REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1145.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: mucin; glycosylation; cancer; MUC1; targeted therapy
Online: 18 September 2023 (09:39:45 CEST)
Mucin glycans are important component of the mucus barrier and vital defence against physical and chemical damage as well as pathogens. Abnormal expression of mucin glycans can lead to disease, especially cancer. Here, we first summarize the main types of glycosylation on mucins and the mechanisms by which abnormal mucin glycans occur. We next describe the role of ab-normal mucin glycans in cancer. Finally, we describe MUC1-based antibodies, vaccines, radio-pharmaceuticals, and CAR-T therapies using the best characterized MUC1 as an example.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Targeted therapy; Clinical trial
Online: 21 February 2022 (03:05:05 CET)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Surgery or surgery plus radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy for patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) were accepted as the main therapeutic strategies until the early 2000s, when targeted drugs, like cetuximab and bevacizumab were developed. The use of targeted drugs in clinical practice has significantly increased patients’ overall survival. To date, the emergence of several types of targeted drugs has opened new possibilities and revealed new prospects for mCRC treatment. Therapeutic strategies are continually being updated to select the most suitable targeted drugs based on the results of clinical trials that are currently underway. This review discusses the up-to date molecular evidence of targeted therapy for mCRC and summarizes the Food and Drug Administration-approved targeted drugs including the results of clinical trials. We also explain their mechanisms of action and how these affect the choice of a suitable targeted therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0699.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Bismuth-213; Targeted Radionuclide Therapy; Targeted alpha Therapy; radiopharmaceutical; bifunctional chelator; vector molecule
Online: 29 March 2021 (14:43:57 CEST)
Besides external high-energy photon or proton beam therapy, targeted radionuclide therapy (TRNT) is an alternative approach to deliver radiation to cancer cells. TRNT is distributed within the body by the vascular system and allows targeted irradiation of a primary tumor and all its metastases, resulting in substantially less collateral damage to normal tissues as compared to ex-ternal beam radiotherapy (EBRT). It is a systemic cancer therapy, tackling systemic spread of the disease, which is the cause of death in most cancer patients. The α-emitting radionuclide bis-muth-213 (213Bi) has interesting properties and can be considered as a magic bullet for TRNT. The benefits and drawbacks of targeted alpha therapy with 213Bi are discussed in this review, covering the entire chain from radionuclide production to bedside. First, the radionuclide properties and production of 225Ac and its daughter 213Bi are discussed, followed by the fundamental chemical properties of bismuth. Next, an overview of available acyclic and macrocyclic bifunctional chelators for bismuth, and general considerations for designing a 213Bi-radiopharmaceutical are provided. Finally, we will provide an overview of preclinical and clinical studies involving 213Bi-radiopharmaceuticals, as well as the future perspectives of this promising cancer treatment option.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: MPNST; FOXM1; MEK; CDK4/6; targeted therapy; sarcoma
Online: 2 August 2023 (02:17:21 CEST)
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are deadly sarcomas that desperately need effective therapies. Half of all MPNSTs arise in patients with Neurofibromatosis Type I (NF1), a common inherited disease. NF1 patients can develop benign lesions called Plexiform Neurofibromas (PNFs), often in adolescence, and over time some PNFs, but not all, will transform into MPNSTs. A deeper understanding of the molecular and genetic alterations driving PNF-MPNST transformation will guide development of more targeted and effective treatments for these patients. This review focuses on an oncogenic transcription factor, FOXM1, that is a powerful oncogene in other cancers but little studied in MPNSTs. Elevated expression of FOXM1 was seen in patient MPNSTs and correlated with poor survival, but otherwise its role in the disease is unknown. We discuss what is known about FOXM1 in MPNSTs relative to other cancers and how FOXM1 may be regulated by and/or regulate the most commonly altered players in MPNSTs, particularly in the MEK and CDK4/6 kinase pathways. We conclude by considering FOXM1, MEK, and CDK4/6 as new, clinically relevant targets for MPNST therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0126.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: liposome; tumor-targeted; radiation; tumor; drug delivery; chemotherapy
Online: 8 September 2022 (14:06:26 CEST)
Targeted delivery of drugs or other therapeutic agents through internal or external triggers has been used to control and accelerate the release from liposomal carriers in a number of studies, but relatively few utilize energy of therapeutic X-rays as a trigger. We have synthesized liposomes that are triggered by ionizing radiation (RTLs) to release their therapeutic payload. These liposomes are composed of natural egg PE, DSPC, cholesterol, and DSPE-PEG-2000, and the mean size of the RTL was in the range of 114 to 133 nm, as measured by NTA. The trigger mechanism is the organic halogen, chloral hydrate, which is known to generate free protons upon exposure to ionizing radiation. Once protons are liberated, a drop in internal pH of the liposome promotes destabilization of the lipid bilayer and escape of the liposomal contents. In proof of principle studies, we assessed RTL radiation-release of fluorescent tracers upon exposure to a low pH extracellular environment or exposure to X-ray irradiation. Biodistribution imaging before and after irradiation demonstrated a preferential uptake and release of the liposomes and their cargo at the site of local tumor irradiation. Finally, a potent metabolite of the commonly used chemotherapy irinotecan, SN-38, was loaded into RTL along with near infrared (NIR) fluorescent dyes for imaging studies and measuring tumor cell cytotoxicity alone or combined with radiation exposure, in vitro and in vivo. Fully loaded RTLs were found to increase tumor cell killing with radiation in vitro and enhance tumor growth delay in vivo after three i.v. injections combined with three, 5 Gy local tumor radiation exposures compared to either treatment modality alone.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Genomics; Epigenetics; Targeted Therapy
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:23:33 CEST)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common malignancy in children and is characterized by numerous genetic and epigenetic abnormalities. Epigenetic mechanisms, which involve DNA methylations and histone modifications, result in the heritable silencing of genes without a change in their coding sequence. Emerging studies are increasing our understanding of the epigenetic role of leukemogenesis and have demonstrated the potential of DNA methylations and histone modifications as a biomarker for lineage and subtypes classification, predicting relapse, and disease progression in ALL. Epigenetic abnormalities are relatively reversible when treated with some small molecule-based agents compared to genetic alterations. In this review, we conclude the genetic and epigenetic characteristics in ALL and discuss the future role of DNA methylation and histone modifications in predicting relapse, finally focus on the individual and precision therapy targeting epigenetic alterations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Trop 2; targeted therapy; antibody-drug conjugate; solid tumors
Online: 2 December 2020 (12:35:36 CET)
Trophoblast cell-surface antigen 2 (Trop 2) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly expressed in various cancer types with relatively low or no baseline expression in most of normal tissues. Its overexpression is associated with tumor growth and poor prognosis; Trop 2 is therefore, an ideal therapeutic target for epithelial cancers. Several Trop 2 targeted therapeutics have recently been developed for the treatment of cancers, such as anti-Trop 2 antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), as well as Trop 2-specific cell therapy. In particular, the safety and clinical benefit of Trop 2-based ADCs have been demonstrated in clinical trials across multiple tumor types, including those with limited treatment options, such as triple-negative breast cancer, platinum-resistant urothelial cancer, and heavily pretreated non-small cell lung cancer. In this review, we elaborate on recent advances in Trop 2 targeted modalities and provide an overview of novel insights for future developments in this field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: severe asthma; phenotype; endotype; personalized medicine; targeted therapy; treatment
Online: 15 June 2023 (11:35:43 CEST)
Despite recent advances in optimizing reliever, controller and maintenance therapy in asthma, a large subgroup of asthmatic patients continues to suffer from severe asthma, affecting their psychosociological status, their quality of life and even their life expectancy. Identifying and recognizing the specific phenotypic and endotypic characteristics in asthma has provided the medical community to drive the development of targeted therapies that are proved to benefit patients in terms of symptom control, exacerbation rate, quality of life and lung function. Adopting a more tailored and targeted approach is proving to be the key factor in reforming severe asthma treatment, minimizing the patients’ burden, as well as the socioeconomical impact worldwide. In this review, we are going to describe the different phenotypes and endotypes of asthma, the currently approved targeted therapies in severe asthma as imprinted in Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2023, as well as other potential pharmacological agents and strategies investigated or currently under investigation for the treatment of severe asthma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0453.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: BNCT; targeted therapy; biological dosimetry; boron imaging; personalized oncology; personalized medicine
Online: 16 May 2022 (15:22:13 CEST)
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary disease-targeted therapy, as neutrons preferentially kill cells labeled with boron (10B), which makes it a precision medicine treatment modality that provides a therapeutic effect exclusively on patient-specific tumor spread. Contrary to what is usual in radiotherapy, BNCT proposes cell-tailored treatment planning rather than to the tumor mass. The success of BNCT depends mainly on the sufficient spatial biodistribution of 10B located around or within neoplastic cells to produce a high-dose gradient between the tumor and healthy tissue. However, it is not yet possible to precisely determine the concentration of 10B in a specific tissue in real-time using noninvasive methods. Critical issues remain to be resolved if BNCT is to become a valuable, minimally invasive, and efficient treatment. Moreover, functional imaging technologies such as PET can be applied to determine biological information that can be used for the combined-modality radiotherapy protocol for each specific patient. Anyway, not only imaging methods but also proteomics and gene expression methods will facilitate BNCT becoming a modality of personalized medicine. This work provides an overview of the fundamental principles, recent advances, and future directions of BNCT as cell-targeted cancer therapy for personalized radiation treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0450.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Tumor microenvironment; stromal cells; immune cells; ECM; cancer hallmarks; hypoxia; exosomes; drug resistance; targeted therapy
Online: 28 October 2022 (09:57:34 CEST)
Tumorigenesis is a complex and dynamic process involving cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions that allow tumor cell growth, drug resistance and metastasis. This review provides an updated summary of the role played by the tumor microenvironment (TME) components and hypoxia in tumorigenesis and highlight various ways through which tumor cells reprogram normal cells including into phenotypes that are pro-tumorigenic including cancer associated- fibroblasts, -macrophages and -endothelial cells. Tumor cells secrete numerous factors leading to transformation of a previously anti-tumorigenic environment into a pro-tumorigenic environment. Once formed, solid tumors continue to interact with various stromal cells including local and infiltrating fibroblasts, macrophages, mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial cells, pericytes, and secreted factors and the ECM within the tumor microenvironment (TME). The TME is key to tumorigenesis, drug response and treatment outcome. Importantly, stromal cells and secreted factors can initially be anti-tumorigenic but over time promote tumorigenesis and induce therapy resistance. To counter hypoxia, increased angiogenesis leads to formation of new vascular networks in order to actively promote and sustain tumor growth via supply of oxygen and nutrients whilst removing metabolic waste. Angiogenic vascular network formation aid in tumor cell metastatic dissemination. Successful tumor treatment and novel drug development require the identification and therapeutic targeting of pro-tumorigenic components of the TME including cancer-associated- fibroblasts (CAFs) and -macrophages (CAMs), hypoxia, blocking ECM-receptor interactions, in addition to targeting of tumor cells. Re-programming of stromal cells and the immune response to be anti-tumorigenic is key to therapeutic success. Lastly, this review highlights potential TME- and hypoxia-centred therapies under investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0161.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Non-small cell lung cancer; Targeted Gene Therapy; Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors; Machine Learning
Online: 4 July 2023 (07:57:03 CEST)
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) making up 80% of cases. Some genetic factors leading to NSCLC development include genetic mutations and PD-L1 expression. PD-L1 proteins are targeted in an NSCLC treatment called targeted gene therapy. However, this treatment is effective in a low percentage of patients. This study aimed to create machine learning models to use features like the number of mutations and the level of PD-L1 proteins in cancer cells, along with others, to predict whether a patient will receive clinical benefit from gene therapy treatment. This was done by downloading and merging datasets from cbioportal.org to create a sample size for the model. Features with high correlations to clinical benefit were identified. Three machine-learning models were created using these features to predict clinical benefits in patients, and each model’s accuracy was evaluated. All three models were accurate between 55-85%, with two of the models averaging an accuracy around 75%. Doctors can use these models to more accurately predict whether gene therapy treatment is likely to work in a patient before prescribing it to them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0300.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: CAR T; Targeted Radionuclide Therapy; TRT; Mathematical Model; Multiple Myeloma; Immunotherapy; Daratumumab; CS1; Combination Therapy
Online: 17 September 2021 (09:32:33 CEST)
Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) has recently seen a surge in popularity, with the use of radionuclides conjugated to small molecules and antibodies. Similarly, immunotherapy also has shown promising results – an example being chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells therapy in hematologic malignancies. Moreover, TRT and CAR T therapies possess unique features that require special consideration when determining how to dose, time, and sequence combination treatments, including the distribution of TRT dose in the body, the decay rate of the radionuclide, and the proliferation and persistence of the CAR-T cells. These characteristics complicate additive or synergistic effects of combination therapies and warrant a mathematical treatment which includes these dynamics in relation to the proliferation and clearance rates of the target tumor cells. Here we combine two previously published mathematical models in a multiple myeloma setting to explore the effects of dose, timing, and sequencing of TRT and CAR-T cell based therapies. We find that for a fixed TRT and CAR-T cell dose, the tumor proliferation rate is the most important parameter in determining the best timing of TRT and CAR T therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0214.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Breast; Targeted Radiotherapy; Lung injury; Heart injuries; Health-Related Quality Of Life; Irradiation toxicity.
