023 (09:42:15 CEST)
This study reports the preparation of silica and nano-fructosome encapsulated Candida antarctica lipase B particles (CalB@NF@SiO2) and demonstration of their enzymatic hydrolysis and acylation. CalB@NF@SiO2 particles were prepared as a function of TEOS concentration (3-100 mM). Their mean particle size was 185 nm by TEM. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed to compare catalytic efficiencies of CalB@NF and CalB@NF@SiO2. Catalytic constants (Km, Vmax, and Kcat) of CalB@NF and CalB@NF@SiO2 were calculated with Michaelis-Menten equation and Line-weaver Burk plot. Optimal stability of CalB@NF@SiO2 was found at pH 8 and temperature of 35 ℃. Moreover, CalB@NF@SiO2 particles were reused for seven cycles to evaluate their reusability. In addition, enzymatic synthesis of benzyl benzoate was demonstrated by an acylation reaction with benzoic anhydride. The efficiency of CalB@NF@SiO2 for converting benzoic anhydride to benzyl benzoate by the acylation reaction was 97%, indicating that benzoic anhydride was almost completely converted to benzyl benzoate. Consequently, CalB@NF@SiO2 particles are better than CalB@NF particles for enzymatic synthesis. In addition, they are reusable with high stability at optimal pH and temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0389.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: skutterudites; CoSb3; thermal expansion; rattling effect; thermoelectrics
Online: 21 November 2022 (11:48:31 CET)
In this work, Gd-filled skutterudite GdxCo4Sb12 has been prepared in one-step method under high-pressure conditions in a piston-cylinder press at 3.5 GPa and moderate temperature of 800 °C. A detailed structural characterization was performed using synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD), revealing a filling fraction of x = 0.066(4) and an average <Gd–Sb> bond length of 3.3499(3) Å. The lattice thermal expansion accessed via temperature-dependent SXRD led to a precise determination of a Debye temperature of 322(3) K, from the fitting of the unit-cell volume expansion using the second order Grüneisen approximation. Such parameter, when evaluated from the mean square displacements of Co and Sb, displayed a value of 265(2) K, meaning that the application of the harmonic Debye theory underestimates the Debye temperature in skutterudites. Regarding the Gd atom, its intrinsic disorder value is ~5× and ~25× higher than those of Co and Sb, respectively, denoting that Gd has a strong rattling behavior with an Einstein temperature of θE = 67(2) K. As a result, an ultra-low thermal conductivity of ~0.89 W/m·K at 773 K was obtained, leading to a thermoelectric efficiency zT of ~0.5 at 673 K.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: wheat; global warming; flour quality; thermal stress
Online: 27 September 2021 (11:59:11 CEST)
Heat stress during the grain-filling period is the main abiotic stress factor limiting grain yield and quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, 64 wheat genotypes were exposed to heat stress during reproduction caused by delayed sowing in two growing seasons. Grain yield, 1000 grain weight (GW), grain hardness (GH), and grain-quality related traits were investigated using wholemeal flour. Heat stress caused a significant decrease in GW through reducing starch content (SC) and a non-compensating rise in protein content (PC), and thereby resulted in lower yield. In addition, significant increases in flour water absorption (WA), Zeleny sedimentation volume (ZT), ash content (AC), lipid content (LC), loaf volume (LV), wet gluten content (WG), dry gluten content (DG), gluten index (GI), and amylopectin content (APC) were found following heat stress. In contrast, decreases in grain moisture content (MC) and amylose content (AMC) induced by heat stress were observed. The heat-tolerant genotypes were superior in grain yield, GW, SC, AMC, and MC. While the sensitive genotypes contained higher PC, LV, GI and AMP. A group of wheat genotypes characterized with a higher yield, AMC, GW, and SC as well as lower PC, WA, GH, ZT, and LV; and was found to be the most heat tolerant by principal component analysis. Decreases in the ratio of carbohydrates to proteins induced by heat stress, and lower protein content of normal grown wheat genotypes were observed. Therefore, lighter weight and smaller grains produce a smaller starchy endosperm with lower quality (less amylose) and higher grain protein content in heat stress compared to normal conditions. Heat stress caused by delayed sowing improves some of the baking-quality related traits. Whether this improvement in grain quality attributes will translate into better human health outcomes requires further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0041.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: chip-nanocalorimetry; ultrafast nanocalorimetry; interfacial thermal resistance
Online: 2 August 2021 (13:08:06 CEST)
