ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0418.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Security patterns; Software patterns; Systematic literature review (SLR)
Online: 16 November 2020 (12:13:53 CET)
Security patterns encompass security-related issues in secure software system development and operations that often appear in certain contexts. Since the late 1990s about 500 security patterns have been proposed. Although the technical components are well investigated, the direction, overall picture, and barriers to implementation are not. Here, a systematic literature review of 240 papers is used to devise a taxonomy for security pattern research. Our taxonomy and the survey results should improve communications among practitioners and researchers, standardize the terminology, and increase the effectiveness of security patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0600.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Tor; hidden services; onion services; systematic literature review; survey
Online: 27 July 2021 (11:22:06 CEST)
Anonymous communications networks were born to protect the privacy of our communications, preventing censorship and traffic analysis. The most famous anonymous communication network is Tor. This anonymous communication network provides some interesting features, among them, we can mention user’s IP location or Tor Hidden Services (THS) as a mechanism to conceal the location of servers, mainly, web servers. THS is an important research field in Tor. However, there is a lack of reviews that sump up main findings and research challenges. In this article we present a systematic literature review that aims to offer a comprehensive view on the research made on Tor Hidden services presenting the state of the art and the different research challenges to be addressed. This review has been developed from a selection of 57 articles and present main findings and advances regarding Tor Hidden Services, limitations found, and future issues to be investigated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0281.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Drive tourism; Routes; Sustainable; Systematic Literature Review; PRISMA.
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:37:29 CEST)
Drive tourism (DT) have become an attractive way of tourist destination for an increasing number of visitors along driving routes. This flow of visitors has made sustainability a major issue that is, the way by which tourism development ensure economic benefits for local communities and preserves local identity, along the route, without compromising the environmental resources. Many studies focused the topic of DT, mainly the analysis of a particular angle, either be economic sustainability, e.g., advantages of the ones related to economic and environment sustainability [e.g., 2,4,5,10], such as the impact of tourists along the route environment. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the social consequences of DT in the local entrepreneurial environment and ensuing over enhancing of their cultural representativeness in terms of authenticity. Our aim is to summon these points of view and achieve, through a systematic literature review, a clear and integrative picture of the driving tourism impacts in terms of sustainability along the routes throughout local communities. A systematic literature review was performed using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) methodology. This systematic literature review sought to consolidate knowledge on the subject. In order to illustrate the link between major categories and their corresponding trends, authors used VOSviewer scientific software. The gathering of existing knowledge around the three components of sustainability highlighted the importance of community involvement and collaboration among DT stakeholders to ensure a trade-off between the protection and promotion of DT routes. Opportunities for future studies are suggested.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0011.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: alternative food networks; systematic literature review; sustainability
Online: 29 January 2019 (10:34:36 CET)
In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to individuals organizing themselves and managing food systems in an ‘alternative’ and more sustainable way. Such emerging food initiatives are most commonly known as ‘Alternative Food Networks’ (AFNs). However, there is an ongoing debate concerning the extent to which AFNs facilitate social, economic and environmental change. There are criticisms of the overall sustainability promise of AFNs related to sufficiency of impact, possible counter effects and relevance of impacts. Because often empirical studies only focus on specific sustainability issues or AFNs, it has been difficult to develop more robust theories about the relations between diverse AFNs arrangements and sustainability. Thus, the aim of this paper is to contribute towards reducing this knowledge gap through a systematic literature review on AFNs in relation to sustainability. We summarize main methodological approaches, types of AFNs studied and sustainability dimensions addressed in literature to date. Findings serve as reference to propose opportunities for future research regarding sustainability in AFNs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0475.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Osteoarthritis; Effectiveness; Safety; Glucosamine; systematic review
Online: 7 June 2023 (10:08:22 CEST)
Knee osteoarthritis is the most popular type of osteoarthritis that causes extreme pain in elderly. Currently there is no cure for osteoarthritis. To lessen clinical symptoms, glucosamine was suggested. The primary goal of our study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glucosamine from recent studies. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane were used to assess RCT. From the beginning through March 2023, the papers were checked, and if they fulfilled the inclusion criteria, they were then examined. WOMAC and VAS scales were considered as main outcome measure. A total of 15 studies were selected. Global pain was significantly decreased in comparison to placebo, as measured by the VAS index, with an overall effect size SMD of -7.41 ([95% CI] 14.31, 0.51). The WOMAC scale confirmed that pain, stiffness, and physical function had improved, however the effects were insufficient. A statistical update also revealed that there were no reports of serious medication interactions or significant adverse events. To summarize, glucosamine is more effective than a placebo at reducing pain in knee osteoarthritis patients. In long-term treatment, oral glucosamine sulfate 1500 mg/day is believed to be well tolerated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2041.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: school effectiveness (research); SER; school performance/outcomes; systematic literature review
Online: 30 August 2023 (07:07:40 CEST)
This paper aims to provide a systematic review of the literature on school effectiveness, with a focus on identifying the main factors that contribute to successful educational outcomes. The research question that this paper aims to address is: What are the main factors of school effectiveness? The research was interested in several descriptors such as school, effectiveness/efficiency theories, effectiveness/efficiency research, and factors. Studies were reviewed through two databases: JSTOR and ERIC (published within the 2016-2022 period). The paper defines several categories that are exposed within school effectiveness research. Within these categories, various factors that affect the students’ outcomes and the defined effectiveness at school are listed. As the results show, the issue of school effectiveness is a multifaced challenge as the effectiveness of schools is a complex concept that can be measured through various indicators such as academic achievement, student engagement and teacher satisfaction. The review of school effectiveness has revealed that several factors contribute to effective schools, such as strong leadership, effective teaching practices, a positive school culture and parental involvement. Additionally, school resources, such as funding and facilities, can impact school effectiveness, particularly in under-resourced communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0947.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: loan; credit risk; prediction; machine learning; systematic literature review
Online: 11 August 2023 (13:26:43 CEST)
In this systematic review of the literature on using Machine Learning (ML) for credit risk prediction, we raise the need for financial institutions to use AI and ML to assess credit risk, analyzing large volumes of information. We posed research questions about algorithms, metrics, results, data sets, variables, and related limitations in predicting credit risk. We searched renowned databases to answer them and identified 52 relevant studies with the credit industry microfinance. Challenges and approaches in credit risk prediction using ML models we identified, difficulties with the implemented models such as the black box model, the need for explanatory artificial intelligence, the importance of selecting relevant features, addressing multicollinearity, and the problem of the imbalance in the input data. By answering the questions, we identified that the Boosted Category is the most researched family of ML models; the most commonly used metrics for evaluation are Area Under Curve (AUC), Accuracy (ACC), Recall, precision measure F1 (F1), and Precision; Research mainly uses public data sets to compare models, and private ones to generate new knowledge when applied to the real world. The most significant limitation identified is the representativeness of reality, and the variables primarily used in the microcredit industry are related data to the demographic, the operation, and payment behavior. This study aims to guide the developers of credit risk management tools and software towards the existing offer of ML methods, metrics, and techniques used to forecast it, thereby minimizing possible losses due to default and guiding risk appetite.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0044.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Circular Economy; Social Aspects; Systematic Review; Sustainable Development
Online: 2 September 2020 (11:42:04 CEST)
Circular Economy (CE) is a growing topic among scholars, industry and government aiming at decoupling economic growth and development from the consumption of finite resources. CE incorporates different meanings, from reduce, reuse and recycle activities to environmental degradation or resource scarcity, and supported by specific indicators to attain sustainable development. However, so far, there has been no agreement to measure how effective an industry/product is in making the transition from linear to circular approaches, particularly those affected the society. This research work aims to perform a systematic literature review (n=60) to analyze and discuss how social aspects have been considered and integrated in the CE research so far. Moreover, this review provides and overview of the literature on social impact within CE, that resulted in three main outputs: a knowledge map of the CE, an analysis of social aspects within CE, and the theories/frameworks used to evaluate social impact of CE. Finally, this study brings to light how CE implementation can affect society and highlights the importance of social dimension in the domains of CE and policy-making community, which could help moving CE towards a sustainable development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: dengue fever; transverse myelitis; risk; systematic review
Online: 12 December 2018 (05:22:13 CET)
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most common arbovirus disease, with wide spectrum of presentation. Spinal cord involvement in dengue infection (DF) is rare. However, the risk of transverse myelitis (TM) following Dengue has not been systematically assessed. Methods: We undertook a systematic review of the English literature published from January 1974 to December 2017 to assess risk of TM and outcomes following DF. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE Cochrane library, and references within identified articles. Results: We identified 242 potential studies, 62 were duplicates. A further 136 were excluded on the basis of title and abstract and 19 studies did not meet the eligibility criteria on full text screening. We included 25 publications involving 2672 cases of DF. 10.8% (289/2672) had neurological complications, of which 2.3% (61/2672) was TM. For articles reporting epidemiological data, the neurological complication was twice in males compared to female 67.7% (130/192) vs 32.7% (62/192) and 1.5 fold increase TM for males 59.3% (32/54) vs 40.7% (22/54). The mean age at presentation was 33.1years (Range 0.75 – 61), with onset at 11.7days. The method of diagnosing TM due to DF was mainly IgM seropositivity 92% (n=23/25) and the commonest treatment modality was steroid 78.3% (n=18/23). Only half had full recovery 50.8% (n=31/61). There was no mortality following dengue, however, the crude case fatality rate following TM was 3.3% (n=2/61). Conclusion: This review highlights the risk of TM following dengue. Although neurological complications are rare, especially TM, once set in, it is associated with a significant morbidity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0838.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Systematic review; Optimization; Heuristic algorithm; Multi-objective; Building façade
Online: 13 September 2023 (07:55:38 CEST)
Building facade design plays an essential role in enhancing energy efficiency and reducing environmental impact in high-performance building design. Balancing the conflicts among various building facade design parameters to satisfy different optimization objectives constitutes a highly complex optimization problem. The rapidly increasing number of studies demonstrates a significant interest in implementing multi-objective optimization methods to tackle building facade optimization problems. This study conducts a systematic review of optimization methods for building facade optimization (BFO). The optimization objectives and design variables are categorized based on their characteristics. The efficiency and effectiveness of optimization algorithms in addressing BFO problems are compared. Building optimization techniques and tools are showcased, along with their functions and limitations. Key findings highlight the robust feasibility and effectiveness of optimization algorithms, methods, and techniques in resolving a diverse range of BFO challenges. The limitations, challenges, and future potential of these methods are summarized and proposed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0345.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: big data; machine learning; agriculture; challenges; systematic literature review
Online: 28 February 2022 (03:14:56 CET)
Agricultural Big Data is a set of technologies that allows responding to the challenges of the new data era. In conjunction with machine learning, farmers can use data to address different problems such as farmers' decision-making, crops, weeds, animal research, land, food availability and security, weather, and climate change. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize the evidence regarding the challenges involved in implementing machine learning in Agricultural Big Data. We conducted a Systematic Literature Review applying the PRISMA protocol. This review includes 30 papers, published from 2015 to 2020. We develop a framework that summarizes the main challenges encountered, the use of machine learning techniques, as well as the main technologies used. A major challenge is the design of Agricultural Big Data architectures, due to the need to modify the set of technologies adapting the machine learning techniques, as the volume of data increases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0648.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: self-adaptive systems, environment, concept, model, systematic literature review
Online: 26 April 2021 (10:22:54 CEST)
The runtime environment is an important concern for self-adaptive systems (SASs). Although researchers have proposed many approaches for developing SASs that address the issue of uncertain runtime environments, the understanding of these environments varies depending on the objectives, perspectives, and assumptions of the research. Thus, the current understanding of the environment in SAS development is ambiguous and abstract. To make this understanding more concrete, we describe the landscape in this area through a systematic literature review (SLR). We examined 128 primary studies and 14 unique environment models. We investigated concepts of the environment depicted in the primary studies and the proposed environment models based on their ability to aid in understanding. This illustrates the characteristics of the SAS environment, the associated emerging environmental uncertainties, and what is expressed in the existing environment models. This paper makes explicit the implicit understanding about the environment made by the SAS research community and organizes and visualizes them.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0043.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Collaborative Problem Based Learning; Metacognitive; Chemistry Students; Systematic Literature Review
Online: 2 August 2021 (13:23:11 CEST)
Increasing the metacognitive abilities of chemistry students is an indisputable output of the teaching and learning process today. Collaborative problem based learning is a learning method that has been tested and proven to be applied, especially in Western countries in increasing the metacognitive abilities of students, but it is still very minimal applied in Asian countries, including Indonesia. Thus, this study was conducted to explore previous studies that examined collaborative problem-based learning in improving students' metacognitive abilities. The research design used in this study is a Systematic Literature Review with the requirements of the inclusion of articles on collaborative problem-based learning in improving the metacognitive abilities of chemistry students, accredited national and international publications between 2010 and 2020, full text, journal articles, and open access. The results of the exploration that were carried out found 102 articles, then the title and abstract were read into 20 articles, and 4 articles were read in full, which fulfilled all the stipulated inclusion requirements. The results of the systematic literature review conducted in this study provide empirical evidence of literacy that problem based learning improves the metacognitive abilities of chemistry students. However, most of research conducted still uses various instruments, which are not standardized and validated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0325.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: big data; architecture; agriculture; climate change; systematic literature review
Online: 24 May 2022 (07:42:55 CEST)
Climate change is currently one of the main problems facing agriculture to achieve sustainability. It causes situations such as drought, increased rainfall, and increased diseases, causing a decrease in food production. In order to combat these problems, Agricultural Big Data contributes with tools that allow improving the understanding of complex, multivariate, and unpredictable agricultural ecosystems through the collection, storage, processing, and analysis of vast amounts of data from diverse heterogeneous sources. This research aims to discuss the advancement of technologies used in Agricultural Big Data architectures in the context of climate change. The study aims to highlight the tools used to process, analyze, and visualize the data and discuss the use of the architectures in the crop, water, climate, and soil management, especially to analyze the context, whether it is in Resilience Mitigation or Adaptation. The PRISMA protocol guided the study, finding 33 relevant papers. Despite the advances in this line of research, few papers were found that mention the components of the architectures, in addition to the lack of standards and the use of reference architectures, which allow the proper development of Agricultural Big Data in the context of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1222.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Palm Oil; Performance; Sustainability Supply Chain; Systematic Literature
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:12:03 CEST)
Indonesia has emerged as one of the leading producers and exporters of palm oil, as supported by data from the Central Bureau of Statistics in 2021, which indicate that Indonesian palm oil exports reached an impressive value of US$ 18.44 billion, or IDR 258 trillion, in 2020, marking an 18.43 percent growth compared to the previous year. Furthermore, the domestic market for palm oil and palm kernel oil remains substantial, despite improvements in export quantities. Various industries, including cooking oil refineries, specialty fats, shortening, margarine, bath soaps, and oleochemicals, present potential markets for palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO). The palm oil industry encompasses four related sub-sectors, namely growers, millers, refiners, and oleochemicals, forming an integrated value chain from upstream to downstream. The current focus on environmental, economic, and social sustainability is driving companies to adopt internal green activities and expand their efforts into sustainability supply chain management (SSCM). Implementing SSCM practices is often seen as economically beneficial, as research has demonstrated their positive impact on firm performance from a resource perspective. Within the palm oil industry, a wide range of green management applications are being utilized. This study aims to examine and highlight the existing sustainable management practices across the entire palm oil supply chain, with a particular emphasis on producing high-quality palm oil. To achieve this objective, the paper utilizes a systematic review methodology, The number of papers analyzed were 62 articles published which involves an extensive review of relevant literature to identify research trends, gaps, and issues. The study seeks to contribute to the body of knowledge by expanding the theory of organizational readiness in preparing globally competitive palm oil products. The research findings hold practical significance for practitioners and academics, providing a comprehensive roadmap for implementing green management applications at the organizational level in the palm oil industry's upstream-to-downstream chain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0055.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: AI; artificial intelligence; higher education; learning; teaching; systematic review
