ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0562.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Virtual reality; higher education; technology; immersion
Online: 24 February 2021 (17:21:35 CET)
This paper explores benefits of using VR technologies in higher education. Theoretical part investigates classical education system and its features in order to compare advantages of using VR systems in education. VR technologies and its current state in industry and in education were explored as well as which branches of higher education uses these systems. Survey was conducted through online questionnaire where respondents (N = 55) gave their opinion on VR and the implementation of VR technologies in education. Three hypotheses related to the use of VR technology, student interest, and learning outcomes as well as the effectiveness, immersiveness and the effect of VR systems on the users were tested through 27 questions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0309.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: cheating; plagiarism; paraphrasing; technology; academic; student
Online: 14 October 2020 (13:39:23 CEST)
Cheating is a kind of fraud or attempts to get dishonest advantages in an academic institution, it has been increasing dramatically for the last 50 years with the growth of technology. In some countries, this phenomenon has changed to a problematic factor in schools. Plagiarism is also considered as a type of cheating if it occurs intentionally. More efforts are made to mitigate the severity of cheating in an academic institution using technological-based devices. Besides, technology has an effective role in the detection of plagiarism by several detection platforms, however, still, there are some types of plagiarism which cannot be detected by these platforms efficiently, that authors should treat honestly during his/her scientific writing. This work aims to conceptualize and characterize cheating and plagiarism in an academic institution, also it is tried to indicate the relationship of cheating and plagiarism that in which cases, plagiarism becomes cheating. To achieve the purposes, relevant literature including scientific papers, monographs, reports, and authorized website were reviewed, and the literature output are integrated with the observation and experience of author during the teaching and learning in academic institutions.The findings and direct observation from close contact of classrooms show that cheating is felt mostly in classes with large numbers of students, that institution policy, instructor control, and using of technology have the most effect on the controlling cheating. Plagiarism as academic dishonesty is a widespread phenomenon among the students and even the authors. In some cases, the poor understanding of students and authors in scientific writing rules causes plagiarism and is measurable by some available detection platforms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: CAD/CAM; dental ceramics; dental technology; digital dentistry; dental education; dental innovation; disruptive technology
Online: 25 November 2021 (20:06:23 CET)
Digital dentistry, including CAD/CAM dentistry, is perhaps the most disruptive innovation in dentistry to date. The rapid development of digital dentistry technologies over the past several decades has enabled clinicians to improve patient care by significantly reducing the time necessary for the restorative phase of treatment. Advancements in intra-oral scanning and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM), in conjunction with new dental CAD/CAM ceramic materials, have simplified patient care and made same-day dentistry a reality. This review aims to present the most recent advancements described in current literature as well as to document the successful implementation of digital dentistry into a predoctoral program. The overall process of CAD/CAM same-day dentistry and the accompanying advancements in software and materials were presented and discussed. Implementation of technology and personnel requirements were reviewed. CAD/CAM dentistry has been influential in shaping and improving dental practice and education, and this influence will only continue with time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0433.v1
Online: 8 October 2023 (07:59:55 CEST)
This paper applies a theoretical model to analyze the ways that widespread use of generative AIs (GAIs) in education and, more broadly, in contributing to and reflecting the collective intelligence of our species, can and will change us. The model extends Brian Arthur’s insights into the nature of technologies as the orchestration of phenomena to our use by explaining the nature of humans participation in their enactment, whether as part of the orchestration (hard technique, where our roles must be performed correctly) or as orchestrators of phenomena (soft technique performed creatively or idiosyncratically). Education may be seen as a technological process for developing the soft and hard techniques of humans to participate in the technologies and thus the collective intelligence of our cultures. Unlike all earlier technologies, by embodying that collective intelli-gence themselves, GAIs can closely emulate and implement not only the hard technique but also the soft that, until now, was humanity’s sole domain: the very things that technologies enabled us to do can now be done by the technologies themselves. The consequences for what, how, and even whether we learn are profound. The paper explores some of these consequences and concludes with theoretically informed approaches that may help us to avert some dangers while benefiting from the strengths of generative AIs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: NEP; new education policy; Indian education system; technology in education; outcome based education
Online: 30 May 2023 (10:39:53 CEST)
Bridging the gap between traditional education and matching the pace of education with the rest of the world, Govt. of India implemented a new education policy this year which was much awaited for a long time. The new education policy is a big step to change India's overall education scenario by changing the examination pattern. However, this new type of decision-making process seeks to ensure that it achieves great benefits covering all uncovered elements while keeping technology as a parameter, so this new policy in the previous education system is also missing some key issues that must be addressed in the next amendments. Making it an example of impact, this paper describes salient issues where new educational policies are silent or those grey areas have been only superficially touched upon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0401.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Modern Technology; Traditional Technology; Technology Renascence; E-Banking; Ecommerce; Education; Energy; Economy and Other E-Technologies; Artificial Intelligence; Business Intelligence
Online: 17 July 2020 (16:14:26 CEST)
Abstract: The human race has always innovated, and in a relatively short time went from building fires and making stone-tipped arrows to creating smartphone apps and autonomous robots. Today, technological progress will undoubtedly continue to change the way we work, live, and survive in the coming decades. Since the beginning of the new millennium, the world has witnessed the emergence of social media, smartphones, self-driving cars, and autonomous flying vehicles. There have also been huge leaps in energy storage, artificial intelligence, and medical science. We are facing immense challenges in global warming and food security, among many other issues. While human innovation has contributed to many of the problems we are facing, it is also human innovation and ingenuity that can help humanity deal with these issues “New directions in science are launched by new tools much more often than by new concepts. The effect of a concept-driven revolution is to explain old things in new ways. The effect of a tool-driven revolution is to discover new things that have to be explained”. (F. Dyson, 1997 In this article, we review the impact of technology as evolving at beginning of 21st Century on future prospect of Energy demand either renewable or non-renewable form, Economy, to Ecommerce, Education and any other E-related of Modern Technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0513.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: ChatGPT; artificial intelligence; chatbot; education technology; machine learning; dental education; natural language processing
Online: 28 February 2023 (08:18:33 CET)
Background and Purpose: Open-source Artificial intelligence (AI) applications are fast transforming access to information and allow students to prepare assignments and offer quite accurate responses to a wide range of exam questions which are routinely used in assessments of students across the board including undergraduate dental students. This study aims to evaluate the performance ChatGPT, an AI-based application, on a wide range of dental assessments and discusses the implications for undergraduate dental education. Methods: This was an exploratory study investigating the accuracy of ChatGPT to attempt a range of recognized assessments in undergraduate dental curricula. ChatGPT was used to attempt ten items based on each of the five commonly used question formats including single-best answer (SBA) multiple-choice questions (MCQs); short answer questions (SAQs); short essay questions (SEQs); True/False questions and fill in the blanks items. In addition, ChatGPT was used to generate reflective reports based on multisource feedback (MSF); research methodology; critical appraisal of the literature. Results: ChatGPT application provided accurate responses to majority of knowledge-based assessments based on MCQs, SAQs, SEQs, Tue/False and fill in the blanks items. However, it was only able to answer text-based questions and did not allow processing of questions based on images. Responses generated to written assignments were also of good quality apart from those for critical appraisal of literature. Word count was the key limitation observed in outputs by ChatGPT as it was only able to produce reports limited to approximately 650 words. Conclusion: Notwithstanding their current limitations, AI-based applications have the potential to revolutionize virtual learning. Instead of treating it as a threat, dental educators need to adapt teaching and assessments in dental education to the benefits of the learners whilst mitigating against dishonest use of AI-based applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0473.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: ChatGPT; educational technology; research; programming education; large language model; GPT-3; artificial intelligence
Online: 28 March 2023 (04:14:47 CEST)
In recent years, the rise of advanced artificial intelligence technologies has had a profound impact on many fields, including education and research. One such technology is ChatGPT, a powerful large language model developed by OpenAI. This technology offers exciting opportunities for students and educators, including personalized feedback, increased accessibility, interactive conversations, lesson preparation, evaluation, and new ways to teach complex concepts. However, ChatGPT poses different threats to the traditional education and research system, including the possibility of cheating on online exams, human-like text generation, diminished critical thinking skills, and difficulties in evaluating information generated by ChatGPT. This study explores potential opportunities and threats that ChatGPT poses to overall education from the perspective of students and educators. Furthermore, for programming learning, we explore how ChatGPT helps students improve their programming skills. To demonstrate this, we conducted different coding-related experiments with ChatGPT, including code generation from problem descriptions, pseudocode generation of algorithms from texts, and code correction. We also verified the generated codes with an online judge system to evaluate their accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0590.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Skills; Knowledge and Competency; Multi-Level Perception; Sanitation/Hygiene Management; Higher Education Institutions; Environmental Health Technician/Technology
Online: 11 October 2023 (06:55:54 CEST)
Providing safely-managed sanitation/hygiene requires key competencies for education, training, service delivery, enterprise development and management, product and infrastructure design and development, construction and installation, governance, financing, research, etc. These strategic sanitation capacities will have to be built from higher education’s academic and professional programmes structured and designed to produce skilled and knowledgeable professionals and practitioners. This study aims to investigate the quality of the sanitation/hygiene management content of Environmental Health programmes; the adequacy of the existing central curricula; and the perception of environmental health sanitation/hygiene-trained professionals to determine the next phase for building knowledge and capacity of sanitation professionals in Nigeria through higher education institutions. A multilevel mixed method concurrent study was used for sampling and data collection with a multilevel perception analysis to examine the perceptions of students, lecturers and graduate alumni as well as employers/supervisors and clients/service-users of sanitation/hygiene related graduates. The main findings of this paper show limited understanding of the concepts of contemporary issues of sanitation/hygiene management; the central/national teaching and curricula were found to be seriously out of date; and clients/service-users were dissatisfied with the skills and knowledge levels of the graduates. The study concludes by recommending a national sanitation management higher education pathway to guide the provision of integrated sanitation/hygiene management education at higher education institutions (HEIs), to build effective, efficient, competent, and sufficient workforce for the country.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education, Education 5.0, Education 6.0, Technology in Education , Educational Philosophy, Learning experience , Curriculum, paradigm shift, Future of Education, Learning sciences, teaching, cognitive science, educational psychology, Holistic development.