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:17:52 CET)
TomoBreast hypothesized that hypofractionated 15 fractions/3 weeks image-guided radiation therapy (H-IGRT) can reduce lung-heart toxicity, as compared with normofractionated 25-33 fractions/5-7 weeks conventional radiation therapy (CRT). 123 women with stage I-II operated breast cancer were randomized to receive CRT (N=64) or H-IGRT (N=59). The primary endpoint used a four-items measure of the time to 10% alteration in any of patient self-reported measure, physician clinical evaluation, echocardiography or lung function tests, analyzed by intention-to-treat without exclusion. Results found comparable survivals, but H-IGRT significantly reduced the toxicity measured by lung diffusion capacity and alveolar volume as compared with CRT, G1 in 53% (31/59) versus 72% (44/61) patients, P=0.006; G2, 29% versus 48%, P=0.020. H-IGRT significantly reduced the risk of composite cardio-pulmonary alteration at 5 years, 10.2% versus 26.7%, P=0.024. In conclusion, TomoBreast is a proof-of-concept that image-guided radiation-therapy can improve the overall balance of lung-heart outcomes in breast cancer adjuvant therapy. Furthermore, the significance of the findings supports the efficacy of a small trial size design, which can be critical when clinical research resources are limited.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0115.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: oncogenes; oncogene addiction; carcinogenesis; transcription factor; cancer genome; gene fusion; cancer genetics; cancer stem cell; targeted cancer therapy; personalized medicine
Online: 14 September 2016 (08:30:41 CEST)
It has been declared repeatedly that cancer is a result of molecular genetic abnormalities. However, there has been no working model describing the specific functional consequences of the deranged genomic processes that result in the initiation and propagation of the cancer process during carcinogenesis. We no longer need to question whether or not cancer arises as a result of a molecular genetic defect within the cancer cell. The legitimate questions are: how and why? This article reviews the preeminent data on cancer molecular genetics and subsequently proposes that the sentinel event in cancer initiation is the aberrant production of fused transcription activators with new molecular properties within normal tissue stem cells. This results in the production of vital oncogenes with dysfunctional gene activation transcription properties, which leads to dysfunctional gene regulation, the aberrant activation of transduction pathways, chromosomal breakage, activation of driver oncogenes, reactivation of stem cell transduction pathways and the activation of genes that result in the hallmarks of cancer. Furthermore, a novel holistic molecular genetic model of cancer initiation and progression is presented along with a new paradigm for the approach to personalized targeted cancer therapy, clinical monitoring and cancer diagnosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0315.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Nanotechnology; Niosomes; Targeted Drug Delivery
Online: 20 December 2021 (14:18:53 CET)
Nanotechnology is making significant transformation to our world, especially in healthcare and the treatment of diseases. It is widely used in different medical applications, such as in treatment and detection. Targeting diseased cell with nanomedicines is one of the numerous applications of nanotechnology. Targeted drug delivery systems for delivering various types of drugs to specific sites are such a dynamic area in pharmaceutical biotechnology and nanotechnology. Compared to conventional drugs, nanomedicines have a higher absorption and bioavailability rate, improving efficacy and minimizing side effects. There are several drug delivery systems including metallic nanoparticles, polymers, liposomes, and microspheres, but one of the most important is the niosomes, which are produced by nonionic surfactants. Because of the amphiphilic nature and structure, hydrophilic or hydrophobic drugs can be loaded into niosome structures. Other compounds, including cholesterol, can also be applied to the niosomes' backbone to rigidize the structure. Several variables such as the type of surfactant in niosome production, the preparation method, and the hydration temperature can affect the structure of the niosomes. Nevertheless, in-silico design of drug delivery formulations requires molecular dynamic simulation tools, molecular docking, and ADME (absorption; distribution; excretion; metabolism) properties, which evaluate physicochemical features of formulation and ADME attitudes before synthesis, investigating the interaction between nano-carriers and specific targets. Hence, experimenting in-vitro and in-vivo is essential. In this review, the basic aspects of niosomes are described including their structure, characterization, preparation methods, optimization with in-silico tools, factors affecting their formation, and limitations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: PDK1; breast cancer; survival; prognosis; targeted therapy
Online: 14 September 2021 (14:51:06 CEST)
Given that 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) plays a crucial role in malignant biological behaviors of a wide-range of cancers, we further review the influence of PDK1 in breast cancer (BC). First, we describe the power of PDK1 in cellular behaviors and extensively demonstrate the interacting networks of PDK1 via PI3K-dependent/ PI3K-independent pathway. Then we enlighten the roles of PDK1 in carcinogenesis, growth and survival, metastasis, and chemoresistance in BC cells. More important, we sort the current preclinical or clinical trials of PDK1 targeted therapy in BC and find that even though at present no selective PDK1 inhibitor is available for BC therapy, but the combination trials of PDK1 targeted therapy and other agents have demonstrated some benefit. Thus, there is increasing anticipations that PDK1 targeted therapy will have its space in future therapeutic concepts of BC, and we hope to feature PDK1 in BC to the clinic and bring the new promising to patients for targeted therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0460.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: melanoma; targeted therapy; elderly people; side effects
Online: 17 June 2021 (13:59:08 CEST)
Purpose: Melanoma’s incidence is increasing, and elderly people could be significantly impacted since the majority occurs in people over 65 years of age. Combined targeted therapies (TT) are current standard regimen for BRAF mutated metastatic melanoma (MM). Except for subgroups of pivotal trials, little data are available for TT in this population. Materials and Methods: Outcomes were explored in real life patients from MelBase, a French multicentric biobank dedicated to the prospective follow-up of unresectable stage III or IV melanoma. Patients treated by BRAF TT and/or MEK TT combined or not, were included from 2013 to 2017 in 2 groups: group 1 <65-year-old (yo), group 2 >65 yo, analyzed for tolerance and efficacy. Results: 353 patients were included: 231 in group 1, 122 in group 2. Median follow-up was 12 months (M). Median time of treatment was 6.9 M. A total of 80% had at least one Adverse Effect (AE). Most frequent AE (all grades) were mainly skin and subcutaneous, general, and gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 31% of AE were grade 3–4: 28% in group 1 and 39% in group 2 (p = 0.05). No differences were observed in all AE grades proportion, dose modifications, interruptions, and discontinuations. For each group, median overall survival was 20.3 M (CI 95%: 15.5–27.9) and 16.3 M (CI: 14.5–26.9), respectively (p = 0.8). Median progression free survival was 7.8 M (6.4–9.9) and 7.7 M (CI: 5.8–11.3) (p = 0.4). Objective response rate was 59% and 50% (p = 0.6). Conclusion: This study on a large multicentric cohort is the first to assess that TT is well tolerated in elderly BRAF-mutated patients such as in patients younger than 65. Efficacy was similar between groups with outcomes reaching those from pivotal studies. There is thus no argument against using TT in elderly people, although an onco-geriatric opinion is welcome for the most vulnerable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0510.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Hydrogel; pH-responsive; colon; targeted delivery; methotrexate
Online: 22 September 2020 (08:17:48 CEST)
The purpose of current research work was to formulate and typify gelatin and poly(vinyl) alcohol (Gel/PVA) hydrogel which would be highly pH-responsive and can able to accomplish targeted delivery of methotrexate in order to treat the colo-rectal pathologies. The primed gel/pva hydrogel discs were subjected to various physicochemical techniques i.e. swelling, diffusion co-efficient, sol-gel analysis and porosity using three altered sorts of pH (1.2, 6.8 & 7.4) phosphate buffer solutions for assessment/evaluation, and their characterization was done through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Shape alteration and controlled methotrexate of release of Gel/PVA hydrogel have been done using three type of pH (1.2, 6.8 & 7.4) phosphate buffer mediums. Methotrexate was loaded through in-situ drug loading method due to hydrophobicity. Different kinetic models (first order & zero order kinetic), Higuchi model and Krosmere peppas model/Power law were applied to manipulate the drug release data. Physicochemical evaluation tests and drug release profile results were found insignificant (p< 0.05) in various pH mediums and dependent upon polymers concentration pH of medium and cross-linker amount. Kinetic model disclosed that release of methotrexate from Gel/PVA hydrogel follow non-Fickian diffusion method. It became concluded from this research work that release of methotrexate Gel/PVA hydrogel in targeted colon area can be achieved for treating colo-rectal disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1648.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Hepatocellular Carcinoma; JAK/STAT Signaling; Cytokine; Targeted Therapy
Online: 23 August 2023 (09:35:49 CEST)
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) continues to pose a substantial global health challenge due to its high incidence and limited therapeutic options. In recent years, the Janus Kinase (JAK) and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) pathway has emerged as a critical signaling cascade in HCC pathogenesis. The review commences with an overview of the JAK/STAT pathway, delving into the dynamic interplay between the JAK/STAT pathway and its numerous upstream activators, such as cytokines and growth factors enriched in pathogenic livers afflicted with chronic inflammation and cirrhosis. This paper also elucidates how the persistent activation of JAK/STAT signaling leads to diverse oncogenic processes during hepatocarcinogenesis, including uncontrolled cell proliferation, evasion of apoptosis, and immune escape. In the context of therapeutic implications, this review summarizes recent advancements in targeting the JAK/STAT pathway for HCC treatment. Preclinical and clinical studies investigating inhibitors and modulators of JAK/STAT signaling are discussed, highlighting their potential in suppressing the deadly disease. The insights presented herein underscore the necessity for continued research into targeting the JAK/STAT signaling pathway as a promising avenue for HCC therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1415.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Prostate cancer; lineage plasticity; neuroendocrine transdifferentiation; targeted therapy
Online: 21 August 2023 (04:36:25 CEST)
Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is a highly aggressive subtype of prostate cancer (PC) that commonly emerges through a transdifferentiation process from prostate adenocarcinoma and evades conventional therapies. Extensive molecular research has revealed factors that drive lineage plasticity, uncovering novel therapeutic targets to be explored. A diverse array of targeting agents is currently under evaluation in pre-clinical and clinical studies with promising results in suppressing or reversing the neuroendocrine phenotype and inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis. This new knowledge has the potential to contribute to development of novel therapeutic approaches that may enhance clinical management and prognosis of this lethal disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0651.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: cancer; adhesion; metastasis; inhibition; therapeutic approaches; targeted therapies
Online: 9 August 2023 (02:48:16 CEST)
This comprehensive review delves into cancer's complexity, focusing on adhesion, metastasis, and inhibition. It explores the pivotal role of these factors in disease progression and therapeutic strategies. This review covers cancer cell migration, invasion, and colonization of distant organs, emphasizing the significance of cell adhesion and the intricate metastasis process. Inhibition approaches targeting adhesion molecules, such as integrins and cadherins, are discussed. Overall, this review contributes significantly to advancing cancer research and developing targeted therapies, holding promise for improving patient outcomes worldwide. Exploring different inhibition strategies revealed promising therapeutic targets to alleviate adhesion and metastasis of cancer cells. The effectiveness of integrin-blocking antibodies, small molecule inhibitors targeting FAK and the TGF-β pathway, and combination therapies underscores their potential to disrupt focal adhesions and control epithelial-mesenchymal transition processes. The identification of as FAK, Src, β-catenin and SMAD4 offers valuable starting points for further research and the development of targeted therapies. The complex interrelationships between adhesion and metastatic signaling networks will be relevant to the development of new treatment approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: microRNA; glioma; cancer stem cells.; prognosis; targeted therapy
Online: 28 June 2023 (11:06:15 CEST)
Gliomas, which arise from glial cells in the brain, remain a significant challenge due to their location and resistance to traditional treatments. Despite research efforts and advancements in healthcare, the incidence of gliomas has risen dramatically over the past two decades. The dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has prompted the creation of therapeutic agents that specially target them. However, it has been reported that they are involved in complex signaling pathways that contribute to the loss of expression of tumor suppressor genes and the upregulating of the expression of oncogenes. In addition, numerous miRNAs promote the development, progression, and recurrence of gliomas by targeting crucial proteins and enzymes involved in metabolic pathways such as glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. However, the complex interplay among these pathways and other obstacles hinder the ability to apply miRNA targeting in clinical practice. This underscores the importance of pinpointing miRNAs to be targeted for therapy and having a complete understanding of the diverse pathways they are involved in. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an overview on the role of miRNAs in the progression and prognosis of gliomas, emphasizing the different pathways involved and identifying potential therapeutic targets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1438.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: brain metastasis; tumor microenvironment; targeted therapy; immune therapy
Online: 20 June 2023 (11:56:39 CEST)
Brain metastasis (BrM), involving the spread of cells from a primary tumor through the blood circulation system to the brain microvasculature, eventually progresses despite multiple treatments and remains a substantial contributor to major mortality in patients with advanced- stage cancer. Molecular signatures and immune cellular components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) are emerging as essential regulators involved in establishing an organ-specific metastasis (colonization) and therapeutic response. A comprehensive understanding of detailed characterization and the immune landscape in context of process of BrM formation will greatly expand the horizon of treatments available to target these deadly diseases. In this review, we provide a comprehensive picture of the complex interactions between tumor cells and immune cellular components participated in the BrM process. Based on this knowledge, we will discuss opportunities and challenges for therapeutic strategies against BrM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0281.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Glioblastoma; Precision Medicine; Targeted Therapy; Genomics; Neuro-Oncology
Online: 13 July 2021 (09:28:35 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is driven by various genomic alterations. Next generation sequencing (NGS) could yield targetable alterations that may impact outcomes. The goal of this study was to describe how NGS can inform targeted therapy (TT) in this patient population. METHODS: The medical records of patients (pts) with a diagnosis of GBM from 2017-2019 were reviewed. Records of patients with recurrent GBM and genomic alterations were evaluated. Objective response rates and disease control rates were deter-mined. RESULTS: A total of 87 pts with GBM underwent NGS. Forty percent (n = 35) were considered to have actionable alterations. Of the 35, 40% (n=14) pts had their treatment changed due to an alteration. The objective response rate (ORR) of this population was 43%. The disease control rate (DCR) was 100%. The absolute mean decrease in contrast enhancing disease was 50.7% (95% CI 34.8 – 66.6). CONCLUSION: NGS for GBM, particularly in the recurrent setting, yields a high rate of actionable alterations. We observed a high ORR and DCR, reflecting the value of NGS in deciding on TT to match alterations that are likely to respond. In conclusion, patient selection and availability of NGS may impact outcomes in select pts with recurrent GBM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0061.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Targeted Protein Silencing (TPS); Targeted Protein Degradation (TPD); dTAG; FKBP12; von Hippel-Lindau (VHL); degron; deGradFP; Anchor-Away; Nanobody; Nano-Grad
Online: 2 November 2020 (15:59:46 CET)
Targeted Protein Silencing (TPS) is an elegant approach to investigate protein function and its role in the cellular landscape, overcoming limitations of genetic perturbation strategies. In contrast to CRISPR/Cas9 and RNA interference, these systems act in a reversible manner and reduce off-target effects. Several TPS have been developed and wisely improved, including compartment delocalization tools and protein degradation systems. In this review, we focus on Anchor-Away, deGradFP, auxin inducible degron (AID) and dTAG technologies, and discuss their recent applications and advances. Finally, we propose Nano-Grad, a novel nanobody-based protein degradation tool to specifically proteolyze endogenous tag-free target protein.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1010.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: pediatric AML; immunotherapy; targeted therapy; leukemia stem cell (LSC)
Online: 16 November 2023 (02:22:24 CET)
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rare subtype of acute leukemia in the pediatric and adolescent population but causes disproportionate morbidity and mortality in this age group. Standard chemotherapeutic regimens for AML have changed very little in the past 3-4 decades, but addition of targeted agents in recent years have led to improved survival in select subsets of patients as well as a better biologic understanding of the disease. One key paradigm of bench-to-bedside practice in the context of adult AML currently is the focus on leukemia stem cell (LSC)-targeted therapies. Here we review current and emerging immunotherapies and other targeted agents that are in clinical use for pediatric AML, through the lens of what is known (and not known) about their LSC-targeting capability. Based on a growing understanding of pediatric LSC biology, we also briefly discuss potential future agents on the horizon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: API; PLGA nanoparticles; HA; CD44; colon cancer; targeted delivery
Online: 5 October 2023 (14:22:23 CEST)
Apigenin (API) possesses excellent antitumor properties, but its limited water solubility and low bioavailability restrict its therapeutic impact. Thus, a suitable delivery systems is needed to overcome these limitations and improve the therapeutic efficiency. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a copolymer extensively utilized in drug delivery. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major extracellular matrix and can specifically bind with CD44 on colon cancer cells. Chitosan (CS) can serve as an intermediate binding with HA and PLGA. Herein, we aimed to perpare receptor-selective HA-coated PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) for colon cancer with high expression of CD44. Firstly, API was encapsulated in PLGA to obtain PLGA-API-NPs, which were then sequentially combined with CS and HA to form HA-coated PLGA NPs. HA coated PLGA NPs had a stronger sustained-release capability. Cellular uptake of HA coated PLGA NPs was enhanced in HT-29 cells with high expression of CD44. HA-PLGA-DiR-NPs can target specificity towards the HT-29 ectopic tumor model. Overall, HA coated PLGA NPs was an effectively drug deliver platform for API in treatment of colon cancer with high expression of CD44.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0566.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: patient-derived xenograft; humanized mice; targeted therapy; immunotherapy; melanoma
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:59:13 CEST)
Current methodologies for developing patient-derived xenografts (PDX) in humanized mice in preclinical trials to test response to immune-based therapies are limited by graft versus host disease. Here we compared two approaches for establishing PDX tumors in humanized mice: 1) PDX are first established in immune-deficient mice; 2) PDX are initially established in humanized mice, before transplanting established PDX’s to a larger cohort of humanized mice for preclinical trials. With the first approach, there was rapid wasting of PDX-bearing humanized mice with high levels of activated T cells in the circulation and organs, indicating immune-mediated toxicity. In contrast, with the second approach, toxicity was less of an issue and long-term human melanoma tumor growth and maintenance of human chimerism was achieved. Pre-clinical trials from the second approach revealed that rigosertib, but not anti-PD-1, increased CD8/CD4 T cell ratios in spleen and blood and inhibited PDX tumor growth. Resistance to anti-PD-1 was associated with limited infiltration of CD8+ T cell into the tumor. Our findings suggest that it is essential to carefully manage immune editing by first establishing PDX tumors in the presence of human immune cells before expanding PDX tumors into a larger cohort of humanized mice to evaluate therapy response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0687.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: gold nanorods; targeted; EGFR; HNSCC; uptake; NIR-II window
Online: 29 March 2021 (12:11:26 CEST)
Gold nanoparticles have been indicated for use in a diagnostic and/or therapeutic role in several cancer types. The use of gold nanorods (AuNRs) with a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in the second Near-Infrared II (NIR-II) optical window promises deeper anatomical penetration through increased maximum permissible exposure and lower optical attenuation. In this study, the targeting efficiency of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody functionalised AuNRs with an SPR at 1064 nm was evaluated in vitro. Four cell lines, KYSE-30, CAL-27, Hep-G2 and MCF-7 that either over or under expressed EGFR were used. This expression was confirmed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. Cytotoxicity assays showed no AuNRs toxicity to both EGFR positive and EGFR negative cell lines up to a concentrations of 19 µg/ml. Optical microscopy demonstrated a significant difference (p<0.0001) between targeted AuNRs (tAuNRs) and untargeted AuNRs (uAuNRs) in all four cancer cell lines. This study demonstrates that anti-EGFR functionalisation significantly increased the number of tAuNRs associated with each EGFR positive cancer cell. This successful targeting highlights the use of tAuNRs for molecular photoacoustic imaging or tumour treatment through plasmonic photothermal therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1719.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Dravet Syndrome; developmental epileptic encephalopathy; genetics; targeted therapy; epilepsy syndrome
Online: 28 November 2023 (08:12:09 CET)
Dravet syndrome (DS), also known as severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, is a rare and drug-resistant form of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies, which is both debilitating and challenging to manage, typically arising during the first year of life, with seizures often triggered by fever, infections, or vaccinations. It is characterized by frequent and prolonged seizures, developmental delays, and various other neurological and behavioral impairments. Most cases result from pathogenic mutations in the sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 1 (SCN1A) gene, which encodes a critical voltage-gated sodium channel subunit involved in neuronal excitability. Precision medicine offers significant potential for improving DS diagnosis and treatment. Early genetic testing enables timely and accurate diagnosis. Advances in our understanding of DS's underlying genetic mechanisms and neurobiology have enabled the development of targeted therapies, such as gene therapy, offering more effective and less invasive treatment options for patients with DS. Targeted and gene therapies provide hope for more effective and personalized treatments. However, research into novel approaches remains in its early stages, and their clinical application remains to be seen. This review addresses the current understanding of clinical DS features, genetic involvement in DS development, and outcomes of novel DS therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Nanobodies; respiratory viral infections; spray and aerosol particles; targeted delivery.
