ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1306.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Recurrent Neural Network(RNN); Support Vector Machine (SVM); Kernel-Adatron algorithm (KA); Euler-Cauchy Algorithm
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:06:13 CEST)
When implementing SVMs, two major problems are encountered: (a) the number of local minima increases exponentially with the number of samples and (b) the quantity of required computer storage, required for a regular quadratic programming solver, increases by an exponential mag-nitude as the problem size expands. The Kernel-Adatron family of algorithms gaining attention lately which has allowed it to handle very large classification and regression problems. Howev-er, these methods treat different types of samples (Noise, border, and core) in the same manner, which causes searches in unpromising areas and increases the number of iterations. In this work, we introduce a hybrid method to overcome these shortcomings, namely Optimal Recurrent Neu-ral Network Density Based Support Vector Machine (Opt-RNN-DBSVM). This method consists of four steps: (a) characterization of different samples, (b) elimination of samples with a low probability of being a support vector, (c) construction of an appropriate recurrent neural network based on an original energy function, and (d) solution of the system of differential equations, managing the dynamics of the RNN, using the Euler-Cauchy method involving an optimal time step. The RNN remembers the regions explored during the search process thanks to its recurrent architecture. We demonstrated that RNN-SVM converges to feasible support vectors and Opt-RNN-DBSVM has a very low time complexity compared to RNN-SVM with constant time step, and KAs-SVM. Several experiments were performed on academic data sets. We used several classification performances measures to compare Opt-RNN-DBSVM to different classification methods and the results obtained show the good performance of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0077.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Zernike moment, Multi-class support vector machine, Query Engine, SPARQL
Online: 20 February 2017 (18:07:11 CET)
In this paper, a new approach to retrieve semantic images based on shape and geometric features of image in conjunction with multi-class support vector machine is proposed. Zernike moment as shape feature is to verify the invariance of objects for silhouette image. In addition, a set of geometrical features is to explore the objects shape using two features of rectangularity and circularity. Then the extracted features are normalized and employed for multi-class support vector machine either for learning or retrieving processes. The retrieving process relies on three main tasks which namely Query Engine, Matching Module and Ontology Manger, respectively. Query Engine is to build the input text or image query using SPARQL language. The matching module extracts the shape and geometric features of image’s objects and employ them to Ontology Manger which in turn inserts them in ontology knowledge base. Benchmark mammals have been conducted to empirically conclude the outcome of proposed approach. Our experiment on text and image retrieval yields efficient results to problematic phenomena than previously reported.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0104.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: icing forecasting; fireworks algorithm; least square support vector machine; feature selection
Online: 27 September 2016 (11:16:44 CEST)
Accurate forecasting of icing thickness has a great significance for ensuring the security and stability of power grid. In order to improve the forecasting accuracy, this paper proposes an icing forecasting system based on fireworks algorithm and weighted least square support vector machine (W-LSSVM). The method of fireworks algorithm is employed to select the proper input features with the purpose of eliminating the redundant influence. In addition, the aim of W-LSSVM model is to train and test the historical data-set with the selected features. The capability of this proposed icing forecasting model and framework is tested through the simulation experiments using real-world icing data from monitoring center of key laboratory of anti-ice disaster, Hunan, South China. The results show that the proposed W-LSSVM-FA method has a higher prediction accuracy and it may be a promising alternative for icing thickness forecasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0332.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: iPReditor-CMG; RNA editing site; Mitochondrial genomes; genomic sequence feature; support vector machine
Online: 22 October 2021 (15:11:40 CEST)
Cytosine (C) to uracil (U) RNA editing is one of the most important post-transcriptional processes, however exploring C-to-U editing events efficiently within the crop mitochondrial genome remains a challenge. An improving predictive RNA editor for crop mitochondrial genomes, iPReditor-CMG, was proposed, which was based on SVM, three common crop mitochondrial genomes and self-sequenced tobacco mitochondrial ATPase. After multi-combination feature extracting, high-dimension feature screening and multi-test independent predicting, the results showed that the average accuracy of intraspecific prediction was 0.85, and the highest value even up to 0.91, which outperformed the previous reference models. While the prediction accuracies were 0.78 between dicotyledons and no more than 0.56 between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, implying a possible similarity in C-to-U editing mechanisms among close relatives. The best model was finally identified with an independent test accuracy of 0.91 and an area under the curve of 0.88, and further suggested that five unreported feature sequences TGACA, ACAAC, GTAGA, CCGTT and TAACA were closely associated with the editing phenomenon. Multiple evaluation findings supported that the iPReditor-CMG could be effectively applied to predict crop mitochondrial editing sites, which may contribute to insight into their recognition mechanisms and even other post-transcriptional events in crop mitochondria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0139.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: copper price; prediction; support vector regression