Online: 2 November 2023 (00:04:02 CET)
With the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI), many aspects of our lives, from how we work to how we interact with each other and the world around us is showing dramatic changes. Education is one of the key areas that may be impacted by the rise of AI. Although a large number of studies have been conducted in recent years to shed light on how AI may influence various dimensions of education, a very little work has been carried out to consolidate and synthesis empirical studies on the application of AI in higher education. The present study reviewed empirical studies published between 2013 and 2022 to 1) examine the characteristics of published research in the field, and 2) to present thorough insights on the promises and challenges of this dramatic technology in higher and professional education. This review included 44 empirical studies published as peer-reviewed journal articles. The results indicated that there is rapid increase in the publications focusing on AI in higher education in last a few years. However, a big proportion of these publications are technically theoretical and conceptual proposals for AI intervention. The areas of AI applications in higher education that are supported by evidence based research are presented. Imperative implications are also highlighted for future research and implementation of AI based interventions in higher education.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: urban transportation; public transportation; bus services; quality of services; systematic literature review
Online: 12 May 2022 (10:13:53 CEST)
Bus services play a significant role as the main public transportation, especially in urban areas throughout the years. Since bus services compete greatly with other types of public transportation, such as e-hailing service and private vehicles, they have recently attracted scholars to conduct many relevant studies. However, most past research studies in the Asian region were not focused on engineering, social science, and Internet of Things (IOT). This present study concentrated on the service quality of bus services in Asia by using systematic literature review of articles. This study conducted a review based on previous studies, specifically on the service quality of performance. Several previous studies were selected by using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRIMSA) approach. SCOPUS and Science Direct were chosen as the main journal database. By using this method, 41 articles were selected for further analysis. This study was merely focused on three primary themes, such as study approach, stakeholder, and service quality attributes. Advanced analysis on these primary themes was used to formulate another 18 sub-themes. All themes and sub-themes which reflected the significant impacts of service quality towards bus services were discussed in detail. This study had addressed several qualities of bus services of bus performance towards improvement of urban transportation polices. Lastly, several recommendations that could provide necessary knowledge and information for future research were presented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0134.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: zinc sensor; 8-amidoquinoline; fluorescent probe; chemosensor; systematic review
Online: 6 October 2020 (14:55:13 CEST)
Abundant of preparatory works have recognized that fluorescent sensors based on 8-aminoquinoline are popular tools to detect Zn2+ ions in environmental and biological applications. Along with these studies, researchers started to introduce a variety of carboxamido group into an 8-aminoquinoline molecule in forming 8-amidoquinoline derivatives. Therefore, this systematic review aims to introduce a general overview of the fluorophore 8-aminoquinoline as Zn2+ receptors and to provide comparisons of collected studies that related to 8-amidoquinoline derivatives as fluorophore probe of the sensor. According to PRISMA systematic searches strategy, 13 articles were analyzed for trends, research designs, results and discussion, subject samples, and remarks or conclusions. We found cross-sectional studies with four aspects in zinc sensing that have been targeted; binding studies via titration, detection's limit, interferences studies, and validation of the study. Hence, this paper also included assessments of those criteria and the trends of development of 8-amidoquinoline derivatives based-zinc fluorescent chemosensor. It also showed that most of the researches conducted in China. In conclusion, this study identified various research designs of fluorescent chemosensors based on 8-amidoquinoline prolong with the effectiveness and potential as a recognition probe to assist the detection of zinc. Hence, elucidation of those derivatives essential to be explored because more studies are needed to improve the sensing criteria of the zinc sensor
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1512.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: corporate social responsibility; digital technologies; systematic literature review; bibliometric analysis
Online: 21 July 2023 (13:18:36 CEST)
The modern technologies require the need to analyze the opportunities for improvement the integration of digital technologies in CSR activities in the context of added values be-tween business and science in perspective, incl. the future digital society. The main goal of this article is to identify the current state of research on the integration of digital technolo-gies in CSR activities in business, as well as to prepare recommendations for further re-search and practice. A systematic literature review and bibliometric analysis of 129 scien-tific articles published between 2014 to 2023 was performed. The bibliometric analysis was organized in two directions: descriptive and performance analysis, through which we can study the contribution of the analyzed objects to the given scientific area, and science mapping, which studies the relationships among them. The results indicate that the com-panies use more frequently artificial intelligence, blockchain, the Internet of Things and other technologies to increase the efficiency and impact of their CSR activities. In addition, this research reveals the basis of bringing forward the new trends for future publications, which shall upgrade and enrich the theory and practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1454.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Hallux Valgus Deformity; Midfoot Instability, WBCT; Systematic Review; Imaging
Online: 23 November 2023 (09:41:30 CET)
Hallux valgus deformity (HVD) involves subluxation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. While HVD is primarily considered a forefoot condition, midfoot instability may play a significant role in its development and severity. Therefore, this review had a particular focus on understanding midfoot instability based upon weightbearing imaging assessments of the TMT joint. This review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and searched five databases for studies on midfoot instability in HVD patients. Severity of HVD was defined by hallux valgus angle (HVA) and distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA). Data was extracted, and articles were graded using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS). Of 547 initially retrieved articles, 23 met inclusion criteria. Patients with HVD showed higher HVA and DMAA on weight-bearing radiographs (WBRG) and weight-bearing computed tomography (WBCT) compared to healthy individuals. Midfoot instability was assessed through intermetatarsal angle (IMA) and tarsometatarsal angle (TMT angle). Patients with HVD exhibited greater IMA and TMT angles on both WBRG and WBCT. This review highlights the importance of weight-bearing imaging assessments for midfoot instability in HVD. IMA and TMT angles can differentiate between healthy individuals and HVD patients, emphasizing the significance of midfoot assessment in understanding HVD pathology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0166.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Climate information services; pilot projects; climate risk management, systematic literature review
Online: 18 February 2019 (16:53:45 CET)
Many pilot-based initiatives have been developed to promote awareness and use of climate information services among vulnerable smallholder farmers in Africa through million-dollar investments. However, despite their experimental nature, these pilot projects have been successful in raising participating farmers’ awareness and use of climate information services and they can inform transferrable good practices. Through a systematic literature review approach, this review sought to understand ways in which these past pilot projects have contributed to climate risk management in the context of smallholder farming and the factors that led to their success. Results showed that climate information services main contribution to climate risk management has been through facilitating farm level decision making. Factors that led to success of the pilots include: use of downscaled information; building institutional partnerships to add value to climate information; involving farmers through the co-designing and co-developing process; face-to-face way of communication; embedding pre-seasonal workshops in the activities of local institutions for sustainability; using diversity of communication channels to enhance reach among others. These factors can be borrowed as good practices to inform future efforts focused on increasing adoption of climate information services among a wider population beyond pilot project reach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1609.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: migration; remittances; mountainous areas; Phuthadijthaba; systematic literature review; PRISMA; Bibliometric Analysis; VOSViewer
Online: 22 June 2023 (11:39:34 CEST)
Remittances are essential to economies in mountainous regions that face massive labour migration due to limited income generation and employment opportunities. In 2021, the share of remittances to GDP in the top 10 mountainous economies in the world was over 20%. Nonetheless, most are characterized by relatively lower GDP per capita and high poverty levels. Drawing a comparison with other mountainous areas, Phuthadjthaba, an emerging mountainous and border city of South Africa with Lesotho, faces similar out-migration and inferior socio-economic parameters. A global systematic literature review on the impact of remittances on livelihoods specifically targeting mountainous areas is missing. We, therefore, interrogate the role remittances can play in Phuthadijthaba. To inform our intended research, we seek to draw lessons from evidence on how migration and remittances affect mountainous communities globally. Accordingly, we carry out a systematic literature review (SLR) based on an updated Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) 2020 statement supported by Bibliometric (co-word) Analysis (BA) in VOSViewer. We collected data from Scopus and Dimensions websites and drew 165 publications, of which only 88 were included after exclusion and inclusion assessments. PRISMA results show that Mountain Research and Development, King Russell, and Nepal is the most productive and cited journal, the most productive and cited author, and the most researched country, respectively. Bibliometric analysis on keyword co-occurrences reveals women, agriculture, labour migration, land management, forest, and poverty, to be the research hotspots. In light of these findings, we proffer important recommendations to future researchers and policymakers.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0702.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; influenza vaccine; systematic review; infection; severity; risk
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:14:03 CEST)
We reviewed the association between seasonal influenza vaccination and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or complicated illness or poor outcome (e.g. severe disease, need for hospitalization or ventilatory support, or death) among COVID-19 patients. None of the studies that were reviewed (n=12) found a significant increase in the risk of infection or in the illness severity or lethality, while some reported significantly inverse associations. Our findings support measures aimed at raising influenza vaccination coverage in the coming months.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0121.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: agent-based modelling; agent-based simulation; urban energy system; district energy system; systematic literature review; net-zero energy district; positive energy district
Online: 8 December 2021 (12:06:02 CET)
There is an increased interest in the district-scale energy transition within interdisciplinary research community. Agent-based modelling presents a suitable approach to address variety of questions related to policies, technologies, processes, and the different stakeholder roles that can foster such transition. This state-of-the-art review focuses on the application of agent-based modelling for exploring policy interventions that facilitate the decarbonisation (i.e., energy transition) of districts and neighbourhoods while considering stakeholders’ social characteristics and interactions. We systematically select and analyse peer-reviewed literature and discuss the key modelling aspects, such as model purpose, agents and decision-making logic, spatial and temporal aspects, and empirical grounding. The analysis reveals that the most established agent-based models’ focus on innovation diffusion (e.g., adoption of solar panels) and dissemination of energy-saving behaviour among a group of buildings in urban areas. We see a considerable gap in exploring the decisions and interactions of agents other than residential households, such as commercial and even industrial energy consumers (and prosumers). Moreover, measures such as building retrofits and conversion to district energy systems involve many stakeholders and complex interactions between them that up to now have hardly been represented in the agent-based modelling environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0102.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Food; feeding style; eating trends; food interactions, food intake; food preparation; food management; food insecurity; meal planning; parent; child; family food environment; COVID-19; systematic review
Online: 4 August 2022 (05:26:38 CEST)
Home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by dramatic changes in household food dynamics that can significantly influence health. This systematic literature review presents parental perspectives of the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on food preparation and meal routines, as well as other food-related behaviors, capturing both favorable and unfavorable changes in the family food environment (FFE). Themes and trends are identified and associations with other lifestyle factors are assessed. In overall, families enjoyed more time together around food, including planning meals, cooking, and eating together. Eating more diverse foods and balanced meals was combined with overeating and increased snacking, as parents became more permissive towards food; however, food insecurity increased among families with the lowest income. Adoption of meal planning skills and online shopping behavior emerged alongside behaviors aimed at self-sufficiency, such as bulk purchasing and stockpiling. These results are an important first step in recognizing how this pandemic may be affecting the FFE, including low-income families. Future obesity prevention and treatment initiatives, but also ongoing efforts to address food management, parental feeding practices, and food insecurity, can account for these changes moving forward.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0175.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: tooth agenesis; oligodontia; syndrome; systematic review
Online: 6 September 2023 (02:58:49 CEST)
The aim of this systematic review was to describe clinical and genetic features of syndromes showing oligodontia as a sign. The review was performed according to the PRISMA 2020 checklist guidelines, and the search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Lilacs, Web of science, Livivo and EMBASE and supplemented by a gray literature search on Google Scholar and ProQuest, applying key terms relevant to the research questions. The systematic review identified 49 types of syndromes in 91 studies, and the most common was hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, which was reported in 24 patients in 22 studies. Other commonest syndromes that reported oligodontia included Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, Witkop’s syndrome, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, blepharocheilodontic syndrome and oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome. The X-linked mode of inheritance was the most reported (n=14 studies), followed by the autosomal dominant (n=11 studies). The review describes the main syndromes that may have oligodontia as a clinical sign and reinforce the need of oro-dental-facial examining for adequate diagnosis and treatment of the affected patients. Molecular analysis in order to better understand the occurrence of oligodontia is imperative.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0017.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: systematic review; aircrew; occupational risk factors
Online: 3 April 2023 (08:24:00 CEST)
The primary objective of this systematic review was to analyze the main physical agents representing risk factors for commercial aircrew, together with their consequences. The secondary objective was to identify the countries in which studies on the topic were conducted, as well as the quality of the publications available. Thirty-five articles, published between 1996 and 2020, were selected for the review, having met all inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were conducted in the United States, Germany and Finland and had moderate or low methodological quality of evidence. The main risk factors for aircrew identified in publications were exposure to abnormal air pressure, cosmic radiation, noise, and vibrations. Hypobaric pressure was explored in response to demands for studies on this agent, a factor which may lead to otic and ear barotraumas, as well as acceleration of atherosclerosis of the carotid artery. However, there is a dearth of research exploring this phenomenon.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0470.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: clinical diagnosis; immunodeficiency; systematic review; immunoglobulins
Online: 27 February 2023 (10:04:00 CET)
Background: Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia of Infancy (THI) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a temporary decline of serum levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) greater than 2 standard deviations below the mean age-specific reference values in an infant between 5 and 24 months of age. Preterm infants are particularly susceptible to THI, as, in the third trimester of pregnancy, IgG is transferred across the placenta from mother to infant.Objective: To systematically review the diagnostic criteria of Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia of infants.Design & Methods: Systematic Review. Manual searching of 3 electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, & Google Scholar) from September 2021 – April 2022. Abstracts were screened to assess fit to the inclusion criteria. Data was extracted from the selected studies by using an adapted extraction tool from Cochrane.org. Studies were then assessed for bias by using an assessment tool also adapted from Cochrane.org.Results: Of the 215 articles identified, 16 were eligible for examining the diagnostic criteria of THI. These studies were also assessed for bias in 6 domains. 5 studies (31%) had a low risk of bias, while 4 studies (25%) had a high risk of bias, & 7 studies (44%) were unclear for bias.Conclusion: We can conclude that THI is only definitively diagnosed after the abnormal IgG levels have normalized, hence THI is mostly a benign condition, but must be monitored for subsequent recurrent infections. The diagnostic criterion also includes vaccine & isohaemagglutinin responses to differentiate against other immunological disorders in infants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: systematic review; forest therapy; depression; adults
Online: 14 March 2017 (08:45:56 CET)
The purpose of this study was to systematically review forest therapy programs designed to decrease the level of depression among adults and subsequently identify the gaps in the literature. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The authors independently screened full-text articles from various databases using the following criteria: 1) intervention studies assessing the effects of forest therapy on depression in adults aged 18 years and over; 2) studies including at least one control group or condition; 3) been peer-reviewed; and 4) been published either in English or Korean before July 2016. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) measurement tool was used to assess the risk of bias in each trial. In the final sample, a total of 28 articles (English: 13, Korean: 15) were included in the present systematic review. This review concluded that forest therapy is one of the emerging and effective interventions for decreasing the level of depression in adults. However, the studies included in this review lacked methodological rigor. Future studies assessing the long-term effect of forest therapy on depression using rigorous study designs are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0136.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: blockchain; consensus; distributed systems; healthcare; systematic review.