Online: 18 October 2023 (03:04:54 CEST)
Respiratory viral infections, including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and, more recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, continue to pose significant global health threats. Conventional treatments for these infections often face challenges such as limited efficacy, the emergence of drug-resistant strains, and the requirement for frequent administration. In recent years, nanobodies have emerged as a promising class of therapeutic agents due to their unique properties, including small size, high stability, and specific binding capabilities. This mini-review article focuses on the application of nanobodies as spray and aerosol particles for the treatment of respiratory viral infections. Furthermore, we highlight the remarkable efficacy of nanobodies in preclinical and clinical studies against respiratory viruses, including their ability to neutralize viral particles, inhibit viral replication, and modulate the host immune response. We discuss the potential advantages of using nanobodies as inhalable formulations, including their improved delivery to the respiratory tract, enhanced stability in aerosol form, and reduced systemic side effects. Additionally, we explore the various strategies employed to engineer nanobodies for optimal aerosol delivery, such as conjugation to carrier particles or formulation as dry powders. We also examine the potential challenges and limitations associated with the development of nanobody-based aerosol therapies, including production scalability, cost-effectiveness, and regulatory considerations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1864.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Dendrobium officinale; traditional processing; widely-targeted metabolic analysis; chemical ingredients
Online: 27 September 2023 (10:54:15 CEST)
The traditional processing of Dendrobium officinale (DO) is manufactured through five necessary processing steps: fresh strips, drying at 85 °C, curling, molding, and drying at 35 °C (Fengdou), and the antioxidant activity of DO were increased after processing into Fengdou. To comprehensively analyses the changing functional components, a plant-wide target metabolomics were employed. In total, 739 differential ingredients were identified in five processing treatments, mainly highlighting differences in variation with phenolic acids, flavonoids, lipids, and amino acids and their derivatives, and glycosylation of aglycone result in the up-regulation in flavonoid glycosides levels. Temperature is a key step in DO processing production. In addition, the main enrichment of specific differential ingredients was found in five different metabolic pathways, including glucosinolate biosynthesis, linoleic acid metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, ubiquinone and other terpene quinone biosynthesis. Correlation analysis clarified that total phenols and flavonoids showed a significant positive correlation with antioxidant capacity. This study provides new insights into the influence of processing processes on DO quality, which may lead to guidance for the high-quality production of DO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1057.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Targeted delivery; A6 peptide; PCL-PEG; Nanoparticle; Nanopolymer; Curcumin; Cancer
Online: 14 August 2023 (15:36:50 CEST)
Polymeric based nanoparticles are garnering significant interest for their potential in drug delivery. Specially, nanopolymers that have been functionalized with molecules, such as proteins or peptides, are a versatile vehicle for drug delivery. Curcumin (Cur) is one of the most commonly studied anticancer compounds and is widely acknowledged as having positive effects on human health. However, its insolubility and low bio-distribution greatly hinder the exploitation of its beneficial traits. In this study, our team created a nano delivery system which utilized a nanopolymer called PCL-PEG (poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly (ethylene glycol)). This system was functionalized with A6 peptide to enable targeted delivery of Cur. The system was designed with advantageous nanoparticles (NPs), including a stable zeta potential (–32.7), small size (54.3), uniform surface morphology, and high hydrophilicity (13.72°). In addition, targeted delivery systems exhibited high encapsulation efficacy (93 ± 0.89 %), and drug loading (16.7 ± 0.9 %), and were characterized by a slow and gradual release profile with a release of approximately 83.13 ± 0.12%. The MTT assay results showed that the formulation known as Cur-NPs-A6 caused a significant increase in cell death in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells (IC50 = 23.31 ± 0.85 µM). The designed delivery system did not cause any harm to the noncancerous MCF-10A cells (normal group). Furthermore, the results of both the RT-qPCR and invasion assays demonstrated that the designed system was able to effectively activate the apoptosis pathway and inhibit cell invasion. Our findings suggest that the use of the designed smart delivery system, which is functionalized with A6 peptide that has a high affinity for CD44 receptor - known to be upregulated in numerous malignant conditions, could be a highly efficient approach to treating cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0933.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: PDAC; precision medicine; gene alterations; molecular profiling; molecular targeted therapies
Online: 11 August 2023 (11:06:09 CEST)
Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of death by cancer worldwide. Mostly diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic disease, patients lack treatment options. Gene alterations (GAs) are frequently observed in PDAC; some of which are considered for molecular targeted therapies (MTTs), with potential clinical benefits and im-proved outcomes. However, the applicability of molecular profiling (MP) for precision medicine in PDAC remains to be demonstrated. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients, aged ≥18 years with histologi-cally confirmed PDAC, who underwent tumor MP between 2010 and 2020 in our institution as part of personalized medicine trials. The primary study endpoint was overall survival (OS), and (minimal follow-up was 6 months after MP. Results: Of 115 eligible patients, MP was successful in 102 patients (89%). KRAS mutations were the most frequent GAs, mostly G12D. Based on ESCAT classification, actionable GAs were found in 29 patients (28%), involving mainly BRCA1 or BRCA2 (5 [18%]), HER2 (5 [18%]), MTAP (5 [18%]), and FGFR (3 [11%]). Only 12 of these 29 patients (41%, or 10% of the whole population) received MTTs, with a median progression-free survival of 1.6 months. Median OS was 19 months in patients with actionable GAs treated with MTTs (n=12 [11.8%]), 14 months in patients with actionable GAs treated with standard therapies (n=17 [16.7%]), and 17 months in patients without actionable GAs treated with standard therapies (n=73 [71.5%]; p=0.26). The absence of liver metastases was associated with better OS (HR=0.471, p=0.01). The highest OS following MTT was observed in patients with BRCA mutations treated with olaparib. Interpretation: Actionable GAs were found in more than a quarter of patients with advanced PDAC. Overall, targeting actionable GAs with MTTs was not associated with improved OS in this retrospective study with limited patient numbers. However, selected GA/MTT combinations (e.g., BRCA mutations/olaparib) were associated with a better outcome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1462.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: inflammatory breast cancer (IBC); review; immunotherapy; targeted therapy; tumor microenvironment
Online: 21 July 2023 (12:39:42 CEST)
(1) Background: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer that poses unique management challenges. This review aims to synthesize the current literature on IBC, focusing on diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis, while highlighting recent advances and ongoing issues in patient management.; (2) Methods: We outline the typical clinical presentation and diagnostic criteria of IBC. Additionally, we detail the main therapeutic strategies, including neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, targeted therapies, hormonal therapies, and emerging treatments such as immunotherapy. The review is based on a comprehensive analysis of the existing literature.; (3) Results: Despite advancements in systemic therapy and a better understanding of IBC biology, the prognosis for patients with IBC remains poor. The overall survival rate has shown only marginal improvement over the past few decades. Future research directions, including the identification of novel biomarkers for early detection and personalized medicine strategies, are identified. The need for more high-quality clinical trials to address the challenges in IBC management is emphasized.; (4) Conclusions: Managing IBC is a complex task that necessitates multidisciplinary care and patient-centered communication. This review provides clinicians and researchers with a comprehensive overview of the current challenges and future directions in IBC management. The goal is to guide treatment decisions and inform further research, ultimately improving patient outcomes and prognosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0620.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ALL; immunotherapy; antibody-drug conjugate; CAR-based therapies, targeted therapies
Online: 9 May 2023 (09:03:11 CEST)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a blood cancer that primarily affects children but also adults. It is due to the malignant proliferation of lymphoid precursor cells that invade the bone marrow and can spread to extramedullary sites. ALL is divided into B cell (85%) and T cell lineages (10 to 15%); rare cases are associated with the natural killer (NK) cell lineage (<1%). To date, the survival rate in children with ALL is excellent while in adults continues to be poor. Despite the therapeutic progress, there are subsets of patients that still have high relapse rates after chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and an unsatisfactory cure rate. Hence, the identification of more effective and safer therapy choices represents a primary issue. In this review, we will discuss novel therapeutic options including bispecific antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates,chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based therapies, and other promising treatments for both pediatric and adult patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0677.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Metabolomics; Simultaneous Quantitation and Discovery (SQUAD); Targeted Metabolomics; Untargeted Metabolomics
Online: 21 April 2023 (07:29:13 CEST)
Untargeted and targeted approaches are the traditional metabolomics workflows acquired for a wider understanding of the metabolome under focus. Both approaches have their strengths and weaknesses. The untargeted, for example, is maximizing the detection and accurate identification of thousands of metabolites, while the targeted is maximizing the linear dynamic range and quantification sensitivity. These workflows, however, are acquired separately, so researchers compromise either a low-accuracy overview of total molecular changes (i.e., untargeted analysis) or a detailed yet blinkered snapshot of a selected group of metabolites (i.e., targeted analysis) by selecting one of the workflows over the other. In this review, we present a novel single injection simultaneous quantitation and discovery (SQUAD) metabolomics that combines targeted and untargeted workflows. It is used to identify and accurately quantify a targeted set of metabolites. It also allows data retro-mining to look for global metabolic changes that were not part of the original focus. This offers a way to strike the balance between targeted and untargeted approaches in one single experiment and address the two’s limitations. This simultaneous acquisition of hypothesis-led and discovery-led datasets allows scientists to gain more knowledge about biological systems in a single experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0222.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; lenvatinib; molecular targeted agents; complete response; CT value
Online: 18 February 2022 (04:05:18 CET)
Purpose: To assess the utility of measurement of the computed tomography (CT) attenuation value (CTav) in predicting tumor necrosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who achieve a complete response (CR), defined using modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST), after lenvatinib treatment. Method: We compared CTav in arterial phase CT images with postoperative histopathology in four patients who underwent HCC resection after lenvatinib treatment, to determine CTav thresholds indicative of histological necrosis (N-CTav). Next, we confirmed the accuracy of the determined N-CTav in 15 cases with histopathologically proven necrosis in surgical specimens. Furthermore, the percentage of the tumor with N-CTav, i.e. the N-CTav occupancy rate, assessed using Image J software in 30 tumors in 12 patients with CR out of 571 HCC patients treated with lenvatinib, and its correlation with local recurrence following CR were examined. Results: Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed an optimal cut-off value of CTav of 30.2 HU, with 90.0% specificity and 65.0% sensitivity in discriminating between pathologically identified necrosis and degeneration, with a CTav of less than 30.2 HU indicating necrosis after lenvatinib treatment (N30-CTav). Furthermore, the optimal cut-off value of 30.6% for the N30-CTav occupancy rate by ROC analysis was a significant indicator of local recurrence following CR with 76.9% specificity and sensitivity (area under the ROC curve; 0.939), with the CR group with high N30-CTav occupancy (>30.6%) after lenvatinib treatment showing significantly lower local recurrence (8.3% at 1 year) compared with the low (<30.6%) N30-CTav group (P<0.001, 61.5% at 1 year). Conclusion: The cut-off value of 30.2 HU for CTav (N30-CTav) might be appropriate for identifying post-lenvatinib necrosis in HCC, and an N30-CTav occupancy rate of >30.6% might be a predictor of maintenance of CR. Use of these indicators have the potential to impact systemic chemotherapy for HCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0196.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: star polymer; β-cyclodextrin; tumor-targeted; disulﬁde bond; theranostic nanoparticles
Online: 13 October 2021 (11:00:40 CEST)
β-cyclodextrin-based star polymers have attracted much interest because of their unique structures and potential biomedical and biological applications. Herein, we synthesized well-defined folic acid (FA)-conjugated and disulfide bond-linked star polymer ((FA-Dex-SS)-βCD-(PCL)14) acted as theranostic nanoparticles for tumor-targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and chemotherapy. Theranostic nanoparticles were obtained by loading doxorubicin (DOX) and superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) were loaded into the star polymer nanoparticles to obtain ((FA-Dex-SS)-βCD-(PCL)14@DOX/SPIO) theranostic nanoparticles. In vitro drug release studies showed that approximately 100% of the DOX was released from disulfide bond-linked theranostic nanoparticles within 24 h under a reducing environment in the presence of 10.0 mM GSH. DOX and SPIO could be delivered into HepG2 cells efficiently, owing to folate receptor-mediated endocytosis process of the nanoparticles and GSH triggered disulfide-bonds cleaving.Moreover, (FA-Dex-SS)-βCD-(PCL)14@DOX/SPIO showed strong MRI contrast enhancement properties. In conclusion, folate-decorated reduction-sensitive star polymeric nanoparticles are a potential theranostic nanoparticle candidate for tumor-targeted MRI and chemotherapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0513.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cell penetrating peptides; protein transduction domains; tumor imaging; targeted therapies.