Online: 25 July 2023 (10:41:29 CEST)
As education continues to evolve in response to technological advancements, the concept of Education 5.0 has gained prominence. However, it is crucial to critically analyze the limitations and challenges of this model. This article presents a comprehensive examination of Education 5.0, identifies its drawbacks, and proposes a vision for Education 6.0. Through insightful case studies and discussions, this article aims to provide a nuanced perspective on the future of education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0634.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Age; Artificial intelligence; Christianity; Religious Orientation; Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology
Online: 29 January 2021 (15:55:49 CET)
Artificial Intelligence innovations, such as chatbots and specialized education suggestion tools, provide potential interactive and on-demand pedagogical engagement between non-Christians and Christians with Christianity. However, there is little empirical research on the readiness, acceptance, and adoption of A.I.'s involvement in religious education in a secular state, such as Vietnam. This research addresses the literature gap by providing an entrepreneurial analysis and customer perspectives on the ideas of A.I.'s involvement in religious education. Specifically, the study explores whether the Vietnamese across different ages and religious orientations accept and have enough skills to adopt A.I.'s religious education innovation. The interview sample is 32 participants, selected based on their religious orientation (Christians & Non-Christians) and age (Generation X, Generation Y & Generation Z). Most respondents are open to A.I. application in religious education except for the Church's personnel. However, only gen Z generations are fully prepared to adopt this innovation. Theoretically, the research customizes the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model into religious innovation context. Practically, this research acts as market research on the demand for A.I.'s religious innovation in Vietnam, an insight for future religious tech entrepreneurs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0856.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: quality evaluation of school management; compulsory education stage; big data technology; visualization techniques; evaluation models
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:26:38 CEST)
With the spread of compulsory education emerged school management problems continued, and the quality of school management in compulsory education has attracted a great deal of attention in China. However, the application of information technology in the field is not yet detailed and wide, resulting in problems of heavy workload and high difficulty in the whole evaluation process. Accordingly, we use big data technologies such as Apache Spark, Apache Hive, and SPSS to carry out data cleaning, correlation analysis, dynamic factor analysis, principal component analysis, and visual display on 1760 sample data from 40 primary and secondary schools in Q Province in China, and constructs a model school management of quality evaluation in the compulsory education stage, which reduces the 22 management tasks required for previous evaluation to 5, greatly reducing the workload and difficulty of evaluation. It has improved the efficiency and accuracy of evaluation, and further promoted the simultaneous development of education of five domains and education equity in the compulsory education stage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0504.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: science policy; technology policy; technology; technology maturity level; technology readiness level; technology commercialization; technology transfer; university technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (10:45:25 CET)
This paper presents the results of a study aimed at understanding how technology maturity level influences the incidence of university technology transfer to the private sector. The study examined the topic from the perspective of private sector organizations. It used data from a random sample of patent applications filed with the United States Patent and Trademark Office and a theoretically guided sampling of multiple cases of private sector organizations that contemplated obtaining and assimilating technologies created at universities in the United States. The patent application data were analyzed using nonparametric statistical techniques and the case data were analyzed using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). The findings of the study suggest that the typical maturity level of technologies created at U.S. universities is a TRL-5 or lower on as scale adapted from the NASA technology readiness level (TRL) scale. A technology maturity level of TRL-6 or higher is likely an insufficient but necessary part of at least one unnecessary but sufficient configuration of conditions that tends to result in the occurrence of university technology transfer. However, under certain circumstances, a technology maturity level of at least TRL-6 could be a sufficient but unnecessary condition for the occurrence of university technology transfer. These findings have several important implications. First, they provide support for the notion that university technology transfer is subject to causal complexity. Moreover, it may be possible to increase the incidence of university technology transfer in the United States by implementing public policy and practices that explicitly take technology maturity level into consideration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0634.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Assistive Technology; Assistive devices; Students with disabilities; Decolonial Approach; South African Higher Education; Disability Staff members; learning; Enable and Constrain
Online: 24 December 2020 (14:46:01 CET)
This paper used the decolonial theory to analyse provision of Assistive Technology and assistive devices at an institution of higher education in South African. It was an empirical study, in which data were collected through interviews with students with disabilities and the Disability Rights Centre staff members. The paper sought to understand the invisible hidden implications of provision of Assistive Technology and assistive devices. The finding was that it is students with disabilities who were provided with Assistive Technology and assistive devices at the institution. The institution provided them through the Centre, to support their learning. However, this way of provision was found to be stigmatising and segregative. Furthermore, while the provision on one hand enabled students with disabilities’ learning, on the other, it constrained it. The argument of the paper is that when provision of Assistive Technology and assistive devices is for a particular group of students it defeats the whole purpose for it is intended, and could hinder rather than promote learning. It is hoped that the paper will contribute to contemporary debate on provision of Assistive Technology and support services for people with disabilities in low resource settings, from a South African context specifically, and in higher education broadly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0540.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: universal communicative competence; algorithm; digital technology of collaborative learning; technical university; Microsoft Teams
Online: 27 October 2020 (09:00:22 CET)
This article presents a quantitative assessment of pedagogical support aimed at improving collaborative education at a modern technical university. The article analyzes the structural composition of the universal communicative competence in a foreign language to identify the advantages of the proposed content detailization. An algorithm for constructing educational and speech actions of students with the use of collaborative digital technology, regarding the monitoring and control of tools, is developed and theoretically justified. Microsoft Teams is offered as a platform for implementing digital collaborative learning technology. The didactic possibilities and methodological functions of Microsoft Teams in foreign language teaching are revealed. The digital technology of the collaborative learning algorithm is relevant for building collaborative actions is relevant, since it contributes to the development of the ability to solve common professional tasks. The algorithm of the dialogic communication, including problem, contradiction, conflict, intellectual difficulty, having general professional context as a stimulus to enhance the interaction in pair work is proposed as pedagogical support. The analysis and quantitative assessment of students' oral responses showed that the dialogue in a foreign language, based on the algorithmic component, is more structured and stimulates students' communication on relevant professional-oriented topics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1705.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Virtual Reality; education; indian school system; perceived benefits; challenges; future expectations; technology integration; student engagement; comprehension; motivation; curriculum alignment; inclusivity
Online: 26 October 2023 (10:13:05 CEST)
Virtual Reality (VR) technology in education has the potential to revolutionize the Indian school education system. This research study investigates the present state of VR adoption, perceived benefits, concerns, and future expectations among both students and educators. The survey-based approach collected responses from 45,000 students and 2,000 educators across a diverse range of schools in India. The findings highlight a mixed current landscape with significant room for expansion in VR utilization. Both students and educators express optimism regarding the benefits of VR, recognizing its capacity to enhance engagement, comprehension, and motivation in the learning process. However, challenges, including budget constraints, the need for training and support, and concerns about student safety, must be addressed to effectively integrate VR into education. Expectations for the future emphasize inclusivity, accessibility, and customized learning experiences. The research underscores the transformative potential of VR in Indian education while emphasizing the necessity of addressing practical challenges for its successful implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0222.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: multimedia; geoscience videos; geoscience education; GEGVL; earth systems science education; educational technology; place-based education; active learning
Online: 17 May 2022 (04:37:00 CEST)
Place-based education (PBE) and active learning are effective strategies for geoscience education. However, traditional PBE via field trips requires significant resources, time, physical abilities, and expertise of teachers. We provide an alternative PBE experience by showing how different kinds of geoscience videos can be spatially organized into one digital interactive virtual environment. Here, we present the Google Earth Geoscience Video Library (GEGVL) which uses Google Earth and location specific videos about Earth events to create a virtual PBE experience. Using Google Earth, GEGVL organizes place-based videos by locations and links pertinent non-place-based videos and allows users to roam the globe in search of geoscientific videos that are pertinent to them or their students. Currently GEGVL contains 150 videos organized into ten different geoscience disciplines: Plate Tectonics, Minerals, Structural Geology, Metamorphism, Magmatism, Hydrology, Environmental Science, Sedimentology, Paleontology, and Paleomagnetism. Despite stability challenges with Google Earth integration, results of user surveys among lower division undergraduates show that the design logic of GEGVL is promising virtual PBE organizer for interesting students in and helping them learn about Earth sciences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: public policy; science policy; technology; technology commercialization; technology transfer; university technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (09:33:38 CET)
This paper presents an alternative conceptualization and definition of technology in the context of university technology transfer. The ambiguity regarding the conceptualization of technology is apparent in the technology transfer literature. An expanded conceptualization of technology potentially opens new approaches to researching the topic of technology transfer. It may also cause policymakers to think more comprehensively about what it means to successfully transfer technologies derived from federally funded research to the private sector for use that benefits the public interest. This paper integrates constructs and ideas in the related literature to provide a new perspective of technology that can support future scholarly research and public policy formulation about technology transfer in general, and university technology transfer specifically. Although the paper focuses on university technology transfer to the private sector in the United States, the insights it presents are relevant to technology transfer more broadly and applicable in other geopolitical contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0090.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: oscilloscope; 21st-century technology; measuring instrument technology
Online: 2 June 2021 (15:53:42 CEST)
Background: An oscilloscope is a basic tool for measuring electrical quantities, as well as studying all types of waveforms. Generally, measurement of a quantity is regarding peak voltage, frequency, phase difference, pulse width, delay time, etc. However, what about the oscilloscope technology that existed in the early the 21st-century? Purpose: Aim of this study is to identify and analyze the application and use of current oscilloscopes in the early 21st-century. Method: The research methodology used is qualitative research with a systematic literature review by taking journals from 2019-2020 on the IEEE, IOP, Science Direct, ArXiv, and Measurement Science Review journal databases. Results: The results obtained are a batch of 12 articles showing the application and use of oscilloscope technology at the beginning of the 21st century. Conclusion: The conclusions applied to the application of oscilloscope technology in the early 21st-century are centered on the field of education in the measurement of physical quantities and the use of measurement technology which has high efficiency and low cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0503.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: political legitimacy; science policy; technology policy, technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (10:44:44 CET)
The underlying assumption of the discourse about technology transfer is that government intervention is legitimate. Little scholarship has examined whether this assumption is valid or not and on what basis. Legitimacy is an important construct in the context of public policy. Government intervention can only be sustained if the public views such action as legitimate. The creation and transfer of technologies to the private sector is an area where there is significant government intervention. This paper reconceptualizes political legitimacy in the context of technology transfer policy. The analysis illuminates several concerns and challenges regarding the traditional approach to understanding whether specific government interventions in technology transfer are legitimate. It subsequently applies social constructionism and the notion of morality tales to describe an alternative conceptualization of political legitimacy that integrates aspects of other frameworks. In doing so, it reimagines political legitimacy as less of an unattainable normative principle of limited practical value to policymakers and more of a descriptively understood social phenomenon that policymakers can apply while formulating not only technology transfer policy, but other kinds of public policy as well. The paper demonstrates that there is a broader basis for claims of political legitimacy for government intervention in technology transfer, there is likely a more expansive range of technology transfer problems with which the government can rightly concern itself as well as possible solutions that policymakers can justifiably consider for addressing those problems, and that the political consequences of potential overreach in technology transfer policy are likely minimal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1771.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: technology; technology maturity level; technology readiness level; technology transfer; gap fund; science and technology policy
Online: 29 November 2023 (04:51:41 CET)
Recently considered modifications to public policy and trends in technology transfer practices have underscored the need for validated instruments to assess the maturity of technologies. This paper details a study that aimed to develop and present a generalized technology readiness level (GTRL) scale that a variety of professionals and researchers could use to assess the maturity of technologies in a range of contexts. Of particular interest is developing and validating an instrument that technology transfer professionals in federal laboratories, universities, and the private sector in the United States of America can use to assess the maturity of technologies to facilitate their technology transfer efforts. The primary goal of the research study was to highlight the need for validated measurement instruments for assessing the maturity of technologies in these contexts, test methods for validating the GTRL scale and other readiness level scales, and fill the knowledge gap regarding methods for properly validating such instruments. This included producing insights to inform future efforts to validate the GTRL scale as well as efforts to develop and validate other instruments to measure technology maturity. The study provides specific recommendations relevant to determining the face validity, content validity, inter-rater reliability, and intra-rater reliability of the GTRL scale and other such instruments for assessing technology maturity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0286.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Assistive Technology; Accessible Technology; Consumer Technologies; Provision, Policy; Funding
Online: 16 August 2022 (09:57:38 CEST)
Estimates by the World Health Authority suggest that 1 billion people do not have access to the assistive technologies they require. Over the past decade, the design of products that empower people with a disability has shifted from specialised and dedicated products designed only for those with a disability to features and functions integrated into cost-effective consumer technologies for the benefit of all. The opportunity for expansion of the availability of such technologies is at risk of being ignored as a result of models of delivery that are founded in medical devices and which have failed to reflect trends in our understanding of technology and the choices and preferences expressed by persons with a disability. This research undertaken suggests that the opportunities of such expansion offer significant benefits to people with a disability and better both economic and social return on investment for authorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0211.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: voice recognition technology; sustainable technology adoption; anthropomorphism; narcissism; machiavellianism
Online: 4 October 2023 (05:26:56 CEST)
Voice search technology has gained popularity in recent years, transforming the way individuals interact with digital devices. This study aims to explore the sustainable use intention of voice search, focusing on the psychological factors that influence new technology adoption. Using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and anthropomorphism theory, it provides insights for developers, marketers, and policymakers interested in voice search technology. Through an online survey targeting experienced voice search users in the U.S., the study examines the impact of TAM factors (perceived usefulness, ease of use, quality satisfaction) and anthropomorphism traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism) on sustainable use intention of voice search. Results from hierarchical regression analysis show that perceived usefulness, ease of use, and quality satisfaction positively affect sustainable intention of voice search. Additionally, narcissism and Machiavellianism predict sustainable intention of voice search. By merging TAM and anthropomorphism theory, this study enhances our understanding of voice search behavior and technology adoption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0967.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: Decision-Making; Devolved functions; Devolved Government; Technology Acceptance Model; Technology; Innovations
Online: 16 October 2023 (16:26:13 CEST)
This study is grounded on evidence-based decision-making in the implementation of devolved functions in Kenya. Promulgation of the constitution of Kenya 2010 set stage for devolution of functions, power, resources, and representation closer to the people. The researcher applies principles of technology acceptance modelling to investigate the extrinsic factors, Perceived-Ease-Of-Use, Perceived-Usefulness, attitudes, behavioural-intention and actual use of Research findings, Innovations and Technologies. Furthermore, the researcher applies contingent valuation technique to investigate cost-benefit analysis of using research findings, innovations and technologies. Multi-stage cluster sample of 156 managers from ten counties, randomly distributed in the six devolved functions that were randomly selected, including: agriculture, county health service, early childhood education and village polytechnic, natural resources and environment, county administration and governance, and county public works and services, took part in this study. Building on basic statistical analysis, structural equation modelling was employed to explain the adoption process. Results proved that all TAM model constructs were decisive in the adoption process. Furthermore, managers were willing to pay extra to optimize decision making and for accrued benefits on service delivery. Findings from this study are critical for stimulating the uptake of research findings, innovations, and technologies in making informed decisions for improved service delivery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1196.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: CRISPR/Cas technology; Crop; Germplasm; Breeding technology
