BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0154.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: chestnut; stable radical; phytoconstituents; swelling
Online: 8 November 2022 (10:30:57 CET)
In the present paper, we introduce the phytoscreening and antiradical characteristics of conker extracts prepared from 2-, 1-year stored and just collected plants as well as the anti-inflammatory effect of oinment composition based on the extract.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0138.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: hydrogel; hydrophobicity; self-assembly; degree of swelling
Online: 11 April 2019 (08:58:09 CEST)
Hydrogels incorporated with hydrophobic motifs have received considerable attention to recapitulate the cellular microenvironments, specifically for the bio-mineralization of a 3D matrix. Introduction of hydrophobic motifs into a hydrogel often results in irregular arrangement of the motifs, and further phase separation of hydrophobic domains, but limited efforts have been made to resolve this challenge in the hydrophobically-modified hydrogel. Therefore, this study presents an advanced integrative strategy to incorporate hydrophobic domains regularly in a hydrogel by self-assembling of polymer cross-linkers, building blocks of a hydrogel. Self-assemblies between polymer cross-linkers were examined as micro-domains to incorporate hydrophobic motifs in a hydrogel. The self-assembled structures in a pre-gelled solution were confirmed with the fluorescence analysis and the hydrophobicity of a hydrogel could be tuned by incorporating the motifs in a controlled manner. Overall, the results of this study would greatly serve to tuning performance of a wide array of hydrophobically-modified hydrogels in drug delivery, cell therapies and tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1274.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Bio-based building material; hysteresis; swelling; microstructure; cellulose
Online: 18 May 2023 (05:21:06 CEST)
Considering the current energy environment, both efficient and environmentally friendly solutions have to be developed for building construction. Bio-based building materials offer new perspectives through their insulating and natural humidity regulation capacities. Nevertheless, these materials are as complex as they are promising and grey areas still remain regarding their behavior. Their water sorption and desorption curves recorded in experimental work demonstrate a hysteresis phenomenon and, although plausible hypotheses have been formulated in the literature, there is currently no consensus on its causes. Furthermore, it is important to emphasize that no reference considers the hydrophilic nature of the resource. Yet this is a specificity of raw material coming from the plant world. In this context, this paper explores the microstructure and chemical composition of plant aggregates to propose a new explanation for the hysteresis. It is based on recent work demonstrating the existence of differentiated hydrogen bonds between the water sorption and desorption phase in cellulose. Obviously, hysteresis also has an origin at the molecular scale. Lastly, the hypothesis put forward here is supported by the swelling of bio-based materials that has been observed at high relative humidity and this study aims to identify a link between the mechanical (swelling/shrinking) of bio-based materials and their hygroscopic behavior. This leads to a better understanding of the hydro-mechanical coupling of these materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0385.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: minimum miscibility pressure (MMP); swelling factor; carbondioxide (CO2); slimtube
Online: 22 February 2023 (10:52:06 CET)
Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) and oil swelling are two important factors of carbondioxide (CO2) gas displacement mechanism occurred in the reservoir relate to application of CO2 injection in the field to enhance oil recovery. In this paper determination of minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) between crude oil samples with carbondioxide gas conducted using two methods, i.e. correlation methods and laboratory experiment using slimtube. While, determination of swelling factor was conducted using PVT cell, where recombined fluid injected and conditionally at the reservoir temperature. The results of MMP using empirical equation (2807 Psig) and Holm & Josendal correlation (2750 Psig) is more approximate to the result of laboratory analysis (2805 Psig). The result of swelling test during injection CO2 gas processes until 46.82% mole, shows that bubble point pressure is increasing gradually from 410 psig through 2200 psig, and swelling factor was also increase from 1.0 through 1.442. Based on the value of fracture pressure of Layer F in the KHL Field is 2200 Psig and MMP is 2805 Psig, hence the application of CO2 gas injection in the field only could be conducted as immiscible flooding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0052.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Vertisols; Volcanic Ash; Field Capacity; Air Porosity; Volumetric Swelling
Online: 2 December 2022 (13:44:59 CET)
