REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0738.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Anatomy, Education Medical, Teaching, teaching and learning management
Online: 20 November 2023 (16:12:42 CET)
Introduction: At the end of 2019 the Covid-19 pandemic caused a huge amount of restrictions across the world which affected teaching around the world as it was not prepared to move from traditional face-to-face to an online conversion overnight, so the aim of this paper is to determine the changes in undergraduate anatomy teaching strategies post-pandemic compared to pre-pandemic. Methods: A systematic review was conducted based on the PRISMA statement. Data were retrieved from the searches conducted in the different databases, and the articles to be retrieved were selected with the help of the Rayyan platform. Using the OPMER and JBI tools, the quality of evidence was assessed for the selection of the articles included in the review. Results: The teaching of medicine, specifically anatomy, presented serious problems due to the fact that throughout history it has been taught in the classroom by means of cadaveric dissection and when this ceased to be available, new methods arose through the use of digital resources to try to make up for the needs of the lack of dissection laboratories which lost a great deal of content in this restructuring, which have been improving with the passing of the courses taught and the development of new material that has been better adapted to the needs of the students. Discussion: The authors agree that in the future the best way to teach anatomy will continue to be face-to-face dissection without neglecting the strategies developed during this pandemic and to be taken if necessary to restructure curricula in the future to improve teaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0196.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: gamification methodology; teaching strategies; online teaching; chemical engineering
Online: 16 May 2022 (04:08:16 CEST)
As consequence of the digital transformation, e-learning methodologies have become an inseparable part of the standard classes in schools and universities, assuming an increasingly significant role in compensating for the difficulties resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Numerous pedagogical methodologies and strategies can be easily implemented in high education, promoting students’ motivation and interest in learning. This research study analyses the implementation of gamification pedagogical strategy on 50-60 undergraduate chemical engineering students at the university, by evaluating its effect on the success rate on a specific topic of Chemical Reactions Engineering subject and the motivation effect for the following topics. Our results show a significant positive effect of the gamification strategy on university lectures, increasing up to 25-30 % of the success ratio with an apparent motivation effect. During the subsequent years, the changes in the lifestyle of study also play a role in students’ performance. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate case studies such as the one presented here to understand better the use of these pedagogical methods and strategies in high education, especially in technical subjects described in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0094.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: robot; robotic teaching assistant; teaching; user engagement; evaluation
Online: 11 February 2019 (16:30:51 CET)
We report on an exploratory study conducted at a graduate school in Sweden with a humanoid robot, Baxter. First, we describe a list of potentially useful capabilities for a robot teaching assistant derived from brainstorming and interviews with faculty members, teachers, and students. These selected capabilities consist of reading, greeting, alerting, remote operation, clarification, and motion. Second, we present feedback on how the robot's capabilities, demonstrated in part with the Wizard of Oz approach, were perceived, and iteratively adapted over the course of several lectures, using the \EP tool. Third, we discuss observations and findings regarding the capabilities and the development process. Our findings suggest that using a social robot as a teaching assistant is promising using the chosen capabilities. We find that personalizing the capabilities and the role of embodiment are important topics to be considered in future work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0380.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: TESOL; English teaching; ESL; EFL; teaching methodology research interests
Online: 30 November 2019 (04:41:57 CET)
This paper provides a systematic review of the research around teaching English as a second or foreign language over the last ten years. The review aims to help second and foreign language researchers to recognize the trends that have impacted English teaching and learning research. More than 400 articles from four leading journals (TESOL Journal, TESOL Quarterly, ELT Journal, and Second Language Research) were reviewed to examine the trends and method that were used. The findings suggested that the research interests in the TESOL field have changed as many topics and trends have risen based on students’ academic and social needs. Topics such as teaching methodology, digital literacy, and using technology to teach English have dominated the research during the last decade.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0030.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Teaching; Flipped classroom
Online: 24 May 2022 (11:29:14 CEST)
The way flipped classrooms are perceived and even practised by teachers is sometimes approximative. For example, while the Covid-19 pandemic has pushed many universities to adopt distance learning, flipped classrooms have often been mentioned as a solution in that context. This inducement maintains a confusion between flipped classrooms and distance learning that might be detrimental for both students and teachers. Moreover, embarking on a new pedagogical practice such as flipped classroom could be intimidating and time-consuming. For these reasons, this article aims to share some tips for implementing a flipped classroom, with examples from biology and biochemistry. Based on our own experiences but also on the current scientific literature, we propose to structure the advises around three phases: Preparation, Implementation, and Follow-up. In the preparation phase it is advised to not only plan to invert time but also say it, as well as to identify (or create) resources for learning in autonomy. In the Implementation phase it is suggested to i) Be explicit in the acquisition of knowledge, and foster students' autonomy; ii) Explore active learning in class; iii) Develop skills of cooperation and sharing; and iv) Differentiate. In the follow-up phase it is proposed to i) Evaluate; ii) Take care of the logistics and your posture; iii) Document your flipped classroom and iv) Share.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Programming Approach; Web programming; Sustainable Education; Teaching experience; Teaching Methodology
Online: 17 June 2021 (14:44:43 CEST)
The fast pace development of the Internet and the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic have impacted considerably on the educative sector; encouraging the constant transformation of the teaching-learning strategies and more in technological areas as Educational Software Engineering. Web programming, a fundamental topic in Software Engineering and Cloud-based applications, deals with various critical challenges in education, such as learning continuous emerging technological tools, plagiarism detection, generating innovative learning environments, among others. Continual change and more with the current digitization becomes a challenge for teachers and students who cannot depend on traditional educational methods. The article presents a sustainable teaching-learning methodology for web programming courses in Engineering Education using a project-based integrated approach adaptable to the continuous web technological advances. The methodology has been developed and improved for 9 years, 15 groups, and 3 different universities. Our results demonstrate that the methodology is 100% adaptable with new technologies that might arise; it also presents the advantages of avoiding plagiarism in the best case and a personalized induction for every specific student in the learning process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0192.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: STEM teaching; technology in education; teaching strategies; online inter-class tournaments; computational thinking
Online: 10 February 2023 (11:20:01 CET)
There are increasing calls in education for deeper integration of disciplines and better preparation for the personal and job challenges of a fast-changing and smarter society. Thus, we need to search for new effective didactic strategies. However, current classrooms are isolated. They practically never connect. This hinders the exchange of ideas. It inhibits imitation and recombination, the basic blocks of cultural evolution and innovation. In this paper, we analyze online inter-class tournaments. These are lessons where entire elementary or middle school classes interconnect synchronously and play an educational game. These are new types of academic activities, and only possible thanks to digital communication technology. In this paper, we examine four online tournaments, we analyze how feasible it is to carry them out and the benefits they bring. One tournament is for teaching machine learning and statistics. The second one teaches the conservation of momentum in physics and an engineering optimization challenge. The third tournament is for learning to solve word problems. The fourth one is for teaching natural and sexual selection along with developing statistical and population thinking. We found that these inter-class tournaments are feasible to implement in schools and that they are a promising mechanism to facilitate imitation, recombination, and innovation of teaching strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0028.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online teaching and learning; differentiated instruction; gifted students; motivation; achievement; English language teaching
Online: 1 June 2021 (11:39:11 CEST)
Differentiated instruction has been implemented in classrooms where students who come from various backgrounds require appropriate lessons that are tailored to their varied learning preferences. As the spread of coronavirus 19 (Covid-19) is becoming more rampant, online learning has been lifted up as the main platform of teaching and learning, forcing the need to shift from the conventional face-to-face classroom to online, or virtual, mode of knowledge transfer. Having such global phenomenon affecting education, how does it affect the implementation of differentiated instruction that has been practised regularly by teachers before the wake of Covid-19? Previous studies have shown how it is done in the normal classroom setting, and that the practice of differentiated instruction contributes to students’ motivation as well as academic performance. However, there is a need to explore how do teachers go about with online differentiated instruction and how does it affect the students, since online learning poses various threads to both teachers and students; and thus, one might argue the effectiveness of not only the teaching approach but also the overall teaching and learning outcomes. Borg’s framework of teacher cognition, which has been extensively used in exploring how teachers teach, can be utilized to document the practice of online differentiated instruction. This study aimed to explore the practice of online differentiated instruction by teachers and examined its impact on students’ motivation and academic performance during the Covid-19 outbreak. The participants of this study consists of 247 gifted students from a public school in Malaysia. To meet these aims, this study employed a mixed method research design, utilizing the framework of teacher cognition to explore the teachers’ practice of online differentiated through interviews; and, utilizing a survey design using a questionnaire to determine the impact of online differentiated instruction towards students’ motivation and academic performance. The findings revealed that although online differentiated instruction is feasible, however, appropriate combination of differentiation constructs need to be applied in order to achieve higher motivation and better academic performance among the students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0372.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: teaching robotics; science teaching; STEM; robotic tool; python; Raspberry Pi; PiCamera; vision system
Online: 17 October 2018 (05:53:30 CEST)
This paper presents the robotic platform, PiBot, that has been developed and that is aimed at improving the teaching of Robotics with vision to secondary students. Its computational core is the Raspberry Pi 3 controller board, and the greatest novelty of this prototype is the support developed for the powerful camera mounted on board, the PiCamera. An open software infrastructure written in Python language was implemented so that the student may use this camera, or even a WebCam, as the main sensor of this robotic platform. Also, higher level commands have been provided to enhance the learning outcome for beginners. In addition, a PiBot 3D printable model and the counterpart for the Gazebo simulator were also developed and fully supported. They are publicly available so that students and educational centers that do not have the physical robot or can not afford the costs of these, can nevertheless practice and learn or teach Robotics using these open platforms: DIY-PiBot and/or simulated-PiBot.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0160.v1
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:27:12 CEST)
The Coronavirus outbreak that began in December, 2019 became a worldwide pandemic by March, 2020. The education industry had to adapt to this new change in a speedy and most feasible way by shifting to virtual classes over the internet and other available resources. WhatsApp has turned out to be a boon in academic’s section where in all the teachers have their own subject-wise groups on the said application. This not only helps them to share the necessary information resources but also to have discussion regarding the subject matter. On the other side, this application allows easy access for the students to all the resources shared by the teacher, and they can share their assignments without much difficulty with their subject teachers. Therefore, it has become a primary tool for conducting teaching, learning and evaluation online. The researchers have tried to analyze impact of online classes and the efforts required by the students to learn online with the help of survey conducted with the sample size of 514. The survey questionnaire was grouped into 4 categories namely; Opinion on Information and Communications Technology (ICT) based Teaching, Changes in communication behavior due to ICT using WhatsApp, the main hindrance for integration of ICT (Information Communication Technology) in the teaching-learning process and disadvantages of using ICT for teaching and learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0187.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teaching quality; international Students; teaching satisfaction; Chinese language; medical students; COVID-19 pandemic measures