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:44:48 CEST)
Since their identification over twenty-five years ago, the plethora of cell penetrating peptides (CPP) and their applications has skyrocketed. These 5 to 30 amino acid long peptides have the unique property of breaching the cell membrane barrier while carrying cargoes larger then themselves into cells in an intact, functional form. CPPs can be conjugated to fluorophores, activatable probes, radioisotopes or contrast agents for imaging tissues, such as tumors. There is no singular mechanism for translocation of CPPs into a cell, and therefore, many CPPs are taken up by a multitude of cell types, creating the challenge of tumor specific translocation and hindering clinical effectiveness. Varying strategies have been developed to combat this issue and enhance their diagnostic potential by derivatizing CPPs for better targeting by constructing specific cell activated forms. These methods are currently being used to image integrin expressing tumors, breast cancer cells, human histiocytic lymphoma and protease secreting fibrosarcoma cells, to name a few. Additionally, identifying safe, effective therapeutics for malignant tumors has long been an active area of research. CPPs can circumvent many of the complications found in treating cancer with conventional therapeutics by targeted delivery of drugs into tumors, thereby decreasing off-target side effects, a feat not achievable by currently employed conventional chemotherapeutics. Myriad types of chemotherapeutics such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, anti-tumor antibodies and nanoparticles can be functionally attached to these peptides leading to the possibility of delivering established and novel cancer therapeutics directly to tumor tissue. While much research is needed to overcome potential issues with these peptides, they offer a significant advancement over current mechanisms to treat cancer. In this review, we present a brief overview of the research leading to identification of CPPs with a comprehensive state of the art review on the role of these novel peptides in both cancer diagnostics as well as therapeutics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0095.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: doxorubicin; drug delivery; polymers; targeted therapy; anticancer treatment; controlled release
Online: 2 March 2021 (14:14:38 CET)
Doxorubicin, a member of the anthracycline family, is a common anticancer agent often used as a first line treatment for the wide spectrum of cancers. Doxorubicin-based chemotherapy, although effective, is associated with serious side effects, such as irreversible cardiotoxicity or nephrotoxicity. Those often life-threatening adverse risks, responsible for the elongation of the patients' recuperation period and increasing medical expenses, have prompted the need for creating novel and safer drug delivery systems. Among many proposed concepts, polymeric nanocarriers are shown to be a promising approach, allowing for controlled and selective drug delivery simultaneously enhancing its activity towards cancerous cells and reducing toxic effects on healthy tissues. This article is a chronological examination of the history of the work progress on polymeric nanostructures, designed as efficient doxorubicin nanocarriers, with the emphasis on the main achievements of 2010-2020. Numerous publications have been reviewed to provide an essential summation of the nanopolymer types and their essential properties, mechanisms towards efficient drug delivery, as well as active targeting stimuli-responsive strategies that are currently utilized in the doxorubicin transportation field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0382.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic breast cancer; targeted therapies; fibroblast growth factors receptors drugs
Online: 26 February 2020 (01:41:54 CET)
Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent form of malignancy and the second only to lung cancer as common cause of cancer-causing deaths in women. Notwithstanding many progresses in the field, metastatic BC has a very poor prognosis. As therapies are becoming more personalized to meet patients‘ needs, a better knowledge of the molecular biology leading to the disease unfolds the possibility to project more precise compounds or antibodies targeting definite alteration at the molecular level expressed in cancer cells of patients or as antigens on the surface of cell membranes. Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) is a druggable target -which is activated by its own ligands -namely the Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs). This pathway provides a vast range of interesting molecular targets pursued at different levels of clinical investigation. Herein we provide an update on the knowledge on genetic alterations of the receptors in breast cancer, their role in tumorigenesis and the most recent drugs against this particular receptor to treat the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0026.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: antiandrogen; bisphosphonates; bone niche; immune system; osteoimmunology; RankL; targeted therapy
Online: 2 September 2019 (16:34:22 CEST)
Osteoimmunology was coined about twenty years ago to identify a strict cross talk between bone niche and immune system both in physiological and pathological activities, including cancer. Several molecules are involved in the complex interaction between bone niche, immune and cancer cells. The Receptor Activator ok NF-kB (RANK)/RANK Ligand (RANKL/Osteoprotegerin (OPG) pathway plays a crucial role in bone cells/cancer interactions with subsequently immune system control failure, bone destruction, inhibition of effect and metastasis outcome. The bidirectional cross talk between bone and immune system could became a potential target for anticancer drugs. Several studies evidenced a direct anticancer role with improved survival of bone-targeted therapies such as bisphosphonates and RANKL antagonist Denosumab. Conversely, initial data evidenced a possible anti-bone resorption effect of systemic anticancer drugs through and immunomodulation activity, i.e. new generation antiandrogens (Abiraterone) in prostate cancer. All data could open a future rationale of combined bone, immunologic and targeted therapies in cancer treatment.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0082.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Precision Metagenomics; Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), Respiratory infections, Microbiome, Targeted Sequencing
Online: 3 October 2023 (03:06:42 CEST)
Understanding microbial composition in upper respiratory infections (URIs) is critical for effective diagnosis and treatment. Precision Metagenomic next-generation sequencing p(mNGS) can provide a comprehensive yet clinically relevant profile of respiratory infection. The hybridization capture-based targeted sequencing generated a precision metagenomics profile of 29 patients with acute URIs. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected from the subjects suspected of respiratory infection, and p(mNGS) was performed using the Illumina®/IDbyDNA Respiratory Pathogen ID/AMR Panel (RPIP). The dataset obtained from the mNGS analysis contains a wealth of information on the composition of acute URI microbiota, including the relative abundance of known pathogens and potential clinical implications. The dataset represents a valuable resource for future research endeavors in respiratory medicine, infectious disease epidemiology, and therapeutic interventions. In addition, the dataset offers significant potential for reuse and integration with other omics datasets. The comprehensive nature of the mNGS data allows the exploration of associations between the respiratory microbiota and host factors such as clinical outcomes, immune responses, or genetic predisposition. Combining this dataset with other relevant datasets, such as transcriptomics or metabolomics, could provide a deeper understanding of the complex interactions between the microbiota and the host in acute URIs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1536.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Multiregional sequencing; multi-sample sequencing; targeted cancer therapy; OVERCOME; macrophage magnetotaxis
Online: 7 September 2023 (02:54:00 CEST)
Some tumors occur in anatomical regions that are hard to biopsy with a needle. Such regions include the brain, spinal cord, liver, and lungs. For the latter two, magnetic nanoparticle-loaded macrophages could be intravenously infused and driven via an MRI machine into the tumor or tumors. Once there, they can be induced to phagocytose whole tumor cells. They would keep their target in a non-digested form by inhibiting phagosome maturation - and be directed via magnetotaxis or chemotaxis to an extraction point in the body where they can be more easily collected via needle.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1346.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Immune-mediated bowel diseases; intestinal parasites; microbiome; homeostasis; targeted therapeutic strategies.
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:21:43 CEST)
Immune-mediated bowel diseases (IMBD), including Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, represent a significant global health burden with their complex etiology and increasing prevalence. The connection between intestinal parasites and the gut microbiome in immune-mediated bowel disease is a complex and evolving field of research. Several studies have demonstrated that intestinal parasites can modulate the composition and function of the gut microbiome. Parasitic infections can result in alterations in the gut microbial community, including changes in microbial diversity, abundance, and metabolic activity. These changes can influence the immune response and contribute to the development of IMBDs. In contrast, the gut microbiome serves a pivotal function in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and immune regulation. Dysbiosis, characterized by changes in the gut microbial composition, has been associated with the pathogenesis of IMBDs. Imbalances in the gut microbiota can result in increased gut permeability, chronic inflammation, and aberrant immune responses, all of which are hallmarks of IMBDs. The bidirectional interaction between intestinal parasites and the gut microbiome further complicates the understanding of immune-mediated bowel diseases. Certain parasites, such as hookworms and Necator americanus, have been found to downregulate immune responses and may have therapeutic potential in treating celiac disease. On the other hand, infections with parasites like Strongyloides stercoralis and Blastocystis have been shown to mimic the symptoms of IBD, highlighting the intricate relationship between parasites and the pathogenesis of these diseases. Additional investigation is required to comprehensively elucidate the mechanisms that underlie the association between intestinal parasites and the gut microbiome in immune-mediated bowel disease. This knowledge could potentially lead to the development of targeted therapeutic strategies that aim to restore gut microbiota homeostasis and alleviate the symptoms of these debilitating conditions. By understanding and harnessing the complex interplay between parasites, the gut microbiome, and the host immune system, researchers may uncover novel approaches for the management and treatment of immune-mediated bowel diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1695.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; EGFR/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling; animal models; Targeted Therapy
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:07:16 CEST)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) poses a significant global health concern, with its incidence steadily increasing. The development of HCC is a multifaceted, multi-step process involving alterations in various signaling cascades. In recent years, significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular signaling pathways that play central roles in hepatocarcinogenesis. In particular, the EGFR/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in HCC has garnered renewed attention from both basic and clinical researchers. Preclinical studies in vitro and in vivo have shown the effectiveness of targeting the key components of this signaling pathway in human HCC cells. Thus, targeting these signaling pathways with small molecule inhibitors holds promise as a potential therapeutic option for patients with HCC. In this review, we will explore recent advancements in understanding the role of the EGFR/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in HCC and assess the effectiveness of targeting this signaling cascade as a potential strategy for HCC therapy based on preclinical studies
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0534.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Targeted Adenoviral Vectors (Ad), Streptavidin-Polylysine (STAVpLys), messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA)
Online: 31 August 2022 (05:08:33 CEST)
Molecular therapies exploiting mRNA vectors embody enormous potential, as evidenced by the utility of this technology for the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. None-the-less, broad implementation of these promising strategies has been restricted by the limited repertoires of delivery vehicles capable of mRNA transport. On this basis, we explored a strategy based on exploiting the well characterized entry biology of adenovirus. To this end, we studied an adenovirus-polylysine (AdpL) that embodied “piggyback” transport of the mRNA on the capsid exterior of adenovirus. We hypothesized that the efficient steps of Ad binding, receptor-mediated entry, and capsid-mediated endosome escape could provide an effective pathway for transport of mRNA to the cellular cytosol for transgene expression. Our studies confirmed that AdpL could mediate effective gene transfer of mRNA vectors in vitro and in vivo. Facets of this method may offer key utilities to feasibilize the promise of mRNA-based therapeutics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0504.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: NSCLC 1; KRAS G12C mutation 2; targeted therapy 3; immunotherapy 4
Online: 26 November 2021 (11:34:27 CET)
The KRAS mutant population has been undruggable for 40 years. G12C inhibitors and immunotherapy are the beginning of success. It is necessary to summarize the successful experience of the existing treatment model and explore the direction of the next treatment. In this review, we discuss the latest developments in targeted therapy and immunotherapy for KRAS-mutation NSCLC, aiming to provide direction or enlightenment for future treatment strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: uveal melanoma; tumorigenesis; molecular classification; targeted therapy; immune checkpoint; tumor heterogeneity
Online: 1 October 2021 (11:54:23 CEST)
Uveal melanoma (UM) is characterized by relatively few, highly incident molecular alterations and their association with metastatic risk is deeply understood. Nevertheless, this knowledge has so far not led to innovate therapies for the successful treatment of UM metastases or for adjuvant therapy, leaving survival after diagnosis of metastatic UM almost unaltered in decades. The driver mutations of UM, mainly in the G-protein genes GNAQ and GNA11, activate the MAP-kinase pathway as well as the YAP/TAZ pathway. At present, there are no drugs that target the latter and this likely explains the failure of MEK-inhibitors. Immune checkpoint blockers, despite the game changing effect in cutaneous melanoma (CM) show only marginal effects in UM probably because of the low mutational burden of 0.5 per megabase and the unavailability of antibodies targeting the main immune checkpoint active in UM. The highly pro-tumorigenic microenvironment of UM also contributes to therapy resistance. However, T-cell redirection by a soluble T cell receptor that is fused to an anti-CD3 single-chain variable fragment, local, liver specific therapy, new immune checkpoint blockers and YAP/TAZ specific drugs give new hope to repeat the success of innovative therapy obtained for CM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0772.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune-related endocrine dysfunction; hypothyroidism; targeted therapy; malignancy
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:49:40 CEST)
Abstract Background The number of immune-related endocrine dysfunctions (irEDs) has concurrently increased with the widespread use of immunotherapy in clinical practice and further expansion of the approved indications for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) combinations using different modalities of anti-cancer treatment. Method A retrospective analysis was conducted on consecutive patients >18 years of age with advanced solid malignancies who had received at least one dose of anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) and/or anti-CTLA4 antibodies between January 2014 and December 2019 at a Hong Kong university hospital. Patients were reviewed for up to two months after the last administration of an ICI. The types, onset times and grades of irEDs, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, adrenal insufficiency and immune-related diabetes mellitus, were recorded. Factors associated with irEDs were identified using multivariate analysis. Result A total of 953 patients (male: 603, 64.0%; median age: 62.0 years) received ICIs during the study period. Of these, 580 patients (60.9%) used ICI-alone, 132 (13.9%) used dual-ICI, 187 (19.6%) used an ICI combined with chemotherapy (chemo+ICI), and 54 (5.70%) used immunotherapy with a targeted agent (targeted+ICI). A significantly higher proportion of patients using targeted+ICI had irEDs and hypothyroidism; in contrast, a higher proportion of patients using dual-ICI had adrenal insufficiency. There was no significant difference in the incidence of irED between the younger (<65 years) and older (>65 years) patients. Using logistic regression, only treatment type was significantly associated with irEDs. Notably, older patients had a higher risk of having immune-related diabetes mellitus. Conclusions This large, real-world cohort demonstrates that combining ICI with targeted therapy has a higher risk of overall irED and hypothyroidism. Immunotherapy is safe and well-tolerated regardless of age, but close monitoring of fasting glucose is needed in older populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0671.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Folate-targeted nanoparticles; BSA/Alginate nanocarriers; paclitaxel; cellular uptake; cell viability.