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:27:20 CEST)
Crop breeding is an important global strategy to meet sustainable food demand. CRISPR-Cas is a most promising gene-editing technology for rapid and precise generation of novel germplasm, and leads to revolutionary crop breeding innovation. In this review, we summarize recent advance of CRISPR/Cas technology in gene function analyses and generation of new germplasms with increased yield, improved product quality, and enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. We highlight their applications and breakthroughs in agriculture including crop de novo domestication, decoupling the gene pleiotropy tradeoff, crop hybrid seed conventional production, hybrid rice asexual reproduction, and double haploid breeding. Moreover, the challenges and development of CRISPR/Cas technology in crops are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0425.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: technology transfer; anthropotechnology; offset policy
Online: 24 August 2018 (05:45:03 CEST)
This research aimed, within the scope of the anthropotechnological approach, analyze the technology transfer, performed via the offset policy in the field of public health, called the Radiotherapy Expansion Plan, from the Health Ministry. The objective of this policy is to create and improve accredited organizations, concerning the oncological treatment, specifically in the insertion of radiotherapeutic equipment. This process is divided into two stages: the insertion of the radiotherapy equipment, and the compensations provided for in the commercial agreement. To meet this purpose, the research started from understanding the theoretical and methodological approaches of the fields of study of anthropotechnology, technology transfer and offset policy. In this sense, there was used the methodological strategy of the case study, supported by applied research, with a qualitative and exploratory approach. External and internal environments of a specific situation were analyzed, located in the State of Paraná, which received the radiotherapy equipment. It was verified that the initiatives of insertion of radiotherapeutic equipment in the context of the Expansion Plan have undergone numerous confrontations, inserted in the contextual and organizational particularities that affect its development and effectiveness. There are challenges that require responses from a set of organizations involved, in order to implement the trade agreement established by the offset policy, highlighting the first stage as a process of technology transfer. Thus, the situation located in the State of Paraná consistently consolidated the insertion of the radiotherapy equipment. It allowed its disclosure as a reference situation, and based on the dimensions and indicators analysis provided by anthropotechnology, made possible the comprehensionof the technology transfer involved in the process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1194.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: climate change; environmental sound technology; international technology transfer; post Paris-Agreement Era
Online: 19 October 2023 (07:52:14 CEST)
The measures related to climate change and international technology transfer have been closely intervened as most international environmental instruments, including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol as well as Paris Agreement which contain the provisions concerning environmentally friendly technology transfer. However, technologies have not been transferred adequately owing to the flaws in the relevant provisions and due to the fact that most technologies are possessed by transnational corporations and other private sectors. In order to undertake the commitment by the governments of developed countries and at the same time, to conform the commercial activities of their respective private sectors to the level of promised international obligation, an uniform international technology transfer agreement needs to be established separately, particularly under the World Trade Organization regime in Post Pairs-Agreement era. This paper first explores the defects and challenges found in provisions related to technology transfer in existing environmental agreements, and examines the possibilities of concluding an international technology transfer agreement both from theoretical and practical perspectives. climate change;environmentally sound technology;international technology transfer;Post Paris-Agreement Era
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0283.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: information technology; impact; society; future
Online: 13 September 2022 (08:27:14 CEST)
As we are aware Information Technology had its cutting-edge lifestyle from the overdue sixties of the remaining century whilst the Arpanet become introduced, funded with the aid of using the branch of protection of the USA. After that, the IT enterprise has come a protracted manner to its cutting-edge form in which its miles gambling a dominant function in each sphere of life. It has made innovative modifications in facts amassing and dissemination and worldwide communication. It is growing into a surely paperless painting environment. Also, we can now ship a message very without difficulty to everywhere withinside the international in seconds. From a schooling factor of view, we can have a digital elegance in which the teacher ought to take a seat down in any part of the arena and his college students scattered in all exceptional elements of the arena via video convention with the presentation of look at substances in addition to query and solution sessions. A health practitioner now sitting in any part of the arena ought to carry out a surgical procedure in which the affected person is mendacity in some other part of the arena. These work examples display where we stand these days compared to what has become 1/2 of a century back. But as we recognize, nothing on this international is only correct as the whole thing has a darkish side. In this paper, we might speak about the deserves and demerits of enforcing IT globally and in which we are heading withinside the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0807.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: airfoil; morphing technology; Shape optimization
Online: 12 July 2023 (09:28:09 CEST)
An airfoil is the geometric shape of a cross-section of a wing. When it is exposed to the flow of a fluid over its surface, it generates both lift and drag forces through a pressure distribution. Designing an efficient airfoil for aerodynamic applications is a complex challenge in the field of aerodynamic engineering, with the aim of achieving an optimal lift-to-drag ratio. The success of airfoil design hinges on the effective reduction of drag force under specific conditions, while simultaneously attaining the desired lift without encountering significant flow separation, such as boundary layer shedding. Furthermore, the design must adhere to lifting force limitations and meet structural requirements. In the field of airfoil design and optimization, literature review articles provide a valuable resource by offering an overview of the latest advancements in specific areas. These areas encompass a wide range of topics including the design and testing of adaptive geometry wings, such as morphing wing technology as well as the application of shape optimization techniques to enhance airfoil performance. Our goal is to provide researchers with an in-depth review of relevant articles published to date, examining the applied approaches utilized to tackle the complex problem of airfoil design and explore the methodology employed to address it, from a broad perspective on the topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0188.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Accounting; Environment; Information Technology; Innovation; Sustainability
Online: 4 July 2023 (10:10:06 CEST)
This study explores the role of information technology (IT) in supporting sustainability efforts in Saudi Arabia. Through an analysis of four case studies, we examine how technology has been implemented by Saudi Arabian companies to advance sustainability goals. The findings demonstrate a notable shift towards green initiatives in the country, with the adoption of technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), blockchain, and artificial intelligence. These technologies have been instrumental in enhancing energy efficiency and waste reduction. The study highlights the significance of policy interventions and public-private partnerships in achieving both environmental sustainability and economic growth. To ensure widespread adoption of sustainable practices, it is crucial for the government to focus on building digital capacity in companies and removing technological barriers. The case studies of four companies serve as illustrative examples of sustainable practices and the corresponding technological support in Saudi Arabia. The research underscores the importance of leveraging information technology and collaboration to accelerate progress towards the nation's sustainability goals.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Health information technology in Nepal
Online: 14 October 2019 (10:38:53 CEST)
The purpose of this article is to review a two year long implementation of an electronic health record (EHR) system at the outpatient department of a private hospital in Kathmandu, possibly a first implementation of its kind in Nepal. Procedures: The strategy designed for EHR implementation was based on Professor John P. Kotter's work on successful change management. Main findings: We found that keeping a close watch on the social dynamics affecting adoption decisions among users of the system was crucial for implementing the EHR; this was partly because the project received limited support from an erratically changing hospital leadership and lacked an EHR system suited to the needs of the users. Conclusions: The implementation described in this article is a good lesson on moving from control to drift in information systems implementation, and we hope this work will be useful to health IT professionals working in the space of digital transformation in resource-constrained environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0571.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Business intelligence; gender gap; information technology.
Online: 24 May 2021 (13:31:05 CEST)
In the early 1990s, cyberfeminism emerged as an area of knowledge to discuss the connection between gender and technology. According to UNESCO, women are underrepresented in the field of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics and less than a third of women worldwide work in scientific research and development. However, this number has grown and this reality is constantly changing. In this context, using business intelligence techniques, this study analyzes data from the computer and information and communication technology market to characterize the impact of the performance of women in these areas. It is expected to show that this performance in the highlighted fields is still a challenge in Brazil.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0459.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: healthcare; digital healthcare; healthcare technology
Online: 9 October 2023 (08:58:09 CEST)
Healthcare sector is a truly dynamic and multidisciplinary system. Progressive practice of computational technologies in healthcare has enhanced electronic therapeutic measures in the care units. The healthcare decision-makers are accenting on the operational usage of digital technology in the system, to improve the health service by reducing human error and excessive load also by increasing possibility to attend more patients simultaneously. Sophisticated medical instruments are using advanced robotics, artificial intelligence to enhance their efficacy. Virtual treatments, self-diagnostics is increasing over time with the advancement of technical support in health. Electronic Health Records (EHR) of patients has created huge medical data (clinical information), which is undoubtedly a good resource for health professionals to take critical decisions and implement them accordingly. The aim of this article is to elucidate how technological developments are associated with clinical improvements in terms of constructing an upgraded health ecosystem. It is imperative to analyze how recent digital paradigms in health are helping to tackle regular and rare clinical challenges.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0120.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: solar; technology adoption; demographics; mixed methods
Online: 30 November 2018 (15:47:46 CET)
Despite a global push in the development and implementation of widespread alternative energy use, significant disparities exist across given nation-states. These disparities, frequently referred to as the local-national gap, reflect both technical and economic factors, as well as the social, political, and ecological gaps between how communities see energy development and national/global policy goals. This dataset is an attempt to bridge the local-national gap regarding solar PV adoption in the state of Georgia (U.S.A.). This dataset is an aggregation of variables from seven different publicly-available sources that was designed to help researchers interested in the context underlying solar adoption on the local scale of governance (e.g. the county level). The SolarView database includes information necessary for informing policymaking activities such as solar installation information, a historical county zip code directory, county-level census data, housing value indexes, renewable energy incentive totals, PV rooftop suitability percentages, and utility rates. As this is a database from multiple sources, incomplete data entries are noted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0786.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: Precision agriculture; Intention to adopt a technology; Attitudes towards the use of technology; Technology acceptance model; Variable rate irrigation; Fruit production; Grapevine production
Online: 31 December 2020 (10:10:50 CET)
Irrigated agriculture determines large blue water withdrawals, and it is considered a key intervention area to reach sustainable development objectives. Precision agriculture technologies have the potential to mitigate water resource depletion that often characterizes conventional agricultural approaches. This study investigates the factors influencing farmers' intentions to adopt variable rate irrigation (VRI) technology. The Technology Acceptance Model 3 (TAM-3) was employed as a theoretical framework to design a survey to identify the factors influencing farmers' decision-making process when adopting VRI. Data were gathered through quantitative face-to-face interviews with a sample of 138 fruit and grapevine producers from the Northeast of Italy (Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Trentino-Alto Adige, Friuli-Venezia Giulia). Data were analyzed using partial least squares path modelling (PLS-PM). The results highlight that personal attitudes, such as perceived usefulness and subjective norm, positively influence the intention to adopt VRI. Also, the perceived ease of use positively affects intention, but it is moderated by subject experience.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Digitalization; sensor technology; block chain technology; data models; livestock
Online: 3 July 2020 (12:29:39 CEST)
As the global human population increases, animal agriculture must adapt to provide more animal products while also addressing concerns about animal welfare, environmental sustainability, and public health. The purpose of this review is to discuss the digitalization of animal farming with Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) technologies, specifically biosensors, big data, and block chain technology. Biosensors are noninvasive or invasive sensors that monitor an animal’s health and behavior in real time, allowing farmers to monitor individual animals and integrate this data for population-level analyses. The data from the sensors is processed using big data-processing techniques such as data modelling. These technologies use algorithms to sort through large, complex data sets to provide farmers with biologically relevant and usable data. Blockchain technology allows for traceability of animal products from farm to table, a key advantage in monitoring disease outbreaks and preventing related economic losses and food-related health pandemics. With these PLF technologies, animal agriculture can become more transparent and regain consumer trust. While the digitalization of animal farming has the potential to address a number of pressing concerns, these technologies are relatively new. The implementation of PLF technologies on farms will require increased collaboration between farmers, animal scientists, and engineers to ensure that technologies can be used in realistic, on-farm conditions. These technologies will call for data models that can sort through large amounts of data while accounting for specific variables and ensuring automation, accessibility, and accuracy of data. Issues with data privacy, security, and integration will need to be addressed before there can be multi-farm databases. Lastly, the usage of blockchain technology in animal agriculture is still in its infancy; blockchain technology has the potential to improve the traceability and transparency of animal products, but more research is needed to realize its full potential. The digitalization of animal farming can supply the necessary tools to provide sustainable animal products on a global scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0027.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: appropriate technology, crowdfunding, UTAUT model, technology service acceptance factor
Online: 2 April 2018 (16:45:08 CEST)
The R&D and propagation of sustainable appropriate technology requires the provision of stable funding. Crowdfunding is a form of funding whereby small sums of investments or contributions are collected from among the general public and used to finance the development of goods or services. This method has been in use widely in arts and culture fields, and presents a useful alternative means for funding appropriate technology projects. The aim of this study is to identify the factors influencing the backers who participate in appropriate technology projects through crowdfunding platforms, analyzing the relationships between these factors, and thereby establishing the usefulness of crowdfunding as a viable new alternative. The analysis results indicate that key factors influencing user intention to crowdfund appropriate technology projects include social influence, effort expectancy, and perceived trust. In contrast to the findings of previous studies, performance expectancy was not found to have a significant effect. This reflects the fact that, compared to the crowdfunding conducted for other purposes, crowdfunding for appropriate technology is closer in nature to donations. These findings indicate that for funding to be successful, aggressive online exposure using the SNS of backers should be pursued from the early stages of funding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0009.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Indoor Positioning Technology; Bluetooth 4.0; Manufacturing Private Cloud; Internet of Things; Indoor Positioning Technology;
Online: 1 June 2018 (08:15:12 CEST)
To enhance industrial competitiveness and increase productivity, every country has strived to create a smart factory by introducing technologies such as Internet of Things, big data and artificial intelligence into production line and build cyber-physical system for the purpose of promoting manufacturing efficiency. For mission assignment, production line management or manufacturing field analysis, the location information of employee, machine and material is very essential. To promote manufacturing efficiency, of course, the location information became more important. A Bluetooth low energy (BLE) positioning system for the manufacturing is developed in this research. A "Tag tracking" mechanism is addressed and adopted, which uses Beacon to catch the location information and a BLE receiver is also used to receive the broadcasting information from Beacon. The position information from the BLE receiver will be compared with the data in the database for calculating the location of the target. The status of the target may also be obtained by using the data from the BLE receiver. Comparing with the mobile device, this method can reduce energy consumption and make the maintenance simple and easy. In the real applications, the target may not be limited to human. The "Regional label positioning technology" is also investigated in this research. Defining a suitable zone location and arranging BLE receiver location, and positioning analysis theory are the key factors included in this developed technology. The developed system will be tested for real industry applications. The test results show that the feasibility of this technology.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0330.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: digital footprint; exploit; identity theft; technology
Online: 20 May 2020 (11:14:36 CEST)
As technology evolves, our digital footprint keeps increasing. Now, everything we do is largely related to us being online, connected and logged. Therefore, if someone’s online data is exposed, then their life will be compromised. This is called identity theft and in this era of technology, it has become one of the most serious forms of crime. When someone’s data is compromised, there is a huge chance of harming the person financially, morally and socially. New technology and the knowledge gap it creates when it first comes out is perfect for identity thieves to exploit. If we are not cautious, our future will be very different than what we dream of due to the very technology created to make it better. Hence, we need to understand the technology, identify the loopholes and educate ourselves to avoid being held captive by our digital footprint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: blockchain; public services; governance approach; technology