Online: 10 March 2023 (08:47:17 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic measures have negatively impacted education worldwide via travel restrictions, student visas, and physical attendanc,e among many other fac-tors. As one of the first places to impose strict pandemic measures and one of the last places to lift the measures, Mainland China provided a unique venue to investigate the effect of public health pandemic control policies on tertiary education. Considering the large portion of international students in medical schools and the higher susceptibility to the pandemic measures due to the natural synergy with teaching hospitals, medical schools can be an early forefront indicator of the impact of the pandemic on tertiary education. We surveyed 513 participants international medical students from Wen-zhou Medical University’s school of international studies in 2019 and 2022 about their satisfaction and demographic and cultural adaptation parameters. We found that the pandemic restrictions did not generally impact student satisfaction. Further analyzing the associated parameters, we found teaching satisfaction to be independent of age (P=.159), years in China (P=.896) and Chinese Level (P=.577) in the medical university. Teaching satisfaction is associated with the region of origin (P <0.001), acceptance of local social norms (P <0.001), satisfaction with the core values of Chinese culture (P <0.001), acclimatization to life in China (P <0.001), can easily make Chinese friends (P <0.001) among other factors. The findings of this study provide an understanding of the effects of pandemic measures on tertiary education satisfaction and other factors that can aid in international student satisfaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0182.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: motivation for learning Chinese; Japanese learners of Chinese; teaching Chinese to Japanese learners, teaching Chinese to kids and adolescents; teaching Chinese to adults
Online: 9 August 2021 (08:58:48 CEST)
Sustaining learners’ motivation to keep learning has been concerned for over 60 years in education and SLA. Most research focusing on Japanese university students has contributed lots of theoretical and practical developments, but research focusing on motivations of non-traditional adult learners and those under 18-year-old to learn Chinese is still little even though previous research findings have proved age is one of the key variables influencing learning besides nationalities and Chinese language levels. In order to find an effective treatment for sustainable Chinese language learning in Japan, this study utilized a survey method to analyze the types of Japanese learners’ motivation to learn Chinese via analysis of a moment structures (AMOS), and to compare the differences of the motivation via one-way ANOVA. This study revealed that Japanese learners’ motivation to learn Chinese consists of eight common types, which are “instrumental motivation”, “personal orientation”, “identified regulation”, “Chinese cultural productions”, “integrating into Chinese community”, “external regulation”, “social responsibility”, and “Chinese for academic purposes”. Also, there are similarities and differences existing in the eight motivation types among the Japanese children, adolescents, (non-) traditional adult learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL). The findings contribute the understanding of motivation types and differences among the four aged Japanese learners to teachers of teaching Chinese to speakers of other languages (TCSOL), and to future research further exploring how differently aged Japanese learners can have and use a higher motivation as a main drive to learn Chinese language as a lifelong business.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1693.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Research methodology, Teaching, Undergraduate, Psychology, Students
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:27:07 CEST)
Objective. To examine the relationship between experience and knowledge acquired in research methodology (RM) courses and attitudes toward research in a sample of undergraduate psychology students from a public university in Mexico City. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 261 students. A 10-unit analog scale to assess perceived experience in RM courses and two measures of attitudes toward research were used. Between the two attitude scales, four attitude dimensions were identified: positive appraisal, negative appraisal, meaningless and boring. Four multivariate models were estimated, one for each attitude dimension. Results. A positive correlation was found between learning experiences in RM courses and positive appraisal of research (p < 0.01). Negative associations were also found between RM course experience and two of the three negative research attitudes (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Results highlight the significance of teaching in the knowledge and attitude development of students' research competencies. An approach to teaching RM at the undergraduate level that places more emphasis on encouraging evidence-based practice than on developing and carrying out research projects seems to be a promising subject for study, with implications for changing teaching methods and contents.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0334.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: beginning teachers; teaching induction; teacher education
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:53:20 CEST)
The objective of this research-action, teaching and extension project was to support the beginning teacher, who graduated from the Pedagogy courses at UFF-INFES and UFRRJ/IE, raising the difficulties and solutions of this teacher's pedagogical practice, as well as implementing and analyzing strategies of professional induction of the newly graduated professor by the proposed pilot course with a focus on promoting dialogue between university and school. This project was aimed at graduates of Pedagogy courses who started as teachers in the early years of elementary school and early childhood education (with less than 5 years as a teacher). These teachers participated in two pilot courses (one in 2021 and the other in 2022) to help recent graduates in their professional induction through innovative actions that help them to take a leading role in their practices. For this, we seek to investigate: the impact of this program on their professional induction through narrative interviews, accompany them in this process and analyze the difficulties and solutions they found in their pedagogical practice as a result of the help that the project offered them; the role of mentors (teachers running the school) and the University at the beginning of their professional activities. Finally, we concluded that this course worked as a support for beginning teachers, allowing for greater reflection and better professional performance, as well as a way to reduce the shock of reality, demotivation and teacher abandonment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: System dynamics; Education; Teaching; Learning; Systemsthinking
Online: 19 October 2022 (02:13:49 CEST)
This article addresses a challenge modeling novices face in model conceptualization: the recognition of behavior modes. Despite behavior modes being at the heart of system dynamics modeling, there is no unifying taxonomy for them, making them harder to learn for beginners. The article proposes criteria a taxonomy should satisfy, critically reviews previous taxonomies in the literature, and then introduces a new consistent taxonomy based on slope and curvature with mode names that refer only to visual cues and free of references to prior mathematical or domain-specific knowledge. Evidence from an exploratory experiment suggests that novices actually have difficulties classifying curves when using previous taxonomies. Links from these elementary modes to analogous terms in other taxonomies in diverse disciplines allow this taxonomy to be related to other ones. The article concludes by mentioning relevant limitations and future steps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0421.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: laboratory practical class; undergraduate teaching; qPCR
Online: 24 September 2021 (09:04:57 CEST)
From gene expression studies to identifying microbes quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is widely used in research and medical diagnostics. In transmittable diseases like the Ebola outbreak in West Africa (2014-2016), or the present SARS-CoV2 pandemic qPCR plays a key role in the detection of infected patients. Although the technique itself is decades old with reliable approaches (eg. TaqMan essay) in the diagnosis of pathogens many people showed distrust in it during the SARS-CoV2 outbreak. This came mainly from not understanding or misunderstanding the principles of qPCR. This situation motivated us to design a simple laboratory practical class, in which students have opportunities to understand the underlying principles of qPCR and its advantages in microbiological diagnosis. Moreover, during the exercise, students can develop skills such as handling experimental assays, and the ability to solve problems, discuss their observations. Finally, this activity brings them closer to the clinical practice and they can see the impact of the science on real life. The class is addressed to undergraduate students of biological sciences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0567.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: cognitive strategies; digital games; teaching; learning
Online: 21 April 2021 (10:28:48 CEST)
This paper presents a case study analyzing which learning cognitive strategies are employed by students who play digital games in both in-school and out-of-school learning contexts. As a Case Study, it falls within the qualitative research category. The researcher integrated themselves to the subjects' learning facility for data-gathering, following all recommended ethical protocols for research involving underage subjects. The following data collection instruments were used: research diary, questionnaire, and interviews, conducted with teenagers who play digital games during formal learning activities. Analysis involved data-crossing and checking our data against existing studies and theories, as well as a cartographic production. Data indicates that digital games enhance student usage of cognitive strategies and favor competencies and abilities-based learning over formal learning contents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0661.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Teaching materials, Mathematical literacy, Entrepreneurial Spirit
Online: 26 March 2021 (12:10:34 CET)
Mathematical literacy is a very hot issue in the development of mathematics learning, apart from mathematical literacy, another interesting thing is the entrepreneurial spirit that must be given from an early age, especially for vocational students. This research was conducted at SMK Rosma Karawang in the Department of Computer and Network Engineering, West Java Province with the XI grade students. The teaching materials developed by applying the principles of the development model developed with the ADDIE model consist of analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation. This research and development model is considered suitable for developing teaching tools and materials which is used for the purposes of the learning process. Based on the results of data analysis and processing that have been carried out in this study, the development of teaching materials using the ADDIE model has met the appropriate and valid criteria by media, language and media expert valuators. Another result of developing this teaching material besides meeting the eligibility criteria is that the teaching materials developed are able to increase mathematical literacy and instill entrepreneurial spirit for students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0380.v1
Online: 18 August 2020 (08:53:34 CEST)
E-learning with many outstanding advantages in training has drastically changed the self-study process due to the ability to personalize and effectively meet the learning activities of learners. E-learning and building an e-learning environment are currently paying attention and being deployed in many universities in Vietnam with different scope and levels. Especially in the current period, when science and technology are developing, many applications of technology and technology products have been applied in the field of education, changing the way of teaching and learning activities, the practice of both lecturers and students. Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies have replaced people not only for manual labor but also for intellectual labor, including the teaching of teachers. Many software applications have been used to replace people in the transmission of knowledge, testing, and evaluation of training quality, especially E-learning online training programs. However, in Vietnam today, the output quality of these online training programs has not been highly appreciated compared to similar programs in the world. The cause of this situation is that the training, teaching, and learning are not effective. Therefore, in this article, I will give some analysis, evaluate the current teaching and learning methods and propose solutions to enhance the interaction and initiative in the teaching and learning process of lecturers and students to improve the quality of online training in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Protein structure and dynamics; Molecular structure and modeling; Protein and macromolecules; Computational methods and bioinformatics; Computer-based teaching tools; Learning materials and teaching tools; Multimedia teaching tools
Online: 7 February 2020 (11:42:09 CET)
Biomolecular structure drives function, and computational capabilities have progressed such that the prediction and computational design of biomolecular structures is increasingly feasible. Because computational biophysics attracts students from many different backgrounds and with different levels of resources, teaching the subject can be challenging. One strategy to teach diverse learners is with interactive multimedia material that promotes self-paced, active learning. We have created a hands-on education strategy with a set of fifteen modules that teach topics in biomolecular structure and design, from fundamentals of conformational sampling and energy evaluation to applications like protein docking, antibody design, and RNA structure prediction. Our modules are based on PyRosetta, a Python library that encapsulates all computational modules and methods in the Rosetta software package. The workshop-style modules are implemented as Jupyter Notebooks that can be executed in the Google Colaboratory, allowing learners access with just a web browser. The digital format of Jupyter Notebooks allows us to embed images, molecular visualization movies, and interactive coding exercises. This multimodal approach may better reach students from different disciplines and experience levels as well as attract more researchers from smaller labs and cognate backgrounds to leverage PyRosetta in their science and engineering research. All materials are freely available at https://github.com/RosettaCommons/PyRosetta.notebooks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0077.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: STEAM; Teaching and learning; Sumak Kawsay; vulnerable
Online: 6 September 2021 (07:17:49 CEST)
The research is based on the question: Can teaching/learning methodologies help to achieve the objective of Sumak Kawsay in Ecuador? a STEAM work approach was applied in technical high school students and higher education students (technological), in order to determine the level of impact in terms of project generation, following the entire process, from the generation of ideas to the linking of projects with society, The analysis was carried out in students from 15 to 22 years old in two institutions in the city of Cuenca, using the method of intentional sampling and the systematic review of scientific articles in the Scopus and Google academic databases of the last 3 years, to determine the level of impact of the prototypes pub-lished in indexed journals. The most striking aspect of the results is that of the 260 students surveyed, only 19.6% of students consider that there are STEAM teachers in the classroom, and only 56.92% of students manage to link their work with society, one of the recommended strategies being the publication of scientific articles and participation in congresses disseminating the high impact work done by students in the classroom.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0378.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Bilingualism, language policy, education, English teaching.