Online: 27 May 2021 (13:55:13 CEST)
Among the different ways to reduce the secondary effects of antineoplastic drugs in cancer treatment, the use of nanoparticles has demonstrated good results due to the protection of the drug and the possibility of releasing compounds to a specific therapeutic target. The α-isoform of folate receptor (FR) is overexpressed on a significant number of human cancers; therefore, folate-targeted crosslinked nanoparticles based on BSA and alginate mixtures and loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) have been prepared to maximizing the proven antineoplastic activity of the drug against solid tumors. Nanometric-range sized particles (169 ± 28nm - 296 ± 57nm), with negative Z-potential values (between -0.12 ± 0.04 and -94.1± 0.4), were synthesized. The loaded PTX (2.63±0.19 - 3.56 ±0.13 µg PTX/mg Np) was sustainably released along 23 and 27h. Three cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HeLa) were selected to test the efficacy of the folate-targeted PTX-loaded BSA/ALG nanocarriers. The presence of FR on cell membrane led to a significant larger uptake of BSA/ALG-Fol nanoparticles regarding to the equivalent nanoparticles without folic acid on its surface. The cell viability results demonstrated a cytocompatibility of unloaded nanoparticle-Fol and a gradual decrease in cell viability after treatment with PTX-loaded nanoparticles-Fol due to the sustainable PTX release.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: fibroblast growth factor; fibroblast growth factor receptor; targeted treatments; breast cancer
Online: 7 June 2018 (07:50:30 CEST)
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy and second only to lung cancer in terms of mortality in women. Despite the incredible progress made in this field, the metastatic breast cancer leaves a poor prognosis. In an era of personalized medicine, there is an urgent need for a better knowledge of the biology leading to the disease, which can lead to the design of always more accurate drugs against patients’ specific molecular aberrations. Among one of the actionable targets is the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) pathway, triggered by specific ligands. The FGFRs/FGFs axis offers interesting molecular targets to be pursued in clinical development. This mini-review will focus on the current knowledge of the FGFRs mutations leading to tumour formation and summarizes the state-of-the-art of therapeutic strategies for targeted treatments against the FGFRs/FGFs axis in the context of BC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1788.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Meningioma; Cabozantinib; VEGF; Targeted treatment Cabozantinib; METs; VEGFR2; Inhibitors; Angiogen-esis; Oncology
Online: 26 June 2023 (10:57:00 CEST)
Meningiomas are cerebral cancers that arise from abnormal cell development in the meninges and defensive layers covering the mind and spinal line. They can attack areas close to the cerebrum tissue and apply tension to neighboring designs, prompting different neurological side effects. Recent advances in atomic science and genomics have revealed insights into the fundamental subatomic adjustments and flagging pathways involved in the improvement of meningoma. Cabozantinib, a chemotherapeutic agent, has shown promising results in preclinical and clinical studies in various malignancies, including meningia. It inhibits angiogenesis, reduces cancer development, and prompts cell passage, providing areas of strength for clinical examination. Inhibition of VEGFR2 signaling has shown promise results in clinical trials in various cancer types, including a variety of cancers. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the pathophysiology and potential therapeutic effects of cabozanteb as a therapeutic agent for intracranial meninga.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1650.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Esophageal cancer; Targeted drug therapies; Pathway targeting; Drug resistance; Patient survival rates
Online: 23 June 2023 (09:44:00 CEST)
Esophageal cancer is a formidable challenge in the realm of cancer treatment. Conventional methods such as surgery, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy have demonstrated limited success rates in managing this disease. In response, targeted drug therapies have emerged as a promising strategy to improve outcomes for patients. These therapies aim to disrupt specific pathways involved in the growth and development of esophageal cancer cells. This review explores various drugs used to target specific pathways, including cetuximab and monoclonal antibodies (gefitinib) that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), trastuzumab that targets human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), drugs targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), mTOR inhibitors, and cMET inhibitors. Additionally, the article discusses the impact of drug resistance on the effectiveness of these therapies, highlighting factors such as cancer stem cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, immune-inflammatory cells, cytokines, hypoxia, and growth factors. While drug targeting approaches do not provide a complete cure for esophageal cancer due to drug resistance and associated side effects, they offer potential for improving patient survival rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0512.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: micronutrient deficiencies; rational food design; adolescents; biscuits; texture; chickpea flour; targeted nutrition
Online: 28 January 2023 (03:06:52 CET)
"Hidden hunger", the deficiency of important mineral micronutrients, affects more than 2 billion people globally. Adolescence is unquestionably a period of nutritional risk, given the high nutritional requirements for growth and development, erratic or capricious diets and the increased consumption of snacks. This study applied the rational food design approach to obtain micronutrient-dense biscuits by combining chickpea and rice flours to achieve an optimal nutritional profile, crunchy texture and appealing flavour. The perception of 33 adolescents of the suitability of such biscuits as a mid-morning snack was examined. Four biscuits were formulated, with different ratios of chickpea and rice flours (CF:RF): G100:0, G75:25, G50:50 and G25:75. Nutritional content, baking loss, acoustic-texture and sensory analyses were carried out. On average, the mineral content of biscuits with the CF:RF ratio of 100:0 doubled compared with the 25:75 formula. The dietary reference values for iron, potassium and zinc reached 100% in the biscuits with CF:RF ratios of 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0, respectively. The analysis of mechanical properties revealed that samples G100:0 and G75:25 were harder than the others. Sample G100:0 showed the highest sound pressure level (Smax). Sensory analysis showed that increasing the proportion of CF in the formulation augments the grittiness, hardness, chewiness and crunchiness. Most of the adolescents (72.7%) were habitual snack consumers; 52% awarded scores ≥ 6 to biscuit G50:50 for its overall quality, 24% described its flavour as "biscuit" and 12% as "nutty". However, 55% of the participants could not pinpoint any dominant flavour. In conclusion, it is possible to design nutrient-dense snacks that meet the micronutrient requirements and sensory expectations of adolescents by combining flours naturally rich in micronutrients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cervical cancer; endometrial cancer; ovarian cancer; 2021 update; novel targeted therapies; immunotherapy
Online: 3 February 2022 (13:02:11 CET)
This review of the meaningful data from 2021 on cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers aims to provide an update of the most clinically relevant studies presented at important oncologic congresses during the year [the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress and the Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO) Annual Meeting]. Despite the underlying existence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the last year has been notable in terms of research, with significant and promising advances in gynecologic malignancies. Several major studies reporting the effects of innovative therapies for patients with cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers might change the medical practice in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0333.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: genome editing; CRISPR; protoplast; , targeted mutagenesis; TREX2; construct validation; transi-ent expression
Online: 14 May 2021 (13:44:26 CEST)
Cas endonuclease-mediated genome editing provides a long-awaited molecular biological approach to the modification of predefined genomic target sequences in living organisms. Although cas9/guide (g)RNA constructs are straightforward to assemble and can be customized to target virtually any site in the plant genome, the implementation of this technology can be cumbersome, especially in species like Triticale that are difficult to transform, for which only limited genome information is available and/or which carry comparatively large genomes. To cope with these challenges, we have pre-validated cas9/gRNA constructs (1) by frameshift restitution of a reporter gene co-introduced by ballistic DNA transfer to barley epidermis cells, and (2) via transfection in Triticale protoplasts followed by either a T7E1-based cleavage assay or by deep-sequencing of target-specific PCR amplicons. For exemplification, we addressed the Triticale ABA 8’-hydroxylase 1 gene, one of the putative determinants of pre-harvest sprouting of grains. We further show that in-del induction frequency in Triticale can be increased by TREX2 nuclease activity, which holds true for both well- and poorly performing gRNAs. The presented results constitute a sound basis for the targeted induction of heritable modifications in Triticale genes.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Straw Hat University; Farmer's Professor; Rural Transformation; Targeted poverty alleviation in China
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:40:08 CEST)
China is out of extreme poverty in 2020 on schedule and one decade in advance to fulfill the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and became the first developing country to alleviate poverty in half century. Therefore, a large numbers of effective approaches are emerging, and the intellectual’s technology-led poverty reduction, which locally known as the “Straw Hat University”initiated by “Farmer's professor”mode, is the most tried and tested approach motivated by the intellectual’s “Serve the people” tradition and supported by the all nation. This research conduct case analysis with three most remarkable organic intellectuals as Agronomist Yuan longping, Mycologist Lin Zhanxi and Plant pathologist Zhu Youyong with their bridging gaps in food security, regional imbalance and ethnic disparity respectively to sort out the sustainable modules and universal experiences. The conclusion indicates that“Farmer's Professor” Initiated “Straw Hat University” is an effective approach to solve human beings’ development problems and benefit the livelihoods, especially in the under development regions; and the authentic down to earth experiments into productivity as well as the Intellectual property transformation is the perfect path to deploy offline and online resources building the effective production and supply chain to integrate industries by intellectual’s critical innovation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0523.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: discovery proteomics; targeted proteomics; mass spectrometry; fish allergens; crustacean allergens; mollusk allergens
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:23:40 CEST)
Seafood is considered one of the main food allergen sources by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). It comprises several distinct groups of edible aquatic animals including fish and shellfish such as crustacean and mollusks. Recently the EFSA recognized the high risk of food allergy over the world and established the necessity of developing new methodologies for its control. Consequently, accurate, sensitive and fast detection methods for seafood allergy control and detection in food products are highly recommendable. In this work, we present a comprehensive review of the applications of the proteomics methodologies for the detection and quantification of seafood allergens. For that, two consecutive proteomics strategies (Discovery and Targeted Proteomics) applied for the study and control of seafood allergy are reviewed in detail. In addition, future directions and new perspectives were also provided.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; immune checkpoint inhibitors; HCC; pembrolizumab; nivolumab; immune microenvironment; targeted therapies
Online: 14 September 2019 (18:37:29 CEST)
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. A total of 70-80% of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage with a dismal prognosis. Sorafenib has been the standard of care for almost a decade until 2018 when FDA approved an alternative first-line agent namely lenvatinib. Whereas FOLFOX4 results an alternative first-line treatment for the chinese clinical oncology guidelines. In addition to cabozantinib, regorafenib, and ramucirumab, two therapeutics against the PD-L1/PD1 axis have been recently approved for subsequent-line therapy, as nivolumab and pembrolizumab. However, similar to other solid tumors, the response rate of single-agent targeting PD-L1/PD1 axis is low. Therefore a lot of combinatory approaches are under investigation, including the combination of different immune checkpoint inhibitors, the addition of immune checkpoint inhibitors after resection or during locoregional therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors in addition to kinase inhibitors, anti-angiogenic therapeutics, and others. This review focuses on the use of ICIs for the hepatocellular carcinoma with an attent evaluation of new ICIs based combinatory approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: PTEN; PI3K; cancer predisposition syndromes; targeted therapies; mouse models of human cancer
Online: 10 April 2019 (10:37:43 CEST)
The PI3K-AKT-mTOR signal transduction pathway regulates a variety of biological processes including cell growth, cell cycle progression and proliferation, cellular metabolism and cytoskeleton reorganization. Fine-tuning of the PI3K pathway signaling output is essential for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and uncontrolled activation of this cascade leads to a number of human pathologies including cancer. Inactivation of the tumour suppressor phosphatase PTEN and/or activating mutations in the proto-typical lipid kinase PI3K have emerged as some of the most frequent events associated with human cancer and as a result the PI3K pathway has become a highly sought-after target for cancer therapies. In this review we summarize the essential role of the PTEN-PI3K axis in controlling cellular behaviors by modulating activation of key proto-oncogenic molecular nodes and functional targets. Further, we highlight important functional redundancies and peculiarities of these two critical enzymes that over the last few decades have become a central part of the cancer research field and have instructed hundreds of pre-clinical and clinical trials to better cancer treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0459.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Superparamagnetic iron oxide; Magnetic resonance imaging; Solid lipid nanoparticles; Galactose; Liver-targeted
Online: 24 July 2018 (14:01:51 CEST)
The aim of this study was to develop a novel nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) with hepatocytes targeting as carriers for the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent (i.e., magnetic nanostructured lipid carriers, MNLCs), and to evaluate the targeting ability of the MNLCs with T2-weighted MRI both in vitro and in vivo. Here, the galactose-octadecylamine (Gal-ODA) conjugates were synthesized by chemical coupling reaction between lactose acid (LA) and octadecylamine (ODA). Then the superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (conjugated by Gal-ODA, Gal-NLC-SPIO) was prepared by emulsification-ultrasonic method using monoglyceride as lipid materials. The Gal-NLC-SPIO with a diameter of about 50 nm could specifically internalize into LO2 (human hepatic cell line) cells. In vitro MRI results also proved the specific targeting ability of Gal-NLC-SPIO to LO2 cells. The in vivo MR imaging experiments using an orthotopic intrahepatic xenograft tumor model further validated the hepatocytes targeted effect of Gal-NLC-SPIO. The results of this study suggested that Gal-NLC-SPIO can be used as a contrast agent to aid in the diagnosis of hepatic diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0552.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer chemotherapy; transmembrane receptors; EGFR; targeted protein degradation; furfuryl-quinolin-triazole-thiol chemicals
Online: 10 July 2023 (07:23:13 CEST)
Targeted protein degradation is an attractive technology for cancer treatment due to its ability to overcome the unpredictability of small molecule inhibitors that cause resistance mutations. In recent years, various targeted protein degradation strategies have been developed based on the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the cytoplasm or the autophagy-lysosomal system during endocytosis. In this review, we describe and compare technologies for targeted inhibition and targeted degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), one of the major proteins responsible for the onset and progression of many types of cancer. In addition, we have developed an alternative strategy, called alloAUTO, based on the binding of new heterocyclic compounds to an allosteric site located in close proximity to the EGFR catalytic site. These compounds cause targeted degradation of the transmembrane receptor, simultaneously activating both systems of protein degradation in cells. Damage to EGFR signaling pathways promotes inactivation of Bim sensor protein phosphorylation, which leads to disintegration of the cytoskeleton, followed by detachment of cancer cells from the extracellular matrix and, ultimately, to cancer cell death. This hallmark of targeted cancer cell death suggests an advantage over other targeted protein degradation strategies, namely that the fewer cancer cells survive, the fewer chemotherapy-resistant mutants appear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: transcriptionally targeted oncolytic adenovirus; gynecologic cancer; human samples; cytokines; ovarian cancer; tumor stroma