Ultrafast chip nanocalorimetry opens up remarkable possibilities in materials science by allowing samples to be cooled and heated at extremely high rates. Due to heat transfer limitations, controlled ultrafast cooling and heating can only be achieved for tiny samples in calorimeters with a micron-thick membrane. Even if ultrafast heating can be controlled under quasi-adiabatic conditions, ultrafast controlled cooling can be performed if the calorimetric cell is located in a heat-conducting gas. It was found that the maximum possible cooling rate increases as 1/r0 with decreasing radius r0 of the hot zone of the membrane. The possibility of increasing the maximum cooling rate with decreasing r0 was successfully implemented in many experiments. In this regard, it is interesting to answer the question: what is the maximum possible cooling rate in such experiments if r0 tends to zero? Indeed, on submicron scales, the mean free path of gas molecules lmfp becomes comparable to r0, and the temperature jump that exists at the membrane/gas interface becomes significant. Considering the limitation associated with thermal resistance at the membrane/gas interface and considering the transfer of heat through the membrane, we show that the controlled cooling rate can reach billions of K/s, up to 1010 K/s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: combustion engines; thermal efficiency; fuel performance catalysts.
Online: 8 October 2020 (13:09:50 CEST)
The results from laboratory tests and field tests, available in the open literature for over ten years, despite the announcement of high efficiency translating into increased energy efficiency and such significant ecological advantages, have not so far resulted in widespread use of fuel performance catalysts (FPC) on a global scale. Wishing to explain why the above situation occurred and to verify the operation of catalytic additives for fuels; this article presents the results of research on the effect of using catalytic additives for fuel in a brand new diesel engine. The article contains an analysis of the results of exhaust gas emission tests from the Doosan MD196TI engine. During the tests, the engine was fueled with a typical diesel fuel and the same fuel with the a catalyst additive. The catalyst was added to the liquid fuel in the form of a commercially available product distributed by ProOne company under the name FMAX. The research was carried out in the form of a test, much more developed than the approval test on a stationary braking station in accordance with the requirements of ISO 8178. The article is concluded with a comparative analysis of exhaust gas emission results illustrating the effects of a catalyst in the form of reduction of solid particles, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and a slight increase in nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition, the effect of the catalyst depends on the product of thermal (brake) efficiency of the engine and the calorific value (CV) of the fuel used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0336.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Thermal conductivity; Electrical conductivity; Composite; Carbon fiber
Online: 15 September 2020 (09:00:04 CEST)
The electrical, mechanical and thermal conductivity of ethylene butene copolymer (EBC) composites with carbon fibers were studied. EBC/carbon-fiber composites can be utilized as an electro-mechanical material which is capable of changing it electric resistance with mechanical strain. Carbon fibers were introduced to EBC with different concentrations (5-25 wt%). The results showed that the addition of carbon fibers to EBC could increase the electric resistance up to 10 times. Increasing the load to 2.9 MPa could increase the electric resistance change by 4500% compared 25% fiber sample with pure EBC. It is also noted that the electric resistance of the EBC/CF composites underwent a dramatic increase with raising the strain, for example, the resistance change was around 13 times more at 15% strain in comparison to 5% of strain; The thermal conductivity tests showed that the addition of carbon fibers could increase the thermal conductivity by 40%, from 0.19 to 0.27 (Wm-1K-1). It was also observed that the addition of carbon fibers to EBC could increase the thermal conductivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0025.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: HPLC method; Curcumin; Quercetin; Thermal analysis; Nanoemulsion
Online: 2 August 2020 (12:15:13 CEST)