Online: 6 December 2023 (10:34:42 CET)
This study carried out a qualitative and descriptive relational approach that combined Documentary Analysis and elements of the Analytical Method to investigate the phenomenon of bilingualism in Tuluá, Colombia. The aim of this study was to diagnose the promotion of bilingualism by proposing a series of recommendations to strengthen the educational and linguistic policies. The data was processed through matrices and analyzed in the light of the theoretical references to enable a historical account of the programs or strategies that have been implemented for the promotion of bilingualism. The findings of this study are crucial in developing suggestions for enhancing the effectiveness of bilingualism. By identifying strengths, weaknesses, and patterns in the historical framework and modern performance indicators, the research offers valuable contributions to the current discourse on bilingual education policies in Tuluá, Colombia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1778.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: teaching; learning; brain; mind; neural network; cognition; recognition
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:36:18 CEST)
Teachability has been extensively studied under the context of making industrial robots to be programmable and reprogrammable. However, it is only recently that the artificial intelligence (AI) research community is accelerating the research works with the objective of making humanoid robots and many other robots to be teachable under the context of using natural languages. We human beings spend many years to learn knowledge and skills despite our extraordinary mental capabilities of being teachable with the use of natural languages. Therefore, if we would like to develop human-like robots such as humanoid robots, it is inevitable for us to face the issue of making future humanoid robots to be teachable with the use of natural languages as well. In this paper, we present the key details of a top-down design for achieving a teachable mind which consists of two major processes: the first one is the process which enables humanoid robots to gain innate mental capabilities of transforming incoming signals into meaningful crisp data, and the second one is the process which enables humanoid robots to gain innate mental capabilities of undertaking incremental and deep learning with the main focus of associating conceptual labels in a natural language to meaningful crisp data. These two processes consist of the two necessary and sufficient conditions for future humanoid robots to be teachable with the use of natural languages. In addition, this paper outlines a very likely new finding underlying human brain’s neural systems as well as the obvious mathematics underlying artificial deep neural networks. These outlines provide us the strong reason to separate the study of mind from the study of brain. Hopefully, the content discussed in this paper will help the AI research community to venture into the right direction which is to make future humanoid robots, non-humanoid robots, and many other systems to achieve human-like self-intelligence at cognitive level with the use of natural languages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1889.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: 21st century teaching; educational transformation; gaps and opportunities
Online: 28 June 2023 (02:47:00 CEST)
This study investigates the multifaceted aspects of 21st century teaching and identifies gaps in current educational practices. The researcher employed a qualitative approach, utilizing interviews, observations, and document analysis. Grounded in a theoretical framework emphasizing student-centered pedagogy, technology integration, and innovative instructional strategies, the study involved a diverse sample of 30 participants, including teachers, students, and administrators. Rigorous measures were implemented to ensure validity and reliability, such as researcher triangulation and member checking. The findings revealed significant gaps in areas such as student engagement, digital literacy, and pedagogical innovation. These findings are discussed in relation to existing literature, highlighting the implications for educational practice and the urgent need for educational transformation. The study's limitations include the small sample size and its focus on a specific educational context. Future research should explore the identified gaps using different methodologies and extend the investigation to other educational settings. The study contributes to the growing body of knowledge on 21st century teaching, providing valuable insights for educators, policymakers, and researchers aiming to promote effective and transformative teaching practices in the modern era.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0563.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: emergency remote teaching; student-centered; COVID-19; Indonesia
Online: 23 March 2021 (11:14:16 CET)
Considering the challenges of sustainable education in emergency remote teaching (ERT) during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, this study provides basic principles for future ERT implementation based on the experience of higher education in Indonesia. Seven local expert distance educators reviewed the ERT principles, participating in the early stages to check the relevance, content validity, and readability of the five principles proposed in the context of Indonesian education. After an extensive expert review, the ERT principles were evaluated using quantitative data through an online survey (82 students and 45 faculty members). In addition, open-ended questionnaire responses, experiences, and challenges encountered by 21 respondents (College Dean, Associate Dean of Academics, and faculty quality assurance of seven universities/colleges in three provinces in Indonesia) in ERT were used and analyzed. This study suggests that ERT should be designed based on the principles of simplicity, accessibility, affordability, flexibility, and empathy in all learning activities in unfavorable situations. This study complements previous work and can thus be used for generalized principles for teaching activities in similar emergencies, especially in developing countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0482.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Distance; Learning; Academic; Education; Students; Teaching-Learning; Modality
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:59:30 CET)
Education setting evolved from historical open learning system to traditional classroom set-up to distance learning modality. Teaching-Learning practice is transformed with an evolution of teaching-learning materials. With technological advancement in progressive manner and it’s increasing use in academic setting, distance learning has been the on-demand and on-debate topic in current educational discourse. Comparatively fresh topic in Nepali academic setting, this paper intended to analyze the perception of Nepali students towards online modality in Nepali academic setting. This paper further analyzed the student’s preference towards distance learning in current Nepali academic setting. Research findings were analyzed based on data collected through literature review, interview with students and professor and quantitative data collection through use of google form. Study identified opportunities as revenue generation; continuation of academic career from any part of country; increase learning outcome among jobholders. Study identified challenges as unequal access and quality of internet facilities; affordability of laptops/computers; limited interaction; and frequent disturbances. Seeing the better prospects, study strongly supported the need of shift in academic shift from traditional setting to non-traditional setting in Nepali context to meet the global needs of competitive and quality education.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: e-learning; online teaching; Galaxy; TIaaS; accessibility; scalability
Online: 18 December 2020 (16:30:25 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic is shifting teaching to an online setting all over the world. The Galaxy framework facilitates the online learning process and makes it accessible by providing a library of high-quality community-curated training materials, enabling easy access to data and tools, and facilitates sharing achievements and progress between students and instructors. By combining Galaxy with robust communication channels, effective instruction can be designed inclusively, regardless of the students' environments.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0167.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Anatomy; Medical Education; Teaching; Students; Graduate Medical Education
Online: 14 June 2020 (04:20:42 CEST)
Background: During anatomy (topographic) chair, we prepared an anatomic piece of an older female pelvis (unknown causa mortis). Here, we present an anatomic piece prepared by medical students that helped us to better understand hypertrophic bladder pathophysiology. Methods: A traditional corpse dissection guided by an assistant professor. Results: Corpse dissection enhanced our personal experience during the medical course. It also helped us to better visualize how big a hypertrophic urinary bladder can become as the etiologic cause is not taken care. Conclusions: Despite virtual and 3D anatomy lessons, we believe corpse dissection must remain as a teaching strategy that can help to build a new generation of surgeons as well as honor the History of Medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0463.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Protrusion, illumination, height, effective pixel, gray level, teaching
Online: 24 September 2018 (15:02:56 CEST)
Protrusive defects on the color filter of thin-film transistor (TFT) liquid crystal displays (LCDs) frequently damage the valuable photomask. An fast method using side-view illuminations associated with digital charge-couple devices (CCDs) to detect the protrusive defect in the four substrates, which are the black matrix (BM), red, green, and blue. Between the photomask and substrate, the depth of field (DOF) is normally 300 μm for the proximity-type aligner; we select the four substrates to evaluate the detectability in the task. The experiment is capable of detecting measurements of 300 μm and even lower than 100 μm can be assessed successfully. The maximum error of the measurement is within 6% among the four samples. Furthermore, the uncertainty analysis of three standard deviations is conducted. Thus, the method is cost-effective to prevent damage for valuable photomasks in the flat panel display industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0229.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI); CLOs; educational tools; hybrid learning; integrated management system; learning management system; PLOs; technology-embedded teaching; web-based teaching
Online: 26 January 2022 (11:54:27 CET)
With the rapid surge in technological advancements, an equal amount of investment in technology-embedded teaching has become vital to pace up with the ongoing educational needs. Distance education has evolved from the era of postal services to the use of ICT tools in current times. With the aid of globally updated content across the board, technology usage ensures all students receive equal attention without any discrimination. Importantly, web-based teaching allows all kind of students to learn at their own pace, without the fear of being judged, including professionals who can learn remotely without disturbing their job schedules. Having web-based content allows low-cost and robust implementation of the content upgradation. An improved, yet effective, version of the education using such tools is Hybrid Learning (HL). This learning mode aims to provide luxurious reinforcement to its legitimate candidates while maintaining the quality standards of various elements. Incorporated with both traditional and distance learning methods, along with exploiting social media tools for increased comfort level and peer-to-peer collaboration, HL ultimately facilitates the end user and educational setup. The structure of such a hybrid model is realized by delivering the study material via a learning management system (LMS) designed in compliance with quality standards, which is one of the fundamental tackling techniques for controlling quality constraints. In this paper, we present the recently piloted project by COMSATS University Islamabad (previously known as COMSATS Institute of Information Technology) which is driven by technology-embedded teaching model. This model is an amalgam of the traditional class room model with the aid of state-of-the-art online learning technologies. The students are enrolled as full-time students, with all the courses in traditional classroom mode, except one course offered as hybrid course. This globally adapted model helps the students to benefit from both face-to-face learning as well as gaining hands-on experience on technology-enriched education model providing flexibility of timings, learning pace, and boundaries. Our HL model is equipped with two major synchronous and asynchronous blocks. The synchronous block delivers real-time live interaction scenarios using discussion boards, thereby providing a face-to-face environment. Interactions via social network has witnessed equally surging improvement in the output performance. The asynchronous block refers to the lecture videos, slides and handouts, prepared by imminent professors, available 24/7 for students. To ensure quality output, our HL model follows the course learning outcomes (CLOs), and program learning outcomes (PLOs) as per international standards. As a proof of concept, we have deployed a mechanism at the end of each semester to verify the effectiveness of our model. This mechanism fundamentally surveys the satisfaction levels of all the students enrolled in the HL courses. With the surveys already conducted, a significant level of satisfaction has been noted. Extensive results from these surveys are presented in the paper to further validate the efficiency and robustness of our proposed HL model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0055.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: AI; artificial intelligence; higher education; learning; teaching; systematic review
Online: 2 November 2023 (00:04:02 CET)
With the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI), many aspects of our lives, from how we work to how we interact with each other and the world around us is showing dramatic changes. Education is one of the key areas that may be impacted by the rise of AI. Although a large number of studies have been conducted in recent years to shed light on how AI may influence various dimensions of education, a very little work has been carried out to consolidate and synthesis empirical studies on the application of AI in higher education. The present study reviewed empirical studies published between 2013 and 2022 to 1) examine the characteristics of published research in the field, and 2) to present thorough insights on the promises and challenges of this dramatic technology in higher and professional education. This review included 44 empirical studies published as peer-reviewed journal articles. The results indicated that there is rapid increase in the publications focusing on AI in higher education in last a few years. However, a big proportion of these publications are technically theoretical and conceptual proposals for AI intervention. The areas of AI applications in higher education that are supported by evidence based research are presented. Imperative implications are also highlighted for future research and implementation of AI based interventions in higher education.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0563.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education, students, teachers, adolescent, sexuality, bullying, internet addiction, teaching