Online: 6 May 2023 (09:25:49 CEST)
More than 1 million women are diagnosed annually worldwide with a gynecological cancer. Most gynecological cancers are diagnosed at late stage, either because lack of symptoms such as in ovarian cancer or limited accessibility to primary prevention in low-resource countries such as in cervical cancer. Here, we extend the studies of AR2011, a stroma-targeted and tumor microenvironment responsive oncolytic adenovirus (OAdV) whose replication is driven by a triple hybrid promoter. We show that AR2011 was able to replicate and lyse in vitro fresh explants obtained from human ovarian cancer. uterine cancer, and cervical cancer. AR2011 was also able to strongly inhibit the in vitro growth of ovarian malignant cells obtained from human ascites fluid. The virus could synergize in vitro with cisplatin even on ascites-derived cells obtained from patients heavily pretreated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. AR2011(h404) a dual transcriptionally targeted derived virus armed with hCD40L and h41BBL under the regulation of the hTERT promoter, showed a strong efficacy in vivo both on subcutaneous and intraperitoneally established human ovarian cancer in nude mice. Preliminary studies in an immunocompetent murine tumor model showed that AR2011(m404) expressing the murine cytokines was able to induce an abscopal effect. The present studies suggest that AR2011(h404) is a likely candidate as a novel medicine for intraperitoneal disseminated ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0343.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: targeted alpha therapy; alpha-emitter; thorium-226; uranium-230; isotope generator; extraction chromatography
Online: 20 February 2023 (14:17:58 CET)
A unique two-column 230U/226Th generator has been developed. The focus was hold on obtaining 226Th of high purity in a solution amenable to further labeling. The first column of the proposed generator filled with TEVA Resin held 230U, from which 226Th was eluted with 7 M HCl solution. UTEVA Resin pretreated with nitric acid solution was used as a sorbent for the second column for thorium retention. 226Th was extracted with 0.01-0.05 M citric buffer solution. One cycle of generator milking took 5-7 minutes and produced > 90% of 226Th in 1.5 ml of eluate, pH 4.5-5.0. The proposed two-column 230U/226Th generator was tested over two months including a second loading of 230U additionally accumulated from 230Pa. The 230U impurity in 226Th eluate was less than 0.01% allowing to use it directly in synthesis of radiopharmaceutical compounds.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0362.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: gut microbiome; time-restricted feeding; intermittent fasting; targeted approach; hormonal signaling; metabolic regulators
Online: 24 October 2022 (12:00:48 CEST)
Each individual has a unique gut microbiota; therefore the genes in our microbiome outnumber the genes in our genome by about 150 to 1. Perturbation in host nutritional status influences gut microbiome composition and vice versa. The gut microbiome can help in producing vitamins, hormones, and other active metabolites that support the immune system; harvest energy from food; aid in digestion; protect against pathogens; improve gut transit and function; send signals to the brain and other organs, oscillating the circadian rhythm and coordinate with host metabolism through multiple cellular pathways. Gut microbiota can be influenced by host genetics, medications, diet, and lifestyle factors from preterm to aging. So before prescribing a customized treatment, it is crucial to monitor and count the gut flora as a focused biomarker. Many nutritional approaches that have been developed help in maintaining and restoring an optimal microbiome such as specific diet therapy, nutrition interventions and customized eating patterns. One of these approaches is time-restricted feeding/eating (TRF/E), a type of intermittent fasting (IF) in which a subject abstains from food intake for a specific time window. Such a dietary modification might alter and restore the gut microbiome for proper alignment of cellular and molecular pathways throughout the lifespan. In this review, we have highlighted that gut microbiota would be a targeted biomarker and TRF/E would be a targeted approach for restoring the gut microbiome associated molecular pathways like hormonal signaling, the circadian system, metabolic regulators, neural responses, and immune-inflammatory pathways. Consequently, modulation of gut microbiota through TRF/E could contribute in proper utilization and availability of the nutrients and in this way confer protection against diseases for harnessing personalized nutrition approaches to improve human health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0160.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; HER2-positive; estrogen receptor positive; triple-positive; HER2-targeted therapy; immunotherapy
Online: 10 June 2022 (11:03:05 CEST)
Up to 25% of early human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer (BC) patients will relapse despite the improvement achieved by the introduction of HER2-targeted therapy. Beyond trastuzumab, other agents approved for early HER2+ BC include the monoclonal antibody pertuzumab, the antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) and the reversible HER2 inhibitor lapatinib. New agents, such as trastuzumab-deruxtecan or tucatinib in combination with capecitabine and trastuzumab, have also shown an improvement in the metastatic setting. Other therapeutic strategies to overcome treatment resistance have been explored in HER2+ BC, mainly in HER2+ that also overexpress estrogen receptors (ER+). One strategy has been to target the cyclin-dependent kinases 4/6 (CDK4/6) as they are downstream of HER2 and many of the cellular pathways associated with resistance to HER2-targeted therapies play a key role in cell cycle and proliferation. Different trials have explored these strategies with encouraging results, but definitive results are needed. In addition, HER2+ BC is known to be more immunogenic than other BC subgroups, with high variability between tumors. Different immunotherapeutic agents have been investigated in this setting, with promising but controversial results obtained to date.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic melanoma; targeted therapy; immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy; survival; statutory health insurance data
Online: 15 November 2021 (11:50:07 CET)
(1) Background: Targeted (TT) and immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapies have become available in the routine care of metastatic melanoma in recent years. (2) Objective: We compared mortality in patients with metastatic melanoma and different systemic therapies. (3) Methods: A retrospective cohort study, based on pseudonymized health insurance data of about 2 million individuals from Saxony, Germany, was conducted for the years 2010 to 2020. Only patients with an advanced stage, i.e. distant metastases were considered for the main analysis. Relative survival since metastasis and predicted survivor curves derived from a Cox model were used to assess potential differences in mortality. (4) Results: Relative survival was highest in the subgroup with sequential use of ICI and TT. All treatments except interferon had significant hazard ratios (HR) in the Cox model with time-dependent effects indicating a protective effect after treatment initiation (HR 0.01-0.146) but decreasing over time (HR 1.351-2.310). The predicted survivor curves revealed best survival under ICI-TT treatment and worst survival under TT treatment alone. (5) Conclusions: We found real-world evidence for survival benefits of patients with metastatic melanoma who received sequential ICI and TT treatment. It is conceivable that the observed high survival differences were overestimated due to bias, such as confounding by indication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: BRD9; Prostate Cancer; SWI/SNF; Survival; pathways; signal transduction; human cohorts; targeted therapy
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:51:57 CEST)
Background and aims: Despite recent advances in advanced prostate cancer treatments, there are no clinically useful biomarkers or treatments for men with such cancers. Targeted therapies have shown promise, but there remain fewer actionable targets in prostate cancer than in other cancers. This work aims to characterize BRD9, currently understudied in prostate cancer, and investigate its co-expression with other genes to assess its potential as a biomarker and therapeutic target in human prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Omics data from a total of 2053 prostate cancer patients across 11 independent datasets were accessed via Cancertool and cBioPortal. mRNA expression and co-expression, mutations, amplifications, and deletions were assessed with respect to key clinical parameters including survival, Gleason grade, stage, progression and treatment. Network and pathway analysis was carried out using Genemania, and heatmaps were constructed using Morpheus. Results: BRD9 is overexpressed in prostate cancer patients, especially those with metastatic disease. BRD9 expression did not differ in patients treated with second generation antiandrogens versus those who were not. BRD9 is co-expressed with many genes in the SWI/SNF and BET complexes, as well as those in common signaling pathways in prostate cancer. Summary and conclusions: BRD9 has potential as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in prostate cancer. BRD9 also shows promise as a therapeutic target, particularly in advanced prostate cancer, and as a co-target alongside other genes in the SWI/SNF and BET complexes, and those in common prostate cancer signalling pathways. These promising results highlight the need for wider experimental inhibition and co-targeted inhibition of BRD9 in vitro and in vivo, to build on the limited inhibition data available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0424.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: 4-Phenylbutyric acid; Colon-targeted drug delivery; Colitis; Prodrug; ER stress; Chemical chaperone
Online: 19 July 2020 (19:15:20 CEST)
An elevated level of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is considered an aggravating factor for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To develop an ER stress attenuator that is effective against colitis, 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), a chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress, was conjugated with acidic amino acids to yield a 4-PBA-glutamic acid conjugate (PBA-GA) and a 4-PBA-aspartic acid conjugate (PBA-AA). The PBA derivatives were converted to 4-PBA in the cecal contents, where the conversion was greater with PBA-GA. After oral administration of PBA-GA (oral PBA-GA), millimolar levels of PBA were accumulated in the cecum, whereas 4-PBA was not detected in the blood, indicating the targeting of PBA-GA to the large intestine. At concentrations in the cecum achievable by oral PBA-GA, 4-PBA effectively attenuated ER stress in human colon epithelial cells. In 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats, oral PBA-GA alleviated the damage and inflammation in the colon. Moreover, oral PBA-GA substantially reduced the elevated levels of ER stress marker proteins in the inflamed colon. Moreover, PBA-GA was as effective as the currently used anti-IBD drug, sulfasalazine. In conclusion, PBA-GA is a colon-targeted prodrug of 4-PBA and is effective against rat colitis probably through the attenuation of ER stress in the inflamed colon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1260.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Protons; X-rays; oral squamous cell carcinoma; extracellular vesicles; non-targeted effects of radiation
Online: 19 October 2023 (09:59:48 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound particles released from cells, and their cargo can alter the function of recipient cells. EVs from X-irradiated cells have been shown to play a likely role in non-targeted effects. However, EVs derived from proton irradiated cells have not yet been studied. We aimed to investigate and compare the proteome of EVs and their cell of origin after proton or X-irradiation. The EVs were derived from a human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line exposed to 0, 4, or 8 Gy with either protons or X-rays. The EVs and irradiated OSCC cells underwent liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for protein identification. Interestingly, we found different protein profiles both in the EVs and in the OSCC cells after proton irradiation compared to X-irradiation. In the EVs, we found that protons cause a downregulation of proteins involved in cell growth and DNA damage response compared to X-rays. In the OSCC cells, proton and X-irradiation induced dissimilar cell death pathways and distinct DNA damage repair systems. These results are of potential importance for understanding how non-targeted effects in normal tissue can be limited and for future implementation of proton therapy in the clinic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: DCL ligand; iodine radioisotopes; radiolabeled pharmaceuticals; targeted delivery; prostatic specific membrane antigen; prostate cancer
Online: 5 July 2023 (04:43:46 CEST)
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been identified as a target for the development of theranostic agents. In our current work, we describe the design and synthesis of novel N-[N-[(S)-1,3-dicarboxypropyl]carbamoyl]-(S)-L-lysine (DCL) urea-based PSMA inhibitors with a chlorine-substituted aromatic fragment at the lysine ε-nitrogen atom, a dipeptide as peptide fragment of the linker, including two phenylalanine residues in the L-configuration, and 3- or 4-(tributylstannyl)benzoic acid as prosthetic group in their structures for radiolabeling. The standard compounds ([127I]PSMA-m-IB and [127I]PSMA-p-IB) for comparative and characterization studies were firstly synthesized using two alternative synthetic approaches. An important advantage of the alternative synthetic approach in which the prosthetic group (NHS-activated esters of compounds) is first conjugated with the polypeptide sequence, followed by replacement of the Sn(Bu)3 group with radioiodine, is that the radionuclide is introduced in the final step of synthesis, thereby minimizing operating time with iodine-123 during the radiolabeling process. The obtained DCL urea-based PSMA inhibitors were radiolabeled with iodine-123. The radiolabeling optimization results showed that the radiochemical yield of [123I]PSMA-p-IB was higher than those of [123I]PSMA-m-IB, which were 74.9± 1.0% and 49.4 ± 1.2%, respectively. The radiochemical purity of [123I]PSMA-p-IB after purification was greater than 99.50%. The initial preclinical evaluation of [123I]PSMA-p-IB demonstrated a considerable affinity and specific binding to PC-3 PIP (PSMA-expressing cells) in vitro. The in vivo biodistribution of this new radioligand [123I]PSMA-p-IB showed less accumulation than [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 in several normal organs (liver, kidney and bone). These results warrants further preclinical development including toxicology evaluation and experiments in tumor-bearing mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0315.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Type I nitroreductase; NfsB; Crystal structure; Prodrug; Metronidazole; Targeted cellular ablation; Tinidazole; CB1954; Dinitrotoluene
Online: 17 March 2023 (03:22:59 CET)
Bacterial nitroreductase enzymes that convert prodrugs to cytotoxins are valuable tools for creating transgenic targeted ablation models to study cellular function and cell-specific regeneration paradigms. We recently engineered a nitroreductase (“NTR 2.0”) for substantially enhanced reduction of the prodrug metronidazole, which permits faster cell ablation kinetics, cleaner interrogations of cell function, ablation of previously recalcitrant cell types, and extended ablation paradigms useful for modelling chronic diseases. To provide insight into the enhanced enzymatic mechanism of NTR 2.0, we have solved the X-ray crystal structure at 1.85 Angstroms resolution and compared it to the parental enzyme, NfsB from Vibrio vulnificus. We additionally present a survey of reductive activity with eight alternative nitroaromatic substrates, to provide access to alternative ablation prodrugs, and explore applications such as remediation of dinitrotoluene pollutants. The predicted binding modes of four key substrates were investigated using molecular modelling.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0420.v3
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Non-targeted methods; method validation; food fraud; food authenticity; mass spectrometry; spectroscopy; NGS; NMR
Online: 23 May 2022 (11:10:00 CEST)
Through its suggestive name, non-targeted methods (NTMs) do not aim at a predefined "needle in the haystack". Instead, they exploit all the constituents of the haystack. This new form of analytical methods is increasingly finding applications in food and feed testing. However, the concepts, terms, and considerations related to this burgeoning field of analytical testing needs to be propagated for the benefit of ones associated in academic research, commercial development, and official control. This paper addresses the frequently asked questions around notations and terminologies surrounding NTMs. The widespread development and adoption of these methods also necessitates the need to develop approaches to NTM validation, i.e., evaluating the performance characteristics of a method to determine if it is fit-for-purpose. This work aims to provide a roadmap to approaching NTM validation. In doing so, the paper deliberates on the different considerations that influence the approach to validation and provides suggestions thereof.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0724.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: TNBC; dasatinib; poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) micelles; nanoformulation; metabolism; EPR; nanomedicine; targeted therapy.