The research aims to improve some of the physical and hydro-physical properties of some Vertisols in the southern region (part of the eastern Houran Plateau) in Sweda Governorate at the south of Syria. Using different quantities of volcanic ash, soil samples were collected from the Al-Thahallah village from a depth of (0-30) cm, The experiment was designed according to the complete random design with one factor that represents the ash quantity (1.25, 2.5, 5) %, with three replicates for each treatment in addition to the control treatment a0. The experiment was carried out within the plastic pots during agricultural season 2018/2019, in which the wheat of the Sham variety 3 were cultivated as a cover plant. The results showed that the addition of volcanic ash at the quantity of 5% led to a significant increase in the infiltration rate by (328.60) %,%, where the filtration rate increased from 0.42 cm/hr -1 to 1.80 cm.h-1, as well as for each of the air porosity by (89) % and the volume of infiltrate water by (40) %, compared with the control. The above-mentioned addition also resulted in a decrease in both dry bulk density, total soil porosity and volumetric swelling coefficient by (18.60, 5.80, 314) % Respectively, compared to the control. The addition also contributed to the reduce in the weighted moisture content when saturation and the field capacity, at the level of significance of 5%. The research recommends adding volcanic ash to the soil at a quantity of 5%, and adding enhancements with volcanic ash at various levels such as organic waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0688.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: optimal decay; general decay; swelling porous problem; memory term
Online: 28 December 2020 (11:26:20 CET)
The present work studies a swelling porous-elastic system with viscoelastic damping. We establish a general and optimal decay estimate which generalizes some recent results in the literature. Our result is established without imposing the usual equal-wave-speed condition associated with similar problems in literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0194.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: hydrogel; e-beam cross-linking; swelling; ibuprofen; network parameters
Online: 4 November 2020 (12:41:17 CET)
We report on the successful preparation of wet dressings hydrogels based on Chitosan-Poly(N-Vinyl-Pyrrolidone)-Poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(acrylic acid) and Poly(ethylene oxide) by e-beam cross-linking in weakly acidic media, to be used for rapid healing and pain release of infected skin wounds. The structure and compositions of hydrogels investigated according to sol-gel and swelling studies, network parameters, as well as FTIR and XPS analyses showed the efficient interaction of the hydrogel components upon irradiation, maintaining the bonding environment while the cross-linking degree increasing with the irradiation dose and the formation of a structure with the mesh size in the range 11-67 nm. Hydrogels with gel fraction above 85% and the best-swelling properties in different pH solutions were obtained for hydrogels produced with 15 kGy. The hydrogels are stable in the simulated physiological condition of an infected wound and show appropriate moisture retention capability and the water vapor transmission rate up to 272.67 g m-2 day-1, to ensure fast healing. The hydrogels proved to have a significant loading capacity of ibuprofen (IBU), being able to incorporate a therapeutic dose for the treatment of severe pains. Simultaneously, IBU was released up to 25% in the first 2h, having a release maximum after 8h.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Expansive soil, polypropylene fiber, silica fume, swelling pressure, expansion
Online: 17 July 2019 (10:25:33 CEST)
Expansive soil shows dual swell-shrink which is not suitable for the construction. Several mitigating techniques exist to counteract the problem promulgate by expansive clayey soils. This paper explored the penitential mecho-chemical reinforcement of expansive clayey soil to mitigate the effect of upward swelling pressure and heave. The polypropylene fiber is randomly distributed in the soil for mechanical stabilization, and the industrial residual silica fume is used as a chemical stabilizer. The experimental analysis is made in three phases which involved the tests on mechanical reinforced expansive soil using randomly distributed polypropylene fibers with different percentages (0.25%, 0.50%, and 1.00%), and 12mm length. The second phase of experiments carried out on chemical stabilized expansive soil with different percentages (2%, 4% and 8%) of silica and next phase of the experimental focused in the combination of mecho-chemical stabilization of the expansive soil with different combination of silica (i.e., 2%, 4% and 8%) and polypropylene fibers (i.e., 0.25%, 0.50% and 1.00%). Maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC), liquid limit (LL), plastic limit (PL), plastic index (PI) grain size, and constant volume swelling pressure test were performed on unreinforced and reinforced expansive soil to investigate the effect of polypropylene fiber and silica fume on the engineering properties of expansive clayey soil. The experimental results illustrate that the inclusion of polypropylene fiber has a significant effect on the upward swelling pressure and expansion property of expansive soil. The reduction in the upward swelling pressure and expansion is a function of fiber content. These results also indicated that the use of silica fume caused a reduction in upward swelling potential, and its effect was considerably more than the influence of fiber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0093.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: used superabsorbent polymer; disposable diapers; swelling capacity; soil conditioner