Biphasic oily/water nanoemulsions have been proposed as delivery systems for the intranasal administration of curcumin (CUR) and quercetin (QU), due to their high drug entrapment efficiency, the possibility of simultaneous drug administration and protection of the encapsulated compounds from the degradation. To better understand the physicochemical and biological performance of the selected formulation simultaneously co-encapsulating CUR and QU, a stability test of the compounds mixture was firstly carried out using X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analyses, such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The determination and quantification of the encapsulated active compounds was then required being an essential tool for the development of innovative nanomedicines. Thus, a new HPLC–UV/Vis method for the simultaneous determination of CUR and QU in the nanoemulsions and their evaluation in stability studies in simulated biological fluids was developed and validated. The X-ray diffraction analyses demonstrated that no interaction between the mixture of active ingredients, if any, is strong enough to take place in the solid state. Moreover, the thermal analysis demonstrated that the CUR and QU are stable in the nanoemulsion production temperature range. The proposed analytical method for the simultaneous quantification of the two actives was selective and linear for both compounds in the range of 0.5 – 12.5 µg/mL (R2 > 0.9997), precise (RSD below 3%), robust and accurate (recovery 100 ± 5 %). The method was validated in accordance with ICH Q2 R1 “Validation of Analytical Procedures” and CDER-FDA 2validation of chromatographic methods” guideline. Furthermore, the low detection (LOD < 0.005 µg/mL for CUR and <0.14 µg/mL for QU) and quantification limits (LOQ < 0.017 µg/mL for CUR and < 0.48 µg/mL for QU) of the method were suitable for the application to drug release and permeation studies planned for the development of the nanoemulsions. The method was then applied for the determination of nanoemulsions CUR and QU encapsulation efficiencies (> 99%), as well as for the stability studies of the two compounds in simulated biological fluids over time. The proposed method represents, to our knowledge, the only method for the simultaneous quantification of CUR, and QU in nanoemulsions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0340.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: thermal drilling; material; visual evaluation; macrostructure; microstructure
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:52:21 CET)
The contribution deals with the joining of various types of materials by technology of thermal drilling. In various branches of industries, also in the automotive industry must be joining operations, service, repairing, substitution or protection workpieces, components with various types of materials. Equally, the important role as joint, is also used material, and a product preparation by assembly and disassembly operations. By utilization of new friction hybrid joining technologies we can shortage the production time, provide automation in operations, increase the quality of joints, spare of economical expenses and also we can protect the environment. In this paper authors have investigated the effect of friction drilling on the tested material, aluminium alloy AlMgSi, which was used for material testing. The created joints were evaluated visually and by microscopy methods. The errors of tested joining were documented and described, too. This contribution was made with cooperation of Technical University of Kosice and with U. S. Steel Kosice, s.r.o.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: thermal comfort; draught; cooling period; open office
Online: 24 December 2019 (08:42:03 CET)
Local thermal comfort (TC) and draught rate (DR) has been studied widely. There has been more meaningful research performed in controlled boundary condition situations than in actual work environments involving occupants. TC conditions in office buildings in Estonia have been barely investigated in the past. In this paper, the results of TC and DR assessment in five office buildings in Tallinn are presented and discussed. Studied office landscapes vary in heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) system parameters, room units and elements. All sample buildings were less than six years old, equipped with dedicated outdoor air ventilation system and room conditioning units. The on-site measurements consisted of TC and DR assessment with indoor climate questionnaire (ICQ). The purpose of the survey is to assess the correspondence between HVAC design and the actual situation. Results show, whether and in what extent the standard-based criteria for TC is suitable for actual usage of the occupants. Preferring one room conditioning unit type or system may not guarantee better thermal environment without draught. Although some HVAC systems observed in this study should create the prerequisites for ensuring more comfort, results show that this is not the case for all buildings in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal battery; polyimide; cathode; slurry casting; binder
Online: 9 November 2018 (04:23:11 CET)
The polymer binder, poly(imide-co-siloxane) (PIS), was synthesized and applied to form a thin cathode layer composites for a thermal battery that has an unusually high operating temperature of 450 °C. The PIS was prepared through cross-linking of the polyimide with polysiloxane. The morphology of FeS2/PIS composites showed that FeS2 particles was coated with the PIS cross-linked gel. The FeS2/PIS composites enabled to fabricate mechanically stable thin cathode layer that was 20–10% of the thickness of a conventional pellet-type cathode. The FeS2/PIS composites were stable up to 400 °C and maintained their morphology at this temperature. PIS coating layers decomposed at 450 °C and a new residue was generated, which was observed by transmission electron microscopy and the compositional change was analyzed. The FeS2/PIS composites showed enhanced thermal stability over that of FeS2 in thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal battery with the PIS polymer binder showed a 20% discharge capacity increase when compared to a conventional pellet-type cathode.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0634.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Recreational water, spa, thermal water, innovative treatment