Online: 6 August 2020 (08:26:35 CEST)
Predicting copper price is essential for making decisions that can affect companies and governments dependent on the copper mining industry. Copper prices follow a time series that is non-linear, non-stationary, and which have periods that change as a result of potential growth, cyclical fluctuation and errors. Sometimes the trend and cyclical components together are referred to as a trend-cycle. In order to make predictions, it is necessary to consider the different characteristics of trend-cycle. In this paper, we study a copper price prediction method using Support Vector Regression. This work explores the potential of the Support Vector Regression with external recurrences to make predictions at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 days into the future in the copper closing price at the London Metal Exchanges. The best model for each forecast interval is performed using a grid search and balanced cross-validation. In experiments on real data-sets, our results obtained indicate that the parameters (C, ε, γ) of the model Support Vector Regression do not differ between the different prediction intervals. Additionally, the amount of preceding values used to make the estimates does not vary according to the predicted interval. Results show that the support vector regression model has a lower prediction error and is more robust. Our results show that the presented model is able to predict copper price volatilities near reality, being the RMSE equal or less than the 2.2% for prediction periods of 5 and 10 days.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0238.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: hybrid machine learning model; transportation infrastructure; flexible pavement; remaining service life prediction; pavement condition index; support vector regression; fruit fly optimization algorithm (foa); gene expression programming (gep); svr-foa
Online: 20 October 2019 (17:11:10 CEST)
Remaining service life (RSL) of pavement, as a sign of future pavement performance, has always received growing attention from pavement engineers. The RSL describes the time from the moment of pavement inspection until such a time when a major repair or reconstruction is required. The conventional approach to determining RSL involves using non-destructive tests. These tests, in addition to being costly, interfere with traffic flow and compromise users' safety. In this paper, surface distresses of pavement have been used to estimate the pavement’s RSL in order to eliminate the aforementioned problems and challenges. To implement the proposed theory, 105 flexible pavement segments were taken from Shahrood-Damghan Highway (Highway 44) in Iran. For each pavement segment, the type, severity, and extent of surface damage and pavement condition index (PCI) were determined. The pavement RSL was then estimated using non-destructive tests include Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). After completing the dataset, the modeling was conducted to predict RSL using three techniques include Support Vector Regression (SVR), Support Vector Regression Optimized by Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm (SVR-FOA), and Gene Expression Programming (GEP). All three techniques estimated the RSL of the pavement by selecting the PCI as input. The Correlation Coefficient (CC), Nash-Sutcliffe efﬁciency (NSE), Scattered Index (SI), and Willmott’s Index of agreement (WI) criteria were used to examine the performance of the three techniques adopted in this study. In the end, it was found that GEP with values of 0.874, 0.598, 0.601, and 0.807 for CC, SI, NSE, and WI criteria, respectively, had the highest accuracy in predicting the RSL of pavement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0103.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Climate change; Middle Andaman; Land use Land cover change analysis; Spectral indices; Support Vector Machine
Online: 4 July 2023 (10:16:10 CEST)
Natural ecosystem of Islands and coastal region are vulnerable to climate change phenomena such as increasing temperature, fluctuating rainfalls, ocean acidification and tsunami. Andaman and Nicobar group of islands lies in Bay of Bangal facing such extreme climate phenomena. A spatial-temporal analysis of forest cover of middle Andaman region of the Andaman and Nicobar group of islands was done from 1990 to 2019 with an interval of 5-10 years. Support vector machine classifier, spectral indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Normalized Difference Water Index, and Normalized Difference Built-up Index were used for the analysis of greenery, water resources, and urban land. Land surface temperature was estimated using split window algorithm for Landsat 8 and mono window algorithm for Landsat 5. The data showed relative contribution of forest region toward rising temperature in the island region. The research also showed that subsurface hydrology linked to interconnected lineaments provides a stable zone for forest cover. The open forest showed maximum fluctuation while minimum change was observed in Evergreen Forest. The spectral characteristics analysis using indices showed significant change except in 2005 due to Tsunami occurred in 2005. The land surface temperature showed fluctuation near to 30° C from 1990 to 2019.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0120.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: cost prediction of substation projects; improved least square support vector machine; wolf pack algorithm; data inconsistency rate