Online: 27 February 2017 (06:50:27 CET)
This study was conducted to explore the potential of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) from used disposable diapers as soil moisture conditioner. Swelling behavior of the proposed hydrogel in response to external stimuli such as salt solutions, temperature and pH was studied. In addition, laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of incorporation hydrogel on germination of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and pumpkin (C. pepo) seeds. The structure of the superabsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that the proposed SAP exhibited a maximum swelling capacity of 189 g.g-1 of dry gel. It was observed that the swelling capacity decreased with an increase in the ionic strength of the swelling medium. When this SAP was mixed with sandy soil, the mixture was able to lose water more slowly. The seeds germination and seedling growth was remarkably influenced by the application of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 w/w% of SAP compared to the untreated soil. Therefore, it follows that it is possible to take advantage of SAPs property from used disposable diapers to retain the moisture in soil as an alternative to value the use of such waste, showing that it has potential for diverse applications in agriculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0475.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: compacted clay; clay swelling; physical integrity; displacement fluid; solids transportation
Online: 9 October 2023 (11:07:02 CEST)
One of the operational challenges for the use of bentonite pellets as a sealing material in the abandonment of offshore fields consists in their disposition inside the well. This study aims to analyze the interaction of fluid media, consisting of saline solutions (NaCl, CaCl2 and KCl) and organic compounds (diesel, glycerin and olefin), with bentonite pellets, aiming its application as displacement fluid in offshore oil well abandonment operations. The physical integrity of the bentonite pellets in contact with the fluids was verified through visual inspections and dispersibility tests. Linear swelling tests were also performed to evaluate the potential for swelling of pellets in deionized water after contact with the fluid media. The results indicated that NaCl, CaCl2 and KCl solutions completely compromise the physical integrity of the pellets, while diesel and olefin showed the best responses regarding the structural preservation. Futhermore, the linear swelling tests showed that, even after the contact with diesel and olefin for 1 hour, bentonite pellets have reached a total swelling in water of 78%, after 24 hours. In this way, diesel and olefin proved to be highly promising alternatives to be used as displacement fluids for bentonite pellets in wells to be abandoned in a submarine environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0163.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: polymer aging; swelling behavior; protective glove materials; elastomers; composites; rubber
Online: 15 April 2019 (11:29:10 CEST)
Butyl rubber-based composite (BRC) is one of the most popular materials for the fabrication of protective glove against chemical and mechanical risks. However, in many working places such as metal manufacturing or automotive mechanical services, its mechanical hazards usually appear together with metalworking fluids (MWFs). The presence of these contaminants, particularly at high temperature, could modify its properties due to the scission, the plasticization, the crosslinking of polymer network and thus led to severe modification of mechanical and physicochemical properties of material. This work aims to determine the effect of temperature and a metalworking fluid on mechanical behavior of butyl rubber composite dealing with crosslinking density, cohesion forces and elastic constant of BRC on the based on Mooney-Rivlin’s theory. The effect of temperature with and without MWFs on thermo dynamical properties and morphology of butyl membranes is also investigated. The prediction of service lifetime is then evaluated from extrapolation of Arrhenius plot at different temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0134.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: anti-swelling efficiency; citric acid; mechanical properties; thermal treatment; wood protection
Online: 4 September 2023 (08:27:43 CEST)
Modification of Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris L.) with heterocyclic compounds, imidazole and succinimide, was investigated. Pressure-impregnation with aqueous solutions containing imidazole, imidazole + citric acid, succinimide, succinimide + citric acid, and citric acid + sorbitol (CIOL®) at 5%, 10%, and 15% solid content was followed by oven-curing at 220 °C for 1 hour. Mass changes during treatment steps, bending properties, and anti-swelling efficiency (ASE) were examined. Results indicate that solid concentrations within the range of 5% to 10% were optimal. Results seem to show there are two differing mechanisms in the modification of imidazole and succinimide, respectively. Mass loss due to the heat treatment was highest in imidazole-treated specimens, whereas it remained low and concentration-independent in succinimide-treated