Online: 26 October 2018 (15:09:47 CEST)
Natural spa springs are diffused all over the world and their use in pools is known since ancient times. This review underlines the cultural and social spa context focusing on hygiene issues, public health guidelines and emerging concerns regarding water management in wellness or recreational settings. The question of the "untouchability" of therapeutic natural waters and their incompatibility with traditional disinfection processes is addressed considering the demand for effective treatments that would respect the natural properties. Available strategies and innovative treatments are reviewed, highlighting potentials and limits for a sustainable management. Alternative approaches comprise nanotechnologies, photocatalysis systems, advanced filtration. State of the art and promising perspectives are reported considering the chemical-physical component and the biological natural complexity of the spa water microbiota.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0404.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: fuel characterisation; thermal degradation; Owukpa; Benue; Nigeria
Online: 26 June 2018 (09:39:02 CEST)
Coal currently accounts for over 38% of electric power generation around the globe. Hence, it is a significant critical contributor to socio-economic growth and development, particularly in the BRIC economies. The success of the coal energy in these nations in addition to the discovery of vast new coal deposits have revived Nigeria’s interest in coal power. However, there is lack of comprehensive data on the pollution emission profiles, along with the physicochemical, thermal, and kinetic properties of Nigerian coals as required for power plant operations. Therefore, this paper presents preliminary findings on the physicochemical, microstructural, mineralogical and thermal properties of Owukpa (WKP) coal from Benue State in Nigeria. The results showed that WKP contains high compositions of combustible elements and heating value but low pollutant elements. Furthermore, thermal degradation revealed high conversion efficiencies particularly under oxidative conditions as required for electric power generation through combustion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: two-dimensional semiconductor; first-principles; mechanical; thermal
Online: 14 May 2018 (11:46:59 CEST)
In this short communication, we conducted first-principles calculations to explore the stability of boron monochalcogenides (BX, X=S, Se or Te), as a new class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. We predicted BX monolayers with two different atomic stacking sequences of ABBA and ABBC, referred in this work to 2H and 1T, respectively. Analysis of phonon dispersions confirm the dynamical stability of BX nanosheets with the both 2H and 1T atomic lattices. Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations reveal the outstanding thermal stability of all predicted monolayers at high temperatures over 1500 K. BX structures were found to exhibit high elastic modulus and tensile strengths. It was found that BS and BTe nanosheets can show high stretchability, comparable to that of the graphene. It was found that all predicted monolayers exhibit semiconducting electronic character, in which 2H structures present lower band-gaps as compared with 1T lattices. The band-gap values were found to decrease from BS to BTe. According to the HSE06 results, 1T-BS and 2H-BTe show respectively, the maximum (4.0 eV) and minimum (2.06 eV) electronic band-gaps. This investigation introduces boron monochalcogenides as a novel class of 2D semiconductors with remarkable thermal, dynamical and mechanical stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0162.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: hydrogel; thermal conductivity; 3ω method; molecular dynamics
Online: 25 October 2017 (03:54:39 CEST)