Online: 8 May 2018 (05:01:45 CEST)
Accurate and stable cost forecasting of substation projects is of great significance to ensure the economic construction and sustainable operation of power engineering projects. In this paper, a forecasting model based on the improved least squares support vector machine (ILSSVM) optimized by wolf pack algorithm(WPA) is proposed to improve the accuracy and stability of the cost forecasting of substation projects. Firstly, the optimal features are selected through the data inconsistency rate (DIR), which helps reduce redundant input vectors. Secondly, the wolf pack algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of the improved least square support vector machine. Lastly, the cost forecasting method of WPA-DIR-ILSSVM is established. In this paper, 88 substation projects in different regions from 2015 to 2017 are chosen to conduct the training tests to verify the validity of the model. The results indicate that the new hybrid WPA-DIR-ILSSVM model presents better accuracy, robustness and generality in cost forecasting of substation projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0197.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Support Vector Machine; Support Vector Regression; Machine learning; Prediction; Urban Smart Bus
Online: 15 February 2020 (14:33:23 CET)
The impact of the accurate estimated time of arrival (ETA) is often overlooked by bus operators. By providing accurate ETA to riders, it gives them the impression of bus services is efficient and reliable and this promotes higher ridership in the long run. This research project aims to predict bus arrival time by using the Support Vector Regression (SVR) model which is based on the same theory as the Support Vector Machine (SVM). Urban City Bus data covering part of the Petaling Jaya area (route name PJ03) is used in this research work. Features related to traffic such as travel duration, a distance of the road, weather and operation at peak or non-peak hour have been used as input in the training of the SVR model. By using kernel trick and specifying optimum parameters, all the features in higher dimensions are efficiently calculated and the SVR model achieves convergence. The model is evaluated with the test set of data split from the original dataset. The experimental result indicates the SVR model displays good prediction ability with its low average error on the prediction result. However, weather data has not been influential to the prediction model as the results of the model trained with and without weather data show a negligible difference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1993.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: geostatistics; spatial interpolation; kriging with external drift; least squares support vector regression; trend function
Online: 31 October 2023 (04:07:46 CET)
Spatial interpolation of meteorological data can have immense implications on risk management and climate change planning. Kriging with external drift (KED) is a spatial interpolation variant that uses auxiliary information in the estimation of target variable at unobserved locations. However, the traditional KED methods with linear trend functions may not be able to capture the complex and non-linear interdependence between target and auxiliary variables, which can lead to an inaccurate estimation. In this work, a novel KED method using least squares support vector regression (LSSVR) is proposed. This machine learning algorithm is employed to construct trend functions regardless of the type of variable interrelations being considered. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method (KED with LSSVR) relative to the traditional method (KED with a linear trend function), a systematic simulation study for estimating the monthly means temperature and pressure in Thailand in 2017 was conducted. The KED with LSSVR is shown to have superior performance over the KED with the linear trend function.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0391.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Tillage; Traction; Compaction; Neural networks; Support vector regression
Online: 26 October 2022 (02:07:19 CEST)