Online: 17 November 2023 (08:13:56 CET)
Blockchain is considered a technological trend with a unique and unprecedented foundation of ways of working, and has the potential to fundamentally change society in conducting activities related to the public or private sector. Although the academic literature on blockchain is generally focused on cryptocurrencies, in recent years, literature with different perspectives has begun to emerge regarding the use of blockchain in the context of the public sector. The unique characteristics of how blockchain technology works make it an innovation that is expected to change many activities, structures, and processes related to the implementation of public sector activities, especially in public services such as administrative processes, welfare provision, and regulatory practices. This article discusses through a systematic literature review about the potential use of blockchain in public services. This literature review identifies the types of public services most likely affected by the introduction of blockchain. In addition, this article highlights the benefits, potentials, and challenges and risks of blockchain for governments and citizens/society in general. Governments, in general, can optimize efficiency and tracking through the use of blockchain, but regulatory uncertainty and scalability capabilities being major challenges, which are still poorly researched in the literature, can benefit from reduced bureaucracy and improved coordination through blockchain adoption, despite the lack of blockchain knowledge and skills being significant barriers to its implementation. For citizens or the public, security and transparency are key benefits, while the main risk lies in data security concerns. The article closes by noting a number of limitations in the existing literature and providing suggestions and recommendations for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0783.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Online banking; Digital security; Technology implementation
Online: 23 April 2023 (07:36:13 CEST)
This research study aims to explore how during COVID-19, the adoption of online banking is impacted by various factors such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived security, and trust. The data were collected using the primary questionnaire with 98 respondents. The study investigates the direct effect using the PLS-SEM method, and the indirect effects are analyzed using mediation analysis. The study indicates that perceived security is an important factor that impacts the adoption of online banking by self-help groups in India. Trust in online banking without allaying the fears of banking online does not lead to the adoption of technology. Perceived ease of use and ease of usage directly impact the adoption of online banking by the members of self-help groups in India. The study is the first-ever study to measure the indirect impact of trust on the intention to use online banking by the members of self-help groups in India This study has far-reaching implications for policymakers and banks. To increase the adoption of online banking, it is important to allay the fears of security among the members of self-help groups in India.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0261.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: irrigation; technology adoption; farmers’ innovation; diffusion
Online: 15 August 2018 (04:08:07 CEST)
In 2013, thirty-eight treadle pumps (TPs) were installed as low-cost technology introduction for small-scale irrigation in eastern Ethiopia. This pilot project also trained six farmers on tube well excavation, installation and maintenance of pumps. In June 2015, researchers visited nine of the 38 TP villages, and found only two functional TPs. The rest were replaced with a new technology developed by the trained farmers. Adopters of the new technology stated that the limited water output and high labor demand of the conventional TP did not optimally fulfil their irrigation water requirements. The new technology had spread quickly to more than one hundred households due to three key factors. First, farmers’ innovative modifications of the initial excavation technique addressed the discharge limitations of the conventional TP by excavating boreholes with wider diameter. Second, local ownership of the new technology, including skills used in well drilling and manufacturing excavation implement, made the new irrigation technology affordable and accessible to the majority of households. Third, this innovation spread organically without any external support, confirming its sustainability. Farmers, empowered by training, gained more control in developing technology options tailored to local needs and conditions of their communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1008.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: agricultural cooperatives; technology adopters; non-technology adopters; panel data regression
Online: 17 October 2023 (08:14:04 CEST)
In the current situation, the world is busy with technological advances, including Indonesia. Since its arrival, many business fields have competed with each other to take part as technology users. One business sector that cannot be separated from technological support is cooperatives. On the other hand, some cooperatives in the developing phase experience technological lag. At the same time, East Kutai Regency, which is the agricultural center in East Kalimantan Province, tends to rely on the cooperative sector to encourage small and medium-scale economies. This research aims to investigate the causality between access to computers (AC), internet networks (IN), digital administration skills (DAS), and financial literacy (FL) on profits (PFT). The objectivity of the study compares agricultural cooperatives that adopt technology with adopt non-technology. Using panel data regression from eighteen sub-districts in East Kutai, it is proven that technology adopting agricultural cooperatives were more prominent than non-technology adopting agricultural cooperatives during 2017–2022. However, there is a harmony in the statistical findings from both observations, where access to computers and financial literacy both have a significant effect on profits. Other analysis results show that internet networks and digital administration skills have an insignificant impact on profits. The study's implications provide valuable output for the future sustainability of agricultural cooperatives. The success of agricultural cooperatives depends greatly on the effectiveness of the application of technology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0044.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental pollution; Sustainable development; Cost-effectiveness; Enzyme technology; Recombinant technology
Online: 3 July 2023 (10:00:02 CEST)
Industrial effluents contain contaminants that pose threats to the environment and human health. Bioremediation is an environmentally friendly, sustainable, and cost-effective approach to degrade or transform pollutants using microbial enzymes. Laccase is a versatile enzyme that oxidizes a wide range of substrates, such as dyes, phenolic compounds, pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with the consumption of molecular oxygen. Laccase can also remove heavy metals by forming complexes with organic ligands or reducing them to fewer toxic forms. However, the application of laccase in bioremediation is limited by its low production, stability, and specificity. Recombinant technology has been employed to enhance the expression, activity, and stability of laccase in various bacterial hosts. Immobilization techniques have been developed to improve the reusability and stability of laccase in different environmental conditions. This review summarizes the recent developments in the production optimization of recombinant laccase enzymes and their role in the bioremediation of industrial effluents. It also discusses the challenges of laccase-based biocatalytic systems for environmental cleanup.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0219.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Continuance intention, Technology continuance theory, Task technology fit, Restaurant Industry
Online: 13 September 2021 (15:43:48 CEST)
The development in information technology has played an influential role in transforming the restaurant industry services. Therefore, this research’s main agenda is to investigate factors that motivate employees to adopt and continue using information technology services by integrating two famous information system (IS) theories, namely, task technology fit (TTF) and technology continuance theory (TCT). The extant integrative perspective model details the cause-effect relationship between technology adoption and continuance intention. The positivist paradigm forms the basis of this research design, and the approach followed is quantitative research. Using the stratified random sampling technique, the empirical data was collected from 417 restaurant industry employees in the US (United States) on a five-point Likert scale. The PLS-SEM technique was utilized to analyze data while using Smart PLS 3 because of its suitability and wider application currently in the hospitality sector. Results suggest that the recently developed integrated technology continuance research model has considerable influence on predicting pre- and post-adoption behavior with continuance intention for technology usage within the restaurant industry. All hypotheses were found significant except one for the direct association of hedonic motivation and continuance intention of technology adoption. Moreover, the results revealed that factors like perceived security & information privacy and assisting conditions were the most important factors in determining the usage of information technology with continuance intention. Unlike previous research studies that focus majorly only on issues before adoption of informational technology usage, the current focus on investigating continuance intention toward information technology usage by focusing on factors that can also boost post-adoption behavior and pre-adoption usage information technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1126.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: Complexity theory, Emergence, Biology, Technology, Agency, Symmetries
Online: 16 August 2023 (11:46:46 CEST)
This paper discusses complexity theory, that is, the many theories that have been proposed for emergence of complexity from the underlying physics. Our aim is to identify which aspects have turned out to be the more fundamental ones as regards the emergence of biology, engineering, and digital computing, as opposed to those that are in fact more peripheral in these contexts. In the cases we consider, complexity arises via adaptive modular hierarchical structures that are open systems involving broken symmetries. Each emergent level is causally effective because of the meshing together of upwards and downwards causation that takes place consistently with the underlying physics. Various physical constraints limit the outcomes that can be achieved. The underlying issue concerns the origin of consciousness and agency given the basis of life in physics, which is structured starting from symmetries and variational principles with no trace of agency. A possible solution is to admit that consciousness is an irreducible emergent property of matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0259.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain technology; Process authenticity; Tokens; Anchors; Oracles
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:54:39 CEST)
In the last four years, the evolution and adoption of blockchain and, more generally, distributed ledger systems have shown the affirmation of many concepts and models with significant differences in system governance and suitable applications. This work aims to update the critical analysis of blockchain technologies carried out by our previous contribution to this journal, extending the focus to distributed ledger components and systems. Starting from the topical concept of decentralization, we introduce concepts and building blocks currently adopted in the available systems centering on their functional aspects and impact on possible applications. We present some conceptual framing tools helpful in the application context, and we will propose the concept of process authenticity, which we will discuss through two use cases: blockchain document dematerialization and e-voting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1898.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Digital Divide; Empowerment; Assistive Technology; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 29 November 2023 (15:24:09 CET)
Digital literacy is the ability to use digital technologies to find, evaluate, create, and communicate information. People with disabilities benefit from having these skills because they allow them to access various opportunities in the digital world. To ensure that they can fully participate in the digital realm, digital literacy efforts should prioritize inclusive design principles. People with disabilities often rely on assistive technologies such as screen readers, alternative input devices, voice recognition software, or specialized hardware to navigate digital platforms. Digital literacy programs should not only focus on consuming content but also on creating and sharing it through documents, multimedia, and online platforms. Peer support and collaboration are important for enhancing their learning experience. Additionally, digital literacy programs address cybersecurity or online safety considerations specific to such people and provide them training and support for using assistive technologies effectively while educating them about potential risks, privacy settings, and safe online practices. This narrative review highights the meaning and levels of digital literacy, digital divide, history, before expanding on the quantative metrics in the available research on the theme of people with disabilities. Retrieved data from freely accessible internet search engines revealed 196 publications, including books, chapters in books, original research articles, proceedings of seminars, and reviews, which were classified into harvest plots to be analyzed by their format, timelines, topics, or themes, respectively. While results indicate an upward curve in the quantity of publications, especially in the post-millennium era, the topics addressed are unevenly distributed, leaving scope for the future to focus empirical and evidence based research on themes related to measurement as well as training on digital literacies for both teachers and students with disabilities. By promoting digital literacy in people with disabilities, we can bridge the digital divide and empower them to participate fully in today's increasingly digital society.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0317.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Invasive weeds; Organic Fertilizers; Vermicomposting Technology; Ethiopia.
Online: 21 October 2021 (22:53:58 CEST)
Agriculture is the mainstay of the Ethiopian and a key sector of its economy. However, Lack of productive and environmentally friendly technology is not widely applicable elsewhere. Likewise, the vermicomposting technology is a recently emerging science which not effectively transferred to the users across the country. Thus, this review is aimed to shine the importance, unexploited opportunities and the challenges hindered for further expansions in Ethiopian context. Vermicompost is among the powerful organic fertilizers which enhance soil Fertility and productivity. As agrarian society; there are plenty of raw byproducts and weed species which are not center of focus (i.e cattle waste, crop residues and invasive weeds like P.Juliflora, P.hysterophorus and E.crassipes respectively). However, there are many constraints there like policy issue, handling problems and sensitivity of the worms for different environmental factors which hindered to invest on a wide range. Generally, the number and weight of vermiculture as well as amount of produced casts are promised and every possible ways were recommended to entertain on the large scale.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0282.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: telehealth; telemedicine; NCOVID-19; technology; management; regulations
Online: 17 May 2020 (08:09:18 CEST)
Telehealth has been playing a progressively major role in the management of the NCOVID-19 crisis. The enforcement of social distancing measures has had the consequence of reduced technology distance in almost every walk of life. In this paper, based primarily on the still unfolding experiences of deploying it during the current situation, we argue that telehealth has finally come of age and that it is time to move it from the peripheries to the center of the 21st century healthcare. To provide a live context to the discussion, several instances of how telehealth strengthened our healthcare systems during the NCOVID-19 crisis are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Organ-on-Chip, tissue engineering, microfluidic technology
Online: 4 March 2019 (10:11:22 CET)
Organ-on-Chip is a game-changing technology born from the convergence of tissue engineering and microfluidic technology. Organ-on-Chip devices (OoCs) are expected to offer effective solutions to persisting problems in drug development and personalized disease treatments. This opinion paper surveys the current landscape in research, development, application and market opportunities for OoCs to help establishing a global and multi-stakeholder OoC ecosystem. Based on a bibliometric study, a market analysis, expert interviews, and panel discussions held at the ORCHID Vision Workshop (Stuttgart, 23 May 2018), we outline presently unmet needs, key challenges, barriers and perspectives of the field, and finally propose recommendations towards the definition of a comprehensive roadmap that could render OoCs realistic models of human (patho)physiology in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0151.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Health Information Technology; Adoption; Assimilation; Technology; Organisation and Environment; TOE; TAM
Online: 11 October 2021 (08:45:06 CEST)
The adoption of health information technology (HIT) has increased considerably, contributing to better communication between physicians and patients and providing technological bases for learning and institutional improvement. This type of technology brings many challenges; therefore, understanding its adoption and assimilation is important to assess its potential for engendering desirable outcomes in health management. The assimilation of health information systems should be highlighted as their importance in health organisations is now recognised as a key facilitator assisting in providing better health outcomes. Thus, this study aimed to analyse HIT adoption based on models such as Technology, Organisation and Environment (TOE), which analyses at the organisational level, with other models, such as the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), which analyses at the individual level, and the assimilation of the adopted technologies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0223.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Behavioral nudges; water conservation; technology; water efficiency
Online: 11 August 2022 (13:37:12 CEST)
Growing water shortages for large regions of the arid regions of the world, are likely to become more recurrent as climate change impacts grow. Countries across the world are facing water security difficulties that stem from population growth, urbanization, and rapid industrialization. The use of behavioral nudges methods implemented to encourage a socially desired behavior at a low to zero cost, has been an effective method at reducing water consumption in places where they have been deployed. For example, studies in California USA, Barcelona Spain, and Australia indicate that adoption of nudges give significant positive results in water consumption reduction. We describe some of the barriers that make it difficult to implement behavioral nudges to address the water crises in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We investigate the literature available in Sub-Saharan Africa and discover that the application of behavioral nudges has been sparingly used for reasons that are not obvious at first glance. Second, we find that the potential impediments to the use of behavioral nudges in SSA to be awareness, inadequate access to science and technology, political systems that are poorly suited for implementing nudging, abundance of multiple ethnic groups that speak different languages, along with other barriers that could challenge implementation of behavioral nudges. In light of those barriers, we present a conceptual model with a potential to address these barriers to behavioral nudging a workable solution in SSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0380.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Chatbot technology; Artificial intelligence; Computer Science Education
Online: 18 August 2021 (13:57:15 CEST)
The number of AI applications in education is growing every day. One recent AI application in the educational sector is Chatbot technology, which is used to support teaching and administrative tasks. This document presents the design and implementation of a Chatbot called Tashi-Bot that helps applicants and university students to obtain information from an educational institution about certain academic and administrative processes. Among these are processes related to well-being, tuition, costs, admission, and other services. In order to design the Chatbot, an analysis of the state of the art, methodologies, and suitable tools was carried out, and a survey was conducted to discover the needs of users and their preferences in the use of a Chatbot for this specific purpose. Tashi-Bot was implemented on the SnatchBot platform and later deployed on a Telegram channel. In its evaluation, a final survey was carried out to check on the satisfaction of the users. The results suggest that Tashi-Bot could help applicants and university students to find information on academic and administrative processes with great certainty and without the need for human interaction. Tashi-Bot can be found at: https://web.telegram.org/#/im?p=@TashiE_Bot..