Online: 7 September 2018 (12:55:42 CEST)
Blockchain technology enables a decentralized and distributed environment with no need for a central authority. Transactions are simultaneously secure and trustworthy due to the use of cryptographic principles. In recent years, blockchain technology has become very trendy and penetrated different domains, mostly due to the popularity of cryptocurrencies. One field where blockchain technology has tremendous potential is healthcare, due to the need for a more patient-centric approach to healthcare systems and to connect disparate systems and increase the accuracy of electronic healthcare records (EHRs). In this systematic review, an analysis of state-of-the-art blockchain research in the field of healthcare is conducted. The aim is to reveal the potential applications of the technology and to highlight the challenges and possible directions of blockchain research in healthcare. First, background information is discussed, followed by a description of the exact methodology used in this paper. Next, an analysis of the results is given, which includes a bibliometric overview, an analysis of gathered data and its properties, and the results of a literature quality assessment. Lastly, there is a discussion of the results from the analysis. The findings indicate that blockchain technology research in healthcare is increasing and it is mostly used for data sharing, managing health records and access control. Other scenarios are very rare. Most research is aimed at presenting novel structural designs in the form of frameworks, architectures or models. Findings also show that technical details about the used blockchain elements are not given in most of the analyzed publications and that most research does not present any prototype implementation or implementation details. Often even with a prototype implementation, no details about blockchain elements are given.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1024.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Characterization; Arazá; phenolic compounds; systematic review
Online: 17 October 2023 (05:43:06 CEST)
(1) Background: In Eugenia Stipitata Mac Vaugh (Arazá), there is an abundance of flavonoids, carotenoids, and phenolic acids, which are bioactive compounds with antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antiulcer, and cardiovascular disease prevention benefits. Therefore, the aim of this review is to compile the compounds that have been identified in the fruit and gather information about secondary metabolites to establish their potential preventive and therapeutic effects; (2) Methods: a literature search was conducted in repositories and databases such as Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Agriculture Collection Gale, SAGE, OXFORD University, DOAJ, among others. Articles identifying and quantifying bioactive compounds present in Arazá were included; (3) Results: Five studies meeting the inclusion criteria were incorporated, resulting in the compilation of 82 compounds, of which 24 were identified and quantified, while 58 were solely identified. This review was able to identify and report the concentration, and in some cases, the quantity, of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities present in Arazá; (4) Conclusions: With this scope, it was possible to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the fruit's potential to potentially enhance health aspects, thereby providing greater prominence and added value to this product, allowing for more frequent inclusion in the diets of consumers, and even enabling exportation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; diet, education; systematic review.
Online: 8 July 2021 (09:57:01 CEST)
As the incidence and prevalence of diabetes increases, intervention through dietary education is becoming more important for diabetes control. This systematic review aimed to confirm the ef-fect of dietary intervention education on diabetes control. The study subjects were type 2 diabet-ic patients, and the main outcome variable was glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1c). The target studies were randomized controlled trials. Thirty-six studies were included in the analysis, of which 33 were included in the meta-analysis. The effect size between the dietary education and general intervention, was -0.42 (n=5,639, MD=-0.42; 95% CI -0.53 to -0.31) and was signifi-cantly different (Z=7.73, P<.001). When subgroup analyses were performed following the appli-cation periods, intervention methods, and intervention contents, the mean differences in 4–6-month application, individual education, diet-exercise-psychosocial intervention were -0.51, (n=2,742, 95% CI -0.71 to -0.32), -0.63 (n=627, 95% CI -1.00 to -0.26), and -0.51 (n=3.244, 95% CI -0.71 to -0.32), respectively. Dietary education interventions provided for at least 3 months were highly effective in controlling blood sugar levels. Regarding the education method, individual-ized education was more effective, and for this, contact or non-contact education may be applied. Combining diet, exercise, and psychosocial intervention is more effective than diet education alone.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1964.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: economic evaluation; cost-effectiveness; glucosamine; osteoarthritis; systematic review
Online: 28 July 2023 (11:25:01 CEST)
The osteoarthritis (OA), the main cause of disability, is a chronic condition that most frequently affects older adults. As the population ages, the cost of treatment is placing pressure on the healthcare budget. As a result, it is imperative to evaluate the medicines' cost-effectiveness and the influence they have on health resource allocation. Hence, our study aims to summarize the cost and outcome of utilizing glucosamine in OA treatment. Authentic databases like Medline, Cochrane, and Scopus were adopted for the identification process up until July 2023. Our primary inclusion criteria centered on the economic evaluation of Glucosamine in OA treatments with provided the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) at least. The Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument was applied to grade the quality of the studies. A total of 7 qualified studies were selected and discussed the cost-effectiveness of glucosamine with or without other formulations. All of them demonstrated that glucosamine was cost-effective. There was an in-creasement of QALY when incorporating Glucosamine into conventional care. Moreover, Crystalline Glucosamine Sulfate (pCGS) was more cost-effective than the Other Formulations of Glucosamine (OFG). In overall, utilizing pCGS was more beneficial than OFG in terms both of cost and quality of life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0693.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: 5G; deep learning; reinforcement learning; systematic review; cellular networks
Online: 29 July 2020 (11:12:32 CEST)
This last decade, the amount of data exchanged in the Internet increased by over a staggering factor of 100, and is expected to exceed well over the 500 exabytes by 2020. This phenomenon is mainly due to the evolution of high speed broadband Internet and, more specifically, the popularization and wide spread use of smartphones and associated accessible data plans. Although 4G with its long-term evolution (LTE) technology is seen as a mature technology, there is continual improvement to its radio technology and architecture such as in the scope of the LTE Advanced standard, a major enhancement of LTE. But for the long run, the next generation of telecommunication (5G) is considered and is gaining considerable momentum from both industry and researchers. In addition, with the deployment of the Internet of Things (IoT) applications, smart cities, vehicular networks, e-health systems, and Industry 4.0, a new plethora of 5G services has emerged with very diverging and technologically challenging design requirements. These include: high mobile data volume per area, high number of devices connected per area, high data rates, longer battery life for low-power devices, and reduced end-to-end latency. Several technologies are being developed to meet these new requirements. Among these we list ultra-densification, millimeter Wave usage, antennas with massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), antenna beamforming to increase spacial diversity, edge/fog computing, among others. Each of these technologies brings its own design issues and challenges. For instance, ultra-densification and MIMO will increase the complexity to estimate channel condition and traditional channel state information (CSI) estimation techniques are no longer suitable due to the complexity of the new scenarios. As a result, new approaches to evaluate network condition such as by continuously collecting and monitoring key performance indicators become necessary. Timely decisions are needed to ensure the correct operation of such network. In this context, deep learning (DL) models could be seen as one of the main tools that can be used to process monitoring data and automate decisions. As these models are able to extract relevant features from raw data (images, texts, and other types of unstructured data), the integration between 5G and DL looks promising and one that requires exploring. As main contributions, this paper presents a systematic review about how DL is being applied to solve some 5G issues. We examine data from the last decade and the works that addressed diverse 5G problems, such as physical medium state estimation, network traffic prediction, user device location prediction, self network management, among others. We also discuss the main research challenges when using DL models in 5G scenarios and identify several issues that deserve further consideration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0505.v1
Online: 29 August 2018 (15:52:44 CEST)
Background: Alcohol is a psychoactive substance that leads to dependence and harmful drinking in worldwide. Alcohol use is the most prevalent among age from 13 to 29 year particularly in high school, college, and university students. It affected students mentally, physically, economically and their social issues. In low and middle-income countries particularly in Ethiopia, there is lack of data in systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors among students. Methods: We will search studies using computerized search engine, main electronic databases and other applicable sources. PubMed/Medline, Global Health, Africa-wides, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and direct Google search will be searched to retrieve studies written in English language from 2010 to 2017. Observational studies (case control, cross-sectional, cohort or longitudinal survey, and surveillance reports) on the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors among students in Ethiopia will be eligible. Data will be extracted by two authors independently. Data synthesis and statistical analysis will be carried out. Pooled estimate will be done to determine the prevalence of alcohol use by using comprehensive meta-analysis software. Protocol registration PROSPERO: 2017: CRD42018083222.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0943.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Dengue, Dengue virus, Systematic review, Meta-analysis, Ethiopia
Online: 16 October 2023 (10:16:02 CEST)
Dengue virus infection is caused by a positive stranded RNA virus called Dengue virus, which is spread by arthropods. It is a fast growing acute febrile disease with potentially lethal consequences that is a global public health problem, mostly in tropical and subtropical countries. In Ethiopia dengue fever is understudied despite the fact that the virus is still being transmitted and viral infection rates are rising. This systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of DENV infection in Ethiopia. A literature search was done on PubMed, Hinari and Google Scholar databases to identify studies published before July, 2023. Random effects and fixed effects models were used to estimate pooled prevalence of all the three markers. The Inconsistency Index was used to assess the level of heterogeneity. A total of 11 articles were included in this review. Majority of the studies had moderate risk of bias and no study had a high risk of bias. A meta-analysis estimated pooled IgG prevalence of 21% (95% CI: 19-23), a pooled prevalence of IgM 9% (95%CI: 4-13) and a pooled DENV-RNA prevalence of 48% (95% CI: 33-62). There is evidence of possible publication bias in IgG but not found in the rest of markers. The prevalence of DENV infection is high in Ethiopia. Healthcare providers, researchers and policymakers should give more attention to dengue fever.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: personalized; individualized; open heart surgery; implantation; systematic review
Online: 5 October 2023 (13:45:08 CEST)
Personalized surgery is not just a new trend but rather a patient-specific approach to therapy that makes it possible to adopt a targeted approach for a specific patient and closely mirrors the approach of personalized medicine. However, the application of tailored surgery in the context of cardiovascular replacement surgery was not systematically reviewed. The ability to customize a device is highly dependent on the collection of radiological image data for precise prosthesis modelling. These facts are essential to "tailor-made" device design for precise prosthesis implantation. According to this study, computed tomography (CT) was the most prominent imaging modality; however, transoesophageal echocardiography and echocardiography were also found to be helpful. Additionally, a dynamic finite element simulation is also an attractive alternative to the finite element analysis for an in-silico experiment. Nonetheless, there is a paucity of relevant publications and sporadic evidence. More clinical studies have been warranted, notwithstanding that the derived data and results from the insight into the use of therapeutic interventions may be of multiple directives in clinical practices and beyond. This study may help the integration of personalized devices for better comprehending predicted clinical outcomes, thus leading towards enhanced performance gains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1963.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: sexual health; psychological well-being; women; systematic review
Online: 28 September 2023 (09:57:48 CEST)
(1) Background: Psychological well-being (PWB) and female sexual health are two important areas for women’s quality of life and research, and they are closely related. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the existing literature to explore the association between PWB and sexual health in women. (2) Methods: This review was carried out following PRISMA. The inclusion criteria were studies with samples of adult women, that evaluated and associated sexual functioning and mental health. Scientific articles were identified on Web of Science, Scopus, EBSCO (PsycInfo, PsycArticles, and Psicodoc), ProQuest, and PubMed. The search was limited to years between 2010 and 2023. (3) Results: 14 selected articles were analyzed, in which population samples and variables related to mental and sexual health were examined. 42.9% of the studies included clinical samples, 71.4% focused on anxiety and depression as main mental health variables, and 50% examined female sexual functioning as a sexual health variable. (4) Conclusions: This review provides more up-to-date information about valuable insights into the possible determinants of female sexual health. The association between PWB and female sexual health has been demonstrated.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: creativity; ideation; architectural design studio; education; systematic review
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:58:29 CET)
Creativity is fundamental to design problem-solving. This paper sets out a systematic review of the literature in relation to its role in the architectural design studio in order to identify central issues that impact upon this activity. Challenges and best practice in relation to systematic reviews are outlined, and the procedure followed in this context is set out in detail. This involves an iterative evaluation process that resulted in a pool of 17 papers for analysis. Eleven themes emerged in the analysis of the papers, which were organized into 5 key categories dealing with: pedagogy, cognitive approach, interaction and socialization, information representation, and measuring ideation and creativity. A discussion of these categories contributed to the comparison and connections between the selected papers, and the identification of critical issues and directions for promoting creativity in the architectural design studio.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0143.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: coping strategies; children; imprisoned parents; interventions; systematic review
Online: 19 May 2017 (06:14:31 CEST)
Children of imprisoned parents have a two times greater risk for health problems, including difficulties in their environment, academic and behavioural problems as well as social stigma. Focusing on children who have parents in prison has not been a priority for research. This review aims to describe current knowledge on children who have imprisoned parents in a global context and highlight areas for additional research. This review highlights the coping strategies that children of imprisoned parents use and explore interventions that exist to support children of imprisoned parents. This review employed a qualitative narrative synthesis. The database search yielded 1989 articles, of which 11 met inclusion and quality criteria. Stigmatizing children due to parental imprisonment was a widespread problem. Children’s coping strategies included maintaining distance from the imprisoned parent, normalizing the parent’s situation and taking better control over their lives through distraction, sports, supportive people and therapy. Children received the best support in school-based interventions or mentoring programmes. The overall low quality of the included studies indicates a need for further research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Acute pancreatitis; Etiology; Biliary pancreatitis; Systematic review; Meta-analysis
Online: 25 February 2019 (08:58:59 CET)
Introduction: Cholelithiasis and consumption of alcohol are the most frequent causes of acute pancreatitis (AP), accounting for about 30 to 40% of the cases, respectively. The frequency of acute biliary pancreatitis is high in a certain population in Brazil. Objective: To estimate the global frequencies of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP), acute alcoholic pancreatitis (AAP) and the cases considered as acute idiopathic pancreatitis (AIP) in studies published from October 2006 to December 31, 2018. Methods: A systematic review of observational studies was performed from October 2006 to December 31, 2018. A meta-analysis by the random effects model was used to calculate the frequencies of global ABP, AIP and AAP and subgroups. Results: Forty-six studies representing 2,341,007 AP cases were included in 36 countries. The overall estimate for acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) was 41.6% (95% CI 39.2-44.1), followed by acute alcoholic pancreatitis (AAP) with 20.5% (95% CI) 16.6- 24.6) and acute idiopathic pancreatitis (AIP) in 18.3% (95% CI 15.1-27.7). Conclusion: ABP is the most prevalent etiology of AP, being two times more frequent than second-placed pancreatitis. Latin America has a frequency for ABP much higher than the rest of the world. The importance of the etiologic diagnosis is the treatment of the cause for prevention of recurrence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: pneumoparotid; systematic review; pneumoparotitis; parotid gland; etiology; intraoral pressure; Stensen’s duct