Soil working tools, implements, and machines are inevitable in mechanized agriculture. The soil-tool/machine interaction is a multivariate, dynamic, and intricate process. The accurate interpretation, description, and modeling of a soil-machine interaction is key to providing a solution to sustainable crop production by reducing energy input, excessive soil pulverization, and compaction. The traditional method provides insight into soil-machine interaction but often provides inadequate solutions and lacks broad applicability. Computational intelligence (CI) is a comprehensive class of approaches that rely on approximate information to solve complex problems. The CI method has been extensively studied and applied in soil tillage and traction domain in recent decades. The study critically reviews the CI techniques implemented in soil-machine interactions, especially in the context of tillage, traction, and compaction. The traditional methods and their limitation are discussed. The fundamental of CI methods and a detailed overview of the most popular methods are provided. The study reviews and summarizes the 50 selected articles on soil-machine interaction studies where CI methods were employed. It discusses the strength and limitations of employed CI methods. It also suggests the emergent CI methods and future applications are discussed. The outlined study would serve as a concise reference and a quick and systematic way to understand the applicable CI methods that allow crucial farm management decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2030060
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: locomotion; machine learning; support vector machines; activity classification; activity of daily life (ADL)
Online: 18 July 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Although Support Vector Machines (SVM) are widely used for classifying human motion patterns, their application in the automatic recognition of dynamic and static activities of daily life in the healthy older adults is limited. Using a body mounted wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU), this paper explores the use of SVM approach for classifying dynamic (walking) and static (sitting, standing and lying) activities of the older adults. Specifically, data formatting and feature extraction methods associated with IMU signals are discussed. To evaluate the performance of the SVM algorithm, the effects of two parameters involved in SVM algorithm—the soft margin constant C and the kernel function parameter
—are investigated. The changes associated with adding white-noise and pink-noise on these two parameters along with adding different sources of movement variations (i.e., localized muscle fatigue and mixed activities) are further discussed. The results indicate that the SVM algorithm is capable of keeping high overall accuracy by adjusting the two parameters for dynamic as well as static activities, and may be applied as a tool for automatically identifying dynamic and static activities of daily life in the older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0361.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: river flow forecasting; optimization; M5 model tree; support vector regression; fruit fly optimization algorithm
Online: 30 May 2019 (05:33:06 CEST)
Adequate knowledge about the development and operation of the components of water systems is of high importance in order to optimize them. For this reason, forecasting of future events becomes greatly significant due to making the appropriate decision. Moreover, operational river management severely depends on accurate and reliable flow forecasts. In this regard, current study inspects the accuracy of support vector regression (SVR), and SVR regulated with fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOASVR) and M5 model tree (M5), in river flow forecasting. Monthly data of river flow in two stations of the Lake Urmia Basin (Vaniar and Babarud stations on the Aji Chay and the Barandouz Rivers) were utilized in the current research. Additionally, the influence of periodicity (π) on the forecasting enactment was examined. To assess the performance of mentioned models, different statistical meters were implemented, including root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), correlation coefficient (R), and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). Results showed that the FOASVR with RMSE (4.36 and 6.33 m3/s), MAE (2.40 and 3.71 m3/s) and R (0.82 and 0.81) values had the best performances in forecasting river flows in Babarud and Vaniar stations, respectively. Also, regarding BIC parameters, Qt-1 and π were selected as parsimonious inputs for predicting river flow one month ahead. Overall findings indicated that, although both FOASVR and M5 predicted the river flows in suitable accordance with observed river flows, the performance of FOASVR was moderately better than the M5 and periodicity noticeably increased the performances of the models; consequently, FOASVR can be suggested as the accurate method for forecasting river flows.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0465.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Spatial; Decision Support; Machine Learning; Automation; Framework; System; SDSS; AutoML; GIS
Online: 29 September 2022 (10:06:18 CEST)
Many spatial decision support systems suffer from user adoption issues in practice due to lack of trust, technical expertise, and resources. Automated machine learning has recently allowed non-experts to explore and apply machine learning models in the industry without requiring abundant expert knowledge and resources. This paper reviews recent literature from 136 papers, and proposes a general framework for integrating spatial decision support systems with automated machine learning to lower major user adoption barriers. Challenges of data quality, model interpretability, and practical usefulness were discussed as general considerations for system implementation. Research opportunities related to spatially explicit models in AutoML, and resource-aware, collaborative/connected, and human-centered systems were also discussed to address these challenges. This paper argues that integrating spatial decision support systems with automated machine learning can not only encourage user adoption, but also mutually benefit research in both fields — bridging human-related and technical advancements for fostering future developments in spatial decision support systems and automated machine learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0097.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Evapotranspiration, Genetic programming, Support vector machine, Multiple linear regression, Random forest