Online: 10 October 2023 (12:17:21 CEST)
In Greece, as in most European countries, the heterogeneity of students leads to conflicts resulting in a general inability of the educational process to function. This review study is focused on modern issues affecting youth and school education procedures such as internet addiction, student behaviour expressed as bullying, and adolescent sexuality development. All sides agree that the most essential purposes of education are to emphasize the cultivation of interpersonal relationships, the development of sociability, and self-esteem, and the prevention. Teachers wanting to respond to the spirit of the times to rationalize the pedagogical process introduced the pedagogical contract as a school practice as a valuable tool in taking control of the class and gaining students' attendance. The teacher's positive attitude will create added value to their knowledge and experiences while helping them to integrate into society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0833.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: geoethics teaching; geoethics syllabus; higher education; sustainable development goals
Online: 13 September 2023 (05:29:59 CEST)
Geoethics is a field of knowledge currently in full development. Researchers in geoethics are pri-marily concerned with the anthropogenic interaction with the Earth system. Due to its nature, ge-oethics holds particular importance in sustainable development due to its nature as it aims to promote ethical human behaviour that does not negatively impact the Earth system. In the present research, we implemented an intervention program addressing various issues related to the sus-tainability of the Earth system, such as the exploitation of geological resources, the management of geological risks, and the conservation and promotion of geopatrimony. The intervention program was applied to higher education students in the geosciences field. A sample of 90 students from various geosciences courses completed an initial questionnaire, revealing limited knowledge about geoethics. This study resorted to mixed-method research involving interviews with some students who volunteered (n=52). The results showed that after applying the intervention programme most students had developed a deeper understanding of the topics addressed and recognised the con-tributions this scientific area can make to sustainable development. Additional research in geoethics education is essential to foster the integration of geoethics into the curricula of higher education institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: translation; project-based learning; self-regulation; teaching and learning
Online: 10 February 2023 (02:39:10 CET)
The Pandemic in 2019 forced a digital adaptation with direct consequences on all educational stakeholders. On behalf of teachers and trainers, while many regarded these changes with some scepticism, others embraced the opportunity to integrate technology into their teaching methods and as learning resources. As translation trainers, it is essential to follow and understand the translation market. Thus, the exponential changes that digital technology has brought to this sector over the years impose constant shifts in teaching and learning methods and resources. In fact, translators require vast competencies, amongst which is the flexibility to adapt. In translation training Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been established as an essential teaching and learning method, as it has proven to foster the development of competencies as it simulates the translator's work environment. Thus, the need to adapt new strategies reinforced PBL and its benefits. PBL, however, similar to a freelance translator, places the student in the centre of the learning process, where self-regulation becomes essential, as it is necessary to analyse the market/situation and be flexible enough to adapt to the context accordingly. As of 2018-2019, technical translation courses at ISCAP have implemented PBL as their main teaching and learning method. At the same time, a study on student self-regulation began. The purpose was to understand student perception on their own self-regulation competence and its development or lack thereof after one year of PBL. Results indicate that PBL is seen as a useful simulation of the translation labour market and that it does enhance many essential competences, amongst which is student self-regulation.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID 19; Health Education; RCSI; teaching and learning; Pandemic
Online: 30 October 2020 (10:13:08 CET)
Background: The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland - Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain) was closed due to COVID 19. The aim of this paper is to present our experience, in managing teaching and learning, during this pandemic. Methods: Following, ethical approval, several meetings were held with the senior faculty and student representatives to select alternative virtual approaches for teaching, learning and assessment with evidence-based instructional design. Informed consent was obtained from all study participants. All procedures were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations. In alignment with global scenario, we decided upon early graduation for our students, and expedited the clinical examinations, with special permission from health and education ministries. Two major clinical examinations were redesigned to form a single hybrid clinical examination with two parts. Following all COVID 19 preventive measures, students were taken in groups of seven and simulated patients were substituted for real patients. No more than 40 students were present at any point of time, with no more than 10 examined in one block. 149 out of 152 RCSI students attended the clinical examinations and 524 students from the three RCSI campuses attended the written online examination. A structured survey was conducted to elicit students’ perceptions and participation was entirely voluntary. Results: 82% of students were happier to be joining the workforce early and, 22% expressed concerns. A comparison of student performance in these examinations against the equivalent components from semester one yielded no significant deviation in student performance, illustrating that the quality was consistent. Conclusion: We recommend that the government accredit online or distance learning programmes and explore appropriate methodologies for evaluation of online learning and assessment. Incorporating practical/clinical training, will continue to be a great challenge.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0236.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: microlearning; culturally-responsive teaching; inclusion; equity; life science education
Online: 18 December 2019 (04:27:11 CET)
Some of the key features of inclusive and equitable teaching approaches encourage prompt feedback, student cooperation in communities of learning, active learning, and promotes diverse ways of knowing in the classroom. In my article, I present step-bystep tips to help instructors create guided microlearning inquiry questions within an inclusive and equitable general biology classroom setting. Microlearning is a special approach that helps students complete a specific task linked to a specific learning objective that would be completed in a short time window around five minutes. The step-by-step tips presented in my article helps instructors to develop questions aligned to specific learning objective to help clarify unclear or confusing topics in general biology using the Kahoot e-Learning platform. This guided microlearning inquiry toolkit provides a blueprint for helping instructors to infuse student-centered approaches to help clarify difficult concepts in general biology and further develop avenues refine students’ critical thinking and experimental design in biology research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1595.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teaching styles; model-based practice in physical education; physical fitness
Online: 26 September 2023 (08:11:07 CEST)
In recent years the study of the teacher-student relationship in the teaching-learning processes in physical education has had great emphasis. Previous studies have shown that the use of the Spectrum of teaching Styles can enhance intrinsic motivation, enjoyment, adherence to physical activity and physical activity levels in children and adolescents. The present study aims to assess if a physical education (PE) intervention based on the variations in teaching styles, with reference to production ones, can also have positive effects on physical fitness. The sample involved 4 primary school classes (n = 124 children, mean age = 8-10 years) recruited from the SBAM (Health, Wellness, Food Education and Movement at School) Project in Apulia, Southern Italy. Classes were randomly assigned to Experimental Group (EG) and Control Group (CG). EG followed a 5months experimental intervention based on the variation of teaching styles, while CG performed regular PE lessons. Physical fitness test was assessed with Standing Long Jump (SLJ), Medicine Ball Throw 1kg (MBT), and 20m sprint (20m), while two validated questionnaires were used to evaluate physical self-perception (PSP) and enjoyment. A 2x2 (intervention group x time) ANOVA was carried out to assess significant difference and interaction effect pre (t0) and post (t1) intervention protocol. Data analysis showed a significant improvement of physical fitness in both EG and CG, while PSP and enjoyment increased only in EG. Moreover, significant interaction (p<. 05) effects were found for 20m sprint, PSP and Enjoyment with low effect size (η2 ~. 20). The results of the present study highlight the effectiveness of a PE intervention based on the variation of teaching styles in improving physical fitness, self-perception, and enjoyment. Moreover, the use of production teaching styles significantly impacts self-perception and enjoyment, that are important mediating factors for guarantee better adherence to physical activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1543.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: quality physical education; spectrum of teaching styles; student-teacher relation
Online: 22 September 2023 (08:51:26 CEST)
The enhancement of physical and sports literacy in school setting are prerogatives and development aim for the physical education (PE) teachers. Therefore, as part of the teaching of motor activities, the proposal of motor tasks through different organizational modes (individual tasks, in pairs, in small groups, circuits, relay, paths, team games, etc.) is functional to the achievement of the educational objectives set in the didactic learning units. The present study aims to assess PE teachers’ perception about the use of teaching styles during curricular lessons. The sample involved a total of 83 PE teachers (M= 41, F= 42, main age= 43,74±10,76) divided according to years of service (0-4 = 36%, 5-10 = 34%, and over 10 = 30%) and academic training (ISEF= 44% and master’s degree= 56%). Teachers complete a digitalized version of a self-produced questionnaire to assess how many times they use each teaching styles during the last month. Results can be summarized as follows: (a) academic training is significantly associated with the command, inclusion, and guided-discovery styles in PE; (b) command and practice Styles are often used by PE teachers, regardless of years of service and academic training, and (c) guided discovery and convergent/divergent Discovery Styles are most frequently used by graduate teachers, regardless of years of service. The preliminary results of the analysis of PE teachers’ perception of teaching styles reveals the prevalence of the use of some styles over others, and this presuppose not only a different (but similar) teacher’s behavior, but also limits children’s way of learning a certain motor task. Future research and analysis will investigate the perception of different teaching styles according to seniority, school grade and academic training to design training courses for teachers adapted to children’s needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0332.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Innovation in teaching; Electromagnetic induction; High school students; Qualitative methods
Online: 24 June 2022 (07:43:23 CEST)
We present here a five hours experimentation of a didactical path about the electromagnetic induction addressed to students of the last year of an Italian scientific high school and oriented to better understand the physical origin of the induced electromotive force. The expression of the induced electromotive force as the sum of the term linked to the time variation of the magnetic field and of the motional one has been obtained in a detailed way, still suitable for presentation at high school. Many examples have been proposed to the students in order to clarify the conceptual physical knots. The students’ responses to a 6-questions multiple choice questionnaire have been analyzed. It emerged that our approach is concretely feasible although we find the well-known difficulties in calculating flux and circulation of a vector field. Furthermore, it emerged that an integral approach to the problem masks the understanding of the nature of the forces acting locally on the charges. Hence our proposal of a “redefinition” of the induced electric field in terms of the magnetic vector potential is also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0132.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: aesthetic ability; arts education; students’ learning; teacher role; teaching goals
Online: 9 June 2022 (03:44:33 CEST)
Aesthetic ability is a powerful tool that can enhance student learning outcomes in arts education. This study not only determines the effect of aesthetic ability on student learning but also determines the effects of different factors on improvement in students' aesthetic abilities. The data used to investigate the mentioned relationships have been obtained from randomly selected 322 undergraduate students of arts education at different universities in Chengdu, Sichuan, China. The reliability of the data has been tested through Cronbach’s Alpha and regression analysis has been employed to determine the relationships among variables. Study findings revealed that teacher role, clarity of teaching goal, scientific plan, students' guidance, future creation, learning reflection, participation in exhibitions, improvement of art, appreciation of artwork, and innovative teaching methods influence student learning positively and significantly. Further, the effect of improvement in aesthetic ability on student learning has been found to be positive and significant. Based on the findings, some important implications have been discussed at the end of the study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0091.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Teaching profile; Educational Innovation; Higher Education; Entrepreneurship; Ecuador; Education 4.0