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0259.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain; Blockchain Technology; Cryptocurrency; Applications; Challenges; Opportunities
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:10:46 CEST)
Blockchain innovation stands out enough to be noticed and adopted in various countries and organizations around the world. Many businesses, including finance, medical services, inventory networks, security, libraries, and the internet of things, are currently under attack. For the benefit of the blockchain, many businesses incorporate blockchain technology into their frameworks. Despite its solidarity, blockchain faces a few challenges in security, protection, adaptability, and other areas. This paper examines the forward leap in blockchain innovation, as well as its applications and challenges. While many blockchain papers focus on digital currencies, IoT, and security, this paper focuses on the overall best in a class of blockchain innovation, its new twists and turns, and choices, particularly in areas other than cryptographic forms of money. The investigators' goal is to provide a thorough audit of the cryptography underlying blockchain to better understand the innovation. The examiners also conduct general research on people and venture blockchains, as well as future exploration opportunities and their implications for blockchain innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0291.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: information technology; construction project management; cost management; impact factor model; progressive technology; construction industry, life cycle cost management.
Online: 11 December 2020 (16:12:55 CET)
Construction project management and cost management is a difficult process that affects the overall success of construction projects. The success of a construction project can be assessed according to key performance indicators (KPIs). Cost savings and cost optimization over the life of a construction project is one of these KPIs. Cost management is largely performed through intelligent information technology in the construction industry. Information systems and information technologies have seen an increase in use in the management of construction projects. The same goes for cost management. Several studies mentioned in the paper point to this increase in use in recent years also in the management of costs at various stages. Many studies point to the use of information technology and software applications in the field of cost management. Still, to a large extent, there are no surveys focused on the analysis of the impact and impact factor of information technology on cost savings or cost optimization in various phases of construction projects. The research discusses the issue of the impact of information technology on cost management in various phases of a construction project. The main goal of the research is to analyze the influence of information technology factors on cost savings and optimization in individual phases of a construction project. Several statistical methods were used in the research. The resulting model of information technology impact factor was created based on data processing and the use of the AHP method.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Risk analysis, Information Technology, Hospitals, Human Resource Risks.
Online: 18 March 2019 (09:30:38 CET)
Objective:The application of information technology (IT( is fundamental in the hospitals to stay competitive.In this regard, recognizing the main risks to the implementation of IT in hospitals can provide vastopportunities to improve its efficiency and help to make strategic decisions. This study aimed tosearch for the main risks of implementation of IT projects in the hospitals of Tehran. Methods: This was a practical and cross-sectional study which was conducted in the 18 hospitals of Tehran,Iran, 2018; in which a sample of 65 members were studied. The required data were collected using a questionnaire to examine seven main risks, including market, project management, human resources, technical, organizational, financial, strategic risks. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. Additionally, the method used to test the risks in this study was structural equation modeling, which was ran using LISREL 9.30. Results: The results showed that among the seven main risks of to the implementation of IT in hospitals, the highest and lowest means were related to the human resource risks and the market risks, respectively. Also, according to the SEM, human resource risks and market risks had the highest and lowest effects, respectively. Conclusion: Announcing the use of IT in the hospitals, holding conferences about new IT developments with employees, suitable training, encouraging them to use IT tools, providing a motivating atmosphere to use IT tools for employees, are a few effective ways of overcoming the human resource risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0114.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: marginal technology; power grid; consequential LCA; China
Online: 28 September 2016 (11:49:30 CEST)
Electricity consumption is often the hotspot of life cycle assessment (LCA) of products, industrial activities, or services. The objective of this paper is to provide a consistent, scientific, region-specific electricity-supply-based inventory of electricity generation technology for national and regional power grids. Marginal electricity generation technology is pivotal in assessing impacts related to additional consumption of electricity. China covers a large geographical area with regional supply grids; these are arguably equally or less integrated. Meanwhile, it is also a country with internal imbalances in regional energy supply and demand. Therefore, we suggest an approach to achieve a geographical subdivision of the Chinese electricity grid, corresponding to the interprovincial regional power grids, namely the North, the Northeast, the East, the Central, the Northwest, and the Southwest China Grids, and the China Southern Power Grid. The approach combines information from the Chinese national plans on for capacity changes in both production and distribution grids, and knowledge of resource availability. The results show that nationally, marginal technology is coal-fired electricity generation, which is the same scenario in the North and Northwest China Grid. In the Northeast, East, and Central China Grid, nuclear power gradually replaces coal-fired electricity and becomes the marginal technology. In the Southwest China Grid and the China Southern Power Grid, the marginal electricity is hydropower towards 2030.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0039.v1
Online: 13 February 2017 (09:49:55 CET)
It is postulated in this research that the paradox of “advances in technology and management not keeping pace with the ever-increasing urban problems” is due to the poor understanding of person-focused governance of societal, environmental and economic entities. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present an adaptive institutional model of person-driven effectiveness and ineffectiveness. The model proposes that human, ecologic and economic outcomes are heavily influenced by a complex system of systems, spanning from individually unique “non-physical influencers” to a broader set of social and environmental influencers that have a common impact on the larger society-environment-economy (SEE) system. At the heart of the model is an analytic formulation that explains the phenomena of non-physical blocker, enhancer and indifferent that are responsible for the adaptation and maladaptation of social agents, and accordingly for the sustainability and unsustainability of SEE systems. Examples are provided to illustrate the model applications: (a) the non-physical and maladaptive syndromes as antecedents of multi-morbidity and (b) the broadened and narrowed minds as sources of sustainability and unsustainability at the SEE system level within the context of emerging technologies such as engineered nanomaterials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0106.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: educational technology; artificial intelligence; personalized learning; adaptive learning systems
Online: 2 November 2023 (07:13:07 CET)
This article focuses on artificial intelligence in educational technology, starting with an introduction to educational technology, an interdisciplinary field of study that covers the design, development, utilization, and evaluation of technology and digital tools in educational Settings. A detailed description of its definition in an academic context - a multidisciplinary field of computer science and cognitive science that deals with the development of computational systems that exhibit intelligent behaviour, describing its areas of coverage and scope of application. It then introduces the benefits of AI in education technology, specifically addressing personalized learning, adaptive learning systems, automated scoring and feedback, virtual tutors and chatbots, data analytics, as well as content recommendations and natural language processing, accessibility and inclusion. Then it introduces the main concepts of AI personalized learning: AI personalized learning uses the power of artificial intelligence to meet the unique needs and preferences of individual learners, as well as its key principles and main characteristics. Adaptive learning systems harness the power of artificial intelligence and data analytics to tailor the learning experience to each student's needs and abilities, as well as its core principles and strengths. It also introduces the main operating principles of automated grading and feedback: it uses artificial intelligence and computer algorithms to evaluate and evaluate student assignments, tests and exams without the direct involvement of human graders, and its associated benefits. Secondly, the main concepts of virtual tutor are introduced: Virtual tutor is a computer-based system that uses artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms to provide students with personalized and interactive educational support and its key characteristics and main advantages, and then the nature and benefits of chatbots and help in the field of education. The final conclusion summarizes the benefits and future challenges of integrating AI into educational technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: ethics of technology; emerging technologies; disruptive technology; systemic disruption; ethics of disruption
Online: 13 August 2021 (22:53:28 CEST)
Disruptive technologies can be conceptualized in different ways. Depending on how they are conceptualized, different ethical issues come into play. This article contributes to a general framework to navigate the ethics of disruptive technologies. It proposes three basic distinctions to be included in such a framework. First, emerging technologies may instigate localized “first-order” disruptions, or systemic “second-order” disruptions. The ethical significance of these disruptions differs: first-order disruptions tend to be of modest ethical significance, whereas second-order disruptions are highly significant. Secondly, technologies may be classified as disruptive based on their technological features or based on their societal impact. Depending on which of these classifications one adopts and takes as the starting point of ethical inquiry, different ethical questions are foregrounded. Thirdly, the ethics of disruptive technology raises concerns at four different levels of technology assessment: the technology level, the artifact level, the application level, and the society level. The respective suitability of approaches in technology ethics to address concerns about disruptive technologies co-varies with the respective level of analysis. The article clarifies these distinctions, thereby laying some of the groundwork for an ethical framework tailored for assessing disruptive technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Sustainability; Urban Planning; Climate Change; Technology; Urban Technology; Urban Development; Density; Congestion
Online: 5 March 2021 (09:12:05 CET)
We have an aversion to density in America. Density is a continual trope in this country, blamed for all of the ills of urban life, from crime and racial unrest in the middle of the 20th century to public health concerns today. In the early stages of the COVID pandemic density was the culprit, even though we’ve subsequently seen outbreaks in rural areas and sprawling cities across the United States. This paper will look into the root of America’s problems with density and argue that density is not the problem but the solution to the challenges of today’s and tomorrow’s cities. As we deplete the resources of the planet, density is our most direct pathway to recover some balance with nature. Dense living is more efficient, less carbon intensive and more environmentally sustainable. As geospatial differentiations matter less due to advances in communication technology, it's the density of people and ideas that will continue to fuel innovation. Finally, in a world that is increasingly dominated by pluralism, denser living promotes openness, tolerance and diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0156.v1
Online: 19 March 2018 (10:44:48 CET)
There has been widespread criticism about the rates of participation of students enrolled on MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses), more importantly, the percentage of students who actively consume course materials from beginning to the end. This study sought to investigate this trend by examining the factors that influence MOOC adoption and use by students in selected Ghanaian universities. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) was extended to develop a research model. A survey was conducted with 270 questionnaires administered to students who had been assigned MOOCs; 204 questionnaires were retrieved for analysis. Findings of the study show that MOOC usage intention is influenced by computer self-efficacy, performance expectancy, and system quality. Results also showed that MOOC usage is influenced by facilitating conditions, instructional quality, and MOOC usage intention. Social influence and effort expectancy were found not to have a significant influence on MOOC usage intention. The authors conclude that universities must have structures and resources in place to promote the use of MOOCs by students. Computer skills training should also be part of the educational curriculum at all levels. MOOC designers must ensure good instructional quality by using the right pedagogical approaches and also ensure that the sites and learning materials are of good quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1224.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: virtual concert; audiences’ attitude; player experience; technology acceptance
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:13:58 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to investigate and validate the influencing factors of audiences’ attitude toward virtual concerts. To address this issue, the current study proposes a conceptual model integrating player experiences’ factors (autonomy, relatedness, and engagement) and the technology acceptance model (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment). An online questionnaire on virtual concert experiences was distributed to Chinese audiences who had attended virtual concerts. Structural equation modeling was then used to establish the relationship between variables. The results suggested autonomy, relatedness and engagement positively impacted perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment. Furthermore, the perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment were significant predictors of audiences’ attitude. The findings of this study can provide a reference for relevant virtual entertainment providers and can also serve as a point of development and exploration for technology acceptance model and player experience in the field of virtual concerts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0380.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Micro-Datacenters; information and communications technology (ICT); Efficiency
Online: 6 October 2021 (15:59:04 CEST)
The rapid growth of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector requires additional infrastructure, such as more micro-datacenters and telecom stations, to support the higher internet speeds and low latency requirements of 5G net-works. The increased power requirements of the new ICT technologies necessitate the proposal of new power supplies in an attempt to retain the increase in energy demand and running costs. This work provides an in-depth theoretical analysis on the losses of the individual stages of commercially available PSU and proposes a new multicell PSU, Buck-PFC converter, which offers a higher overall efficiency at varying load levels. The theoretical results are verified using simulation results, via PSIM Thermal Module, and using experimental data. The results indicate that multi-cell structures can improve the overall PSU ef-ficiency by 1.2% at 50% rated power and more than 2.1% at full power. Finally, taking into consideration the economic implica-tions of this study, it is shown that the proposed multicell structure may increase the PSU costs by 10.78% but the payback pe-riod is in the order of just 3.3 years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0232.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microfluidic; microelectrodes; negatively charged; TiO2; assisted reproductive technology
Online: 18 September 2018 (10:34:00 CEST)
This research was presented the special designed microfluidic device generated for sperm separation based on assumption of different surface electrical charged of sperms X and Y. However, to avoid ethical problem, the microfluidic chip has been tested with the mimic electrical charged particles, TiO2-coated Polystyrene beads, (TiO2-coated Ps-beads), instead of spermatozoa. The work has been separated into three main parts. Firstly, the simply but efficient fabrication of negatively charged TiO2-coated Ps-beads has been presented. In addition, various characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Tungsten Scanning Electron Microscopy (W-SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mode, and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), have been reported in this work to elucidate the reasons behind the persistence of negatively charged on the surface of TiO2-coated Ps-beads. Results show that the fabricated TiO2-coated Ps-beads was partly coated in the mixed forms of amorphous Ti4+ and had caused a negatively charge to appear on the surface after fabrication and had sustained its electrical charged for long. Secondly, process of simulation and fabrication of microfluidic device was presented. Finally the negatively charged TiO2-coated Ps-beads were tested in this microfluidic devices. For design of microfluidic devices integrated with a couple of microelectrodes, the simulated structures were fabricated by photolithographic technique and tested with the Ps-beads. Percentage of validation for Ps-beads separation indicated that the 100 mm-distance-between-electrodes microfluidic device exhibits to be the highest performance prototype at 86.96%. For further confirmation, another model so called the single path prototype has been established. It is confirmed by 92.59% of validation for the utilization of the device. The successfully designed microfluidic devices can be examined with actual spermatozoa later. Furthermore, process to fabricate the negatively charged TiO2-coated Ps-beads can be established as testified samples for development of other microfluidic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0737.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: disruptive technology; financial innnovation; social innovation; MNCs
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:03:36 CEST)