Online: 7 August 2019 (11:28:34 CEST)
The ASCE-EWRI reference evapotranspiration (ETo) equation is recommended as a standardized method for reference crop ETo estimation. However, various climate data as input variables to the standardized ETo method are considered limiting factors in most cases and restrict the ETo estimation. This paper assessed the potential of different machine learning (ML) models for ETo estimation using limited meteorological data. The ML models used to estimate daily ETo included Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Multiple Linear Regression (LR), and Random Forest (RF). Three input combinations of daily maximum and minimum temperature (Tmax and Tmin), wind speed (W) with Tmax and Tmin, and solar radiation (Rs) with Tmax and Tmin were considered using meteorological data during 2003–2016 from six weather stations in the Red River Valley. To understand the performance of the applied models with the various combinations, station, and yearly based tests were assessed with local and spatial approaches. Considering the local and spatial approaches analysis, the LR and RF models illustrated the lowest rate of improvement compared to GEP and SVM. The spatial RF and SVM approaches showed the lowest and highest values of the scatter index as 0.333 and 0.457, respectively. As a result, the radiation-based combination and the RF model showed the best performance with higher accuracy for all stations either locally or spatially, and the spatial SVM and GEP illustrated the lowest performance among models and approaches.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Digital media; Traffic classification; Machine learning; Decision trees; Support vector machines; Neural networks.
Online: 18 April 2023 (10:41:32 CEST)
The exponential growth of digital media content has introduced new challenges in managing and classifying internet traffic. Digital media traffic is composed of various applications such as video, audio, social media, and search, and its data structure is complex, incorporating a vast array of features. The classification of traffic data is a crucial aspect of internet traffic management and network security, and it forms the basis for several scenarios, including content distribution, advertising recommendations, and data analysis. Traditional classification methods rely mainly on deep packet inspection and port-based techniques, which have become increasingly ineffective due to the rapid evolution of network traffic. To address this issue, this study proposes a machine learning-based traffic classification method aimed at enhancing the accuracy and efficiency of digital media traffic classification to meet the current needs of traffic management and network security. The paper also analyzes and evaluates the classification effect and prediction capability of various algorithms under different training set sizes to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The result demonstrates that the neural network algorithm has superior classification and prediction capabilities compared to the decision tree and support vector machine algorithms. Furthermore, our proposed method achieves the highest accuracy of 96.88% with a large training sample of 40,000 data streams, proving its superiority in handling high-dimensional data and complex datasets. The research results are significant for the development of digital media traffic classification and prediction methods and are expected to be applied in practical scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1016.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Decision Tree; linear regression; Naïve Bayes; Python; Support Vector Machine
Online: 14 June 2023 (08:40:50 CEST)
Water pollution is a common problem for dams situated within an urban or agricultural catchment. This can negatively affect the hydro ecosystem, drinking, recreational and other uses of water. In this study, the drinking water quality class of the Roodeplaat Dam, South Africa which faces pollution problems was modeled using machine learning algorisms in Python Jupyter Notebook 6.0.0. Eleven monthly water quality parameters recorded at five sampling stations from January 1981 to September 2017 were used for training and testing the model. Five machine learning classifiers: Gaussian Naïve Bayes (GNB), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), Decision Tree (DT), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and Linear Regression (LR) at a test size of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 40% were used to classify water into five classes (Excellent to Very bad). It was investigated that the dam water has only three classes good, medium, and bad. The prediction accuracies of machine learning algorithms from the highest to the lowest were 96.39%, 96.17%, 92.25%, 90.20, and 54.19% for KNN, DT, SVM, GNB, and LR, respectively. Therefore, KNN at a test size of 30% was recommended to classify the water quality of Roodeplat Dam accurately. Hence, machine learning algorithms can be used to identify the class of water quality before the water is treated and distributed for drinking use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0008.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: radio over fiber; nonlinearities mitigation; support vector machine method; RL-SARSA