Online: 2 March 2021 (12:46:27 CET)
Education 4.0 postulates the flexible combining of digital literacy, critical thinking, and problem-solving in training environments linked to real-world scenarios. Therefore, teachers are challenged to find or develop new methods and resources to integrate into their curricula to help students develop these desirable and necessary skills; hence, the question: What are the characteristics of a teacher to consider within the framework of Education 4.0? This article presents a study carried out in a higher education institution in Ecuador. The objective was to identify the teaching profile required in new careers within the framework of Education 4.0. The descriptive, exploratory methodology applied quantitative and qualitative instruments (surveys) to 337 undergraduate students in education careers and 313 graduates. It also included interviews with 20 experts in the educational field and five focus groups with 32 rectors, school principals, university professors and specialists in the educational area. The data was triangulated, and the results were categorized in (a) processes as facilitators (b), soft skills, (c) human sense and (d) use of technologies. This article may be of value to administrators, educational and social entrepreneurs, trainers, and decision-makers interested in implementing innovative training programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0660.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Digital transformation; active pedagogies; higher education; digitalisation; empowerment; teaching competences
Online: 25 December 2020 (13:06:19 CET)
The management of a cultural change in higher education is becoming necessary and unavoidable: changes in teaching, changes in research and changes in governance. Digital transformation is an essential part of many countries’ modernisation agendas. The aim of this non-experimental, descriptive, survey-based study was to explore the perceptions of university students toward the digital transformation that took place in university teaching as a consequence of COVID-19. The specific objectives proposed were to: a) analyse the perceptions of students toward digital transformation in university teaching; b) determine the valuation of students about the digital transformation that occurred in university teaching as a result of COVID-19; and c) explore the resources (hardware-software), professional collaboration, digital pedagogy and student empowerment (motivation) with respect to digital education and the recent changes in university teaching due to the pandemic. The results show that a large number of items are positively correlated. In conclusion, further research should delve into motivation, collaboration, reflective experience sharing, self-learning and initiatives that promote the development of competences in future teachers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0316.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Digital transformatio; active pedagogies; higher education; digitalisation; empowerment; teaching competences
Online: 24 December 2020 (09:15:24 CET)
The management of a cultural change in higher education is becoming necessary and unavoidable: changes in teaching, changes in research and changes in governance. Digital transformation is an essential part of many countries’ modernisation agendas. The aim of this non-experimental, descriptive, survey-based study was to explore the perceptions of university students toward the digital transformation that took place in university teaching as a consequence of COVID-19. The specific objectives proposed were to: a) analyse the perceptions of students toward digital transformation in university teaching; b) determine the valuation of students about the digital transformation that occurred in university teaching as a result of COVID-19; and c) explore the resources (hardware-software), professional collaboration, digital pedagogy and student empowerment (motivation) with respect to digital education and the recent changes in university teaching due to the pandemic. The results show that a large number of items are positively correlated. In conclusion, further research should delve into motivation, collaboration, reflective experience sharing, self-learning and initiatives that promote the development of competences in future teachers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Internet-assisted; English reading teaching; innovative designs; impact; constructivism theory
Online: 9 September 2019 (07:55:44 CEST)
With the development of Internet technology, teachers are constantly seeking innovative teaching methods to match the potential of enhanced technology. Although many studies have been performed before , they aren’t enough in this field. The purpose of this paper is to explore innovative teaching designs and examine the impact of Internet-assisted English teaching of reading based on constructivism. The case is carried out in NO.9 middle school of Bengbu, a underdeveloped area of China, most of students aren’t interested in learning English .We compared Internet-assisted with traditional textbook literature methods to improve the reading proficiency of students, using a questionnaire survey,pre-test and post-tests comparisons. The result showed Internet-assisted English reading teaching is better than textbook. It can arouse students' interest and motivation,reading proficiency and exam result of students have been improved significantly, created a positive learning situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0430.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: foreign language teaching; teacher expectation; expectancy strategies; attitude; academic achievement
Online: 19 November 2018 (07:38:50 CET)
The aim of the existing study is to investigate the influence of teacher expectation on students’ achievement and their attitudes towards English lesson and to increase the students’ academic success and positive attitudes towards this issue. In the study, a process which defined the existing situtation and which provided the educational processes to improve by changing the existing situation could be seen. For this reason, emancipatory/improving/critical action research model was used. The study was carried out on a sample group consisting of 87 students; 43 6th graders and 44 8th graders attending a school located in the city center of Düzce during the 2015-2016 academic year. In order to collect the data, “Teacher Expectancy Scale” developed by the researchers, “Attitude Scale towards English Course” and 7 test exams prepared by Turkish Ministry of National Education (MoNE) were used. The study was conducted for a total 48 hours in 12 weeks, 4 hours a week. As the result of the study, it was revealed that teacher expectation influenced the attitudes of the students towards the English lesson in a positive way and increased their academic achievements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1774.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: AI-Driven Dynamics; English Language Teaching; Evolving Pedagogies; Post-Pandemic Era
Online: 25 August 2023 (09:01:44 CEST)
This study delves into the dynamic intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and English Language Teaching (ELT) within the post-pandemic educational landscape. Grounded in Constructivism, Connectivism, and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), this research explores how AI integration impacts language instruction efficiency, benefits and challenges perceived by St. Michael's College students, differences in learning outcomes, and its potential to address the digital divide. Employing a qualitative approach, the study employs a rigorous method that includes intensive in-depth reviews of literature, maximum purposeful sampling, informal interviews, observation, and thematic analysis. Through these methods, data was collected from 30 participants, leading to the identification of five key themes. Findings suggest that AI enhances instructional efficiency, offers personalized learning experiences, and bridges gaps in remote settings. However, challenges and the importance of pedagogical balance emerged. The study underscores the need for adaptive pedagogical strategies to fully harness AI's potential. Future directions and limitations are discussed, emphasizing the study's implications for shaping the future of ELT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1847.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Data Science; Literate Programming; Teaching, Emacs; Org-mode; IDE; Case Study
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:31:08 CEST)
This paper presents a case study on using Emacs and Org-mode for literate programming in undergraduate data science courses. Over three academic terms, the author mandated these tools across courses in R, Python, C++, SQL, and more. Onboarding relied on simplified Emacs tutorials and starter configurations. Students gained proficiency after initial practice. Live coding sessions demonstrated the flexible instruction enabled by literate notebooks. Assignments and projects required documentation alongside functional code. Student feedback showed enthusiasm for learning a versatile IDE, despite some frustration with the learning curve. Skilled students highlighted efficiency gains in a unified environment. However, uneven adoption of documentation practices pointed to a need for better incorporation into grading. Additionally, some students found Emacs unintuitive, desiring more accessible options. This highlights a need to match tools to skills levels, potentially starting novices with graphical IDEs before introducing Emacs. Key takeaways include literate programming aids comprehension but requires rigorous onboarding and reinforcement; Emacs excels for advanced workflows but has a steep initial curve. With proper support, these tools show promise for data science education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: AI Literacy; AI Expertise; Subject-linked; Pre-service Teacher; Micro-teaching
Online: 29 May 2023 (10:51:09 CEST)
Artificial intelligence, a key technological tool in the era of the 4th Industrial Revolution, is being actively applied to education beyond industry, economy, and culture. In the future society, understanding and using artificial intelligence technology will be considered an essential skill for everyone, and the professionalism of AI education for pre-service teachers nurturing future talents is also important. This study verifies the effectiveness of pre-service teachers after undergoing a 15-week extension program consisting of AI Literacy Education (10 weeks), AI-Linked Subjet Education (3 weeks), and Micro-teaching (2 weeks) which was designed to enhance the AI education professionalism of pre-service teachers. The AI Literacy Education section consisted of understanding AI, AI ethics, and basic programming, and the education was conducted through both experience and practice. After that, the pre-service teachers analyzed the curriculum of the 5th and 6th grades of an elementary school, and developed a subject-related education program using AI tools in three stages. Using the developed program, micro-teaching classes were conducted twice. The study results are as follows. First, there was a change in the positive perception of AI (p<.05). Second, the understanding of AI educational technology tools was improved and the recognition of the usefulness of developing a curriculum-related program was expanded. Third, the importance of teacher competency development was learned through the micro-teaching, and the students' understanding of the learning process was expanded.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0544.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Digital Teaching Competence (DTC); higher education; continuing teacher education; educational innovation
Online: 30 August 2021 (12:14:56 CEST)
This article analyzes the assessment of the four development levels of the Digital Teaching Competence (DTC) to recognize the needs and formulation of challenges in training and educational innovation required in the pedagogical practices of university professors under the current context of the Covid-19 pandemic. The study used an empirical-analytical methodology with a non-experimental, transactional, descriptive design. The sample design was probabilistic, estimated with 95% confidence and 5% error among 252 teachers from various faculties of the University of La Guajira. The selected instrument corresponded to the rubric's application to evaluate the university professor's digital teaching competence in Latin America. Among the study's significant results, we highlight that the rubric presented a high Cronbach's alpha reliability (α: 0.947). In the general assessment of DTC development, it was estimated that 78.2% of teachers are in the first two levels of DTC development assessment (Beginning and Middle). The evaluation rubric allows identifying challenges and opportunities that teacher training must address to advance the professional development of professors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0039.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Emerging technologies; Educational Innovation; Artificial Intelligence; Robotics; Higher Education; Teaching Practices
Online: 2 August 2021 (13:03:43 CEST)
Emerging technologies have a potential future impact on the developments in higher education and teaching practices at the universities. The paper is based on the project “My future colleague robot” that aims to improve the competence of university teachers in the implementation of Emerging Technologies (ETs) in the teaching practices at the university. In this paper, we identified the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats that are related to the adoption of two ETs, robotics and Artificial Intelligence (AI), in higher education. Additionally, we analyzed the perceptions of faculty about these ETs. The empirical data was collected using written essays from 18 university teachers and students. Deductive and inductive approaches with thematic analysis were used for the data analysis. The findings support the idea that previous experience related to ETs can support positive attitudes and the implementations of ET in university teaching. University teachers had optimistic expectations towards ETs accepting them as part of teaching practice development, while discussion about the negative effects of ETs was negligible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0010.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: digital teaching competence; information and communication technology; blended-learning; COVID-19.