As the interface between human and machine becomes blurred, hydrogel incorporated electronics and devices have emerged to be a new class of flexible/stretchable electronic and ionic devices due to their extraordinary properties, such as soft, mechanically robust and biocompatible. However, heat dissipation in these devices could be a critical issue and remains unexplored. Here, we report the experimental measurements and equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of thermal conduction in polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels. The thermal conductivity of PAAm hydrogels can be modulated by both the crosslinking density and water content in hydrogels. The crosslinking density dependent thermal conductivity in hydrogels varies from 0.33 to 0.51 Wm-1K-1, giving a 54% enhancement. We attribute the crosslinking effect to the competition between the increased conduction pathways and the enhanced phonon scattering effect. Moreover，water content can act as filler in polymers which lead to nearly 40% enhancement in thermal conductivity in PAAm hydrogels with water content vary from 23 to 88 wt%. Furthermore，we find the thermal conductivity of PAAm hydrogel is insensitive to temperature in the range of 25 oC – 40 oC. Our study offers fundamental understanding of thermal transport in soft materials and provides design guidance for hydrogel-based devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0094.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: laser wavelength; polysilicon; laser damage; thermal shock
Online: 27 February 2017 (06:56:01 CET)
Based on PVDF (piezoelectric sensing techniques), this paper attempts to study the propagation law of shock waves in brittle materials during the process of three-wavelength laser irradiation of polysilicon, and discusses the formation mechanism of thermal shock failure. The experimental results show that the vapor pressure effect and the plasma pressure effect in the process of pulsed laser irradiation lead to the splashing of high temperature and high density melt. With the decrease of the laser wavelength, the laser breakdown threshold decreases and the shock wave is weakened. Because of pressure effect of the laser shock, the brittle fracture zone is at the edge of the irradiated area. The surface tension gradient and surface shear wave caused by the surface wave are the result of coherent coupling between optical and thermodynamics. The average propagation velocity of laser shock wave in polysilicon is 8.47×103m/s, and the experiment has reached the conclusion that the laser shock wave pressure peak exponentially distributes attenuation in the polysilicon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0085.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: thermal remote sensing; EKC theory; urban development
Online: 16 December 2016 (08:00:59 CET)
This study investigates the land surface temperature (LST) distribution from thermal infrared data for analyzing the characteristics of surface coverage using the Vegetation-Impervious-Soil (VIS) approach. A set of ten images, obtained from Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper, between 2001 and 2010, were used to study the urban environmental conditions of 47 neighborhoods of Porto Alegre city, Brazil. Porto Alegre has had the smallest population growth rate of all 27 state capitals in the last two decades in Brazil, with an increase of 11.55% in inhabitants from 1,263 million in 1991 to 1,409 million in 2010. We applied the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) theory in order to test the influence of the economically-related scenario on the spatial nature of social-environmental arrangement of the city at neighborhood scale. Our results suggest that the economically-related scenario exerts a non-negligible influence on the physically driven characteristics of the urban environmental conditions as predicted by EKC theory. The linear inverse correlation R2 between household income (HI) and LST is 0.36 and has shown to be comparable to all other studied variables. Future research may investigate the relation between other economically-related indicators to specific land surface characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal model; fast charge; lithium-ion cell
Online: 27 July 2016 (16:30:36 CEST)
The cell case temperature versus time profiles of a multistage fast charging technique (4C-1C-CV)/fast discharge (4C) in a 2.3 Ah cylindrical lithium-ion cell are analyzed using a 1D thermal model. Heat generation is dominated by the irreversible component associated to cell overpotential, although evidences of the reversible component are also observed, associated to the heat related to entropy from the electrode reactions. The final charging stages (i.e., 1C-CV) significantly reduce heat generation and cell temperature during charge, resulting in a thermally safe charging protocol. Cell heat capacity was determined from cell specific heats and cell materials thickness. The 1D model adjustment of the experimental data during the 2 min. resting period between discharge and charge allowed us to calculate both the time constant of the relaxation process and the cell thermal resistance. The obtained values of these thermal parameters used in the proposed model are almost equal to those found in the literature for the same cell model, which suggests that the proposed model is suitable for its implementation in thermal management systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0253.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: thermal management; electronics cooling; thermal energy storage; TES; duty cycle; phase change materials; PCM; cold finger technique, CFT.