Online: 10 November 2022 (02:56:35 CET)
Pneumoparotid describes the presence of retrogradely insufflated air within the Stensen's duct and/or parotid gland. It is a rare condition with variable causative factors. This study aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics of pneumoparotid; reports in all languages were evaluated fol-lowing the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement 2020. A literature search was conducted using electronic medical databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCO, Ovid, Google Scholar, SciElo, LILIACS, and others) from 1890 to June 30, 2022. One hundred and seventy patients (mean age; 28.4 years) from 126 studies were reviewed. Common symptoms included swelling (84.7%) and pain (35.9%). Characteristic findings were crepitus in the parotid region (40%) and frothy saliva from the orifice (39.4%). Common etiologies included abnormal habits such as blowing out the cheeks (23.5%), idiopathic (20%), self-induced (15.9%), playing wind instruments such as trumpets or flutes (8.8%), and diseases inducing coughing or sneezing (8.2%). Treatments included antibiotic therapy (30%), behavioral therapy to avoid continuing causative habits (25.9%), psychiatric therapy (8.2%), and surgical procedures (8.2%). Treatment should be individualized based on the etiology. However, the etiology was not identified in 20% of patients. Further detailed data from larger samples are necessary to better understand and improve the recognition of this entity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1464.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Systematic review; Sarcopenia; aged; Nutrition
Online: 23 November 2023 (04:25:26 CET)
Background: Sarcopenia, a subject of extensive research, has led to numerous clinical trials and systematic reviews (SR). These reviews aid healthcare professionals by summarizing results and conducting meta-analyses, enhancing reliability. However, the abundance of reviews complicates decision-making on sarcopenia management. To address this, SR of SR have emerged, consolidating data from various sources into comprehensive documents. Objective: to assess the isolated impact of dietary interventions on sarcopenia's diagnostic criteria for older individuals. Methods: a study protocol for a SR of SR, following Cochrane and PRISMA recommendations. The search strategy includes the MeSH ‘sarcopenia’ and its subheadings; ‘aged’ and its subheadings; ‘nutrition’ and its subheadings; and filter ‘systematic review’, performed at main databases. Selected studies must include older adults, submitted to nutritional interventions compared to control groups. Quantitative analyses will use inverse variance statistic method (random effects); the effect measures mean difference. Heterogeneity measured with Q-Test. Results: The results of this SR of SR will may provide valuable information about the sarcopenia treatment, deepening the knowledge about. Conclusion: this protocol is reproducible, requires low cost and personnel, and may allow a higher understanding on sarcopenia treatment and management on older people.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0405.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Systematic Review; Sustainable Agriculture; Climate Change; Resilience; Agro-Systems
Online: 27 February 2020 (12:23:04 CET)
In the last few decades, a lot has been written on the use of sustainable agriculture to improve ecosystem services for resilience to climate change. However, no tangible and systematic evidence exists on how this would participate in alleviating impacts on vulnerable rural communities. This paper provides a narrative systematic review (SR) integrated with a bibliometric analysis and a concept network analysis to understand how, in a changing climate, sustainable agriculture builds the resilience of agro-systems. The search was set from the date of the first relevant article until the end of 2018. Results generated have demonstrated that: a. Only single practices and methods have been studied to assess impacts on single ecosystem services. b. Soil quality and health are considered a key indicator of sustainable agriculture. c. Albeit the assessed practices and methods have shown to improve the biodiversity of agro-systems, which makes them more resilient to extreme climate events, we are still far from reaching interdisciplinary and multi-dimensional agriculture which integrates all management aspects and generates a full range of ecosystem services. In conclusion, the study addressed the following recommendations for the scientific community and for decision-makers to orient future research strategies and efforts: a. Integration of all agro-systems services into sustainable management using an ecosystem-based approach on a life-cycle basis using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method; b. Improving the scientific understanding of traditional knowledge for higher synergies and for further integration; c. Unification of assessment methods and indicators for the quantification of impacts; d. Creation of a platform to share, monitor, screen, and approve assessments and evaluations of sustainable agriculture by region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0194.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: aphthous stomatitis, risk factors, genetic polymorphisms, multivariate analysis, systematic review
Online: 10 May 2021 (13:55:48 CEST)
The cause and prevention of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (also called aphthous ulcers or canker sores) are still unknown. This may be due in part to ignorance of the risk factors present in susceptible people. In this systematic review (PROSPERO record #CRD42019122214), we show that most of the risk factors for the disease are single nucleotide genetic polymorphisms in genes related to the functioning of immune system (TLR4, MMP9, E-selectin, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha). Single nucleotide genetic polymorphisms do not constitute a modifiable risk. This indicates that, at least in part, susceptibility to recurrent aphthous stomatitis is hereditary, and that these factors cannot be modified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: dietary pattern; prostate cancer; systematic review; meta-analysis
Online: 6 August 2016 (12:30:38 CEST)
Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by “a posteriori” methods. Search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risk estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for a 1st-percentile increase in dietary pattern score were combined by a dose response meta-analysis. 12 observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified “Healthy pattern” and “Western pattern”. The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.88-1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.08-1.65). In addition, a “Carbohydrate pattern”, identified in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.35-2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western (p=0.011) and the Carbohydrate (p=0.005) pattern and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small numbers of studies included suggest that further investigations are necessary to support these findings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0034.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: remote work; telework; systematic literature review; work design; workforce planning
Online: 2 September 2022 (05:54:08 CEST)
The practice of telework, remote work, and working from home has grown significantly across the pandemic era (2020+). These practices offer new ways of working but come with a lack of clarity as to the role it plays in supporting the wellbeing of staff. (1) Background: the purpose of this study is to examine the current literature on wellbeing outcomes and effects of telework; (2) Methods: this study adopts a systematic literature review from 2000-2022 using the PRISMA approach and thematic analysis guided by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (Wellbeing, Decent Work, Gender Equality, and Inclusive Production); (3) Results: it was evident that there is a lack of clarity on the actual effects of telework on employee wellbeing, but it appeared that it had a generally positive effect on short-term wellbeing of staff, and created more flexible and proactive work design opportunities; (4) Conclusions: there is a need for more targeted research into work designs that support wellbeing and productivity of staff, and consider the environmental sustainability changes from reduced office and onsite work and increased working from home.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis; Onset; Progression; Secondhand Smoke; Systematic Review
Online: 10 April 2023 (04:05:31 CEST)
Introduction: Unlike cigarette smoking, secondhand smoke (SHS) has not been as well described as an environmental risk for Multiple sclerosis (MS) nor as a risk factor for disease progression. We systematically reviewed the association between SHS and the risk of onset and/or progression of MS.Methods: We systematically screened MEDLINE/PUBMED, Science Direct, LILACs, and SCIELO searching for publications between January 1st , 2010, and July 5, 2021 with the following keywords: “multiple sclerosis and smoking”; “multiple sclerosis and passive smoking”; “multiple sclerosis and secondhand smoking”. An 11-year filter was applied from 2010 to 2021. Results: Fifteen articles were included in this review, which consisted of systematic reviews with meta-analysis (N = 2), systematic reviews (N = 2), and observational studies (N = 11). Both meta-analyses reported an impact of SHS on MS onset among secondhand smokers. One of the systematic reviews selected two observational studies showing the association between SHS and MS development, and one study that did not find a significant association between SHS and the risk of MS development. The other systematic review identified selected eight articles showing a relationship between SHS and MS. Seven observational studies reported higher odds of MS onset when associated with SHS. Four observational studies did not show a relationship between SHS and MS onset or progression.Discussion: Most articles showed a positive association between SHS exposure and the risk of developing MS. On the other hand, an association between SHS and a higher risk for MS progression could not be established.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: eastern Mediterranean; EMR; hospital; malnutrition; prevalence; systematic review
Online: 7 September 2022 (11:06:27 CEST)
Background: Malnutrition has negative consequences in hospitals, like poor disease recovery, increased mortality, length of hospitalization, readmission, and health care costs.Aims: This review was designed to determine malnutrition prevalence in hospitals located in eastern Mediterranean region (EMR).Study design: To conduct this systematic review, papers, including original articles, related references and conference proceedings on the prevalence of malnutrition in adult hospitalized patients published in international journals and scientific databases from 1 Jan 2017 to 31 Jan 2022 will be included. The following keywords and their alternatives will be used in the literature search: malnutrition, patient, and EMR. The protocol has been registered at PROSPERO (code: CRD42022339426).Methods: After initial screening based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, the full text articles will be read carefully and eligible documents will be selected according to the defined objectives. Afterward, the selected papers will be reviewed for methodological quality and the required information will be extracted. Finally, in case of sufficient data, a meta-analysis will be performed. Screening, selection, quality assessment, and data extraction will be done by at least two independent reviewers.Results: This review is ongoing and will be completed until the end of year 2023.Conclusion: This review aims to provide comprehensive evidence about the prevalence of malnutrition among adult inpatients in EMR hospitals. This can provide regional authorities, health managers and policy makers good information regarding current status to make appropriate decisions for promoting the health status in hospitals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs); Refugee children; Systematic review; Questionnaires
Online: 2 March 2023 (01:42:19 CET)
Today, various questionnaires are available to assess Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in children; however, it is uncertain if these questionnaires comprehensively address the adversities of vulnerable subgroups, specifically refugee children. This review's objectives are to (1) identify current ACE questionnaires and determine if they are suitable for assessing refugee children’s adversities, and (2) identify those previously used within a refugee population. A systematic literature search was conducted across five databases for articles published since 2010, including studies using an ACE questionnaire that recognized multiple adversities in healthy children and were published in English. A total of 103 ACE questionnaires were identified in 506 studies. Only 14 of the 103 questionnaires addressed a refugee-specific adversity. Their ability to capture refugee children’s experiences was limited: available questionnaires used a maximum of three items to assess refugee-specific adversities, covering only a fraction of forms of adversities relevant to refugee children. Psychometric characteristics were rarely reported. In addition, only two ACE questionnaires were used within a refugee population. With the tools currently available, it is not possible to comprehensively assess the exposure to and severity of the adversities faced by refugee children. The perpetuation of ongoing crises necessitates assessing refugee children's adversities to understand how their well-being is affected and to identify children at risk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Childhood cancer; financial costs; Africa; systematic review; meta-analysis
Online: 15 August 2022 (11:53:44 CEST)
The high costs of cancer treatment and lack of investment in health care are significant obstacles to public health on the African continent. The objective of this study was to estimate the financial cost of treating children suffering from cancer in Africa. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of expert opinions between March 2000 and March 2020. The key search terms included ‘cost’, ‘cancer’ and ‘child’; we selected articles that specifically addressed the financial costs of childhood cancer in African countries. Of the 103 articles found, 18 met the inclusion criteria. Cancer care was a heavy financial burden in most of the countries studied, although costs varied from country to country; the average expenditure on healthcare was US$1017.39 ± US$319.1 per year. In countries without a health insurance system, the highest proportion of cancer care costs, 46.6%, was indirect, whereas in countries with a cancer financing system, the direct cost of treatment was low, 53.4%. The cost of treating childhood cancer is high in Africa in relation to the standard of living of individuals residing in this region.
REVIEW | doi:10.3390/sci1010015.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: wastewater treatment; temperatures; systematic review; biofilms; endocrine disrupting compounds
Online: 21 March 2019 (00:00:00 CET)
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are contaminants with estrogenic or androgenic activity that negatively impact human and animal communities. These compounds have become one of the significant concerns for wastewater treatment in recent decades. Several studies have evaluated EDC removal methods from wastewater across the globe including the United Kingdom (UK). Accordingly, the current study reviews EDC removal methods from municipal/domestic wastewater in the United Kingdom (UK) for the period of 2010–2017. The research highlights that despite the relative efficacy of existing chemical and physical methods for removing certain EDCs from wastewater there is emerging evidence supporting the need for more widespread application of nature-based and biological approaches, particularly the use of biofilms. The analysis reveals that there have been relatively few research studies on EDC removal methods have been carried out in the UK in the 2010–2017 period and none of the research focused on EDC removal using biofilms. Finally, this review suggests that more research is needed to remove EDCs, particularly through the application of biofilms, from municipal wastewater in current scenarios.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0405.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: caffeine; coffee; systematic review; pregnancy; safety
Online: 23 August 2018 (05:33:43 CEST)
In 2016–2017, we conducted and published a systematic review on caffeine safety  that set out to determine whether conclusions presented in the heavily cited Health Canada assessment, Nawrot et al. , remain supported by more recent data. To that end, we reviewed data from 380 studies published between June 2001 and June 2015, which were identified from an initial batch of over 5,000 articles through a stringent search and evaluation process . In the current paper, we use plain language to summarize our process and findings, with the intent of sharing additional context for broader reach to the general public. We addressed whether caffeine doses previously determined not to be associated with adverse effects by Health Canada (400 mg/day for healthy adults, 300 mg/day for pregnant women, 2. 5 mg/kg body weight/day for adolescents and children, and 10 g/day for acute effects) remain appropriate for five outcome areas (acute toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, bone & calcium effects, behavior, and development and reproduction) in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children. We used a weight-of-evidence approach to draw conclusions for each of the five outcomes, as well as more specific endpoints within those outcomes, which considered study quality, consistency, level of adversity, and magnitude of response. In general, updated evidence confirms the levels of intake put forth by Nawrot et al., as not being associated with any adverse health effects, and our results support a shift in caffeine research from healthy to sensitive populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: 5G, Resource allocation, Resource distribution, Congestion, 5G communication, Comprehensive, Review, Systematic.