This study aims to assess and identify the role of disruptive/digital technologies in financial innovation strategies as part of social innovations at both firm and country level. There are few studies of this type that "cross-examine" technical/social innovative capacity at the firm level vs. the same innovative capacity at the level of the world's major countries. Our proposed study brings some novel elements to the literature on this topic. First, the study synthesizes the factors/variables explaining technical/social innovative capacity as ranked by the GCI (Global Competitiveness Index) and GII (Global Innovation Index) at the country level and then correlates these variables with the factors explaining innovative capacity for the 50 companies in the BCG (Boston Consulting Group) ranking. Second, the study identifies three "driving forces" (digital technologies, managers and the market) as the main variables determining financial innovativeness at firm level. Third, based on the "cross" analysis of the information/data provided by the BCG study vs. the GII and GCI studies, the study suggests some ways to delineate and quantify financial innovation as part of social innovation (e.g., it is argued that 80% of the social innovation achieved annually by a firm relates to the financial relationships engaged by the firm with various categories of stakeholders). Finally, the study is also important from a pragmatic point of view as it suggests/proposes a number of principles that can be considered by managers for building a KM (knowledge management) and continuous innovation strategy. From a theoretical perspective, the study provides a starting point for further research aimed at explaining firm-level financial innovation through the massive use of disruptive technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0547.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: stakeholder; perception; biometric data protection; face recognition technology
Online: 8 September 2023 (02:42:47 CEST)
This research aims to thoroughly understand the delicate interplay between stakeholders' perspectives, biometric data protection policies, and the deployment of face recognition technologies in Indonesia's dynamic digital world. Adopting a qualitative methodology, the study conducts Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with various stakeholders, including government agencies, technology developers, regulatory agencies, civil society groups, and data subjects as end-users. Face-to-face group discussions facilitate an in-depth exploration of participants' perspectives, yielding rich qualitative data that reveals nuanced insights into the delicate balance between technological innovation, ethical considerations, and socioeconomic repercussions associated with implementing face recognition technology. The research comprehensively explains the difficulties and opportunities associated with responsible technological progress and biometric data security. The findings from the FGDs influence the development of strategies that effectively balance technical advancement with individual rights, privacy, and social well-being within the growing digital landscape of Indonesia. The regulatory function of the government seeks to bridge the gap between public expectations and technological advancements. Collaboration between academic institutions, government agencies, the private sector, and data subjects as end-users emerges as a crucial element, fostering an all-encompassing strategy integrating research, law, technology deployment, and user empowerment. This holistic approach is necessary to ensure that biometric data and facial recognition technology are utilized responsibly, thereby laying the way for Indonesia's technologically sophisticated and ethically aware digital future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1159.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Industry 4.0; technology; green taxes; green energy; sustainability.
Online: 28 April 2023 (10:09:12 CEST)
Technological development has profoundly marked the evolution of the economy. The constant changes brought about by scientific and technological advances have been decisive in the transition from an analogue to a digital world. In this context, the impact of the fourth industrial revolution (or Industry 4.0.) manifests itself in many ways. Environmental impact is one of these. The energy sector has been evolving and changing just like the economy and society. Therefore, a study of this sector, and of the other related elements, is of interest to better understand the 4.0 concept. The promotion of sustainability at both political and social levels has led to changes in different areas, such as the productive vision, the use of green energies or the implementation of green taxes. Energy as a key factor in Industry 4.0. involves studying it both quantitatively and qualitatively. This is to under-stand the lights and shadows that the concept currently presents. Therefore, this work aims to bring the reality of the energy sector closer to reality, both in its positive and negative aspects, considering the main factors of incidence, in order to show the strengths and weaknesses that can be deduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0243.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: green growth; green technology; technology diffusion; climate change adaptation; sustainable development; panel data
Online: 4 May 2023 (09:03:36 CEST)
This study aims to investigate the influence of various economic, environmental, and social factors on sustainable development, with a specific focus on the impact of green technology and climate change adaptation. A panel dataset comprising 38 OECD member countries from 1990 to 2020 is employed, and a series of dynamic panel data models are estimated using the system generalized method of moments (GMM) approach. Numerous covariates, such as globalization, socio-economic conditions, economic and political values, climate and technological progress, and environmental determinants, are examined. The empirical findings highlight the significant role played by macroeconomic, institutional, social, and government policy-related factors in sustainable development. More importantly, our results provide novel and robust evidence that the diffusion of green technology and climate change adaptation positively affect green growth. The study's empirical outcomes are demonstrated to be robust to misspecification errors and statistically significant at traditional significance levels. These findings carry substantial policy implications for the development and implementation of strategies that promote climate change adaptation and green innovation. Consequently, policymakers should prioritize the integration of green technology and adaptive measures in their sustainable development agendas to foster a greener, more resilient future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0495.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Global Innovation Index; Nanochemistry; Development; GII; and Technology patterns
Online: 27 January 2023 (06:48:39 CET)
Trends focused on the Global Innovation Index (GII) as a measure for progress of nanochemistry. This paper provides projections of recent developments in the word in nanochemistry based on the Global Innovation Index as a predictor for certain Arab countries. The GII is an annual ranking of countries by its ability and performance in innovation and is calculated on a basic average from five and two pillars in two sub-indexes, the Innovation Input Index and the Innovation Output Index. Each pillar represents a trait of creativity and consists of up to five measures, with a weighted average formula for measuring their ranking. In 2008, the GII rose to 36.3 in 2016 from 0.5. The GII is smaller than the GII in Arabic countries worldwide. During the years 2013-2016, the worldwide GII was increasing while for the same period, for Arabic countries, this decline could be explained by economic and industrial wars in the Arab region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0014.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: sustainable technology; phytoremediation; germination; Bouteloua dactyloides; Cynodon dactylon
Online: 2 December 2016 (08:55:14 CET)
Mining wastes generate a high environmental impact, and population exposure to metals and metalloids. Phytoremediation is a technology that uses plants to remediate polluted sites, one of its limitations is seed germination in soil with high content of metals and metalloids. B. dactyloides is a native specie from semiarid regions, while C. dactylon is an introduced specie, both are tolerant to drought and low temperatures. Owing, the objective of this research was to evaluate the germination of both species, exposed to a multi-polluted soil with As, Cd, Pb and Zn of a mining site, pondering different pH conditions (from 5.0 to 9.0). The study considered 4 repetitions by type of seed and soil pH. B. dactyloides showed higher germination percentage (83%) with pH 7.8; while the greater germination of C. dactylon was 34 % at pH 6.0. In the soil at pH 5, the germination in both species was not reached, owing that metals are more bioavailable in an acid environment. C. dactylon is less tolerant to As, Cd, Pb and Zn, so it is considered not effective for phytoremediation process. B. dactyloides has a high phytoremediation potential for multi-polluted sites, but further experiments are needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0472.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: diagnostic molecular pathology; genetic testing; diagnostic services; technology assess- ment; biomedical; genetic services; financial support; clinical governance; health technology; healthcare innovation
Online: 8 May 2023 (08:36:59 CEST)
1) Background: Genomic medicine harbors the real potential to improve the health and healthcare jour-ney of patients, care provider experiences, and improve health system efficiency – even reducing health care costs. There is expected to be an exponential growth in medically necessary new genome- based tests and test approaches in coming years. Testing can also create scientific research and commercial opportu-nities beyond healthcare decision-making. The purpose of this research is to generate a better under-standing of Canada’s state of readiness for genomic medicine, and to provide some insights for other healthcare systems; (2) Methods: a mixed-methodsapproach of literature review and key informant in-terviews with a purposive sample of experts was used. Health system readiness was assessed using a pre-viously published set of conditions. (3) Results: Canada has created some of the established conditions but more needs to be done to improve the state of readiness for genome-based medicine. Important gaps are the need for linked information systems and data integration; evaluative processes that are timely, and transparent; navigational tools for care providers; dedicated funding to facilitate rapid onboarding and supports test development and proficiency testing; and broader engagement with a broader set of inno-vation stakeholders. These findings highlight the known role of organizational context, social influence, and other factors that are known to affect the diffusion of innovation within health systems
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0610.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: self-consciousness; online shopping behavior; technology acceptance model (TAM)
Online: 30 September 2018 (11:31:50 CEST)
Self-consciousness can be considered as the internal disposition to direct attention to oneself. This dispositional tendency can be focused on private aspects of the self, but also on public characteristics of the individual. We examine self-consciousness in online consumer behavior. This concept has been poorly investigated in consumer research. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of the dimensions of self-consciousness in consumer adoption of online shopping. This study is based on a sample of 725 Spanish undergraduates. Results indicated that public self-consciousness is a significant predictor of the adoption of online shopping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Diabetes Technology; CGM; Accuracy; Type 1 Diabetes; Sustainability
Online: 12 November 2021 (11:58:57 CET)
Aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and usability of a novel continuous glucose moni-toring (CGM) system designed for needle-free insertion and reduced environmental impact. We assessed sensor performance of two GlucoMen® Day CGM systems worn simultaneously in eight participants with type 1 diabetes. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was performed reg-ularly over 14 days at home. Participants underwent two standardized 5-hour meal challenges with frequent plasma glucose (PG) measurements using a laboratory reference instrument at the research center. When comparing CGM to PG the overall mean absolute relative difference (MARD) was 9.7 [2.6-14.6]%. The overall MARD of CGM vs SMBG was 13.1 [3.5-18.6]%. In the consensus error grid (CEG) analysis, 98% of both CGM/PG and CGM/SMBG pairs were in the clinically acceptable zones A and B. The analysis confirms that GlucoMen® Day CGM meets the clinical requirements for state-of-the-art CGM. The needle-free insertion technology is well toler-ated by users and reduces medical waste compared to conventional CGM systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0422.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Industry 4.0; corporate strategy; Industry 4.0 readiness; digital technology; industrial digitalisation
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:56:14 CEST)
The contemporary discourse focuses on the fourth industrial revolution and its impact on compa-nies. An explicative, quantitative, questionnaire survey was conducted with managers of 101 companies in Hungary and 54 in Austria. Our study focused on assessing their preparedness for Industry 4.0 and the key factors they take into account when implementing Industry 4.0 initiatives. We also examined whether there is a correlation between the areas in which companies have made improvements to support Industry 4.0. To complement our quantitative analysis, we conducted a series of four semi-structured interviews with two Hungarian and two Austrian companies. The aim of the interviews was to further investigate the digital readiness of companies and to formulate recommendations for companies venturing into the field of digitalisation. A particular focus was put on comparing the digital maturity of these two neighbouring Central European countries, given the significant differences in their digital maturity as shown by the macro indicators of the Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI). Therefore, we conducted a micro-level analysis to investigate the extent to which DESI scores correspond to the digital performance of companies at the orga-nisational level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0411.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: FinTech, Innovations, Technology, Banks, Theory
Online: 23 January 2023 (10:38:05 CET)
The purpose of this article is to address two questions that will aid researchers in understanding FinTech’s inception, development, and potential impact on the stability of the financial system. First, it explains why financial technology is a current phenomenon. While many of the underlying technology for FinTech breakthroughs have been around for some time, it is only recently that financial institutions and entrepreneurs have begun to apply them to financial goods and services. Supply and demand factors in "conventional" financial innovation have been studied, and they have been found to converge, leading to a high rate of innovation. And second, this article explains why FinTech is being covered in greater depth than other types of innovation. This study introduces the concept of "depth" of innovation as a means of answering this question. The more fundamental the innovation, the more it will affect the financial sector. In this paper, we demonstrate that many recent developments in the field of financial technology (FinTech) are truly revolutionary advances, with far-reaching implications for the financial services industry. In addition to the benefits of more adaptability, higher transformational potential might bring increased risk to economic security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0418.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Relativity; Nano Technology; Magnetic materials
Online: 27 December 2021 (09:59:50 CET)
In a recent paper discussing Newton’s third law in the framework of special relativity for charged bodies, it was suggested that one can construct a practical relativistic motor provided high enough charge and current densities are available. As on the macroscopic scale charge density is limited by the phenomena of dielectric breakdown, it was suggested to take advantage of the high charge densities which are available on the microscopic scale. A preliminary analysis of this option denoted "nano relativistic scale" is studied in the current paper.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0059.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: blockchain; cryptocurrency; distributed ledger technology
Online: 8 January 2020 (03:35:14 CET)
Blockchains such as the bitcoin blockchain depend on reaching a global consensus on the distributed ledger; therefore, they suffer from well know scalability problems. This paper proposes an algorithm that avoids double-spending in the short term with just O(√n) messages; each node receiving money off-chain performs the due diligence of consulting k√n random nodes to check if any of them is aware of double-spending. Two nodes receiving double-spent money will in this way consult at least one common node with very high probability, due to the ‘birthday paradox’, and any common honest node consulted will detect the fraud. Since the velocity of money in the real world has coins circulating through at most a few wallets per day, the size of the due diligence communication is small in the short term. This `k-root-n’ algorithm is suitable for an environment with synchronous or asynchronous (but with fairly low latency) communication and with Byzantine faults. The presented k-root-n algorithm should be practical to avoid double-spending with arbitrarily high probability, while feasibly coping with the throughput of all world commerce. It is resistant to Sybil attacks even beyond 50% of nodes. In the long term, the k-root-n algorithm is less efficient. Therefore, it should preferably be used as a complement and not a replacement to a global distributed ledger technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0112.v1
Online: 22 December 2016 (09:48:05 CET)
This paper advances privacy theory through examination of online shaming, focusing in particular on persecution by internet mobs. While shaming is nothing new, the technology used for modern shaming is new and evolving, making it a revealing lens through which to analyze points of analytical friction within and between traditional conceptions of privacy. To that end, this paper first explores the narrative and structure of online shaming, identifying broad categories of shaming of vigilantism, bullying, bigotry and gossiping, which are then used throughout the paper to evaluate different angles to the privacy problems raised. Second, this paper examines shaming through three dominant debates concerning privacy - privacy’s link with dignity, the right to privacy in public places and the social dimension of privacy. Certain themes emerged from this analysis. A common feature of online shaming is public humiliation. A challenge is to differentiate between a humbling (rightly knocking someone down a peg for a social transgression) and a humiliation that is an affront to dignity (wrongly knocking someone down a peg). In addition, the privacy concern of shamed individuals is not necessarily about intrusion on seclusion or revelation of embarrassing information, but rather about the disruption in their ability to continue to participate in online spaces free from attack. The privacy interest therefore becomes more about enabling participation in social spaces, enabling connections and relationships to form, and about enabling identity-making. Public humiliation through shaming can disrupt all of these inviting closer scrutiny concerning how law can be used as an enabling rather than secluding tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1631.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: VR; Technology; Physical activity; Physical fitness; Exercise adherence.