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:27:08 CEST)
Miniaturization of electronics devices is often limited by the concomitant high heat fluxes (cooling load) and maldistribution of temperature profiles (hot spots). Thermal energy storage (TES) platforms providing supplemental cooling can be a cost-effective solution, that often leverages phase change materials (PCM). Although salt hydrates provide higher storage capacities and power ratings (as compared to that of the organic PCMs), they suffer from reliability issues (e.g., supercooling). ‘Cold Finger Technique (CFT)’ can obviate supercooling by maintaining a small mass fraction of the PCM in solid state for enabling spontaneous nucleation. Optimization of CFT necessitates real-time forecasting of the transient values of the melt-fraction. In this study artificial neural network (ANN) is explored for real-time prediction of the time remaining to reach a target value of melt-fraction based on the prior history of the spatial distribution of the surface temperature transients. Two different approaches were explored for training the ANN model, using: (1) transient PCM-temperature data; or (2) transient surface-temperature data. When deployed in a heat sink that leverages PCM based passive thermal management systems for cooling of electronic chips and packages, this maverick approach (using the second method) affords cheaper costs, better sustainability, higher reliability and resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0128.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Spectrally selective coating; Optical properties; Thermal stability; High temperature emissivity; Energy activation; Prediction of lifetime test; Thermal aging.
Online: 6 July 2021 (09:29:09 CEST)
Optical characterization and thermal aging tests are performed on a sputter-deposited coating, consisting of SiO2/Cr2O3/Cr/Cr2O3 layers, designed and developed as a selective solar absorber to be used for unconcentrated solar thermal applications. Both measurements are performed by using a home-made apparatus, which mimics a flat plate collector under high vacuum. A Performance Criterion (PCη(T)), based on absorber efficiency is proposed, and a forecast of service lifetime is obtained. As a result of the thermal aging tests, the selective solar absorber under study appears to be highly efficient at mid temperatures (up to 573 K) and thermally stable at temperatures (up to 690 K).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0645.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: composite-metal joint; electric vehicles; carbon nanotubes; polymer adhesive; thermal strain measurement; coefficient of thermal expansion; strain mismatch
Online: 30 October 2020 (14:43:01 CET)
Metallic substrates and polymer adhesive in composite-metal joints have a relatively large coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch, which is a barrier in the growing market of electric vehicles and their battery structures. It is reported that adding carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to the adhesive reduces the CTE of the CNT enhanced polymer adhesive multi-material system, therefore when used in adhesively bonded joints it would, theoretically, result in low CTE mismatch in the joint system. The current article presents the influence of two specific mass ratios of CNTs on the CTE of the enhanced polymer. It was observed that the addition of 1.0 wt% and 2.68 wt% of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) decreased the CTE of the polymer adhesive from 7.5e-5 1/C (pristine level) to 5.87e-5 1/C and 4.43e-5 1/C, respectively by 22% and 41% reduction. The reduction in the CTE was predicted, theoretically, which showed that CTE should have been reduced to 3.6e-5 1/C (52% reduction) and 1.4e-5 1/C (81% reduction). This may be due to the fact that, Raman spectroscopy of the MWCNTs identified defects in the raw material, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) identified agglomeration of MWCNTs on the surface and cross-section of the modified polymers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1911.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: infrared thermal imaging; toddler’s fracture; bone fracture screening; infrared thermal image processing and analysis; artificial intelligence; emergency medicine; orthopaedics
Online: 29 November 2023 (16:40:58 CET)