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:06:33 CEST)
The education system has become even more complex following the global pandemic, which saw face-to-face teaching transition to virtual teaching. To cope with this abrupt transition, it is essential that teachers had a sufficient level of digital teaching competence. This article aims to increase awareness of teachers' self-perception of their digital teaching competences in the educational field. Specifically, this study explores Spanish secondary school teachers’ knowledge and use of different ICT tools by evaluating their competence based on different areas proposed by The National Institute of Technology and Professional Development (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologías Educativas y de Formación del Profesorado, INTEF), Madrid, Spain. From the results of the questionnaires, we have determined that teachers consider themselves to have an upper intermediate level of digital teaching competence, although there are still shortcomings that need to be addressed in order to improve this level of competence, and its true integration in the teaching–learning process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0672.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: mathematics education; problem solving; mathematical modelling; application-oriented teaching of mathematics
Online: 25 December 2020 (17:25:56 CET)
Problem solving is one of the most important components of the human cognition that affects for ages the progress of the human society. Mathematical modelling is a special type of problem solving concerning problems related to science or everyday life situations. The present study is a review of the author’s earlier works on problem solving and mathematical modelling from the scope of Education. Its real goal is that it presents in a systematic way and in a few pages only the results of many years research on the subject. This helps the reader to get a comprehensive idea about a very important topic belonging to the core of Mathematics Education, which is very useful to those wanting to study deeper the subject and get directions for further research in the area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0220.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; online learning; new teaching and assessment methods; medical education
Online: 17 June 2020 (13:23:11 CEST)
Coronavirus (COVID19) appears to be an inflection point that is forcing a disruption in medical education. However, it is not clear what the responses of the institutions are to this pandemic and how the adaptation of new methods may impact medical education in the post COVID-19 era. Objective: The study aims to explore how medical schools in Egypt responded to COVID-19 pandemic regarding the teaching and learning/assessment for undergraduate students. Design: A mixed method exploratory two-phase study was conducted. A survey was prepared and disseminated to a convenient non-probability sample of the medical school faculty through various social platforms. Then, a focus group guide was conducted to explore in more depth the findings. Results: The staff level of preparedness for that unexpected shift was evaluated by 55.1% of the survey participants as optimum to high and a good leadership support was reported by 70 % of them. They reported conflicting views about the proper role of medical education units but reinforced the idea of Egyptian Knowledge Bank’s crucial role in this transition. Additionally, there is a communication problem with the students that leads to their detachment. Subsequently, 84.6 % of the participants reported that their schools used alternative teaching methods for small groups, large groups, pre-clinical and clinical clerkships. However, 64.1 % of the participants identified a clinical skills teaching challenge. Although, 68.4% reported that alternative methods were used for formative assessment but absence of alternative methods for summative assessment was declared by 76.3%. Conclusions: Individuals moved faster than bodies and relied on support existing outside the universities when catastrophe happened. However, institutes which have experience in adapting modern engaging learning methods should organize a better response for crisis. Online learning should be integrated in the curriculum with a fair percentage especially in the early years of medical study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0148.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Sustainable Teaching; multidisciplinary; multicultural; teams; Case-based Learning; Problem-based Learning; teamwork
Online: 26 April 2021 (15:38:20 CEST)
This article investigates the prospect of implementing multidisciplinary and multicultural student teamwork (MMT) involving Case-based Learning (CBL) and Problem-based Learning (PBL) as a sustainable teaching practice. Based on a mixed methods approach, which includes direct observation (both physical and virtual), questionnaire distribution and focus-group interviews the study reveals that MMT through CBL and PBL can both facilitate and hinder sustainable learning. Our findings show that while MMT enhances knowledge sharing, it also poses a wide range of challenges, raising questions about its social significance as a sustainable teaching practice. The study suggests the implementation of certain mechanisms, such as ‘Teamwork Training’ and ‘Pedagogical Mentors’, aiming to strengthen the sustainable orientation of MMT through CBL and PBL.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0032.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Project-oriented learning; sustainable development objectives; teaching innovation; situated learning; COVID-19.
Online: 1 April 2021 (16:19:26 CEST)
The use of active methodologies in the university is a priority to achieve higher quality learning. One of these methodologies with the greatest potential for training in competencies is Project-Oriented Learning (PLA), using it in an innovative way. Associating the use of this methodology with the objectives of sustainable development, which have become even more important since the Pandemic by COVID-19, can be a good idea to achieve a more sustained and situated learning. The aim of this study is to find out to what extent research on teaching innovation with Project-Oriented Learning is associated with the Sustainable Development Goals. A systematic review was carried out as indicated by PRISMA through the following databases: WOS and Scopus. WOS found 15 articles on AoP and 6 on Project-Oriented Learning and sustainability. In Scopus 2 were found in 2019. The main results show that in the University, especially in the branches of engineering, AoP is widely used, however, it is rarely related to SDGs. Among the conclusions, we highlight the need for research on project-oriented learning and sustainable development goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0507.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; online teaching; physical education; physical activity; teachers; secondary school
Online: 19 November 2020 (11:26:28 CET)
COVID-19 pandemic has drastically reduced physical activity (PA) behaviors of many people. Physical education (PE) is considered one of the privileged instruments to promote youths’ PA. We aimed to investigate the effects of lockdown on PE teachers’ behaviors promoting their students’ out-of-school PA and differences between three European countries. 1146 PE teachers (59.5% females) from France, Italy, and Turkey answered an online questionnaire about guiding students to engage in out-of-school PA, helping them to set PA goals, encouraging in self-monitoring PA, the pedagogical formats of these behaviors and feedback asked to students. RM-MANCOVAs were performed with a 2 Time (before and during the lockdown) × 3Country (France, Italy, Turkey) × 2 Gender factorial design, using teaching years and perceived health as covariates. A significant multivariate main effect Time×Country×Gender (p<.001) was reported for the behaviors promoting students’ PA, with French and Italian teachers increasing some behaviors, while Turkish teachers showing opposite trends. Significant multivariate main effects Time×Country were found for formats supporting the behaviors (p < .001) and for asked feedback formats (p<.001). The massive contextual change imposed by lockdown caused different reactions in teachers from the three countries. Findings are informative for PA promotion and PE teachers’ education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0463.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Active Teaching; Team-Based Learning; Physiotherapy Education; Collaborative Learning; Cognitivism; Social Constructivism
Online: 20 August 2020 (13:16:54 CEST)
In recent years, team-based learning (TBL) is gaining popularity as a student-centered active collaborative learning strategy in healthcare education. This paper reports the design, implementation, and impact of a "hybrid team-based learning" (H-TBL) for one respiratory lecture in year two undergraduate physiotherapy program in 2019. A retrospective study was conducted, including 136 second-year undergraduate physiotherapy students using H-TBL design for one respiratory lecture topic. Student engagement was evaluated based on the percentage of completion for pre-class work, attendance to classroom session, and submission of formative creative assignment. Student' performance on formative creative tasks was evaluated based on thinking and learning rubric. Student perceptions were assessed based on the student's feedback using "Mentimeter." 109/ 136 (80%) students attended the COPD 2 session. 90/109 (82%) students engaged in COPD 1 (web-based) and tRAT in COPD 2 session. 54/109 (50%) students provided feedback and 67/90 (74%) students submitted formal formative creative assignment on completion of COPD 2 session. This study confirms that H-TBL enhances student's active engagement, creativity, and equilibration of their subject knowledge. Future randomized studies are mandated to explore the validity and specificity of H-TBL in diverse physiotherapy curriculum to evaluate the long-term student engagement and academic performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0088.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: systematic review; second language acquisition; research interests; second language teaching and learning
Online: 8 November 2019 (04:21:41 CET)
The purpose of this systematic review is to provide second language acquisition (SLA) researchers with an overview of research trends in this field in the last ten years (2009-2019). In doing so, three international peer-reviewed journals, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, Language Teaching Research, and The Modern Language Journal, were selected. 150 articles were systematically selected and analyzed. The analysis of data resulted in identifying six descriptive themes. Results showed that some areas of second language acquisition still need further exploration while some areas are of great interest for researchers. Some suggestions for future research as well as implications of the study were discussed in detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Career choice predictors, Affective and Cognitive Domains, Science teacher training, International teaching.
Online: 21 June 2019 (11:28:25 CEST)
Attitudes and behaviours towards the natural environment have been extensively studied in certain cultural settings during the last 40 years. In education, the teacher's ability to grasp the fundamentals of an academic subject may define his or her own attitudes towards that discipline; certainly the reverse is also valid. The correlations between affective and cognitive domains appear to play a significant role in teaching-learning dynamics. In this study we seek to assess whether the affective posture towards school sciences of a cohort of teachers in rural communities shows an association with their cognitive competence in the disciplines. The results of this study provide evidence that there is a statistically significant correlation between the cognitive and affective domains for in-service teachers. The affective domain, therefore, could serve as a predictor for cognitive competency and self-efficacy expectancies with respect to both content and career fulfilment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0523.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: game-based learning; game design; project-based teaching; informatics and society, cybersecurity
Online: 26 July 2018 (16:38:48 CEST)
This article discusses the use of game design as a method for interdisciplinary project-based teaching in secondary school education to convey informatics and society topics. There is a lot of knowledge about learning games but little background on project-based teaching using game design as a method. We present the results of an analysis of student-created games and an evaluation of a student-authored database on learning contents found in commercial off-the-shelf games. We further contextualise these findings using a group discussion with teachers. Results underline the effectiveness of project-based teaching to raise awareness for informatics and society topics. We further outline informatics and society topics that are particularly interesting to students, genre preferences and potentially engaging game mechanics stemming from our analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1825.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Focus group discussion; Online teaching; Student perception; Dental education; online learning; Faculty development
Online: 27 July 2023 (03:46:29 CEST)
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the education sector of Bangladesh suffered a lot. To adapt to this uncertain situation, the online teaching-learning method was introduced for the first time in the dental colleges to continue regular classes. This qualitative study explored the in-depth perception among students of this new, affordable, flexible online learning method and to find out the scope of improvement of the delivery method. Two focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted, each including 6-8 participants (N=16, the male: female ratio was 7:9) for gaining an in-depth understanding of the perception of online teaching among the dental students. With the help of the trigger questions, the facilitator and moderators conducted both the FGDs. By analysing the Focus group discussion, four distinct themes were identified. The main themes extracted from the data refer to the difficulties which students faced during participation in online classes (e.g., low attention span, unusual timing of classes, internet accessibility, power cut, boring content, etc.), advantages of online learning (e.g., saves time, able to continue studying during the lockdown, saves money, avoids commuting, being safe during a pandemic situation, one can participate in classes if sick, etc.), disadvantages of online classes (e.g., not feasible for clinical classes and lab works, lack of social interactions, lack of group study, long screen time, lack of after class peer discussion, lack of engagement, etc.), and also scopes of improvements (e.g., technological training for staff, recorded classes, technological orientation for students, more engaging contents, online support, more interactive lessons, short duration of the class, break after 30-45 minutes and also teachers training for online facilitation, etc.). In Bangladesh, the online teaching-learning method is not a regular practice. Most of the institutions were forced to adopt this method on very short notice because of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. Online education in a clinical subject like dentistry requires a special training program, online content preparation, and interactive lesson delivery setup which are big challenges for a re-source-constrained medical education setup. The focus group discussion unveiled some key issues which indicated that there are many scopes for improvement in online teaching methods. With the help of the medical education department and through faculty development the online learning sessions can be made attractive as well as beneficiary for the key stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0283.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: energy policy; energy economics; renewable energy; fossil energy; nuclear energy; hybrid energy; teaching