Online: 27 November 2023 (11:18:31 CET)
Outdoor exercise is beneficial for psychophysical well-being. Limited studies have compared outdoor and virtual reality (VR) indoor physical activities, especially in coastal settings. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of outdoor coastal walking and indoor walking in a VR simulation with a similar environment on physiological and psychological variables in healthy adults. Twenty-six subjects (14M and 12F; age 25.2 ± 2.5 years) voluntarily participated in this crossover randomized controlled and counterbalanced study and were allocated under three conditions: VR indoor walking (INVR), outdoor walking (OUT) and standard indoor walking (IN). IN and INVR conditions were performed on a treadmill (speed 4.5 Km/h) and the OUT was per-formed on a seaside pedestrian road. The same outdoor environment was displayed in the visor during the INVR. Heart rate (HRmean/max), Physical Activity Enjoyment (PACES-It) and State of Mindfulness for Physical Activity (SMS-PA) were assessed at the end of each condition. The OUT condition showed significantly greater PACES-It scores and HRmean than IN and INVR (p<0.001) and greater SMS-PA scores and HRmax than IN (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). No significant dif-ferences were found between OUT and INVR regarding HRmax and SMS-PA scores (p>0.05). Findings suggest that physical activity in an immersive technology may lead to physiological loads comparable to the outdoor environment. OUT is more enjoyable than IN and INVR but exhibits a mindfulness response comparable to INVR. Therefore, INVR could be an alternative to OUT for those who cannot engage in outdoor activities for various reasons.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1390.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: eating; drinking; daily life; real life; sensors; technology; behavior
Online: 20 July 2023 (07:55:54 CEST)
To monitor adherence to diets and to design and evaluate nutritional interventions it is essential to obtain objective knowledge about eating behavior. In most research, measures of eating behavior are based on self-reporting, such as 24-h recalls, food records (food diaries), and food frequency questionnaires. Self-reporting is prone to inaccuracies due to inaccurate and subjective recall and other biases. Recording behavior using non-obtrusive technology in daily life would overcome this. We here provide an up-to-date systematic overview encompassing all (close-to) publicly or commercially available technologies to automatically record eating behavior in real-life settings. 1328 studies were screened and after applying defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 122 studies were included for in-depth evaluation. Technologies in these studies were categorized by what type of eating behavior they measure and which type of sensor technology they use. In general, we found that relatively simple sensors are often used. Depending on the purpose, these are mainly motion sensors, microphones, weight sensors, and photo cameras. While several of these technologies are commercially available, there is still a lack of publicly available algorithms that are needed to process and interpret the resulting data. We argue that future work should focus on developing robust algorithms and validating these technologies in real-life settings. Combining technologies (e.g., prompting individuals for self-reports at sensed, opportune moments) is a promising route toward ecologically valid studies of eating behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: battery; commercialization; markov chain; new technology; techno-economic
Online: 4 May 2018 (10:16:46 CEST)
LiFePO4 (LFP) or Lithium-ion battery with its advantages compared to common current motorcycle battery is an appropriate alternative in substituting wet and dry cell battery. Huge amount of demand of motorcycle along with the battery in Indonesia also make it an interesting product for business. In order to assess the commercial potential for such a new technology, market share needs to be estimated as well as the techno-economic feasibility. Hence, market share prediction using the residents of Surakarta Region and techno-economic analysis using NPV, IRR and PBP indicators have been conducted in this study. Calculation using markov chain method shows that LFP battery tends to dominate the market after certain period. Techno-economic analysis also figures out that the commercialization is feasible in three conditions - first mover, even with market leader and equilibrium point. Therefore, there is a great commercial potential for LFP battery especially in Indonesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0117.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Coronaviruses; Blockchain Technology; COVID-19; Smart Contracts; Data Exchange; Secure; Distributed Ledger Technology; Healthcare
Online: 7 May 2020 (10:10:00 CEST)
WHO was informed on 31 December 2019 of cases of unknown cause pneumonia in Wuhan City, China. On 7 January 2020 Chinese authorities reported a novel coronavirus as the cause and was temporarily labeled "2019-nCoV." Coronaviruses (CoV) are a wide family of viruses which cause diseases ranging from common cold to more serious illnesses. A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain not previously found in humans. Countries around the globe have stepped up their surveillance to quickly detect any new 2019-nCoV cases. Blockchain is developing into a safe and efficient network for secure data sharing in applications such as the financial industry, operations management, food industry, energy market, the Internet of Things and healthcare. In this paper, we are using blockchain technology as a mean to share authentic data, tracking of relevant information and help speed up the treatment process. At the same time it will preserve person’s identity. Timely deployment and suitable implementation of the proposed model have the opportunity to curb COVID-19 transmissions and associated mortality, especially in environments with inadequate access to testing facilities. This work will also facilitate in the treatment of other infectious diseases. Smart contract have been designed and implemented using the ethereum blockchain platform which has been presented in this paper. This work would facilitate multiple stakeholders who are involved within the medical system to curb the transmission of this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0202.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: smart agriculture; agriculture 4.0; innovation adoption; digital technology; Taiwan
Online: 9 September 2020 (09:09:31 CEST)
Climate change and food security are the most relevant issues to be considered in sustainable agricultural development. The FAO’s initiative of climate-smart agriculture has attracted international attention. Since then, the smart agriculture (SA) has been recognized as the most influential trends in contributing to agricultural development. Therefore, encouraging farmers to adopt digital technologies and mobile devices into farming practices becomes a policy priority worldwide. However, there is limited literature available on psychologic factors that drive farmers’ intentions to adopt SA technologies. The purpose of this study is to investigate how farmer’s knowledge and attitude toward SA affects their adoption of smart technologies in Taiwan. A total of 321 farmers participated in the project’s survey in 2017 and 2018, from which the data was used to perform an OLS regression model of SA adoption. This study contributes to a preliminary understanding of relationship between innovation and adoption of SA technologies in a small-scale farming economic context. The findings suggest that the policy makers and R&D institutes need to concentrate on improving market access for well-known and high important SA technologies.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0393.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Digital health; Telehealth; Saudi Arabia; Artificial Intelligence; Digital Technology
Online: 22 September 2021 (22:36:43 CEST)
COVID-19 poses a significant burden to healthcare systems. Healthcare organisations with a better health innovation infrastructure have faced a reduced burden and achieved success in curbing COVID-19. In Saudi Arabia, digital technologies have played a vital role in fighting SARS-CoV-2 transmission. In this paper, we aimed to summarise the experience of optimising digital health technologies in Saudi Arabia as well as discuss capabilities and opportunities during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. A literature review was conducted up to September 2021 to retrieve peer-reviewed articles that critique the use of digital health technology platforms (DHTPs) in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 outbreak. A small but significant body of literature examined the digital response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. Health officials succeeded in optimising and maintaining a strategy to mitigate the spread of the virus via different digital technologies, such as mobile health applications, artificial intelligence, and machine learning. The quick digital response in Saudi Arabia was facilitated by governmental support and considering users and technology determinants. Future research must concentrate on establishing and updating the guidelines for using DHTPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Technology; Adoption; Agriculture; Coffee; Smallholder; Extension; Credit; Market; Access
Online: 15 April 2022 (10:44:57 CEST)
The use of improved agricultural technologies has been reported as the major strategy to increase agricultural production, increased household incomes and addressing poverty. However, adoption of such improved technologies by smallholder coffee farmers has been slow and this has contributed to the low coffee productivity in the country and the poor performance of the coffee sub sector. The study was meant to examine the effect of institutional factors including extension services, access to market and access to credit on technology adoption among smallholder coffee farmers in Kanungu District, Uganda. The study collected both quantitative and qualitative data from 289 smallholder coffee farmers and 8 key informants respectively in major coffee growing sub counties in Kanungu district. The study revealed that access to extension services and access to market have a positive significant influence on agricultural technology adoption while access to market has no significant influence on agricultural technology adoption. The study concluded that there is a positive significant relationship between institutional factors and technology adoption among smallholder coffee farmers in Kanungu district.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0361.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; FFF technology; Laser amplified ultrasonography; Tensile testing
Online: 30 January 2020 (11:05:28 CET)
The paper is focused on the examination of the internal quality of joints created in a multi-material - additive manufacturing process. The main part of the work focuses on experimental production and non-destructive testing of restrained joints of modified PLA (polylactic acid) and ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) 3Dprinted on RepRap 3D device that works on the "open source" principle. The article presents the outcomes of non-destructive materials test in the form of the data from the Laser Amplified Ultrasonography, microscopic observations of the joints area and tensile tests of the specially designed samples. The samples with designed joints were additively manufactured of two materials: specially blended PLA (Market name – PLA Tough) and conventionally made ABS. The tests are mainly focused on the determination of the quality of material connection in the joints area. Based on the results obtained, the samples made of two materials were compared in the end to establish which produced material joint is stronger and have a lower amount of defects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Innovation Ecosystem; Technology Innovation; Entrepreneurship; Hydrocarbon-Based Economies; Innovation Systems
Online: 30 May 2023 (11:00:58 CEST)
Innovation is rapidly growing and affecting various industries, including hydrocarbon processing. This study aims to conduct a comprehensive and organized review of the literature on innovation ecosystems and their performance. It will examine existing definitions of innovation ecosystems and related concepts and identify metrics and indicators for measuring innovation and entrepreneurial ecosystems. The term "innovation ecosystem" has gained considerable attention from scholars and practitioners over the past fifteen years. Despite the proliferation of research in this area, there are concerns about its fragmented knowledge base. While previous reviews have highlighted the theoretical connections between innovation ecosystems and related concepts, there is still a need for a more comprehensive understanding of the current state of innovation ecosystem research. The study used a systematic literature review approach that combines bibliographic coupling and content analysis methods, drawing on over 100 studies to identify five streams of current innovation ecosystem research: technology innovation, platform innovation ecosystems, regional development, innovation ecosystem conceptualization and theorization, and entrepreneurship and innovation. The study's contribution lies in decoding the intellectual structure of current innovation ecosystem research and providing targeted recommendations for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0480.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: push-pull technology; stemborers; stakeholder interaction; social learning; Ethiopia
Online: 22 October 2018 (08:18:22 CEST)
Stemborer pests contribute to significant maize crop yield loses incurred by the smallholder famers in Ethiopia. The problem requires requires concerted effort to learn and adopt new innovations to find a long lasting solution. In this study, the on-farm implementation of the push-pull technology (PPT) was used as a platform for interaction and enhancing the social learning among the stakeholders in the maize growing Woredas of Bako Tibe, Jimma Arjo and Yayu in the Oromia region. The main stakeholders were the smallholder maize farmers, researchers and the extension staffs. The study took place between August 2014 to May 2015. The PPT is a biological based strategy addresses the stemborer pest problem in maize crop. Under the strategy, maize crop is intercropped with a stemborer moth repellent fodder legume, Desmodium (the push) together with an attractant trap plant, Napier/Brachiaria grass (the pull) planted around maize-legume intercrop. The study was implemented based on the transdisciplinary action research approach and qualitative data collected during focus group discussions, key informant interviews, stakeholder workshops, participant observations and on-farm PPT demonstrations. The findings show that, the involvement of different stakeholders in joint PPT activities in an interactive environment is an innovation in itself. It creates opportunities for the stakeholders’ empowerment as well as deliberating on the contributions from each other to overcome uncertainties about the technology and create new knowledge. The intercropping strategy of maize with Desmodium and Napier/Brachiaria is used to reintroduce the traditional mixed cropping system of smallholder agriculture as strategy for control of pests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0238.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: open innovation; HRM; sustainability, UAE; inbound HR; outbound HR; technology.