Online: 3 August 2021 (11:31:27 CEST)
Fifth Generation (5G) communication technology is intended to offer higher data rates, outstanding user exposure, power consumption, and extremely short latency. Such cellular networks will implement a diverse multi-layer model comprising of device-to-device networks, macro-cells, and dissimilar categories of small-cells to assist customers with desired quality-of-service (QoS). This multi-layer model affects several studies that confront utilizing interference management and resource allocation in 5G networks. With the growing need and the lack of resources, the resource distribution problem desires to be focused capably to accomplish the traffic and to enhance network working. One of the utmost serious problems is to alleviate the jamming from the network in support of having a better QoS. However, there are limited review papers written on resource distribution, there is no particularize and organized review carry out in 5G resource allocation. Hence, this article covers and evaluates the argument using a classification of existing developing resource allocation schemes in 5G thoroughly by classifying the schemes to enhance the service quality. This survey comprises the discussion based on metrics used to evaluate the performance. It would also permit ahead beyond evidence on resource allocation methods in 5G and empowers the scholars to meet the present research areas to focus on.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0028.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Deep Learning; Depression; Electroencephalogram; EEG; Depressive Disorders; Systematic Literature Review
Online: 10 November 2021 (15:29:25 CET)
Depression is considered by WHO as the main contributor to global disability and it poses dangerous threats to approximately all aspects of human life, in particular public and private health. This mental disorder is usually characterized by considerable changes in feelings, routines, or thoughts. With respect to the fact that early diagnosis of this illness would be of critical importance ineffective treatment, some development has occurred in the purpose of depression detection. EEG signals reflect the working status of the human brain by which are considered the most proper tools for a depression diagnosis. Deep learning algorithms have the capacity of pattern discovery and extracting features from the raw data which is fed into them. Owing to this significant characteristic of deep learning, recently, these methods have intensely utilized in the diverse field of researches, specifically medicine and healthcare. Thereby, in this article, we aimed to review all papers concentrated on using deep learning to detect or predict depressive subjects with the help of EEG signals as input data. Regarding the adopted search method, we finally evaluated 22 articles between 2016 and 2021. This article which is organized according to the systematic literature review (SLR) method, provides complete summaries of all exploited studies and compares the noticeable aspects of them. Moreover, some statistical analysis performs to gain a depth perception of the general ideas of the latest researches in this area. A pattern of a five-step procedure was also established by which almost all reviewed articles fulfilled the goal of depression detection. Finally, open issues and challenges in this way of depression diagnosis or prediction and suggested works as the future directions discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Obesity; Eating Disorders; Adolescents; Prevention programs; Systematic Review
Online: 13 August 2020 (10:38:34 CEST)
An effective behavior changes program is the first-line of prevention for youth obesity. However, effectiveness in prevention of adolescent obesity requires several approaches, with special attention paid to disordered eating behaviors and psychological support among other environmental factors. The aim of this systematic review was to compare the impact of two types of obesity prevention programs, inclusive of behavior change components on weight outcomes. Energy-balance studies were aimed at reducing calories from high-energy sources and increasing PA levels, while “shared risk factors for obesity and eating disorders” focused on reducing disordered eating behaviors to promote a positive relationship with food and eating. A systematic search of ProQuest, PubMed, PsycInfo, SciELO, and Web of Science identified 8825 articles. Twenty were considered “energy-balance” and fifteen “shared-risk factors for obesity and eating disorders”. Overall, energy-balance studies were unable to support a maintenance weight status, diet, and PA over time. Shared risk factors programs also did not result in significant differences in weight status over time. However, the majority of shared risk factors studies demonstrated reduced body dissatisfaction, dieting, and weight-control behaviors. More research is needed to examine how a shared risk factor approach can address both obesity and eating disorder.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0316.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Infrastructure projects; LCCA; Systematic Review; PRISMA statement; Sustainability; LCA
Online: 11 March 2021 (11:23:23 CET)
The comfort of human life depends on the quality, size, and reliability of the infrastructure projects. In the infrastructure systems, rapid growth is found, where the economic and sustainable impact has become a topic of significant concern for policies and government officials. To achieve con-straints of sustainable development, all the policies and actions over the infrastructure project's life cycle must be assessed. Decision-makers have adopted approaches for economic, social, and en-vironmental initiatives through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Cost Analyses (LCCA) of infrastructure projects. The purpose of this review is to highlight the impact of per-forming LCA and LCCA in infrastructure projects. To achieve this goal, a systematic literature review methodology is adopted in which renowned databases, i.e., Web of Science, Science Direct, Emerald and Scopus were selected to extract the relevant literature. Using the PRISMA approach, 1251 publications were identified which were then filtered and 55 documents were included in the final review. In the extracted publications most, researchers were biased toward LCA and LCA individually, whereas few focused on integrated LCA and LCCA. The researchers assessed the costs and impact associated with the infrastructure project while there were less focused on the environmental cost. Besides this, techniques of economic, social, and environmental growth of infrastructure projects have been emphasized during the design phase because of substantial relations between infrastructure design and operation management. Moreover, a conceptual framework has been developed that will assist the decision-makers to consider the effects of LCA and LCCA on various aspects of the infrastructure project and how it impacts sustainability. In the last, a case study was performed to assess the developed framework with the incorporation of environmental impact cost.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0833.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Antiviral drugs; arbovirus; natural products; Aedes; dengue; PRISMA; systematic review
Online: 13 November 2023 (14:31:25 CET)
Antiviral drugs cannot treat dengue fever, a serious medical disease spread by the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. One important arbovirus disease is dengue fever. Safe, affordable and effective drugs that inhibit dengue virus (DENV) are needed to control dengue worldwide. Medicinal plants have long been considered an important alternative in the treatment of various diseases, including dengue fever. The aim of this study was to use databases PubMed, Google Scholar and Research Gate to identify plants of different tribes from different places that can be used for the treatment of DENV infection and open supportive care for dengue. Previous studies have shown antiviral activity of medicinal plants against DENV. The aim of the present study is to discover plants from different tribes from different places that can be used to treat DENV infection and provide open supportive care against dengue. The recommended reporting guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA statement) were followed in the search and selection of articles using the PubMed database, Google Scholar and Research Gate. The final selection was made after careful consideration and up to 85 publications that met the inclusion criteria. It is said that different plants from different tribes and geographical locations can be used to treat DENV infection.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electricity demand forecast; Machine Learning; Artificial Neural Networks; systematic review.
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:48:10 CEST)
The forecast of electricity demand has been a recurrent research topic for decades, due to its economical and strategic relevance. Several Machine Learning (ML) techniques have evolved in parallel with the complexity of the electric grid. This paper reviews a wide selection of approaches that have used Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to forecast electricity demand, aiming to help newcomers and experienced researchers to appraise the common practices and to detect areas where there is room for improvement in the face of the current widespread deployment of smart meters and sensors, which yields an unprecedented amount of data to work with. The review looks at the specific problems tackled by each one of the selected papers, at the results attained by their algorithms, and at the strategies followed to validate and compare the results. This way, it is possible to highlight some peculiarities and algorithm configurations that seem to consistently outperform others in specific settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0625.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: precision agriculture; agricultural extension; profitability; production quality; systematic review
Online: 25 June 2021 (15:52:08 CEST)
Precision agriculture (PA) is a holistic, sustainable, innovative systems approach that assists farmers in production management. Adopting PA could improve sustainable food security and community economic sustainability. Developing an understanding of PA adoption attributes is needed to assist extension practitioners to promote adoption and better understand the innovation adoption phenomena. A systematic review of literature was conducted to investigate PA adoption. Thirty-three publications were examined, and four themes were found among the reviewed publications. The results were interpreted using Rogers’ diffusion of innovations framework to address the research objectives. Of the reviewed literature, we found relative advantage and compatibility were two dominant attributes to strengthen the adoption of PA, and the complexity attribute was rarely used to promote the adoption of PA. This study shows that change agents do not fully use five attributes of innovation when they promote PA technology to stakeholders to adopt. Thus, we recommend studies from the agricultural extension specialists’ perspectives in the future may determine contributions to motivate farmers’ adoption of PA, in particular related to complexity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0219.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: TMDs; temporomandibular; TMJ; network meta-analysis; systematic review
Online: 11 November 2022 (07:04:36 CET)
Abstract: Background: Pain management is one of the main parts of treatments for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs). However, there is still a lack of high-quality evidence that compare the overall effects of these non-surgical treatments. The objective of this systematic review is to identify the most potential treatment protocol in dealing with pain caused by TMDs through a mixed comparison of interventions based on network meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of studies identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Medline, Ovid, and CINAHL. All the included studies should have characteristics that: (1) participants with TMDs of any age; (2) non-surgical treatments; (3) score of Visual Analog Scale (VAS) as the outcome measure; (4) randomized controlled trials. The Cochrane Bias Assessment Toll was used to assess the bias, the CINeMA website was applied to rate the confidence of evidence, and ADDIS software was used to conduct the network meta-analysis. Results: 46 studies were included in this review. The agreement between authors reached a kappa value of 0.78. The results of the network meta-analysis showed that wearable therapy devices are more likely to be the best choice for reducing the pain of patients with myogenic TMDs, whereas a combination of platelet-rich plasma injection and wearable therapy devices is more likely to be the best choice for reducing the pain in a long term after treatment for patients with mix-type TMDs. Moreover, the application of therapy equipment has the most potential in reducing pain in a long term after treatment for patients with articular TMDs. Discussion: Wearable devices have a great potential for pain syndrome caused by TMDs, the mechanism might come from a biomechanical perspective. However, the overall confidence rating of evidence is low. Studies with high quality are still needed in the future. Other: The PROSPERO Registration Number of this systematic review is CRD42021253442.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0218.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Image accessibility; touchscreen; nonvisual feedback; blind; visual impairment; systematic review
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:41:50 CET)
A number of studies have been conducted to improve the accessibility of images using touchscreen devices for screen reader users. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of 33 papers to get a holistic understanding of existing approaches and to suggest a research road map given identified gaps. As a result, we identified types of images, visual information, input device and feedback modalities that were studied for improving image accessibility using touchscreen devices. Findings also revealed that little has studied how to automate the generation of image-related information, and that screen reader users play important roles during the evaluation but the design process. Then we introduce two of our recent studies on the accessibility of artwork and comics, AccessArt and AccessComics respectively. Based on the identified key challenges, we suggest a research agenda for improving image accessibility for screen reader users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1348.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: reactive attachment disorder; children; adolescents; internalising problems; externalising problems; systematic review
Online: 21 November 2023 (15:09:25 CET)
The study aimed to determine, through a systematic review, the relationship between Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and the presence of psychopathology in children and adolescents and to determine the existence of differences about the presence of internalising and externalising psychological problems between the RAD group and groups with other disorders or with typical development. Following the PRISMA methodology, a search was carried out in the Web of Science, PubMed and Scopus databases. The search yielded 770 results, of which only 25 met the inclusion criteria. The results, indicate a relationship between the presence of RAD and/or Disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) with the presence of internalising and externalising problems. These difficulties are more present in children with RAD compared to children without personal difficulties, or children with DSED, children with autism, children with intellectual disabilities or children with hyperactivity. It can be concluded that the presence of RAD has negative consequences on the mental health of children and adolescents, with these being greater in the inhibited group than in the disinhibited group, and with respect to children with autism or hyperactivity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2070.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: quality improvement; systematic review; papillomavirus vaccine; vaccination coverage; adolescent
Online: 30 May 2023 (07:47:30 CEST)
Background: Routine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake continues to be suboptimal since its recommendation in 2006 for girls and in 2011 for boys. This paper aims to review published quality improvement (QI) methodologies on interventions to improve HPV vaccine uptake among adolescents; Methods: Science Direct and Scopus databases were searched for QI initiatives evaluating the effect of multimodal interventions to improve HPV vaccination rates (initiation and/or completion of series) among adolescents. Studies that included an outcome of interest among adolescents aged 10 to 18 years old were included. Two investigators worked independently to screen for potential articles and a designated investigator extracted data on study characteristics and evaluated the outcomes; Results: Preliminary search yielded a total of 523 articles and 13 were included in the final analysis. Common strategies were provider-specific and patient- and/or parent-specific interventions, with an emphasis on education and knowledge empowerment. System-level interventions such as policy changes and revised protocol were less commonly prescribed despite being associated with more significant weight on the overall outcome; Conclusions: Creative, sustainable, and economical multilevel interventions that focus not only on provider training and public education but also incorporate local policy and system enhancement can substantially improve HPV vaccination coverage among adolescents.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: systematic review; community intervention; greenhouse gas emissions; climate change
Online: 3 September 2020 (02:54:04 CEST)
This paper reviews research on community efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We conducted a systematic search of relevant literature and supplemented our findings with an analysis of review papers previously published on the topic. Results indicate that there have been no peer-reviewed experimental evaluations of community-wide interventions to reduce greenhouse gases involving electricity, refrigeration, or food. The lack of findings limits the conclusions which can be made about the efficacy of these efforts. As a result, we are not accumulating effective interventions and some communities may be implementing strategies that are not effective. We advocate the funding of experimental evaluations of multi-sector community interventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Such interventions would attempt to engage every sector of the community in identifying and implementing policies and practices to reduce emissions. Comprehensive multi-sector interventions are likely to have synergistic effects, such that the total impact is greater than the sum of impact of individual components. We describe the value of interrupted time-series designs as an alternative to randomized trials because these designs confer particular advantages for evaluating strategies in entire communities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1736.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: animal models; exosomes; skin regeneration; wound healing; systematic review.