Online: 27 April 2021 (13:56:12 CEST)
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer accounting for around 15% of identified breast cancer cases. TNBC, by lacking estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), is unresponsive to current targeted therapies. Existing treatment relies on chemotherapeutic treatment but, despite an initial response to chemotherapy, the inception of resistance and relapse is unfortunately common. Dasatinib is an approved second-generation inhibitor of multiple tyrosine kinases and literature data strongly support its use in the management of TNBC. However, dasatinib binds to plasma proteins and undergoes extensive metabolism through oxidation and conjugation. To protect dasatinib from fast pharmacokinetic degradation and to prolong its activity, it was encapsulated on poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) (SMA) micelles. The obtained SMA-dasatinib nanoparticles (NPs) were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, in vitro antiproliferative activity in different TNBC cell lines, and in vivo anticancer activity in a syngeneic model of breast cancer. Obtained results showed that SMA-dasatinib is more potent against 4T1 TNBC tumor growth in vivo compared to free drug. This enhanced effect was ascribed to the encapsulation of the drug protecting it from a rapid metabolism. Our finding highlights the often-overlooked value of nanoformulations in protecting its cargo from degradation. Overall, results may provide an alternative therapeutic strategy for TNBC management.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: HBOC; statewide random sampling; cancer survivorship; targeted intervention; tailored intervention; black participants; family recruitment
Online: 5 September 2019 (16:16:34 CEST)
We compared the efficacy of a tailored and a targeted intervention designed to increase clinical breast exam (CBE), mammography, and genetic services/testing among young breast cancer survivors (YBCS) (diagnosed <45 years old) and their blood relatives. A two-arm cluster randomized trial recruited a random sample of YBCS from the Michigan cancer registry and up to two of their blood relatives. Participants were stratified according to race and randomly assigned as family units to the tailored (n=637) or the targeted (n=595) intervention. Approximately 40% of participants were Black; 12% YBCS and 27% relatives were living in more than 20 different U.S. States. Higher screening rates were reported by YBCS (CBE p=0.05; mammography p=0.04) and relatives (CBE p<0.01; mammography p=0.04) in the tailored arm, and by White/Other YBCS (CBE p=0.02) and relatives (CBE p<0.01; mammography p=0.03). YBCS genetic testing rates increased from 22% to 26% (p=0.11). Black YBCS and relatives reported higher self-efficacy and intention for genetic testing, and higher satisfaction and intervention acceptance. The tailored intervention improved CBE and mammography uptake - despite having minimal contact with participants. Professional referrals will improve genetic testing uptake. Intervention materials increased self-efficacy and satisfaction for Black women but could not overcome multiple access barriers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0245.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cyclin-dependent kinases; cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitors; targeted therapies; breast cancer
Online: 27 February 2019 (04:48:54 CET)
Breast Cancer (BC) is the second most common type of cancer worldwide and displays the highest cancer-related mortality among women worldwide. Targeted therapies have revolutionized the way BC has been treated in the last decades improving life expectancies of millions of women. Among the different molecular pathways that have been of interest for the development of targeted therapies are the Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (CDK). CDK inhibitors are a class of molecules that already exist in nature and those belonging to the INK4 protein family specifically inhibit the CDK4/6 proteins. CDK4/6 inhibitors specifically block the transition from the G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle by dephosphorylation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. In the past four years CDK4/6 inhibitors palbociclib, ribociclib, and abemaciclib received their first FDA approval for the treatment of Hormone Receptor (HR)-positive and Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer after showing significant improvements in progression-free survival in the PALOMA-1, MONALEESA-2 and the MONARCH-2 randomized clinical trials, respectively. After the encouraging results from these clinical trials, CDK4/6 inhibitors have also been investigated in the other BC subtypes. In HER2-positive BC, combination of CDK4/6 inhibitors with HER2-targeted therapies showed promise in preclinical studies and their clinical evaluation is ongoing. Moreover, in triple-negative BC, CDK4/6 inhibitors efficacy has been investigated in combination with other targeted therapies or immunotherapies. This review summarizes the molecular background and clinical efficacy of CDK4/6 inhibitors as single agents or in combination with other targeted therapies for the treatment of BC. Future directions of ongoing clinical trials and predictive biomarkers will be further debated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: neurofibromatosis type 1; congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia; whole-exome sequencing; targeted sequencing; BCOR
Online: 7 September 2016 (11:19:00 CEST)
Neurofibromatosis type1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the NF1gene. Although congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) has frequently been associated with NF1, the underlying molecular mechanism of CPT in these NF1 patients is yet ill-understood. The aim of the present study was to detect NF1 mutations from genomic DNA and to harbor variants associated with CPT in NF1 patients. Whole-exome sequencing was first carried out with samples from two patients with CPT in one NF1 family, and a novel mutation c.2324A>G (p.E775G) in NF1 gene was identified. Additionally, a missense variant c.455C>T (p.P152L) in BCOR gene completely co-segregated with the CPT phenotype within this family. Subsequently, NF1 and NF2 genes in four other unrelated patients with both NF1 and CPT were screened using targeted sequencing. Four mutations in NF1 gene, including two known mutations (c.2288T>C/p.L763P, c.574 C>T/p.R192*) and two novel mutations (c.768delT/p.F256Lfs*25, c.2229_2230delTG/ p.V744Qfs*23) were detected. Further study confirmed that CPT was present in NF1 families, and NF1 mutations were closely associated with these complex phenotypes. Moreover, the data from the current study indicated that male gender might be a susceptibility factor for CPT in NF1. Therefore, we speculated that BCOR variants might be related to CPT phenotype among male NF1 patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2064.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: adversarial attacks; artificial intelligence; machine learning; defense mechanisms; system integrity; model vulnerabilities; advanced attack techniques; Fast Gradient Sign Method (FGSM); Carlini and Wagner Attack (C&W); targeted attacks; non-targeted attacks; blackbox attacks
Online: 29 September 2023 (08:42:10 CEST)
This comprehensive analysis thoroughly examines the topic of adversarial attacks in artificial intelligence (AI), providing a detailed overview of the various methods used to compromise machine learning models. It explores different attack techniques, ranging from the simple Fast Gradient Sign Method (FGSM) to the intricate Carlini and Wagner Attack (C&W), emphasising the wide range of adversarial approaches and their intended goals. The discussion also distinguishes between targeted and non-targeted attacks, highlighting the adaptability and versatility of these malicious efforts. Additionally, the study delves into the realm of black-box attacks, revealing the capability of adversarial strategies to compromise models even with limited knowledge. Real-life examples illustrate the tangible consequences and potential dangers of adversarial attacks in various fields such as self-driving cars, multimedia, and voice assistants. These cases highlight the difficulties in ensuring the legitimacy and dependability of AI-powered technologies and programs. The article stresses the importance of ongoing research and innovation to address the growing difficulties posed by advanced methods like deepfakes and disguised voice commands in preserving the security of AI systems. This study provides valuable insights on how different adversarial strategies and defence mechanisms interact within AI. The results emphasise the urgent need for stronger and more secure AI models to combat the increasing number of adversarial threats in today's AI landscape. These findings can guide future research and innovations in developing more resilient AI technologies that can better withstand various adversarial vulnerabilities and challenges.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1950.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: inflammatory breast carcinoma; targeted biological therapy; HER2 overexpression; multidisciplinary treatment; aggressive cancer management; systemic chemotherapy
Online: 28 June 2023 (07:12:56 CEST)
(1) Background: This case presents a rare and challenging clinical scenario involving a 50-year-old female patient diagnosed with Inflammatory Carcinoma, a particularly aggressive and rapidly growing form of breast cancer. The disease is characterized by heat, redness, swelling and noticeable changes in the breast's skin texture, resembling the skin of an orange (peau d'orange). This case is important because it contributes to the limited clinical literature on such aggressive forms of breast cancer.; (2) Methods: The multidisciplinary approach was employed. Diagnostic procedures such as imaging tests, biopsy, and histopathological examination were performed to confirm the diagnosis of Inflammatory Carcinoma and assess the extent of the disease. The presence of the HER2 protein on the tumor cells supported the selection of a combination therapy involving systemic chemotherapy and targeted biological therapy.; (3) Results: The patient responded positively to the combination therapy consisting of systemic chemotherapy and targeted biological therapy. The aggressive nature of Inflammatory Carcinoma, characterized by rapid growth and distinct skin changes, was effectively addressed. The presence of the HER2 protein on the tumor cells indicated the potential efficacy of the combination therapy in aggressive forms of breast cancer.; (4) Conclusions: This case highlights the critical importance of a multidisciplinary approach in managing complex cases of breast cancer, especially rare and aggressive subtypes like Inflammatory Carcinoma. The positive response of the patient to the combination therapy involving systemic chemotherapy and targeted biological therapy demonstrates the potential for favorable outcomes in aggressive disease presentations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Molecular switches; oncolytic vectors; patient-specific ubiquitous mutations; targeted therapy; multi-region sequencing; molecular biology
Online: 11 August 2022 (11:50:12 CEST)
Most existing cancer therapies negatively affect normal tissue as well as cancerous tissue. A potentially effective strategy for treating cancer that precludes off-target damage and could be an option for most patients would involve targeting one or more mutations that are ubiquitous in the given patient’s tumor(s). To effect this strategy, one would employ multi-region sequencing of a patient’s primary tumor and metastases to seek out mutations that are shared between all or at least most regions. Once the target or targets are known, one would ideally rapidly generate a molecular switch for at least one of said ubiquitous mutations that can distinguish the mutated DNA, RNA, or protein from the wild-type version and subsequently trigger a therapeutic response. I propose that the therapeutic response involve the replication of an oncolytic virus or intracellular bacterium, as any mutation can theoretically be detected by a vector that enters the cell - and automatic propagation could be very helpful. Moreover, the mutation “signal” can be easily enhanced through transcriptional and translational (if the target is an intracellular protein) enhancement. Importantly, RNA may make the best target for the molecular switches in terms of amplification of the signal and ease of targeting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0137.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Taihe silky fowl; metabolic components; un-targeted metabolome; breed and feed; biosynthesis of amino acids
Online: 15 April 2022 (05:47:06 CEST)
Chinese Taihe Black-bone silky fowl (TBsf) is the homology of medicine and food and has high nutritional and medical value all over the world. However, the nutritional compositions and specific metabolite advantages of Taihe silky fowl muscle are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the differences of nutritional components between TBsf and another similar breed (Black Feathered chicken and laid green-shelled eggs, BF-gsc). Meanwhile, we also explored the divergences in muscle characteristics of Taihe silky fowl fed with two different diets, that is normal chicken feed (TBsf-ncf) and Broussonetia papyrifera-fermented feed (TBsf-bpf). Firstly, the growth performance and biochemical index of Taihe silky fowl was significantly different compared with black-feathered chicken. Secondly, we identified the metabolic alterations in Taihe silky fowl by performing an un-targeted UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis. Our results suggested that the whole metabonomic characteristics had obvious separation between TBsf-ncf, TBsf-bpf and BF-gsc groups both in the positive and negative ion mode by PCA analysis. Next, OPLS-DA multivariate analysis revealed that 57 metabolites (in positive mode) and 49 metabolites (in negative mode) were identified as differential metabolites between TBsf-ncf and BF-gsc group. These differential metabolites were mainly enriched to ABC transporters, biosynthesis of amino acids and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. Besides, there were 47 metabolites (in positive) and 13 metabolites (in negative) were differentially regulated between TBsf-ncf and TBsf-bpf group, which were majorly involved in histidine metabolism and linoleic metabolism. Furthermore, the integrated network analysis suggested that DL-arginine, DL-isoleucine, linoleoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine (positive) and ricionleic acid, D-proline, uric acid (negative) were the significantly metabolic biomarkers in Taihe silky fowl. Moreover, the metabolites of primaquine, ticlpoidine, riboflavin, acetylcarnitine (positive) and salicylic acid, acetaminophen sulfate, glutamic acid (negative) were markedly changed in the Taihe silky fowl fed with BP-fermented feed. In summary, a global survey of the nutritional components and metabolite differences were performed in muscle tissues of Taihe silky fowl between various breeds and feeds. The comprehensive expression profiles of the metabolites in Taihe silky fowl affected by genetic and environmental factors were acquired. This study provided valuable evidence fo breed and feed-induced putative biomarkers as well as improved the economic value of Taihe silky fowl through targeted metabolite regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0638.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; targeted therapies; therapeutic resistance; tumor microenvironment; desmoplasia; collagen; collagenase; attenuated Salmonella typhimurium
Online: 28 June 2021 (10:36:31 CEST)
Therapeutic resistance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) can be attributed, in part, to a dense extracellular matrix containing excessive collagen deposition. Here, we describe a novel Salmonella typhimurium (ST) vector expressing the bacterial collagenase Streptomyces omiyaensis trypsin (SOT), a serine protease known to hydrolyze collagens I and IV, which are predominantly found in PDAC. Utilizing aggressive models of PDAC, we show that ST-SOT selectively degrades intratumoral collagen leading to enhancement of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy in tumor-bearing mice. Ultimately, we found that ST-SOT treatment significantly modifies the intratumoral immune landscape to generate a microenvironment more conducive to ICB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0692.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: RACK1; HIV-1; IRES; Hepatitis C; HCV; AZT; HTA; Host-targeted antiviral; HEK293T; SD29-14
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:35:00 CEST)
Host ribosome-associated scaffold protein Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) is utilized by a diverse group of human viruses for Internal Ribosomal Entry Sites (IRES) – mediated translation of viral mRNAs. We recently reported inhibition of herpes virus by small molecules targeting the RACK1 functional site. Here, we tested these molecules against HIV-1 and HCV, as HIV-1 contains two potential IRES sites and HCV translation occurs exclusively through IRES. Compounds significantly downregulated activities of HIV-1- and HCV-related dicistronic reporter constructs in transfected HEK293T cells. The compounds also strongly downregulated production of the HIV-1 capsid protein p24 in HIV-infected cells, as well as production of HIV-1 Gag precursor p55 and p55-derived proteins p24 and p17 in cells infected with the HIV-1 virus. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) IRES activities were also significantly inhibited by RACK1 inhibitor compounds. Since a number of human and plant pathogenic viruses are reported to use IRES, the RACK1 compounds can be established as broad host-targeted antivirals.