The purpose of this study was to explore and develop high-resolution infrared thermal (HRIT) imaging for screening toddler’s fracture. A Toddler’s fracture is a common tibial fracture of children younger than 6 years old. Initial x-ray radiographs may not show the fracture and another x-ray during a follow-on visit is usually required. The study included 39 participants admitted to an emergency department with a suspected toddler’s fracture. X-ray confirmed 8 cases with a toddler’s fracture (20.5%). Infrared images of participants were recorded on their index visit, focusing on region-of-interests on the injured and the contralateral (uninjured) legs. The uninjured leg acted as a thermal reference. Nine statistical measures were extracted from the images: maximum, mini-mum, mean, standard deviation, median, mode, interquartile range, skewness, and kurtosis. Wilcoxon rank sum test indicated that maximum, mean, standard deviation, median, and inter quartile range temperature measures were significantly different (p<0.05) when comparing fractured and non-fractured legs. Principal component analysis of these measures highlighted distinct separation of toddler’s fracture and non-fracture cases. Similarly, plots of the statistical measures further confirmed clustering of toddler’s fracture cases. The study demonstrated that HRIT imaging can be a valuable tool for screening for toddler’s fracture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0186.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Air pollution; coal-fired thermal power plant; oil thermal power plant; geocoded; lung cancer; bladder cancer; North-eastern Italy
Online: 20 June 2017 (08:50:26 CEST)
This study investigated the risk of lung and bladder cancers in people residing in proximity of a coal-oil-fired thermal power plant in an area of north-eastern Italy, covered by a population-based cancer registry. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) by sex, age, and histology were computed according to tertiles of residential exposure to benzene, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particular matter, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) among 1076 incident cases of lung and 650 cases of bladder cancers. In men of all ages and in women under 75 years of age, no significant associations were observed. Conversely, in women aged >75 years significantly increased risks of lung and bladder cancers were related to high exposure to benzene (IRR for highest vs. lowest tertile: 2.00 for lung cancer and 1.94 for bladder cancer) and NO2 (IRR: 1.72 for lung cancer; and 1.94 for bladder cancer). In these women, a 1.71-fold higher risk of lung cancer was also related to a high exposure to SO2. The findings of this descriptive study indicated that air pollution may have a role with regard to the risk of lung and bladder cancers, limited to women aged ≥ 75 years. Such increased risk warrants further analytical investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0814.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: HVAC; thermal comfort; green buildings; outdoor air conditioning
Online: 13 November 2023 (11:26:08 CET)
This research investigates the compatibility of conventional air conditioning with the principles of green building, highlighting the need for systems that enhance indoor comfort while aligning with environmental sustainability. Conventional cooling systems, though proficient in regulating indoor temperatures, encounter several issues when incorporated into green buildings. These include energy waste, high running costs, and a misalignment with eco-friendly practices, which may also lead to detrimental environmental effects and potentially reduce occupant comfort, particularly in retrofit situations. Given the emphasis on sustainability and energy conservation in green buildings, there is a pressing demand for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) solutions that support these goals. This study emphasizes the critical need to reconsider traditional HVAC strategies in the face of green building advances. It advocates for the adoption of innovative HVAC technologies designed for eco-efficiency and enhanced comfort. These technologies should integrate seamlessly with sustainable construction, use greener refrigerants, and uphold environmental integrity, driving progress towards a sustainable and occupant-friendly built environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0892.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: glazes; zirconium silicate; strontium oxide; recrystallization; thermal treatment
Online: 22 September 2023 (10:46:28 CEST)
The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of strontium oxide addition on zirconium silicate recrystallization when adding strontium oxide to the glaze composition. Zirconia glazes (4 different contents) were prepared to which strontium oxide was added in amounts of 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 mass%. SrO. The characteristic temperatures of the raw glazes were measured, based on which the maximum firing temperatures were determined. The fired glazes were subjected to study of the phase composition and observation of the microstructure. Analysis of the characteristic temperatures showed a fluxing effect, but it was not as strong for all glazes. Differences in the amount of the crystalline phase of zirconium silicate obtained in fired glazes and the partial transition of zirconium silicate to the amorphous phase were observed. Observations of the microstructure clearly indicated an increase in the homogeneity of the distribution of zirconium silicate.