Online: 26 June 2023 (04:55:12 CEST)
Exosomes have shown promising potential as a therapeutic approach for wound healing. Nevertheless, the translation from experimental studies to commercially available treatments is still lacking. To assess the current state of research in this field, a systematic review was performed to examine the methodological heterogeneity among studies conducted over the past five years. Additionally, the review analyzed the suitability of animal models used and their relevance to human medicine. A PubMed search was performed for english-language, full-text available papers published from 2018 to June 2023, focusing on exosomes derived from mammalian sources and their application in wound healing, particularly those involving in vivo assays. Out of 531 results, 148 papers were selected for analysis. The findings revealed significant variability in terms of cell sources and types, biomaterials, and administration routes under investigation, indicating the need for further research in this field. Additionally, a comparative examination encompassing diverse cellular origins, types, administration pathways, or biomaterials is imperative. Furthermore, the predominance of rodent-based animal models raises concerns, as there have been limited advancements towards more complex in vivo models and scale-up assays. These constraints underscore the substantial efforts that remain necessary before attaining commercially viable and extensively applicable therapeutic approaches using exosomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0493.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: systematic review; time series classification; digital biomarkers; machine learning; feature engineering
Online: 29 August 2022 (12:42:39 CEST)
Background: Digital clinical measures collected via various digital sensing technologies such as smartphones, smartwatches, wearables, ingestible, and implantable are increasingly used by individuals and clinicians to capture health outcomes or behavioral and physiological characteristics of individuals. Time series classification (TSC) is very commonly used in modeling digital clinical measures. While deep learning models for TSC are very common and powerful, there exist some fundamental challenges. This review presents non-deep learning models commonly used for time series classification in biomedical applications that achieve high performance. Objective: We performed a systematic review to characterize the techniques used in time series classification of digital clinical measures throughout all stages of data processing and model building. Methods: We conducted a literature search on PubMed, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Web of Science, and SCOPUS databases using a range of search terms to retrieve peer-reviewed articles reporting academic research on digital clinical measures in the five year period between June 2016 and June 2021. We identified and categorized research studies based on the types of classification algorithms and sensor input types. Results: We found 452 papers in total from four different databases: PubMed, IEEE, Web of Science Database, and SCOPUS. After removing duplicates and irrelevant papers, 135 articles remained for detailed review and data extraction. Among these, engineered features using time series methods that were subsequently fed into widely-used machine learning classifiers was the most commonly used technique and also most frequently achieved the best performance metrics (77 out of 135 articles). Statistical modeling (24 out of 135 articles) algorithms were the second most common and also second best classification technique. Wavelet-based classification models (8 out of 135 articles) were also common. Electroencephalogram (29 out of 135 articles) was the most common data type used as an input. Accuracy was the most commonly reported performance metric, with 67.65% of articles reporting on accuracy. In this review paper, we provide summaries of signal pre-processing methods, feature engineering and selection methods, time series models, as well as model interpretations. Importantly, we found that about 50% of the papers only report one performance metric, which may result in a skewed view of overall performance. Conclusion: While high time series classification performance has been achieved in digital clinical, physiological, or biomedical measures, no standard benchmark datasets, modeling methods, or reporting methodology exist. There is no single widely used method for time series model development or feature interpretation– many different methods have proven successful.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: hybrid problem-based learning; hybrid-PBL; biomedicine; systematic review; higher education
Online: 15 November 2018 (05:37:35 CET)
The impact of instructional guidance on learning outcomes in higher biomedical education is subject of intense debate. There is the teacher-centered or traditional way of teaching (TT) and, on the other side, the notion that students learn best under minimal guidance (problem-based learning, PBL). Although the benefits of PBL are well-known, there are aspects susceptible to improvement. Hence, a format merging TT and PBL (hybrid-PBL, h-PBL) may advance education in biomedical sciences. Here, we systematically reviewed studies that employed h-PBL in higher biomedical education compared to TT and/or pure PBL. We found that h-PBL resulted in better overall students’ performance and perception than TT or pure PBL. These findings encourage more research on investigating the pedagogical benefits of h-PBL and posit an eclectic system in which the pedagogical tools from TT and PBL are used cooperatively in the best interest of the education and satisfaction of the students.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: sequelae; COVID-19; SARS-COV-2; long-COVID; systematic review
Online: 14 September 2022 (08:50:08 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 made its debut as a pandemic in 2020; since then, more than 607 million cases and at least 6.5 million deaths have been reported worldwide. While the burden of disease has been described, the long-term effects or chronic sequelae are still being described. Objective: To describe the findings of a current systematic review of the long-term effects related to post-COVID-19 sequelae. Design: A systematic review was carried out in which cohort studies, case series, clinical case reports were included, and the PubMed, Scielo, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases were ex-tracted. Information published 2020 to June 1, 2022, was sought. Results: We reviewed 300 manuscripts during the first step of the literature review process. Then 260 abstracts were analyzed. In the end, we included 32 manuscripts: 9 for pulmonary, 6 for cardiac, 2 for renal, 9 for neurological and psychiatric, and 8 for cutaneous sequelae. Conclusion: Studies show that the most common sequelae are those linked to the lungs, followed by skin, cutaneous and psychiatric alterations. Women report a higher incidence of the sequelae, as well as those with comorbidities and severer COVID-19 history. The COVID-19 pandemic has not only caused death and disease since its apparition but has also sickened millions of people around the globe who potentially suffer from serious illnesses that will continue to add to the list of health problems and further burden healthcare systems around the world.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: systematic review; cannabis; neuroimaging; age-of-onset psychosis; psychosis; schizophrenia
Online: 14 May 2021 (09:58:14 CEST)
Acute exposure to cannabis has been associated with an array of cognitive alterations, increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, and other neuropsychiatric sequelae including the emergence of acute psychotic symptoms. However, the brain alterations associating cannabis use and these behavioral and clinical phenotypes remains disputed. To this end, neuroimaging can be a powerful technique to non-invasively study the impact of cannabis exposure on brain structure and function in both humans and animal models. While chronic exposure studies provide insight into how use may be related to long-term outcomes, acute exposure may reveal interesting information regarding the immediate impact of use and abuse on brain circuits. Understanding these alterations could reveal the connection with symptom dimensions in neuropsychiatric disorders and, more specifically with psychosis. The purpose of the present review is to: 1) provide an update on the findings of pharmacological neuroimaging studies examining the effects of administered cannabinoids and 2) focus the discussion on studies that examine the sensitive window for the emergence of psychosis. Current literature indicates that cannabis exposure has varied effects on the brain, with the principal compounds in cannabis (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol) altering activity across different brain regions. Importantly, we also discorvered critical gaps in the literature, particularly regarding sex-dependent responses and long-term effects of chronic exposure. Certain networks often characterized as dysregulated in psychosis, like the default mode network and limbic system, were also impacted by THC exposure, identifying areas of particular interest for future work investigating the potential relationship between the two.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0197.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: 3D human pose estimation; systematic literature survey; deep learning based methods
Online: 3 November 2023 (03:48:59 CET)
3D human pose estimation has made significant advancements through the integration of deep learning techniques. This survey provides a comprehensive review of recent 3D human pose estimation methods, with a focus on monocular images, videos, and multi-view cameras. Our approach stands out through a systematic literature review methodology, ensuring an up-to-date and meticulous overview. Unlike many existing surveys that categorize approaches based on learning paradigms, our survey offers a fresh perspective, delving deeper into the subject. For image-based approaches, we not only follow existing categorizations but also introduce and compare significant 2D models. Additionally, we provide a comparative analysis of these methods, enhancing the understanding of image-based pose estimation techniques. In the realm of video-based approaches, we categorize them based on the types of models used to capture inter-frame information. Furthermore, in the context of multi-person pose estimation, our survey uniquely differentiates between approaches focusing on relative poses and those addressing absolute poses. Our survey aims to serve as a pivotal resource for researchers, highlighting state-of-the-art deep learning strategies and identifying promising directions for future exploration in 3D human pose estimation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0169.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Tooth size; Tooth size discrepancy; Bolton ratios; Meta-analysis; Systematic review
Online: 18 February 2019 (17:17:20 CET)
Introduction: The purposes of this study were to seek for overall ratio (OR) and anterior ratio (AR) patients data in normal occlusion and Angle’s malocclusion studies, and to assess if such results support Bolton’s standards as general references. Methods: Pubmed, Medline, CENTRAL and Scholar databases were searched up to February 2018 (CRD42018088438). Gray literature was explored through OpenGray. Non-randomized clinical studies, published in English and assessing Bolton’s OR and AR in normal occlusion and Angle’s malocclusion groups (Class I, Class II, Class II division 1, Class 2 division 2, Class III) patients were included. OR and AR means and standard deviations (SD) were collected. Potential covariates (study design, publication year, country where the study was conducted, number of cases, gender, mesiodistal measurement method, and calibration method) were also extracted. The National Health Heart Lung, and Blood Institute’s Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies was used to assess each included studies quality. Pairwise Random-Effects and Multilevel Bayesian Network Meta-Analyses were used to synthesize available data. Results: Fifty-two observational studies were included (8872 participants; male/females 2674/3272; 16 studies lacked gender information). For normal occlusion, global pooled estimates for OR and AR means were 91.74% (95% CI: 91.37-92.10) and 78.24% (95% CI: 77.85-78.63), respectively. We could identify on Angle’s Class III patients meaningful OR and AR mean deviations from normal occlusion (0.89, 95% credible interval [CrI], 0.66-1.12, and 0.66, 95% CrI, 0.38-0.94, respectively), while on Class I patients we found a meaningful mean deviation from normal occlusion only for OR (0.25, 95% CrI, 0.03-0.47). Concerning gender impact, male patients presented higher OR (0.30, 95% CI 0.00-0.59) and AR (0.41, 95% CI 0.00-0.83) mean values than females in Class I. Conclusions: The results show that global pooled OR and AR mean values for normal occlusion patients are slightly above Bolton’s original values. Class I, for OR mean values, and Class III, for both OR and AR, are proportionally larger than normal occlusion patients. Gender had almost no impact on teeth mesiodistal proportion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0431.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: LULC Products, systematic review, Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia
Online: 23 July 2018 (15:33:55 CEST)
A large variety of remote sensing-based land use/land cover (LULC) products are currently available on national and global scales. This literature review and in-situ validation study evaluates the suitability of these products for local scale applications in the complex terrain of the Ethiopian mountains. For the review, 146 research papers were analyzed. Most studies (73%) have been published since 2013 and are based on individually computed maps. Not a single study relied on readily available LULC products. Nine readily available LULC products with 20, 30, 300, 500 and 1,000 m spatial resolution have been identified at national and global scales. To complement and extend this body of research, the recent (since 2013) LULC products were validated using 185 ground truth points collected in the Bale Mountains National Park between 1,500 and 4,385 m a.s.l. The results indicate a rather poor overall accuracy (<50%).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0136.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: meta-analyses; primary knee osteoarthritis; stem cells; systematic review
Online: 9 February 2022 (10:57:45 CET)
Background: Conclusions of meta-analyses of clinical studies may substantially influence opinions of perspective patients and stakeholders in health care. Nineteen meta-analyses of clinical studies on the management of primary knee osteoarthritis (pkOA) with stem cells, published between January 2020 and July 2021, came to inconsistent conclusions regarding the efficacy of this treatment modality. It is possible that a separate meta-analysis based on an independent, systematic assessment of clinical studies on the management of pkOA with stem cells may reach a different conclusion. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane library were systematically searched for clinical studies and meta-analyses of clinical studies on the management of pkOA with stem cells. All clinical studies and meta-analyses identified were evaluated in detail, as were all sub-analyses included in the meta-analyses. Results: The inconsistent conclusions regarding the efficacy of treating pkOA with stem cells in the 19 assessed meta-analyses were most probably based on substantial differences in literature search strategies among different authors, misconceptions about meta-analyses themselves, and misconceptions about the biology of stem cells. An independent, systematic review of the literature yielded a total of 183 studies, of which 33 were randomized clinical trials, including a total of 6860 patients with pkOA. However, it was not possible to perform a scientifically sound meta-analysis. Conclusion: Clinicians should interpret the results of the 19 assessed meta-analyses of clinical studies on the management of pkOA with stem cells with caution, and should be cautious of the conclusions drawn therein. Clinicians and researchers should strive to participate in FDA and/or EMA reviewed and approved clinical trials to provide clinically and statistically valid efficacy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1604.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: digital innovation; Sustainability; TCCM; Consumer Behavior; SPAR-4-SLR; systematic literature review
Online: 22 June 2023 (11:31:59 CEST)
Consumption is thus fundamentally related to sustainably because every decision pertaining to what to buy, what quantity the buy, how many to consume, or how to dispose of things has a direct influence on the natural world and the generations to come, and the overall impact of every single the customer's purchase is disastrous. A framework-based systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted to better comprehend the body of research on digital innovation and sustainability driving consumer behavior. This was done in order to acquire a deeper understanding of the studies that have already been done in this area. to provide (i) a comprehensive review of the current research landscape and (ii) a rich roadmap for future research. This study evaluated the literature especially in terms of theory, context, traits, and methodology. A total of 107 research articles published between 2013 and 2022 were found using scientific methods in the Scopus database. The findings showed that most research appears to have employed qualitative methodologies and was grounded in the setting of China and Italy. This review could help scholars better grasp the relationship between digital innovation and sustainability, opening the door for additional study and advancement in the field. Additionally, by extending the literature study and emphasizing the elements that can improve digital innovation and sustainability, practitioners will be given a better overall understanding of how to approach the problem.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0261.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: protocol; soccer performance; supplements; diet; systematic review; soccer professional players
Online: 12 April 2023 (08:28:31 CEST)
The unique physical demands of soccer necessitate optimal nutrition strategies for enhancing players' performance, recovery, and overall health. However, the effects of nutrition interventions on professional soccer players remain underexplored. This review aims to synthesize the current literature on the impact of nutrition interventions on professional soccer players' performance to inform future research and practical applications. The review will follow the PRISMA guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews. We will employ a four-part search strategy to identify relevant studies, including electronic bibliographic databases, trial registers, the web of clinical trials, and bibliography screening. Inclusion criteria will encompass randomized clinical trials involving professional or semiprofessional soccer players utilizing a nutrition or diet intervention. Quality assessment will be conducted using the Risk of Bias 2 (RoB 2) tool. A narrative synthesis will be provided, detailing the intervention types and their effects on performance. This review will offer a comprehensive understanding of the potential benefits of nutrition interventions for soccer professionals, helping coaches, nutritionists, and players to tailor their approaches for optimal performance and recovery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Schistosomiasis; diagnosis; non-human hosts; surveillance; systematic review; meta-analysis
Online: 6 May 2021 (12:04:50 CEST)