specimens. ASE after three cycles reached 31% for imidazole-treated specimens and improved to 38% with the addition of citric acid. For succinimide, ASE increased from 17% to 41%. Bending properties generally showed improvement, except for succinimide + citric acid and CIOL®, which displayed a reduced modulus of rupture. Chemical analyses are warranted to fully understand the reaction mechanisms of the treatments. Imidazole treatment's positive effects are suggested to stem from a thermal reaction between the chemical and wood, indicated by substantial mass loss during leaching and specimen darkening. Succinimide and citric acid might exhibit polymerization with each other and wood components, akin to the CIOL® process. Further research should delve into reaction mechanisms and the impact of imidazole and succinimide on biological durability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0991.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: permeability; freeze-thaw; Freeze-swelling force; low-permeability coal; Permeability increase mechanism
Online: 14 July 2023 (08:05:55 CEST)
The safe and efficient mining of coal seams with low porosity, low permeability and high inhomogeneity under complex geological conditions is a major challenge, among which the permeability of coal seams is crucial for coal mine gas extraction. The development of coal seam permeability enhancement technology can help coal mines to produce safely and efficiently, and the extracted coal bed methane can be utilized as a green energy. In order to study the effect of freezing and thawing on the evolution of mechanical and permeability properties of coal, triaxial permeability tests were carried out on low-permeability coal under two kinds of surrounding pressures. At the same time, dry, saturated and freeze-thaw coal were set up for comparison, and the effects of water and freeze-thaw were separated from each other. The triaxial mechanics and percolation laws of dry, saturated and freeze-thaw coal rocks were obtained, and the mechanism of the influence of freeze-thaw on the permeability evolution law of coal was revealed. The research results can provide theoretical guidance for the gas extraction technology of low permeability coal seams with increased permeability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0608.v3
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: nanocomposites; bacterial cellulose; ceria nanoparticles; thermal properties; swelling; mechanical behavior; biomedical applications; stem cells proliferation; gene expression
Online: 17 June 2021 (10:02:24 CEST)
A technique for fabrication of bacterial cellulose-based films with CeO2 nanofiller has been developed. The structural and morphological characteristics of the materials have been studied, their thermal and mechanical properties in dry and swollen states having been determined. The preparation methodology makes it possible to obtain composites with a uniform distribution of nanoparticles. The catalytic effect of ceria regarding the thermal oxidative destruction of cellulose has been confirmed by TGA and DTA methods. An increase in CeO2 content led to an increase in the elastic modulus (a 1.27-fold increase caused by the introduction of 5 wt.% of the nanofiller into the polymer) and strength of the films. This effect is explained by the formation of additional links between polymer macro-chains via the nanoparticles’ surface. The materials fabricated were characterised by a limited ability to swell in water. Swelling caused a 20- to 30-fold reduction in the stiffness of the material, the mechanical properties of the films in a swollen state remaining germane to their practical use. The application of the composite films in cell engineering as substrates for the stem cells’ proliferation has been studied. The increase in CeO2 content in the films enhanced the proliferative activity of embryonic mouse stem cells. The cells cultured on the scaffold containing 5 wt.% of ceria demonstrated increased cell survival and migration activity. An analysis of gene expression confirmed improved cultivation conditions on CeO2-containing scaffolds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1325.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: alkali-aggregate reaction; alkali-carbonate reaction; internal swelling reaction; multi-level assessment; damage rating index; semi-quantitative microscopy
Online: 22 November 2023 (07:48:09 CET)
It remains unclear in the literature what is the cause of the so-called alkali-carbonate reaction (ACR) damage to concrete yet, a consensus is reached when considering dedolimitization as non-expansive. However, expansion and cracks as distress features are often attributed to alkali-silica reaction (ASR) when evidence of a reactive mineral is found in the aggregate. Evidently, different types of aggregates may produce different types and degrees of damage. Therefore, this work aims to assess the damage to concrete generated and propagated by the so-called ACR susceptible reactive Kingston coarse aggregate through mechanical testing (i.e., direct shear test), microscopy (the damage rating index – DRI), and other techniques. Distinct induced expansion levels (i.e., 0%, 0.05%, 0.12%, and 0.20%) were selected to compare the distress caused by ACR to concrete affected by ASR. Result show that the behaviour of ACR, namely as captured through the DRI, is inconsistent with that of ASR thus attesting to ACR being a distinct distress mechanism.