Online: 2 October 2019 (03:09:31 CEST)
Use of Machine Learning (ML) methodologies in optical communications has paved a new pathway. In this paper, firstly, we discuss the use of ML methodologies for reducing optical fiber nonlinearities, nonlinearity compensation, fault detection and optical performance monitoring. Then we present our recent work where we compare RL-SARSA and SVM based method with conventional method. The results show that RL-SARSA and SVM methods are successful candidates in mitigating the nonlinearities in proposed system as compared to conventional optical communication system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0300.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: microplastics; adsorption capacity; machine learning; random forest; support vector machine; artificial neural network; prediction
Online: 17 February 2023 (06:56:42 CET)
Nowadays, there is extensive production and use of plastic materials for different industrial activities. These plastics, either from their primary production sources or through degradation processes of the plastics themselves, can contaminate the ecosystem with micro and nanoplastics. Once in the aquatic environment, these microplastics can be the basis for the adsorption of chemical pollutants, favoring that these chemical pollutants disperse more quickly in the environment and can affect living beings. Due to the lack of information on adsorption, three machine learning models (random forest, support vector machine, and artificial neural network) to predict different microplastic/water partition coefficients (log Kd) were developed using two different approximations (based on the number of input variables). The best-selected machine learning models present, in general, correlation coefficients upper than 0.92 in the query phase, which indicate that these type of models could be used for a rapid estimation of the absorption of organic contaminants on microplastics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: P-glycoprotein; efflux ratio; in silico; machine learning; hierarchical support vector regression; absorption; distribution; metabolism; excretion; and toxicity
Online: 5 July 2018 (10:37:09 CEST)
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a membrane-bound transporter, can eliminate xenobiotics by transporting them out of the cells or blood-brain barrier (BBB) at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Thus, P-gp mediated efflux plays a pivotal role in altering the absorption and disposition of a wide range of substrates. Nevertheless, the mechanism of P-gp substrate efflux is rather complex since it can take place through active transport and passive permeability in addition to multiple P-gp substrate binding sites. A nonlinear quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was developed in this study using the novel machine learning-based hierarchical support vector regression (HSVR) scheme to explore the perplexing relationships between descriptors and efflux ratio. The predictions by HSVR were found to be in good agreement with the observed values for the molecules in the training set (n = 50, r2 = 0.96, q2CV = 0.94, RMSE = 0.10, s = 0.10) and test set (n = 13, q2 = 0.80–0.87, RMSE = 0.21, s = 0.22). When subjected to a variety of statistical validations, the developed HSVR model consistently met the most stringent criteria. A mock test also asserted the predictivity of HSVR. Consequently, this HSVR model can be adopted to facilitate drug discovery and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2123.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: OLCI; harmful algal blooms; Pseudo-nitzschia spp.; support vector machine; multi-spectral sensors; reflectance; Galician rias
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:31:16 CEST)
Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms are a recurrent problem in many coastal areas globally imposing some significant threats to the health of human, ecosystems and economy. Monitoring programmes have been established, where feasible, to mitigate the impacts caused by Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and other harmful algae blooms. The detection of such blooms from satellite data could really provide timely information on emerging risks but the development of taxa-specific algorithms from available multispectral data is still challenged by coupled optical properties with other taxa and water constituents, availability of ground data and generalisation capabilities of algorithms. Here, we developed a new set of algorithms (PNOI) for the detection and monitoring of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms over the Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula) from Sentinel-3 OLCI reflectances using support vector machine (SVM). Our algorithm was trained and tested with reflectance data from 260 OLCI images and 4607 Pseudo-nitzschia spp. match up data points, of which 2171 were of high quality. The performance of no bloom/bloom model in the independent test set was robust, showing values of 0.80, 0.72 and 0.79 for area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Similar results were obtained by our below detection limit/presence model. We also present different model thresholds based on optimisation of true skill statistic (TSS) and F1-score. PNOI outperforms linear models, while its relationship with in-situ chlorophyll-a concentrations is weak demonstrating poor correlation with the phytoplankton abundance. We showcase the importance of PNOI algorithm and OLCI sensor for monitoring the bloom evolution between the weekly ground sampling and during periods of ground data absence, such as due to Covid-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0573.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: prediction; solar irradiation; machine learning; artificial neural network; random forest; vector support machine