Background Reliable and field-applicable diagnosis of schistosome infections in non-human animals is important for surveillance, control, and verification of interruption of human schistosomiasis transmission. This study aimed to summarize uses of available diagnostic techniques through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods and principal findings We systematically searched the literature and reports comparing two or more diagnostic tests in non-human animals for schistosome infection. Out of 4,909 articles and reports screened, 18 met our inclusion criteria, four of which were considered in the meta-analysis. A total of 14 techniques (parasitologic, immunologic, and molecular) and nine types of non-human animals were involved in the studies. Notably, four studies compared parasitologic tests (miracidium hatching test (MHT), Kato-Katz (KK), the Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory technique (DBL), and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation-digestion (FED-SD)) with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and sensitivity estimates (using qPCR as the reference) were extracted and included in the meta-analyses, showing significant heterogeneity across studies and animals hosts. The pooled estimate of sensitivity was 0.21 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 – 0.48) with FED-SD showing highest sensitivity (0.89, 95% CI: 0.65 – 1.00). Conclusions and significance Our findings suggest that the parasitologic technique FEA-SD and the molecular technique, qPCR, are the most promising field-applicable techniques for schistosome diagnosis in non-human animal hosts. Future studies are needed for validation and standardization of the techniques for real-world field applications.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1046.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Brachial Plexus Neuropathy; Surgical Neurolysis; Motor Recovery; Clinical outcomes; Systematic Review
Online: 15 August 2023 (07:08:13 CEST)
Surgical neurolysis is a procedure designed to liberate an injured nerve from scar tissue or adjacent structure, thereby facilitating nerve regeneration in cases of brachial plexus neuropathy (BPN). This study presents a case series of patients diagnosed with BPN who underwent surgical neurolysis. The primary focus was on the clinical assessment of recovery using the British Medical Research Council motor grading scale (BMRC). Additionally, a comprehensive literature review was conducted to analyze motor recovery outcomes related to surgical neurolysis for BPN. 18 patients with BPN who underwent surgical neurolysis where included. The results experienced a notable increase of 58% in muscle strength as assessed by the BMRC. The average preoperative state of 2.17±1.15 improved significantly to a postoperative condition of 3.44±1.34 (p = 0.003, d= 0.913) The systematic review identified 2298 articles which were selected for qualitative analysis, demonstrated that surgical neurolysis was associated with favorable motor recovery outcomes in 75.82% of the patients. Both the case series and the literature review reveal significant motor recovery following surgical neurolysis. It is crucial to conduct well-designed, adequately powered, randomized, and blinded clinical trials. Such studies will provide robust evidence to support or refute the utility of this approach in motor recovery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Nitrous Oxid; N₂O; nangs; systematic review; harm reduction; drug use
Online: 9 August 2022 (11:29:40 CEST)
Background Nitrous Oxide (N₂O) is a dissociative anaesthetic that is sometimes used recreationally. The prevalence of N₂O use is difficult to quantify but appears to be increasing. Research on N₂O harms and application of harm reduction strategies are limited. The aim of this mixed method systematic review was to collate and synthesise the disparate body of research on recreational nitrous oxide use to inform harm reduction approaches tailored for young people. Methods To identify publications reporting recreational use of N₂O, a search of public health, psychology and social science databases was conducted. Databases included PubMed, CIHNAL, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science. Gray literature and Google advanced search were also used. Due to limited published literature on the recreational use of N₂O, no limit was placed on publication date or study type. A thematic synthesis extracted descriptive and analytical themes from the selected studies. Quality appraisal was conducted using the CASP Tool for Qualitative studies and the Joanna Briggs Institute case report assessment tool Results The search retrieved 407 reports. Thirty-four were included in the final analysis including sixteen case reports. The included studies were primarily concerned with raising awareness of the apparently increasing use and subsequently increasing harms of recreational N₂O use. There was limited reference to policy or legislative responses in any published studies, no suggestions for harm reduction strategies or application of service level responses. In general, individuals lack awareness of N2O related harms. Conclusion The review found three key areas that deserve further consideration including: 1) policy, 2) service delivery, and 3) harm associated with N₂O use. We recommend a top-down (policy) and bottom-up (services delivery/services users) approach to harm reduction for N₂O use which also includes further consultation and research with both groups. Future research could explore young people’s experience of N₂O use including benefits and problems to inform contextually relevant harm reduction strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0214.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: inflammatory bowel diseases; parenteral nutrition; systematic review; meta-analysis; crohn disease
Online: 18 October 2019 (11:36:07 CEST)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease mediated by the immune system and characterized by the inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. This study is to understand how the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) can affect the adult population diagnosed with IBD. We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis and a meta-regression. On the different databases, (MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane, LILACS, CINAHL, WOS) we found 119 registers, the accuracy was 16% (19 registers); After a Full-text review, only 15 research studies were selected for qualitative synthesis and 10 for Meta-analysis and Meta-regression. The variables used were Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI), albumin, body weight (BW) and post-operative complications (COM). PN has shown to have efficacy for the treatment of IBD and is compatible with other medicines. The CDAI and albumin improve although the effect of PN are greater after a while. However, the effect on the albumin could be less than the observed value in the meta-analysis, due to a possible publication bias. The BW does not change after intervention. COM utilizing PN has been observed, although the proportion is low.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: inflammatory bowel diseases; enteral nutrition; systematic review; meta-analysis; Crohn disease
Online: 1 September 2019 (10:32:09 CEST)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease mediated by the immune system and characterized by the inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. One of the possible treatments for this pathology is a change in the type of diet, the enteral nutrition (EN) is one of them. This study is to understand how the use of EN can affect the adult population diagnosed with IBD. We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis and a meta-regression. On the different databases, (MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane, LILACS, Cinhal, WOS) we found 363 registers, the accuracy was 12% (44 registers); After a Full-text review, only 30 research studies were selected for qualitative synthesis and 11 for Meta-analysis and Meta-regression. The variables used were Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI), C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR). EN has shown to have efficacy for the treatment of Crohn’s Disease and is compatible with other medicines. As for the CDAI or the rates of remission, there were no differences between enteral and parenteral nutrition. Polymeric formulas, have shown better results with respect to the CRP. The long-term treatment could dilute the good CDAI results that are obtained at the start of the EN treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1636.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: clinical decision support system; brain tumour; brain neoplasms; diagnosis; prognosis; systematic review
Online: 22 June 2023 (14:59:46 CEST)
The abnormal accumulation of cells in the human brain, if left untreated, may cause brain damage. Management and treatment of these tumours require an early and accurate diagnosis, while their prognostic characterisation can also be beneficial in the choice of care planning for the patient. CDSSs are being continuously developed and integrated into routine clinical practice as they assist clinicians and radiologists to deal with an enormous amount of medical data, reduce clinical errors, and improve diagnostic capabilities. They assist detection, classification, and grading of brain tumours as well as alerting physicians of requirement of change in treatment plans. The aim of this systematic review is to identify various CDSSs used in brain tumour diagnosis and prognosis, that rely on data captured by any imaging modality. Based on the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol, the literature search was conducted in PubMed and Engineering Village Compendex databases. This review examines various CDSS tool types, system features, techniques used, accuracy, and outcome, to provide the latest evidence available in the field of neuro-oncology. An overview of different types of CDSSs used to support clinical decision-making in the management and treatment of brain tumours, along with highlighting their benefits, challenges, and future perspectives has been provided.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: adaptation; adaptive capacity; adaptation tracking; climate change; systematic review; vulnerability; developed nation; Australia
Online: 13 August 2018 (10:13:42 CEST)
We develop and apply a systematic literature review methodology to identify and characterize the ways in which the peer-reviewed literature depicts how climate change adaptation is occurring in Australia. We reviewed the peer-reviewed, English-language literature between January 2005 and January 2018 for examples of documented adaptation actions. Our results challenge previous assumptions that adaptation action is not happening in Australia and describes adaptation processes that are underway. For the most part, actions can be described as preliminary or groundwork, with a particular focus on documenting stakeholder perspectives on climate change and adaptation, and modelling or scenario planning in the coastal zone, agriculture and health sectors. Where concrete adaptations are reported, they are usually in the agricultural sector and are most common in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia’s food basket. The findings of the review advance our understanding of adaptation to climate change as a process and the need to consider different stages in the process when tracking adaptation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0276.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: genetic improvement; genetic variation; heritability; systematic review; biocontrol agent; life history traits
Online: 24 January 2020 (10:39:55 CET)
The concept of genetic improvement in relation to biological control involves the exploitation of natural genetic variation for the benefit of existing biological control agents (BCAs). Despite recent calls for this process to be adopted in biological control research, there is no clear overview of the current state of research into genetic variation within a biological control context, including quantifiable estimates such as narrow-sense heritability (h2). In this systematic review, we aim to determine the current state of research on the genetic variation of biological control traits in natural enemies. After the searching process, screening for papers that can deliver on our research question reduced the initial 2,927 search hits to only a mere 69 papers for data extraction. Of these, the majority (73.6%) did not report quantitative values for genetic variation. Extracting the traits measured in these papers, we categorized them according to two approaches; the first related to fitness components, and the second related to biological control importance. This systematic review highlights the need for more rigorous reporting of the quantitative values of genetic variation to enable the successful genetic improvement of biological control agents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1984.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Standardized Nursing Terminology; Nursing Process; Nursing Care; Effectiveness; Systematic Review
Online: 28 June 2023 (09:49:46 CEST)
The nursing process in clinical practice can be assessed using standardized language systems. The purpose is to find evidence on the effectiveness of the nursing process with standardized terminology using NANDA International, Nursing Interventions Classification, and Nursing Outcome Classification improving diag-nostic accuracy, nursing interventions, health outcomes, and people’s satisfaction. A systematic review was carried out in Medline and PreMedline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI and Scielo and LILACS including randomized clinical trials, quasi-experimental, cohort and case-control studies. Selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent reviewers. The certainty of the evidence was assessed with Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Methodology. 17 studies were included with variability in the level and certainty of evidence. According to outcomes, 6 evaluated improvements in diagnostic accuracy and 11 evaluated improvements in individual health outcomes. No studies evaluated improvements in intervention efficacy or population satisfaction. There is a need to increase studies with rigorous methodologies that address diagnostic accuracy and indi-viduals’ health outcomes using NANDA International, Nursing Interventions Classification, and Nursing Outcome Classification; as well as implementing studies that evaluate the use of these terminologies for improvements in the efficacy of nurses' interventions and population satisfaction with the nursing process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0011.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: intercultural education; intervention programs; Roma student; systematic review; PRISMA
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:04:28 CEST)
Intercultural education can be seen as a cornerstone in the sustainability of the current culturally diverse society. In addition, through the establishment of policies and strategies to reverse situations of discrimination and exclusion, there is a consensus on the importance of the social inclusion of groups at risk of exclusion. In this context, actions are suggested to reverse high dropout rates and school failure within the Roma population. The aim of this systematic review in the educational context is to analyze investigations of programs and interventions that have been made to promote the educational inclusion of Roma students. Three databases are used, Scopus, Web of Science, and Eric, to examine 419 articles, which after a selection, based on an inclusion criterion which follows the guidelines given by the Declaration PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes), 17 articles were chosen for the analysis. The main findings shed light on data for programs and interventions developed mostly within the school setting and for students of elementary and secondary education. These programs provide answers for the molding of intercultural education and the policies for educational inclusion of Roma people.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0391.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: prenatal environmental smoking; child health; Chinese children; systematic review; adverse events
Online: 6 July 2023 (11:11:16 CEST)
Background: There is considerable evidence to support the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and children’s burden of disease. However, literature on the health outcomes of prenatal ETS exposure among Chinese children has not yet been comprehensively reviewed. Objective: This systematic scoping review examines the currently available evidence and identifies gaps for further research on the health consequences of prenatal ETS exposure among Chinese children. Methods: Following the JBI scoping review methodological framework, we conducted a computer-aid search of three electronic databases-- PubMed, EBSCOhost, and ProQuest to include studies from January 2011 to May 2023 that addressed the health outcomes of Chinese children whose mothers were exposed to ETS at any stage of the pregnancy. Further, a methodological quality assessment of the selected articles was conducted, using JBI Critical Appraisal Checklists. Results: A total of 30 articles were reviewed, including eleven high-quality studies and nineteen moderate-quality studies. Five main themes, including hypertension, foetal and children’s development, behavioural disorders, respiratory outcomes, and other health outcomes. Majority of studies showed positive link between prenatal ETS exposure and increase risk of preterm birth, and moderately, foetal growth restriction. Few studies explored other potential adverse outcome of ETS, including hypertension, respiratory morbidity, lung function and asthma in their children. Conclusion: The current available evidence on prenatal ETS exposure in Chinese children has unveiled a wide range of health outcomes, including preterm birth, foetal development, behavioural disorders and much more. However, Chinese studies in this area are still lacking and a gap still exists in relation to the strength of association between prenatal ETS exposure and some health risks. Efficient anti-smoking policies and smoking cessation programs should be developed to promote maternal and child health. Further research is also needed to provide better evidence in this field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Advanced and metastatic gastric cancer; first-line systemic treatment; systematic review
Online: 6 July 2023 (02:24:35 CEST)
Globally, gastric cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality, with a 5-year survival rate of 32% for locally advanced and metastatic gastric cancer. This systematic literature review summarized the clinical, safety, and humanistic outcomes associated with systemic regimens given as first line therapy for locally advanced and metastatic gastric cancer. The search included articles published in English in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting library, from inception to April 2022. Phase II and III randomized controlled trials conducted among western populations diagnosed with stage III and IV locally advanced and metastatic gastric cancer were included. Two investigators independently reviewed the studies, conducted data extraction, and assessed risk of bias in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Twenty-four randomized controlled trials totaling 8,705 patients were included. Median overall survival ranged from 5.0-13.1 months, median progression-free survival ranged from 2.0-7.7 months, and objective response ranged from 13.0-64.1%. Two studies reported higher quality of life outcomes. Grade 3 and 4 adverse events were reported in most studies. Improvement in clinical outcomes can be seen in recently published randomized controlled trials for locally advanced and metastatic gastric cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0314.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: antiretroviral therapy; differentiated service delivery; retention; suppression; Africa; systematic review
Online: 19 May 2020 (09:53:46 CEST)