Online: 23 May 2022 (03:33:09 CEST)
Issues related to safe and abundant energy production have been prominent in recent years. This is particularly tr ue when society considers how to increase the quality of life by providing low-cost energy to citizens. A significant concern of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) relates to the environmental effects of energy production and energy use associated with climate change. Efforts to reduce fossil fuel use and increase the use of renewable energy, together with the price volatility of fossil fuels, have seriously impacted the economics of many of the oil-producing countries, particularly the Gulf States, which has led to efforts to make their economies more diverse and less dependent on oil production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0545.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Covid-19; online teaching and learning; face to face study; learning management system
Online: 24 May 2021 (09:01:42 CEST)
The study is an attempt to enquire into the preference of undergraduate students, after a considerable and over a year-long experience with Online Teaching and Learning (OTL), under the emergency preventive measure of switching from the traditional face-to-face classes to online. The study followed an exploratory approach, with a quantitative survey followed by a qualitative one, and a convenient sampling method to collect responses from a substantial sample size. The study is positioned after more than a year of remote classes by the undergraduate student, and hence represents highly experienced reflections and preferences from these students, as compared to other studies conducted last year. The study has profound implications in considering, and questioning, the importance of on-campus classes, and significance of the physical presence of a tutor in the class, and its effect on the learning experience of undergraduate students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2153.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: recovery of educational skills; post-pandemic teaching experiences; junior high school teachers; phenomenological study
Online: 1 August 2023 (03:51:20 CEST)
This study aimed to explore the experiences of teachers in the recovery of educational skills. Specifically, ten teachers of Andap National High School are selected for the in-depth interview. This study employed a qualitative-phenomenological research design of which in-depth interview (IDI) was used in gathering the data. The study utilized phenomenological approach to study a particular phenomenon concerning the post-pandemic experiences of teachers in the implementation of the face-to-face classes. After gathering sufficient amount of data through the conduct of in-depth interviews, thematic analysis was used to analyse further the results and to check the disparities and similarities of all responses gathered. This was the time wherein responses were categorized and organized into themes. The findings of the study revealed that the challenges encountered of educational skills recovery were sources of learning materials, learning gaps, learners characteristics, difficulty with comprehension and lack of interest. It was also revealed that the most challenging teaching experiences in the recovery of educational skills were catching attention, learning gaps, communicating to students, need for remedial instruction, retroactive interference and difficulty in understanding English Language. They frequently have to quickly convert lesson material they had intended to teach in a classroom setting to any learning modality implemented. Further, adjust and learn new trend, provide opportunities to develop new skills, helps to manage stress, improved educational outcomes, become well-rounded teacher, networking and learning and continue doing responsibilities helped in these insights had in confronting challenges brought by the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0387.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Scholarship evaluation; Tenure and promotion; Teaching and mentoring; Researcher evaluation; Academic career; Open science
Online: 19 January 2021 (16:37:50 CET)
In most world’s countries, scholarship evaluation for tenure and promotion continues to rely on conventional criteria of publications in journals of high impact factor and grant funding. Continuing to hire and promote scholars for their achievements in research and in securing research funds exposes universities at risk because students, directly and indirectly through government funds, are the main source of revenues for academic institutions, whereas talented young researchers are those who actually carry out most of the published research. Purposeful scholarship evaluation needs to include all three areas of scholarly activity: research, teaching and mentoring, and service to society. Young scholars seeking tenure and promotion benefit from the practice of open science because it provides better and more impactful results with respect to each of the three areas of scholarship.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: constructivism; e-learning; online teaching; social constructivism theory; cognitive learning theory; transformative learning theory
Online: 18 December 2020 (16:29:27 CET)
The COVID-19 outbreaks have caused universities all across the globe to close their campuses and forced them to initiate online teaching. This article reviews the pedagogical foundations for developing effective distance education practices, starting from the assumption that promoting autonomous thinking is an essential element to guarantee full citizenship in a democracy and for moral decision making in situations of rapid change, which has become a pressing need in the context of a pandemic. In addition, the main obstacles related to this new context are identified, and solutions are proposed according to the existing bibliography in learning sciences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0807.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: critical thinking; pre-service teachers; education for sustainable development; case-based teaching; rubric; content analysis
Online: 13 October 2023 (02:50:29 CEST)
Empowering teachers with Critical Thinking and understanding of sustainability is vital for guiding students’ informed decisions and actions in today’s world. Higher education needs innovative, student-centered methods like case-based teaching in order to promote Critical Thinking and the principles of Education for Sustainable Development. The aim of the study was to explore and evaluate pre-service teachers' Critical Thinking when engaged with case studies in a practicum preparation course centered on Education for Sustainable Development. Nine undergraduate students in Teacher Education participated in the study and answered four case studies. The case studies’ responses were analyzed through a bottom-up content analysis revealing eight higher-order categories. While approaching the case studies, student-teachers followed thinking processes similar to the processes proposed by the iterative models of Critical Thinking as perceived by Garrison (1991) and/or Brookfield (1987). Nevertheless, in some cases, pre-service teachers’ disengagement was evident. The rubric assessment highlighted that the responses fell under three profiles, namely the “Deficient Critical Thinker”, the “Emerging Critical Thinker” and the “Competent Critical Thinker”. The findings emphasize the need for targeted and individualized teaching interventions in teacher higher education programs aiming at Education for Sustainable Development complying with the learning needs of student-teachers’ Critical Thinking profiles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1718.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: forest education; innovations in teaching; transformative learning; strategy games; sustainable forest landscape governance; social innovation
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:07:38 CEST)
Forest education is pivotal for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and promoting sustainable forest management in the face of global challenges. However, existing programs struggle to keep up with rapidly changing crises and uncertainties that contribute to deforestation and forest degradation. To address these challenges, integrating innovative approaches into forest education is crucial. This paper demonstrates the transformative use of a role-playing game as an innovative teaching method for integrated forest management. The game provides students with practical experience and a comprehensive understanding of landscape approaches, using the Congo Basin as a case study. Our research focuses on sustainable forest governance, stakeholder roles, and valuing natural assets and ecosystem services, supporting the transformation of economic, political, and social/cultural relationships at various scales. We highlight the potential of innovative forest education to foster sustainability, trigger critical thinking, resolve conflicts, and prevent costly forest losses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0211.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; active learning; science learning; applied technology, assessment for learning; new teaching material development
Online: 16 May 2022 (13:13:32 CEST)
Pandemic scenario has significantly changed several factors of life, including teaching, and learning at university. The development of suitable teaching materials to support university studies is mandatory to overcome distance learning difficulties and improve traditional teaching methodologies. This work explains a novel method for the preparation of teaching materials for medical sciences, but also plausible for other learning fields. An encephalon was extracted and prepared by using this methodology for teaching purposes. More than 200 students evaluated several factors of the material prepared this way, indicating a better understanding (up to 80%) of theoretical contents related to this human section, together with a high usability and good physical appearance
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: pre-service teacher education; teacher evaluation; pre-service physical education teacher; class demonstration; teaching behavior analysis
Online: 9 January 2023 (03:09:08 CET)
This study aimed to evaluate the level of skill in observing teaching competency in pre-service physical education (PE) teachers and provide basic data to cultivate teaching competency. A total of 21 third-year pre-service PE teachers were selected as participants. The study derived descriptive statistics to analyze the participants’ observation skills regarding teaching competency in different class stages using evaluation results of class demonstrations by pre-service teachers. Mann–Whitney U test was conducted to verify the statistical significance of the evaluation between in-service and pre-service teachers. Compared with in-service teachers, pre-service teachers reported high agreement with intuitive teaching behaviors. However, pre-service teachers indicated low agreement with skills that required complex teaching behaviors depending on various situations. Based on theories by Schon (1983), pre-service teachers showed high “knowledge for practice” and low “knowledge in practice.” Thus, pre-service education must balance practical knowledge and theory rather than focus on theory-based education. This study provided directions for pre-service teacher education to enhance the competency of pre-service teachers for leading and analyzing classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0468.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; critical realism; emergency remote teaching; higher education; rural-based university; unintended pedagogical consequences
Online: 31 October 2022 (06:43:22 CET)
In this empirical article, we argue that, while emergency remote teaching (ERT) may have achieved its goal of saving the academic years during the COVID-19 pandemic, it also constructed unintended pedagogical consequences that were possibly overlooked at the time of advocating it. The research question that the article attempted to answer is, what unintended pedagogical consequences did students and lecturers suffer because of the move to ERT at rural-based universities (RBUs) in South Africa? Drawing on students' and lecturers’ lived experiences of ERT, this article foregrounds unintended pedagogical consequences that arose at one RBU in South Africa during the transition from face-to-face teaching to ERT. Underpinned by the tenets of critical realism philosophy, as well as student integration theory, in-depth interviews with three lecturers and six students were conducted. The findings of the study indicate that home conditions, individual characteristics, pre-COVID-19 blended learning experiences, university training and support, and teaching, learning, and assessment practices and policies altogether contributed to the construction of unintended pedagogical consequences of ERT presented in this article. These consequences include (1) exclusion of low-income students in active teaching and learning, (2) equipping middle-class students with better chances of success than working-class students. (3) distressing female students and lecturers more than their male counterparts, and (4) unproductive assessment practices. This study may be beneficial to academics and policymakers from similar contexts in their plight to continue with remote teaching and assessment (RTA) beyond the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: information technologies (I.T); sign language; hearing impairment; traditional games; primary school teaching; inclusive education; physical education
Online: 2 November 2021 (11:54:47 CET)
This article propose a didactic, through games, tool based on information and communication technologies, in order to eliminate possible communication barriers and to promote the inclusion of students with hearing impairment in Physical Education classes. To this end, a dossier of traditional games has been developed. These are structured in turn into objectives, materials, organisation, graphic description and a QR code for each game. These codes are linked to different videos hosted on the YouTube platform, in which the explanation of the games, mentioned above, can be visualised graphically using sign language. The whole creative process is described in the article, as well as possible pedagogical applications of the use of the tools created for this purpose in other educational contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0496.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: cultural competence; evolution teaching; religious cultural competence in evolution education; action research; resistance to evolution learning
Online: 21 September 2020 (04:33:34 CEST)
Acknowledging the diverse perceptions about science-religion relationships among learners who come from various religious environments may increase learners’ willingness to learn about evolution. This study is based on a zoology course designed for in-service teachers, which aimed to provide basic scientific knowledge about evolution using the Religious Cultural Competence in Evolution Education framework. The study explores whether learners who were resistant to evolution modify their attitudes and willingness to learn about it, and whether they develop respect toward learners who hold contradicting views. Using qualitative methods, the findings indicate that using the Religious Cultural Competence in Evolution Education framework increased some formerly "resistant" learners’ willingness to learn about evolution and include it in their own teaching, albeit in varying degrees and with various reservations. The learners appreciated the freedom to express their challenges concerning evolution learning or teaching and became more willing to respect opposing perspectives, even though not all the religious learners accepted evolution as an explanation for the development of organisms. This study has international implications for bridging the gap between science and religion, thus reducing resistance to learning and teaching about evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1187.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO); Thermal Units; Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs); Comparative Study; Load Management Strategies
Online: 16 August 2023 (10:04:39 CEST)