Online: 15 December 2022 (06:55:17 CET)
This study proposes a structure for companies to use when implementing human resource practices in open innovation. Despite the fact that open innovation has received a lot of attention in the innovation management field as companies open their doors to information exchange in an effort to spur creative thinking, there are very few empirical articles that connect this trend to the human resource management literature. Our findings are the result of an extensive qualitative investigation into Julphar Gulf Pharmaceutical Industries Manufacturers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and its open innovation program. Internal, external, and combined are the three primary pillars of human resource management. We also demonstrate how the evolution of the open innovation initiative is linked to the state of the art in HRM and open innovation literature. The framework identifies HRM practices for both internal and external participants in the open innovation effort. Much of this HRM is done off the books, in a setting separate from the host company. By providing actual evidence of how firms use HRM to manage open innovation projects, our research adds to the scant and mostly theoretical literature linking open innovation and HRM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1126.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: hydrogen technology; hydrogen economy; Polish Hydrogen Strategy; hydrogen valleys; green hydrogen
Online: 18 July 2023 (02:55:53 CEST)
The energy production market based on hydrogen technologies is to be an innovative solution that will allow the industry to achieve climate neutrality in the future in Poland and in the world. The paper presents the idea of using hydrogen as a modern energy carrier, and devices that, in cooperation with renewable energy sources, produce the so-called green hydrogen and the applicable legal acts that allow for the implementation of the new technology were analysed. Energy transformation is inevitable, and according to reports on good practices in European Union countries, hydrogen and the hydrogen value chain (production, transport and transmission, storage, use in transport and energy) have a wide potential. Thanks to joint projects and subsidies from the EU, initiatives supporting hydrogen technologies are created, such as: hydrogen clusters, hydrogen valleys, and EU and national strategic programs set the main goals. As noted in this article, Poland is one of the leaders in hydrogen production both in the world and in Europe. Domestic tycoons from the energy, refining and chemical industries are involved in the projects. Eight hydrogen valleys that have recently been created in Poland successfully implement the assumptions of the "Polish Hydrogen Strategy until 2030 with a perspective until 2040", "Energy Policy of Poland until 2040", which are in line with the assumptions of the most important legal acts of the EU , including: the European Union's energy and climate policy, the Green Deal, the Fit for 55 Package.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: dairy farming; sustainability; organic farming; technology acceptance model; structural equation modeling
Online: 14 August 2017 (06:27:08 CEST)
The goal of the study was to assess the farmers’ acceptance of three sustainable production strategies, namely ‘Agro-forestry’, ‘Alternative protein source’ and ‘Prolonged maternal feeding’. Data on the acceptance of these strategies were collected by a survey of dairy farmers in six EU countries (AT, BE, DK, FI, IT, UK). An extended version of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was applied by means of Structural Equation Modelling to testing various hypotheses on attitudes and intentions of dairy farmers towards these novel production strategies, as well as the influence of organic practices and collaborative behaviours along the supply chain. We found that the most preferred strategy - across all countries - was soy substitution by alternative protein sources. We also found that the intention to adopt a sustainable production strategy may derive from the influence of opinions (and behaviours) of relevant others, showing the role of interactions among farmers and other stakeholders in the adoption of innovations. Finally, the perceived usefulness of all investigated strategies is higher for organic farmers, while collaborative patterns reduce the impact of subjective norm on usefulness and overall acceptance. Our findings should encourage policy makers to consider the important role of supply chain management practices, including collaboration, to enhance the sustainability of dairy farming systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1758.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: canine rabies virus; whole genome sequencing; nanopore technology; biosurveillance; Philippines
Online: 26 June 2023 (07:18:18 CEST)
Rabies, caused by the rabies virus (RABV), remains a significant public health issue in the Philippines despite efforts to control it. To eliminate rabies by 2030, effective surveillance strategies are crucial. In this study, we examined RABV evolution and phylodynamics in the Davao Region using genome sequences from Davao City and nearby provinces. We adapted the RABV ARTIC Protocol for Oxford Nanopore High-Throughput Sequencing to optimize workflow efficiency under limited resources. Comparing new virus samples collected from June 2019 to June 2021 (n=38) with baseline samples from June 2018 to May 2019 (n=49), new sub-clades were observed in the phylogenetic tree, suggesting divergence from older variants that were previously undetected. Most of the new viruses belonged to the Asian SEA4_A1.1.1 lineage, but new (SEA4_B1 and SEA4_B1.1) and emerging (SEA4_B1.1_E1) lineages that have never been reported in the Philippines were also identified. The baseline study reported phylogeographic clustering of RABV isolates from the same areas. However, this pattern was disrupted in the current biosurveillance, with variants detected in areas outside the original cluster. Furthermore, our findings revealed significant transmission routes between Davao City and neighboring provinces, contrasting with the predominantly intra-city transmission observed in the baseline study. These results underscore the need for ongoing and timely genomic surveillance to monitor genetic diversity changes and the emergence of novel strains, as well as to track alterations in transmission pathways. Implementing cost-effective next generation sequencing workflows will facilitate the integration of genomic surveillance into rabies control programs, particularly in resource-limited settings. Collaborations between different sectors can empower local laboratories and experts in genomic technologies and analysis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0454.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: CRISPR-Cas technology; pest management; plant stress resistance; insect resistance
Online: 29 September 2022 (07:08:41 CEST)
Global crop yield and food security are being threatened by phytophagous insects. Innovative methods are required to increase agricultural output while reducing reliance on hazardous synthetic insecticides. It appears to be quite effective at reducing production costs and boosting farm profitability to use the ground-breaking CRISPR-Cas technology to create plants that are insect resistant. In contrast, this new technique can modify an insect's genome to either produce gene drive or get beyond an insect's tolerance to various insecticides. This paper reviews and critically discusses the use of CRISPR-Cas genome editing technology in long-term insect pest management. The emphasis of this review is on the prospective uses of the CRISPR-Cas system for insect stress management in crop production by creating genome-edited crops and insects. The potential and difficulties of using CRISPR-Cas technology to reduce pest stress in crop plants are critically examined and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0023.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: TAM; e-learning; agriculture; virtual reality; QFD; technology acceptance
Online: 1 October 2020 (15:56:38 CEST)
In recent years information and communication technologies (ICT) play a significant role in all aspects of modern society and impact socioeconomic development in sectors as education, administration, business, medical care and agriculture. The benefits of such technologies in agriculture can be appreciated only if farmers use them. In order to predict and evaluate the adoption of these new technological tools, the technology acceptance model (TAM) can be a valid aid. The paper measures the potential acceptance of an e-learning tool designed for EU farmers and agricultural entrepreneurs. Starting from a literature review of the technology acceptance model, by analyzing the most commonly used external variables in the fields of e-learning, Agriculture, and Virtual reality, the analysis shows that computer self-efficacy, individual innovativeness, computer anxiety, perceived enjoyment, social norm, content and system quality, experience and facilitating conditions are the most common determinants addressing technology acceptance. Furthermore, findings evidenced that the external variables have a different impact on the two main beliefs of the TAM Model, Perceived Usefulness (PU) and Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU). This study is expected to bring theoretical support for academics when determining the variables to be included in TAM extensions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0174.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Business excellence; information technology; implementation challenge; ISO 20000; big data management.
Online: 18 June 2019 (10:56:19 CEST)
This study contributes to the literature by exploring challenges to implementing ISO 20000-1 in an emerging economy context, and suggests ways to overcome these challenges. A survey-based methodology was adopted. The data were analyzed using principal component analysis. The results indicated that senior management support was the most significant challenge for the successful implementation of IT Service Management (ITSM) systems. Other significant challenges were the justification of significant investment, premium customer support, co-operation and co-ordination among IT support teams, proper documentation, and effective process design The findings help managers introduce IT service management system (ISO 20000-1:2011) as well as improving IT service delivery system in IT support organizations for managing big data in an emerging economy. In the future, cross-firm and cross-country studies on challenges to ISO 20000 can be conducted. Also, interpretive structural model (ISM) can be formulated to examine the interrelationships among the identified challenges to ISO 20000.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0823.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Electric transport; technology readiness; political readiness; societal readiness; economic readiness.
Online: 13 September 2023 (07:20:44 CEST)
The main objective of this paper is to develop a readiness index model that can serve as an analytical tool for exploring the achievements of electrification of transportation systems. We have applied this readiness index model to evaluate the readiness positioning of China, Norway, and Sweden to-wards transport electrification. We have chosen these three countries as they represent diversity among countries that are in the process of adopting electric transport system solutions. Our developed readiness index model has four key dimensions, technological readiness, political readiness, societal readiness, and economic readiness. The embeddedness of all four dimensions in one model provides a multi-perspective way of analyzing and evaluating the readiness levels of countries moving towards transforming the transportation system. Therefore, we named the model a “multidimensional readiness index.” Our main conclusions are that the political processes and political decisiveness involved are the most important factors followed by the societal needs and economic ability, with the current technology available as the fourth. Without the participation of dedicated and determined political decision-makers being involved, the other three factors are challenging to obtain. Political decision-makers need to facilitate the use of economic means to support the transformation in the society and affected industries to balance the initial economic disadvantages of the electrically powered systems until they pass the cost disadvantage turning point. The development of the relevant technology is no longer a great barrier as it was at the beginning of this transformation, about 20 years ago. The technology for electrically powered transportation systems and devices is widely available now, although it is continuously evolving and being improved. Associated industries cannot be expected to initiate, finance, take the risk, and take the lead in this global societal transformation without clear and strong political support.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: academy; drug development; industrial pharmacy; pharmaceutical technology; research method-ology
Online: 17 March 2022 (01:56:47 CET)
The aim of this review is to present the Quality by Design (QbD) model as a suitable methodology to perform research in the academic Costa Rican institutions that teach Pharmacy. Pubmed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases were screened for original and review papers, as well as short communications published not more than 10 years ago. Publications were screened by title and abstract. Relevant references were used to develop three important themes: The University’s Research Model in Costa Rica, QbD Model, and QbD as a Research Methodology for Industrial Pharmacy in the Academy. In this sense, the QbD model is a great methodology for carrying out research projects regarding Pharmaceutical Sciences but especially for Drug Development. Academic research based on this model enables training and developing practical, scientific, and leadership skills in pharmacy students. The generated knowledge can be shared in the classrooms, which represents an ideal environment to communicate their research results and to foster collaborative work between researchers, professors, and students. The participation of all these actors allows a high level of commitment to research work, which benefits the scientific advancement of the university and society. It is important to visualize the student body as potential key actors in the research process, encouraging in them the desire to become trained scientific researchers who want to pursue a career in the academy, giving continuity to it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0372.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Responsible Research and Innovation; responsibility; innovation; assessment; Technology Assessment; foresight
Online: 29 December 2019 (07:33:46 CET)
In the paper, the author takes stock of the conceptual reflection and empirical studies described in the current scientific literature on responsible innovation in the context of the emergence of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) concept. RRI has been promoted in the European Union as a part of the Europe 2020 strategy with the objective of making research and innovation more sustainable and inclusive. As more than half of the EU’s firms declare conducting innovation activities RRI problematic becomes more relevant than ever. There remain many open questions, unresolved dilemmas and empirical white spots that call for more research in this field. This paper’s main focus is the problem of RRI acceptance as a global framework for responsible innovation and the scarcity of suitable instruments that may help industry understand and adopt this concept. The main contribution of this paper are: the critical analysis of the RRI concept and its implications for industry, proposing a concept of RRI index for innovating enterprises.