Introduction: Differentiated service delivery (DSD) models for antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV are being scaled up in the expectation that they will improve the quality and efficiency of treatment delivery and reduce costs while maintaining at least equivalent clinical outcomes. Even this minimum requirement of equivalent clinical outcomes is poorly documented for most models and settings, however. We reviewed the recent literature on DSD models to describe what is known about clinical outcomes. Methods: We conducted a rapid systematic review of peer-reviewed publications in PubMed, Embase, and the Web of Science and major international conference abstracts that reported outcomes of DSD models for the provision of ART in sub-Saharan Africa from January 1, 2016 to September 12, 2019. Sources reporting standard clinical HIV treatment metrics, primarily retention in care and viral load suppression, were reviewed and categorized by DSD model and source quality assessed. Results and Discussion: Twenty-nine papers and abstracts describing 37 DSD models and reporting 52 discrete outcomes met search inclusion criteria. Of the 37 models, 7 (19%) were facility-based individual models, 12 (32%) out-of-facility based individual models, 5 (14%) client-led groups, and 13 (35%) healthcare worker-led groups. Retention was reported for 73% of the models and viral suppression for 57%. Where a comparison with conventional care was provided, retention in most DSD models was within 5% of that for conventional care; where no comparison was provided, retention generally exceeded 80%. For viral suppression, all those with a comparison to conventional care reported a small increase in suppression in the DSD model; reported suppression exceeded 90% in 11/21 models. Analysis was limited by the extensive heterogeneity of study designs, outcomes, models, and populations. Most sources did not provide comparisons with conventional care, and metrics for assessing outcomes varied widely and were in many cases poorly defined. Conclusion: Existing evidence on the clinical outcomes of DSD models for HIV treatment in sub-Saharan Africa is limited in both quantity and quality but suggests that retention in care and viral suppression are roughly equivalent to those in conventional models of care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: diabetes self-management; family support; glycemic uncontrolled; type 2 DM; systematic review
Online: 12 May 2017 (05:27:28 CEST)
Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is dramatically increasing in the wide world. The managing of diabetes care emphasized the self-management education and support into patients’ care and family care. Objective: to review and synthesizes the effectiveness of DSME strategies involving family as a key person to provide social support for diabetes mellitus self-management of glycemic uncontrolled patients Method: Three databases through PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus were reviewed to assess the relevant articles. The following search terms: “type 2 diabetes,” “self-management,” “family support,” and “glycemic uncontrolled.” We summarized details of family support on self-management among glycemic uncontrolled patients for 14 existing studies. Results: A total of 22 intervention studies were identified. Those studies have a heterogeneous of the education strategies, support perceived, follow-ups strategies and outcomes among type 2 DM. Family integration on diabetes self-management education (DSME) has a positive impact on several outcomes including, self-care behaviors, psychological outcomes, self-efficacy and clinical outcomes Conclusions: This systematic review found robust data related to the integration of family support on diabetes self-management among glycemic uncontrolled patients. Consequently, the improvement in outcomes was identified. Implications: The findings suggest model of family engagement is better and needed for sustaining the diabetes care in the long-term care
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: systematic review; meta-analysis; evidence synthesis; RCT; N-of-1 trial; single subject design
Online: 22 December 2022 (07:56:51 CET)
N-of-1 data are unavoidable in zoological medicine. Accordingly, zoological medicine clinicians and investigators need research techniques that can make use of these data. This article reviews two methodologies for using both observational and experimental N-of-1 data: 1) systematic reviews and meta-analyses of case reports and 2) prospective N-of-1 trials. Systematic reviews of case reports and other observational evidence are formal, unbiased summaries of clinical characteristics of a particular disease-taxon combination. They offer advantages to narrative reviews by minimizing omission of relevant articles, thereby reducing the potential for mischaracterization of the literature. Meta-analyses are extensions of systematic reviews that quantitatively synthesize the data from the included articles. While valuable, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of case reports can have limited interpretations due to publication bias and confounding present in their source materials. In contrast to case reports, N-of-1 trials are prospective study designs that allow clinicians to make strong inferences about the effect of an intervention in a particular patient. They are double-blinded, single patient, multi-crossover studies that are of particular value in fields where it is difficult to recruit sufficient patients for conventional randomized control trials (RCTs), such as zoological medicine. Because they require multiple crossover periods, N-of-1 trials are ideal for evaluating short-acting interventions in patients with somewhat stable chronic diseases, such as osteoarthritis. More complex than conventional therapeutic trials, N-of-1 trials require prior consideration of how to achieve blinding, appropriate placebo controls, quantitative primary outcomes, analysis methods, and ethical approval. Aggregation of N-of-1 trials allows estimation of the average treatment effect across the population with fewer participants than a conventional RCT. While systematic reviews and meta-analyses of case reports can be used to synthesize the observational N-of-1 data already in existence, N-of-1 trials offer an exciting way to prospectively generate strong evidence that will be useful for evidence-based decision-making.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0635.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTS); biomarkers; specific and effective treatments; TTS management; genetic and epigenetic factors; systematic review
Online: 28 July 2021 (17:07:01 CEST)
Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), recognized as stress’s cardiomyopathy, or better as left ventricular apical balloon syndrome in the recent years, is a rare pathology, described for the first time by Japanese researchers in 1990. TTS is characterized by an interindividual heterogeneity in onset and progression, and by the strong predominance in postmenopausal women. The clear causes of these TTS features are uncertain, given the reduced understanding of this intriguing syndrome until now. However, the increasing frequency of TTS cases in the last years, and particularly correlated to SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, leads us to imperative necessity both of a complete knowledge of TTS pathophysiology for identifying biomarkers facilitating its management, and targets for specific and effective treatments. The suspect of a genetic basis in TTS pathogenesis has been evidenced. Accordingly, familial form of TTS has been described. But a systematic and comprehensive characterization of the genetic or epigenetic factors significantly associated with TTS is lacking. Thus, we, here, conducted a systematic review of literature before June 2021, to contribute to identify potential genetic and epigenetic factors associated with TTS. Interesting data were evidenced, but of reduced number and with diverse limitations. Consequently, we concluded further work is needed to address the gaps discussed, and probably a clear evidence may arrive using multi-omics investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; diabetes mellitus; meta-analysis; metabolic control; systematic review
Online: 14 June 2021 (09:44:15 CEST)
Background: The abrupt implementation of COVID-19 lockdown had impacted the management of diabetes mellitus. Limited access to health facilities and alterations in daily lifestyle put metabolic control among patients at risk. Thus, we observed the differences in metabolic control parameters in diabetic patients before and during the lockdown. Methods: We performed searches from five databases. Meta-analyses were done using random or fixed-effect approaches with glycemic control parameters (HbA1c, RBG, FBG, TIR, TAR, TBR) as primary outcomes. Mean difference (MD), Confidence Interval (CI), and p-value were calculated. Lipid profile presented as secondary outcome. Results: 21 studies with 3992 diabetic patients were included in the study. Meta-analysis presented an increase on HbA1c of T1D and T2D patients [MD=+0.06% (95%CI -0.10–0.23), I2=77%, p=0.45], TBR of T1D patients [MD=-0.05% (95%CI -0.38–0.28), I2=0%, p=0.77], FBG of T2D patients [MD=+3,47 mg/dL (95%CI 1.22–5.73), I2=0%, p=0.002], and lipid profile on qualitative analysis. However, TIR, TAR, and RBG of T1D patients were improved [MD=+3.52% (95%CI 0.29–6.74), I2=76%, p=0.03; MD=-3.36% (95%CI -6.48–-0.25), I2=75%, p=0.03; MD=-0.91 mg/dL (95%CI -4.52–6.34), I2=88%, p=0.74]. Conclusion: Lockdown enforcement did not worsen the glycemic control parameter in diabetic patients. Particular parameters inclined to improve during the lockdown.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0200.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: critical care nurses; critical care setting; experiences; patient advocacy; systematic review; understanding
Online: 12 March 2020 (04:42:24 CET)
Objectives: The purpose of this systematic review was to ascertain critical care nurses’ understanding and experiences of patient advocacy in adult critical care settings. The specific objectives were to identify how critical care nurses define patient advocacy, to explore the understanding and experiences of critical care nurses regarding patient advocacy, to explore critical care nurses’ role in patient advocacy, and to ascertain the barriers to encouraging advocacy in the critical care setting. Research design: Systematic literature search of CINAHL and Medline databases, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, as well as grey literature search, was conducted. Search dates were restricted from January 2005 to 2015 in both CINAHL and Medline. Findings: 62 studies were identified, of which 6 qualitative research papers were included. Nurses gave varied definitions of patient advocacy, which were categorized into three themes: communication, protection, and doing. Nurses perceive advocacy as truly listening to patients and their families. Conclusion: For critical care nurses to be effective advocates, there must be support, collaboration, and improved working relationship between professional groups. Moreover, nurses must be empowered to be able to give power to patients and family.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0349.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: systematic review; extracellular vesicles; EVs; asthma; therapy; inflammation; respiratory disease; airway hyperresponsiveness; BALF
Online: 16 July 2020 (12:52:03 CEST)
Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. It is characterized by difficulty in breathing and chronic airway inflammation associated with narrowing of the airways, and airway hyperresponsiveness. If left untreated, asthma can lead to respiratory distress and even death. A number of medications are available and prescribed to manage asthma. Yet despite that, only half of the asthmatic patients are able to control their condition. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in transporting contents such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids to other cells. While EVs have been extensively studied as biomarkers of various pathological states, evidence indicates that they can play protective and therapeutic roles in mitigating diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and asthma. Here we propose to conduct a systematic review that provides a detailed analysis of the therapeutic effect of EVs in mitigating the primary (inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness) and secondary outcomes (airway remodelling, molecular indices of cellular signalling, and inflammatory mediators in serum) associated with asthma in preclinical studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0088.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: systematic review; second language acquisition; research interests; second language teaching and learning
Online: 8 November 2019 (04:21:41 CET)
The purpose of this systematic review is to provide second language acquisition (SLA) researchers with an overview of research trends in this field in the last ten years (2009-2019). In doing so, three international peer-reviewed journals, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, Language Teaching Research, and The Modern Language Journal, were selected. 150 articles were systematically selected and analyzed. The analysis of data resulted in identifying six descriptive themes. Results showed that some areas of second language acquisition still need further exploration while some areas are of great interest for researchers. Some suggestions for future research as well as implications of the study were discussed in detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0394.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Climate change adaptation; Coastal cities; Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA); Socio-economic assessment; Systematic literature review
Online: 26 October 2022 (03:33:30 CEST)
Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to climate change hazards (e.g., sea-level rise, flooding, coastal erosion), which can lead to significant impacts at the ecosystem and societal level. Interest in Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) is gaining importance due to its potential multiple benefits, including social and environmental aspects, when compared to more traditional approaches such as hard engineering interventions. When assessing EbA strategies, further understanding of the nature-society functions, processes, values, and benefits is needed to increase its application. This study contributes to a better knowledge of EbA by developing a systematic literature review of studies performing socio-economic assessments of climate change adaptation in coastal areas. The analysis of 54 publications revealed that most of the studies assessed adaptation solutions through cost-benefit analysis, followed by multi-criteria analysis, and other techniques. Hybrid adaptation strategies based on different combinations of hard, soft and EbA interventions were considered as potential optimal solutions in a significant part of the assessments. This study suggests the potential co-benefits of EbA in the form of ecosystem services, livelihood diversification or biodiversity conservation, but also stresses the need for further research on this topic, as well as on evaluating how EbA perform in the long-term under climate changing conditions scenarios.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0419.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Trichuris trichiura; polymerase chain reaction; bead-beating; DNA extraction; Systematic review
Online: 19 April 2021 (11:54:06 CEST)
Objectives: This meta-analysis was designed to assess the effect of addition of a bead-beating step during DNA extraction to effectively isolate Trichuris trichura DNA for quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR)-based diagnosis. Abstract was reported according to PRISMA-DTA abstract checklist. Methods: Eligibility criteria: qPCR-based molecular studies comparing the inclusion of bead-beating step during the DNA extraction from stool samples with extraction without the step were included in the analysis. Information sources: Studies using real patient samples in community settings were included. PubMed and Google search engine were searched in December 2019. Risk of bias and applicability: Risk of bias and applicability were assessed using QUADAS-2 checklist. Synthesis of results: Odds ratio for individual studies were combined to estimate Random Effects Model odds ratio. Additional literature were searched to discuss biochemical nature of helminth eggs. Results:Included studies: A total of six independent sub-studies were gathered from two published original articles. Division of the two major studies into six sub-studies was indispensable due to natures of the study carried. 128 of total 192 samples (in all studies) were positive for Trichiuris trichiura when bead-beating was used during DNA extraction compared to 108/192 when bead-beating was excluded. Combined odds ratio was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.059 to 2.602). Biochemical nature of helminth eggs was discussed. Discussions: Strengths and limitations: Though only two article were included in the study, six exclusive individual sub-studies were analyzed. Inherent differences in the background prevalence of helminth in study population could impact sensitivity of qPCR. Interpretation: It was found that the inclusion of the bead-beating step during DNA extraction significantly increased the sensitivity of the test.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0822.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia; correlates; functional impairment; predictive factors; PRISMA; systematic review
Online: 10 August 2023 (05:47:33 CEST)
The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) has a devastating effect on multiple domains of daily living. The purpose of this PRISMA-compliant systematic review is to summarize the most important factors associated with functional impairment in this clinical group by critically analyzing the existing literature spanning the period from 2000 to 2023. To be included in the review, the study had to investigate any kind of correlates of functional status in bvFTD patients, using a previously validated instrument of functional assessment. Out of 40 articles assessed for eligibility, 18 met the inclusion criteria. The anatomical pattern of cerebral atrophy at baseline appeared to be the strongest predictor of the rate of functional decline over time, with the frontal-dominant anatomical subtype being associated with a faster rate of functional impairment. Additionally, executive dysfunction as well as apathy appeared to contribute significantly to functional disability in bvFTD patients. A comparative examination of bvFTD in relation to other clinical subtypes of FTD and other types of dementia in general suggests that it’s the predominant atrophy of the frontal lobes along with the subsequent unique combination of cognitive and neuropsychiatric manifestations that account for the pronounced functional limitations observed in these individuals, even from the early stages of the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0097.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: aeroponics; sustainable agriculture; sustainable development goals; sustainability; systematic literature review; TAISA model; technology integration
Online: 4 September 2023 (03:51:40 CEST)
Technology has transformed aeroponics, providing numerous advantages over traditional soil-based agriculture. However, there remains a need for comprehensive information on the types of technology employed in aeroponics and their impact on the growing process. This paper presents a literature review of 47 studies published between 2012 and 2023 in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings. As a result, it identifies the status and tendencies in the usage of technology in aeroponics as well as the main opportunities and challenges. Furthermore, this paper introduces the Technology Adoption and Integration in Sustainable Agriculture (TAISA) model. TAISA is a model that identifies the degree of technology integration in any sustainable agriculture system to determine how technology affects production and quality. Overall, the systematic review suggests that technology can play a vital role in improving the efficiency and sustainability of aeroponic farming. However, careful consideration must be given to the costs and technical requirements associated with using these technologies. Moreover, the TAISA model reveals that technology has primarily been employed in creating new processes that are not possible to implement without the help of technology. Therefore, we conclude that technology use has taken root in aeroponics and can be promoted to improve sustainable agriculture.