This research paper presents an enhanced economic load dispatch (ELD) approach using the Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO) algorithm for 10 thermal units, examining the impact of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) in different charging scenarios. The TLBO algorithm is utilized to optimize the ELD problem, considering the complexities associated with thermal units. The integration of PEVs in the load dispatch optimization is investigated, and different charging profiles and probability distributions are defined for PEVs in various scenarios, including overall charging profile, off-peak charging, peak charging, and stochastic charging. These tables allow for the modeling and analysis of PEV charging behavior and power requirements within the power system. By incorporating PEVs, additional controllable resources are introduced, enabling more effective load management and grid stability. The comparative analysis showcases the advantages of the TLBO-based ELD model with PEVs, demonstrating the potential of coordinated dispatch strategies leveraging PEV storage and controllability. This paper emphasizes the importance of integrating PEVs into the load dispatch optimization process, utilizing the TLBO algorithm, to achieve economic and reliable power system operation while considering different PEV charging scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0026.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: reflective evaluation tool; pre-service teacher education; teaching competency; pre-service phys-ical education teacher; Delphi survey
Online: 2 June 2022 (04:44:37 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to develop a reflective evaluation tool that can enhance the teaching competency of pre-service physical education teachers. A Delphi survey was conducted to modify the questions based on the evaluation tool for the teaching competency of physical education teachers, and each evaluation standard based on teaching competency was developed. The evaluation tool consisted of 46 questions for class preparation (the creation of the learning environment), the introduction (routine activities, learning goals, and task presentation), development (class strategy, observation and interaction, and the maintenance of the learning environment), and conclusion (routine activities, summary, and closure). It was designed to increase the accuracy of evaluation by developing evaluation criteria for each question. An evaluation tool including quantitative and qualitative methods for use in pre-service physical education teacher education was developed. The significance of this study was the development of an effective evaluation tool that can evaluate the core teaching behaviors in the field of physical education. This evaluation tool should be used as a learning tool that includes planning, operation, evaluation, and seeking improvement measures through reflective activities. If pre-service teacher education institutions apply this evaluation tool in their teacher training programs, it would be a great chance to learn how to develop and sustain teaching abilities and effectiveness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0191.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: medical writing; research communication; biomedical publications; teaching; medical education; article introduction; faculty training; early-career researchers; medical authorship
Online: 10 December 2021 (15:01:35 CET)
Skilled academic/medical writing is critical to research communication. The fundamental sections of a scholarly manuscript are introduction, methods, results and discussion. The introduction of a medical manuscript is aimed at briefing readers on the clinical extent and public health context of the research problem. It must justify the essentialness of the research to the scientific community and reveal any underlying research novelty. Skillfully conceived, designed and performed research protocols that are unskillfully presented can lose scientific credibility and impact. Without research communication skills authors would not be able to display the usefulness of their research for the scientific community. Generally, research communication or medical writing training/skills is underrepresented in curricular systems of medical schools globally. This can challenge publication quality and quantity of early-career authors/researchers. The author presents the academic experience he accumulated through peer review and supervision of vast manuscripts and theses. This article aimed at presenting a comprehensive roadmap for academic writing of the introduction and at identifying its common pitfalls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0590.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Physical education; COVID-19; primary school; self-efficacy; work engagement; school closure; classroom teachers; digital competence; online teaching; lockdown
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:41:22 CEST)
This study aimed to evaluate whether primary school classroom teachers reported changes in physical education teaching self-efficacy (SE-PE) and work engagement (WE) during the first COVID-19 wave. Six-hundred-twenty-two classroom teachers filled in an online questionnaire on SE-PE and WE, referring to before and during the lockdown, and on perceived digital competence. While controlling for perceived digital competence, a mixed between-within Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (RM-MANCOVA) was performed, with a two-time (before vs. during the lockdown) and three age-categories (≤40 vs. 41-50 vs. ≥51 years) factorial design. The RM-MANCOVA revealed that perceived digital competence significantly adjusted teachers’ SE-PE and WE values (p<0.001). The analysis yielded a significant multivariate main effect by time (p< 0.001) and by time × age-categories (p=0.001). Follow-up univariate ANCOVA showed significant differences by time in teachers’ SE-PE (p<0.001) and WE (p < 0.001), with a reduction of both values from before to during the lockdown. A Bonferroni post hoc pairwise comparisons showed teachers’ SE-PE significantly decreased in all age categories (p<0.001). The present findings confirm the importance of promoting SE-PE among primary school teachers, regardless of the crisis due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Teachers’ self-efficacy and WE are essential to master the challenges of PE teaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0874.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: bullying; enabling environment; health promoting school; occupational health and safety; safe school; teaching and learning; workplace violence; employee assistance program
Online: 13 June 2023 (04:21:13 CEST)
Despite several studies on learner-to-teacher workplace violence and harassment, the problem persists in some South African schools. Learner-to-teacher violence and harassment is a form of workplace violence and harassment as schools are workplaces for teachers. Learner-to-teacher violence and harassment is therefore an important occupational health and safety issues for teachers. The employer is obliged to provide a safe working environment for the teachers to enable quality teaching and learning in the schools. The purpose of this interpretative phenomenological study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of high school teachers who have been targets of workplace violence and harassment perpetrated by learners at selected schools in Limpopo province of South Africa. Many teachers were willing to share their lived-experiences but due to data saturation, only eleven participated after being selected through purposive sampling from seven high schools under a particular circuit. Research ethics of voluntary participation, informed consent, ethical clearance and gatekeeper permission were observed. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews using an interview guide. Interviews were audio-taped, and field notes were also taken. Voice recordings were transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis into themes and sub-themes. Findings were confirmed by an independent coder to achieve trustworthiness. Teachers experienced physical workplace violence and harassment, verbal workplace violence and harassment as well as nonverbal workplace violence and harassment from learners. Learner-to-teacher workplace violence and harassment affects teachers emotionally and in turn affects quality teaching and learning in the schools. Some teachers propose involvement of community policing forum, strengthening of School Governing Bodies as well as reducing overcrowding in the classroom as possible solutions to deal with learner-to-teacher bullying.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1100.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: ChatGPT; google bard; innovations; AI in medicine; health IT; artificial intelligence; large language model; medical education; language processing; virtual teaching assistant
Online: 18 September 2023 (13:37:48 CEST)
The growing dependence on large language models (LLM)s highlights the urgent need to deepen trust in these technologies. Regular, rigorous validation of their expertise, especially in nuanced and intricate scenarios, is essential to ensure their readiness for clinical applications. Our study pioneers the exploration of LLM utility in the field of cardiology. We stand at the cusp of a transformative era where mature AI and LLMs, notably ChatGPT, GPT-4, and Google Bard, are poised to influence healthcare significantly. Recently, we put three available LLMs, OpenAI's ChatGPT-3.5, GPT-4.0, and Google's Bard, to the test against a significant Polish medical special-ization licensing exam (PES). The exams cover the scope of completed specialist training, focusing on diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, excluding invasive medical procedures and interven-tions. In our analysis, GPT-4 consistently outperformed the others, ranking first, with and Google Bard and ChatGPT- 3.5 following, respectively. The performance metrics underscore GPT-4's no-table potential in medical applications. Given a score improvement of over 23.5 % between two AI models released just four months apart, clinicians must stay informed and up-to-date about these rapidly evolving tools and their potential applications to clinical practice. Our results provide a snapshot of the current capabilities of these models, highlighting the nuanced performance dif-ferences when confronted with identical questions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0339.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: application based active learning; active learning methodology; cooperative learning; DC/DC converter; DC motor; DC/AC converter engineering education; learner-centered teaching
Online: 18 November 2021 (18:18:33 CET)
This paper presents an Application Based Active Learning (ABAL) methodology on Power Electronics (PE) and Electric Machines (EM) as a hybrid laboratory course for the undergraduate students to design and implement the real-world engineering problems. The ABAL is a type of active learning which is a branch of Learner-centered teaching (LCT). The DC/DC converter along with the speed control of DC separately excites the motor. In addition, a DC/AC converter is designed to control the speed of an induction motor. The results are then investigated on a hardware platform under the ABAL experimental methodology. This paper also discusses the problem identification selection of the equipment, circuit design, hardware mounting and critical analysis of the results acquired from the hybrid laboratory. The ABAL methodology was evaluated based on student satisfaction, feedback, grades and interest to solve the real-world problem rather than cramming the engineering concepts and fulfill so-called lab routine and tasks
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ME/CFS; education; medical school; teaching; long Covid; patient safety, NICE Guidelines, Health Act 1983, General Medical Council, GMC, Medical Schools Council, MSC, Long Covid.
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:16:27 CET)
Background and objectives: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome ME/CFS is a common complex multi-system disease with a significant impact on the quality of life of patients and their families, yet the majority of ME/CFS patients go unrecognised or undiagnosed. For two decades the medical education establishment in the UK has been challenged to remedy these failings, but little has changed. This study was designed to ascertain the current UK medical school education on ME/CFS and to identify challenges and opportunities to inform the future of medical education. Materials and methods: A questionnaire, developed under the guidance of the Medical Schools Council, was sent to all 34 UK Medical Schools to collect data for the academic year 2018-2019. Results: Responses were provided by 22 out of a total of 34 medical schools (65%). 59% of respondents taught ME/CFS, led by specialists drawn from 6 medical disciplines. Teaching delivery was usually by lecture; however, discussion case studies and e-learning were used. 7 schools included questions on ME/CFS in their examinations and 3 schools reported likely clinical exposure to ME/CFS patients. 64% of respondents were interested in receiving further teaching aids in ME/CFS. None of the schools shared details of their teaching syllabus so it was not possible to ascertain what students were being taught. Conclusions: UK medical school teaching in ME/CFS is shown to be inadequate. Several medical disciplines, with known differences about the disease, need to set these aside to give greater clarity in teaching undergraduates so they can more easily recognise and diagnose ME/CFS. Improvements are proposed in ME/CFS medical education consistent with the international paradigm shift in biomedical understanding of this disease. Many medical schools (64% of respondents) acknowledge this need by expressing a strong appetite for the development of further teaching aids and materials. The GMC and MSC are called upon to use their considerable influence to bring about the appropriate changes to medical school curricula so future doctors can recognise, diagnose and treat ME/CFS. The GMC should also consider creating a registered speciality encompassing ME/CFS, post viral fatigue and Long Covid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teaching and learning ıssues in mathematics; social ıssues in mathematics education; cultural ıssues in mathematics education; political ıssues in mathematics education; technological ıssues in mathematics education
Online: 5 June 2017 (06:13:28 CEST)
In this paper, we discuss major issues of mathematics teaching and learning in Nepal. The issues coming from theories such as social and radical constructivism suggest that teachers are not trained to use such approach in teaching mathematics, and there is a lack of teaching aids and materials and technological tools. The issues related to social aspects are gender issues, language issues, social justice issues, and issues related to the achievement gap. The cultural issues are related to the diversity of language and ethnicity. The issues related to political aspects are equity and access, economic status, pedagogical choice, and professional organizations and unions. The issues related to technology include the technological skills, use of technology, and affordance. Finally, we suggest that all the stakeholders should pay attention to resolving these issues by improving the curriculum, training teachers, resourcing the classroom with locally made and new technological tools.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education, Education 5.0, Education 6.0, Technology in Education , Educational Philosophy, Learning experience , Curriculum, paradigm shift, Future of Education, Learning sciences, teaching, cognitive science, educational psychology, Holistic development.
Online: 25 July 2023 (10:41:29 CEST)
As education continues to evolve in response to technological advancements, the concept of Education 5.0 has gained prominence. However, it is crucial to critically analyze the limitations and challenges of this model. This article presents a comprehensive examination of Education 5.0, identifies its drawbacks, and proposes a vision for Education 6.0. Through insightful case studies and discussions, this article aims to provide a nuanced perspective on the future of education.