COMMENTARY | doi:10.3390/sci2030070
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: small molecule inhibitor; personalized medicine; precision medicine; oncology; targeted therapy; drug delivery; drug screening; chemotherapy
Online: 8 September 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The development of targeted therapeutics for cancer continues to receive intense research attention as laboratories and pharmaceutical companies seek to develop drugs and technologies that improve treatment efficacy and mitigate harmful side effects. In the aftermath of World War I, it was discovered that mustard gas destroys rapidly dividing cells and could be used to treat cancer. Since then, chemotherapy has remained a predominant treatment for cancer; however, the destruction of dividing cells throughout the body yields devastating side effects including off-target damage of the digestive tract, bone marrow, skin, and reproductive tract. Furthermore, the high mutation rate of cancerous cells often renders chemotherapy ineffective long-term. Therapies with improved specificity, localization, and efficacy are redefining cancer treatment. Herein, we define and summarize the principal advancements in targeted cancer treatment and briefly comment on the march towards personalized medicine in the treatment of human cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Casein Kinase II; Musculoskeletal; Osteoarthritis; Osteoporosis; CX-4945; CIBG-300; Cell Signaling; Drug Development; Targeted therapy
Online: 1 November 2023 (13:18:42 CET)
Casein Kinase ІІ (CK2) is one of the most versatile kinases. Its involvement in almost all cellular pathways makes it the Master Regulator of biochemical processes in a cell. This kinase is essential in regulating inflammation, cell differentiation, and cell cycle regulation. Often simultaneously. Its emerging role in senescence also indicates its function's centrality in cellular metabolism. The strategy to target this kinase to treat musculoskeletal disorders seems effective. These disorders often include a component of inflammation, dysregulated cell differentiation, and aging. This review focuses on CK2 target discovery and the diversity of its substrate interactions. We then transition toward the implication of CK2 in musculoskeletal disorders. Through a summary of current strategies for CK2 targeting with a new approach, we discuss the potential aspects that could be addressed in future drug research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0143.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antioxidants; alcohol metabolism; hepatoprotective; anti-ALD; mitochondrial dysfunction; mitochondria-targeted; oxidative stress; and cytochrome P450 2E1
Online: 4 March 2021 (09:13:05 CET)
Oxidative stress initiates and facilitates the disruption of the structural integrity of hepatic mitochondria, which leads to steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. It is now evident that mitochondrial dysfunction could be responsible for alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The challenge in treating ALD has been the limited availability of hepatoprotective agents and the lack of highly efficient delivery systems. Recent studies have shown that mitochondria-targeted therapies could address mitochondrial dysfunction (MD), which may greatly improve hepatoprotection and ALD treatment. This mini-review discusses the potential role of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants (MTAs) in the maintenance of hepatocellular integrity. This report also considers the mechanism of liver injury induced by alcohol and the progression of ALD from a mitochondrial oxidative damage perspective as well as the possible mechanistic actions of hepatoprotective antioxidants. Preliminary studies suggest the prospect of MTAs as anti-ALD and hepatoprotective agents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0143.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: clear cell renal cell carcinoma; tumor evolution; tumor ecology; intratumor heterogeneity; multisite tumor sampling; targeted therapy
Online: 6 November 2018 (13:30:54 CET)
Malignant tumors behave dynamically as cell communities governed by ecological principles. Massive sequencing tools are unveiling the true dimension of the heterogeneity of these communities along their evolution in most human neoplasms, clear cell renal cell carcinomas (CCRCC) included. Although initially thought to be purely stochastic processes, very recent genomic analyses have shown that temporal tumor evolution in CCRCC may follow some deterministic pathways that give rise to different clones and sub-clones randomly spatially distributed across the tumor. This fact makes each case unique, unrepeatable and unpredictable. Precise and complete molecular information is crucial for patients with cancer since it may help in establishing a personalized therapy. Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) detection relies on the correctness of tumor sampling and this is part of the pathologist’s daily work. International protocols for tumor sampling are insufficient today. They were conceived decades ago, when ITH was not an issue, and have remained unchanged until now. Noteworthy, an alternative and more efficient sampling method for detecting ITH has been developed recently. This new method, called multisite tumor sampling (MSTS), is specifically addressed to large tumors that are impossible to be totally sampled, and represent an opportunity to improve ITH detection without extra costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: gastric cancer; ramucirumab; paclitaxel; second line therapy; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2; targeted therapy; nutrition
Online: 24 April 2018 (06:01:56 CEST)
The RAINBOW Phase III study established the efficacy of the combination of paclitaxel and ramucirumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting VEGF receptor-2 (VEGF-R2), as second-line therapy. We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients treated with ramucirumab plus paclitaxel at our Institution to evaluate the impact of clinical heterogeneous figures on the efficacy and safety of this combination paclitaxel/ramucirumab in a real- life cohort of patients. After a median follow-up of 10.74 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.8 months (95% CI: 3.04 - 5,63). Disease control rate (DCR) was 61% and the median duration of response (DOR) was 5.8 months. Median overall survival (OS) was 8.3 months. A trend toward better outcome was observed in HER2 positive patients. In multivariate analysis, nutritional status (p = 0.0001) and number of metastatic sites (p = 0.0266) resulted significantly related with longer PFS. Our analysis confirmed the efficacy and safety of the combination of ramucirumab with paclitaxel also in the real-life practice and the median PFS is significantly longer than that reported for Western population in previous studies. Subgroup analysis confirms the key-role of nutritional status as prognostic factor and suggests a possible interaction between EGF and angiogenesis pathways that deserves further investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0546.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: triple negative breast cancer; Pembrolizumab; Atezolizumab; chemotherapy; anti-PD-L1; biomarkers; targeted therapies; development of novel drugs
Online: 24 May 2021 (09:23:50 CEST)
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a higher mRNA expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) which is a ligand to programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). The binding of the ligand leads to suppressed activity of T-cell-mediated immune response against cancer cells. The approval of anti-PD-L1 drugs including pembrolizumab and atezolizumab in subgroups of TNBC offer potential improvement to the current treatment regimens available for TNBC. We conducted a meta-analysis to review the efficacy of pembrolizumab and atezolizumab for the treatment of TNBC in both adjuvant and neo-adjuvant settings. A systematic strategy was used as per the PRISMA 2020 statement. All statistical analyses were conducted using Review Manager 5.4. Outcome measures included objective response rate, progression free survival, overall survival in adjuvant therapy groups, and pathological complete response rates in neoadjuvant groups. Six clinical trials were included. For adjuvant therapies, the ORR (OR=1.26, P = 0.04) of Atezolizumab/Pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy was higher in intention to treat (ITT) arms than the placebo groups in TNBC. A positive effect size was found for PFS in the ITT arms (Cohen’s d = 1.55, P<0.001). The Atezolizumab plus chemotherapy group had a positive effect size for OS compared to the control groups (Cohen’s d = 0.52, P<0.001). In the neo-adjuvant setting, patients in ITT arms had higher pCR rates as compared to the control groups (OR= 1.61, P = 0.001). Our findings collate evidence of pembrolizumab and atezolizumab as a viable treatment option among patients with TNBC with PDL1+ subgroups deriving benefits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor; personalized treatment; heat shock protein 90α; leukemia stem cells; imatinib resistance; targeted therapy
Online: 4 January 2020 (06:18:22 CET)
Imatinib became the standard treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) about 20 years ago, which was a major breakthrough in stabilizing the pathology and improving the quality of life of patients. However, the emergence of resistance to imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors leads researchers to characterize new therapeutic targets. Several studies have highlighted the role of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in various pathologies, including cancer. This protein effectively intervenes in cellular activities by its primarily cytoplasmic localization. In this review, we will discuss the molecular characteristics of the HDAC6 protein, as well as its overexpression in CML leukemic stem cells, which make it a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of CML.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0370.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Targeted drug delivery, VX2 tumor, breast cancer, cryoablation, cryo-assisted injection, cryo-assisted resection, blue dye, epirubicin.
Online: 30 May 2019 (13:44:41 CEST)
Background: We assess locoregional drug targeting effectiveness of intraoperative (IO) cryoprobe-assisted injection of blue dye (BD) and cytotoxic-tracer mixture (TTM), in VX2 tumor model, and its translational value to cryo-assisted breast tumor surgery with BD alone. Methods: Under computed tomography (CT) guidance, we injected two ml TTM in five aliquots in the margin of 16 frozen or normothermic VX2 tumors. We evaluated the IO and post-operative drug targeting and therapeutic efficacy in tumor-host interface (T-HI) by CT, gross examination, and histopathology. In twenty-six T1 to T4 primary breast cancer (BRCA) we performed ultrasound-guided (US) cryoprobe-assisted tumor freezing, BD guided lymphatic mapping, and surgery. We evaluated, IO and in freshly resected specimen, BD distribution pattern in T-HI, lymph node(s), breast parenchyma, and resection cavity. Results: Fluids-impervious frozen VX2 or breast tumor transported drug(s) an arc-like pattern at T-HI regardless of freeze dose, number of freeze-thaw cycles, drug dose fractionation, tumor characteristics or dimensions. During melting, TTM spread within fifty percent VX2 tumor mirrored that of T-HI; it was massive in normothermia. In VX2 twenty percent focal margin necrosis at pathology coincided with CT gap; in both studies, BD dose-staining spread in T-HI and tumor was linear. Eighty-four patients had one to twelve stained axillary lymph nodes; sixty-nine percent and all respectively, had another quadrant and resection cavity stained. Conclusion: Intraoperative freezing-assisted drug delivery and targeting techniques during cryoablation of VX2 tumor translate successfully to locoregional BD targeting, lymphatic mapping during cryo-assisted surgery of breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Acute respiratory illness; critical care; recombinant tissue plasminogen activator; nebulization, fibrinolytics, COVID-19 pandemic, inhaled medication, targeted therapy
Online: 20 June 2023 (14:59:12 CEST)
Nebulized thrombolysis offers locally targeted therapy with potentially lower bleeding risk than systemic administration for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory failure. In a proof-of-concept safety study, adult patients with COVID-19-induced respiratory failure and a <300mmHg PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or non-invasive respiratory support (NIRS) received nebulized rt-PA in two cohorts (C1 and C2), alongside standard of care during the first two UK COVID-19 waves. Matched historical controls (MHC; n=18) were used in C1. Safety co-primary endpoints were treatment-related bleeds and fibrinogen reduction to <1.0–1.5 g/L. A dose escalation strategy for improved efficacy with the least safety concerns was determined in C1 for use in C2; patients were stratified by ventilation type to receive 40–60 mg rt-PA per day for ≤14 days. Nine patients in C1 (IMV, 6/9; NIRS, 3/9) and 26 in C2 (IMV, 12/26; NIRS, 14/26) received nebulized rt-PA for a mean (SD) of 6.7 (4.6) and 9.1(4.6) days, respectively. Four bleeding events (one severe and three mild) in three patients were considered treatment-related. No significant fibrinogen reductions were reported. Greater improvement in mean P/F ratio from baseline to end of study was observed in C1 compared with MHC [C1; 154 to 299 vs MHC; 154 to 212). In C2, there was no difference in the baseline P/F ratio of NIRS and IMV patients. However, a larger improvement in P/F ratio was observed in NIRS patients [NIRS; 126 to 240 vs IMV; 120 to 188) and they required fewer treatment days (NIRS; 7.86 vs IMV; 10.5). Nebulized rt-PA appears to be well-tolerated, showing a trend of improved oxygenation and faster recovery in patients with acute COVID-19-induced respiratory failure requiring respiratory support; this effect was more pronounced in the NIRS group. Further investigation is required to study the potential of this novel treatment approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0053.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: gastrin releasing peptide receptor; GRPR; bombesin receptor subtype 2; BB2; bombesin; targeted therapy; molecular imaging; theranostics; nanotechnology; nanoparticle; nanomedicine
Online: 4 January 2023 (03:19:26 CET)
Advances in nanomedicine bring the attention of researchers to the molecular targets which can play a major role in the development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic modalities for cancer management. The choice of a proper molecular target can decide on the efficacy of the treatment and endorse the personalized medicine approach. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is a G-protein-coupled membrane receptor, well known to be overexpressed in numerous malignancies including pancreatic, prostate, breast, lung, colon, cervical and gastrointestinal cancers. Therefore, many research groups express a deep interest in targeting GRPR with their nanoformulations. A broad spectrum of the GRPR ligands has been described in the literature, which allows tuning of the properties of the final formulation, particularly in the field of the ligand affinity to the receptor and internalization possibilities. Hereby the recent advances in the field of applications of various nanoplatforms which are able to reach the GRPR expressing cells are reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0553.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Raman biosensor; Au-coated nanoparticles; hot-spot SERS substrate; anticancer drug nanocarriers; targeted drug delivery sensing; magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles.
Online: 20 April 2021 (17:43:09 CEST)
Safe administration of highly cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs is a challenging problem in cancer treatment due to the adverse side effects and collateral damage to non-tumorigenic cells. To mitigate these problems, new promising approaches, based on the paradigm of controlled targeted drug delivery (TDD), utilizing drug nanocarriers with biorecognition ability to selectively target neoplastic cells, are being considered in cancer therapy. Herein, we report on the design and testing of a nanoparticle-grid based biosensing platform to aid in the development of new targeted drug nanocarriers. The proposed sensor grid consists of superparamagnetic gold-coated core-shell Fe2Ni@Au nanoparticles, further functionalized with folic acid targeting ligand, model thiolated chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX), and a biocompatibility agent, 3,6,-dioxa-octanethiol (DOOT). The employed dual transduction based on electrochemical and enhanced Raman scattering detection have enabled efficient monitoring of the drug loading onto the nanocarriers, attached to the sensor surface, as well as the drug release under simulated intracellular conditions. The grid’s nanoparticles serve here as the model nanocarriers for new TDD systems under design and optimization. The superparamagnetic properties of the Fe2Ni@Au NPs aid in nanoparticles’ handling and constructing a dense sensor grid with high plasmonic enhancement of the Raman signals due to the minimal interparticle distance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0720.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Prostate cancer; androgen receptor; AR signaling pathway; disease progression; therapeutic re-sistance; personalized treatment; androgen deprivation therapy; AR-targeted therapies
Online: 25 September 2023 (16:46:10 CEST)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with a rising incidence observed over the years. The androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in male development and maintaining masculine characteristics. Dysregulation of AR signaling in prostate cancer can lead to disease progression and resistance to standard therapies. Understanding the intricate regulation and function of AR in both healthy and diseased states is crucial for developing effective treatment strategies. This review comprehensively explores the role of androgen receptors in prostate cancer susceptibility, disease progression, and treatment response by analyzing recent literature. An extensive search of peer-reviewed publications in major databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, was conducted using specific keywords related to androgen receptor, prostate cancer, disease progression, and treatment resistance. Relevant conference abstracts and clinical trial reports were also included. The review presents an overview of the role of androgen receptors in prostate cancer initiation, progression, and treatment resistance. It highlights emerging biomarkers associated with AR signaling dysregulation and their potential utility for early detection and personalized treatment approaches. Additionally, recent advances in targeting the AR pathway for novel therapeutic strategies to improve patient outcomes and overcome treatment resistance in advanced prostate cancer are discussed. The findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the AR signaling pathway in prostate cancer and offer insights into its multifaceted role in disease development and treatment response. They may pave the way for innovative therapeutic interventions and precision medicine approaches based on specific AR signaling profiles, enhancing patient care and reducing the burden of this lethal disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0204.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: DNA origami; aptamer; DNA nanotechnology; protein nano array; biosensor; logic gate; enzyme cascade; drug delivery system; targeted therapy; molecular robotics
Online: 22 October 2018 (10:57:21 CEST)
DNA origami has emerged in recent years as a powerful technique for designing and building 2D and 3D nanostructures. While the breadth of structures that have been produced is impressive, one of the remaining challenges, especially for DNA origami structures intended to carry out useful biomedical tasks in vivo, is to endow them with the ability to detect and respond to molecules of interest. Target molecules may be disease indicators or cell surface receptors, and the responses may include conformational changes leading to release of therapeutically relevant cargo. Nucleic acid aptamers are ideally suited to this task and are beginning to be used in DNA origami designs. In this review we consider examples of uses of DNA aptamers in DNA origami structures and summarise what is currently understood regarding aptamer-origami integration. We review three major roles for aptamers in such applications: protein immobilisation, triggering of structural transformation, and cell targeting. Finally, we consider future perspectives for DNA aptamer integration with DNA origami.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0052.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Plant stress, abiotic stress, biotic stress, metabolomics, phytometabolomics, sensomics, phytohormonics, LC-MS/MS, NMR, targeted metabolomics, untargeted metabolomics, functional food.
Online: 3 July 2018 (14:18:19 CEST)
The breeding of stress-tolerant cultivated plants that would allow for a reduction in harvest losses and undesirable decrease in quality attributes requires a new quality of knowledge on molecular markers associated with relevant agronomic traits, on quantitative metabolic responses of plants on stress challenges, and on the mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of these molecules. By combining metabolomics with genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics datasets a more comprehensive knowledge of the composition of crop plants used for food or animal feed is possible. In order to optimize crop trait developments, to enhance crop yields and quality, as well as to guarantee nutritional and health factors, that provides the possibility to create functional food or feedstuffs, the knowledge about the plants’ metabolome is crucial. Next to classical metabolomics studies, this review focusses on several metabolomics based working techniques, such as sensomics, lipidomics, hormonomics and phytometabolomics, which were used to characterize metabolome alterations during abiotic and biotic stress, to find resistant food crops with a preferred quality or at least to produce functional food crops are highlighted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2222.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Psychedelic renaissance; Mental health; Therapeutic potential; Gut microbiome; Psychedelic substances; Personalized medicine; Gut-brain axis; Mood regulation; Microbiome-targeted interventions; Psychopharmacology
Online: 31 May 2023 (10:32:05 CEST)
The psychedelic renaissance has reignited interest in the therapeutic potential of psychedelics for mental health and well-being. An emerging area of interest is the potential modulation of psychedelic effects by the gut microbiome - the ecosystem of microorganisms residing in our digestive tract. This review explores the intersection of the gut microbiome and psychedelic therapy, underlining potential implications for personalized medicine and mental health. We delve into the current understanding of the gut-brain axis, its influence on mood, cognition, and behavior, and how the microbiome may affect the metabolism and bioavailability of psychedelic substances. We also discuss the role of microbiome variations in shaping individual responses to psychedelics, along with potential risks and benefits. Moreover, we consider the prospect of microbiome-targeted interventions as a fresh approach to boost or modulate psychedelic therapy's effectiveness. By synthesizing insights from the fields of psychopharmacology, microbiology, and neuroscience, our objective is to advance knowledge about the intricate relationship between the microbiome and psychedelic substances, thereby paving the way for novel strategies to optimize mental health outcomes amid the ongoing psychedelic renaissance.