ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1196.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Insecure Tenure; Land Tenure; Urban Housing; Conurbation, Benin
Online: 29 April 2023 (03:30:31 CEST)
This study focuses on land tenure in an urban environment. Specifically, it intends to elucidate the influence of land tenure security on access to housing in urban communities. The conurbation of Grand Nokoué, which is an agglomeration of five cities in the Republic of Benin, West Africa, captures attention due to its particular features as a developing city. Based on the literature, this study outlined three major factors of insecure land tenure, namely, lack of recognition by authorities, lack of protection from eviction or expulsion, and informal community-based rights. In addition, we examined four characteristics of relevant housing issues, namely, the development of shantytowns, the multiplicity of precarious housing, the loss of housing for the development of public projects, and exposure to house demolition under judicial decision to formulate our hypotheses. The results of a field observation and semi-structured interviews supported the hypotheses and demonstrated that the legal access to land, the protection of the population from anarchic eviction and informal community-based rights may positively influence the development of sustainable urban housing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Land dispute, customary land tenure, statutory land tenure, tenure security, Ghana, sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:31:29 CET)
Despite the ongoing land administration reforms being implemented across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including Ghana as viable pathway to achieve tenure security and greater efficiency in land administration, the subject of land dispute resolution has received relatively less attention. Whereas customary tenure institutions play a central role in land administration (controlling ~80% of all land in Ghana), they remain at the fringes of the formal land dispute adjudicatory process. Recognizing the pivotal role traditional institutions as development agents and potential vehicles for promoting good land governance, recent discourse on land tenure have geared towards mainstreaming traditional land disputes institutions into the architecture of formal judicial process via alternative dispute resolution pathways. Yet little is known at least empirically as to the operations of traditional dispute resolution institutions in the contemporary context. This study therefore explores the importance of traditional dispute resolution institutions in the management of land-related disputes in southcentral and western Ghana. Drawing on data collated from 380 farming households operating 746 plots. The results show that contrary to the conventional thinking that traditional institutions are anachronistic and not fit for purpose, they remain strong and preferred forum for land dispute resolution (proving resilient and adaptable) given the changing socio-economic and tenurial conditions. Yet these forums have differing implications for different actors within the customary spheres accessing them. The results highlight practical ways for incorporating traditional dispute resolution in the overall land governance setup in Ghana and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. This has implications for redesigning context-specific and appropriate land-use policy interventions that address local land dispute resolution.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: tenure preparation; biomedical faculty
Online: 18 December 2020 (07:22:48 CET)
At research-intensive universities in the United States, eligible faculty must generally excel in research, teaching and service in order to receive tenure. To meet these high standards, junior faculty should begin planning for a strong tenure case from their first day on the job. Here, we provide practical information, commentary and advice on how biomedical faculty at research-intensive institutions can prepare strategically for a successful tenure review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0396.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Indigenous; toponomy; land tenure; cartography
Online: 14 April 2021 (17:51:47 CEST)
In recent years, many libraries and archives have started digitizing their collections thus making maps by Indigenous peoples more easily available for scholars to study. While a number of these maps were discussed by G. Malcolm Lewis in the History of Cartography series (volume 2, book 3, Chapter 4: 1984), more have since been found and disseminated. These maps are critical in understanding the historic and current land tenure of Indigenous groups. Further, Indigenous claims to land can be seen in their connections via toponymy. European concepts of territory and political boundaries did not coincide with First Nation/American Indian views resulting in the mistaken view that Natives did not have formal concepts of their territories. Further, Tribes/First Nations with cross-border territory have special jurisdictional problems. This paper will illustrate how many Native residents were very spatially cognizant of their own lands, as well as neighboring nations’ lands, overlaps between groups, hunting territories, populations, and trade networks. Currently, the Sinixt First Nation provides a perfect example of how an Aboriginal people are inputting and using a GIS representation of their territory with proper toponymy and use areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; SDGs; land conflicts; land tenure security; Uganda
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:03:11 CEST)
Land tenure security is important for achieving a number Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The purpose of this paper was to investigate variation in land tenure security across three districts located in different geographical regions of Uganda. Using a quantitative cross-sectional survey data collected in early 2019. The findings show that Kanungu district found in South-Western Uganda had significantly higher levels of land tenure security as compared to Nakasongola (Central) and Nwoya (Northern). Research findings have implications on further study and benchmarking land governance systems in Kanungu. Furthermore, they have implications on implementation of government and donor land titling or registration programs in terms of priority areas. They further sheds light on the importance of accounting for geographical context in land tenure studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0409.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Professional development for scientists; tenure-track faculty; tenure; professoriate; professional development practicum; professional development experiential learning; Accomplishing Career Transitions; American Society for Cell Biology; Minorities Affairs Committee
Online: 18 February 2021 (10:43:19 CET)
Experiential learning can facilitate the development of transferrable skills necessary for success in attaining tenure and promotion in academia. In this article, we discuss the benefits of designing and implementing an individualized professional development experience or practicum. By doing this, we describe the experiential learning component of the Accomplishing Career Transitions (ACT) Program of the American Society for Cell Biology. The ACT program aims to assist postdoctoral trainees and junior faculty from backgrounds underrepresented in STEM as they strive to transition into tenure-track positions and ultimately attain tenure at research-intensive or teaching-intensive academic institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0387.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Scholarship evaluation; Tenure and promotion; Teaching and mentoring; Researcher evaluation; Academic career; Open science
Online: 19 January 2021 (16:37:50 CET)
In most world’s countries, scholarship evaluation for tenure and promotion continues to rely on conventional criteria of publications in journals of high impact factor and grant funding. Continuing to hire and promote scholars for their achievements in research and in securing research funds exposes universities at risk because students, directly and indirectly through government funds, are the main source of revenues for academic institutions, whereas talented young researchers are those who actually carry out most of the published research. Purposeful scholarship evaluation needs to include all three areas of scholarly activity: research, teaching and mentoring, and service to society. Young scholars seeking tenure and promotion benefit from the practice of open science because it provides better and more impactful results with respect to each of the three areas of scholarship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0302.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: land tenure in Mexico; ejido system; land expropriation; gated-communities; San Andrés Cholula; Ocoyucan
Online: 26 July 2019 (16:40:05 CEST)
The ejido system in Mexico based on communal land was transformed for private ownership due to neoliberal trends during 1990. This research describes the evolution of Mexican land policies that changed the ejido system into private development to answer why land tenure change is shaping urban growth. To demonstrate this, municipalities of San Andrés Cholula and Ocoyucan were selected as a case study. Within this context, we evaluated how much ejido land is being urbanized due to real estate market forces and what type of urbanization model is created. These two areas represent different development scales: S.A. Cholula where its ejidos were expropriated as part of a regional urban development plan; and Ocoyucan where its ejidos and rural land were reached by private developers without local planning. To analyze both municipalities, historical satellite images from Google Earth were used with GRASS GIS 7.4 and corrected with QGIS 2.18. We found that privatization of ejidos fragmented and segregated the rural world for the construction of massive gated-communities. Therefore, a disturbing land tenure change occurred during the last 30 years, hence this research questions the role of local authorities in permitting land use change without regulations or local planning. The resulting urbanization model is a private sector development that isolates rural communities in their own territories, for which we provide recommendations.