Online: 23 March 2021 (15:51:55 CET)
Different machine learning models (multiple linear regression, vector support machines, artificial neural networks and random forests) are applied to predict the monthly global irradiation (MGI) from different input variables (latitude, longitude and altitude of meteorological station, month, average temperatures, among others) of different areas of Galicia (Spain). The models were trained, validated and queried using data from three stations, and each best machine model was checked in two independent stations. The results obtained confirmed that the best ML methodology is the ANN model which presents the lowest RMSE value in the validation and querying phases 122.6·10kJ/(m2∙day) and 113.6·10kJ/(m2∙day), respectively, and predict conveniently for independent stations, 201.3·10kJ/(m2∙day) and 209.4·10kJ/(m2∙day), respectively. Given the good results obtained, it is convenient to continue with the design of artificial neural networks applied to the analysis of monthly global irradiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Radio over Fiber, Nonlinearities Mitigation, Support Vector Machine method
Online: 3 September 2019 (09:58:13 CEST)
Machine learning (ML) methodologies have been looked upon recently as a potential candidate for mitigating nonlinearity issues in optical communications. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a 40-Gb/s 256-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal-based Radio over Fiber (RoF) system for 50 km of standard single mode fiber length which utilizes support vector machine (SVM) decision method to indicate an effective nonlinearity mitigation. The influence of different impairments in the system is evaluated that includes the influences of Mach-Zehnder Modulator nonlinearities, in-phase and quadrature phase skew of the modulator. By utilizing SVM, the results demonstrated in terms of bit error rate and eye linearity suggest that impairments are significantly reduced and licit input signal power span of 5dBs is enlarged to 15 dBs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: multilayer perceptron; support vector machine; COVID19; SarsCov2; forecasting; machine learning; public health; pandemic
Online: 10 September 2020 (08:05:49 CEST)
This paper presents a Multilayer Perceptron and Support Vector Machine algorithms approach to predict the number of COVID19 infections in different countries of America. It intends to serve as a tool for decision-making and tackling the pandemic that the world is currently facing. The models were trained and tested using open data from the European Union repository where a time series of confirmed contagious cases was modeled until May 25, 2020. The hyperparameters as number of neurons per layer were set up using a tabu list algorithm. The countries selected to carry out the study were Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and the United States. The metrics used are Pearson's correlation coefficient (CP), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), and Mean Percentage Error (MPE). For the testing stage we obtained the following results: Brazil, CP=0.65, MAE=2508 and MPE=17%; Chile, CP=0.64, MAE=504, MPE=16%; Colombia, CP=0.83, MAE=76, MPE=9%; Mexico, CP=0.77, MAE=231, MPE=9%; Peru, CP=0.76, MAE=686, MPE=18% and the United States of America, CP=0.93, MAE=799, MPE=4%. This resulted in powerful machine learning tools although it is necessary to use specific algorithms depending on the data and the stage of the country’s pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0349.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: hybrid machine learning; extreme learning machine (ELM); radial basis function (RBF); breast cancer; support vector machine (SVM)
Online: 24 February 2020 (04:10:49 CET)
Mammography is often used as the most common laboratory method for the detection of breast cancer, yet associated with the high cost and many side effects. Machine learning prediction as an alternative method has shown promising results. This paper presents a method based on a multilayer fuzzy expert system for the detection of breast cancer using an extreme learning machine (ELM) classification model integrated with radial basis function (RBF) kernel called ELM-RBF, considering the Wisconsin dataset. The performance of the proposed model is further compared with a linear-SVM model. The proposed model outperforms the linear-SVM model with RMSE, R2, MAPE equal to 0.1719, 0.9374 and 0.0539, respectively. Furthermore, both models are studied in terms of criteria of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, specificity, validation, true positive rate (TPR), and false-negative rate (FNR). The ELM-RBF model for these criteria presents better performance compared to the SVM model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0248.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Skin cancer; Contourlet Transform (CT); Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO); Support Vector Machine (SVM); Random Forest (RF); Neural Network (NN)
Online: 6 November 2023 (01:19:45 CET)
In recent years, computer-aided analysis techniques have emerged as valuable tools in assisting dermatologists by providing objective and efficient analysis of skin cancer images. This paper utilizes the combination of the Contourlet Transform (CT) and Local Binary Pattern (LBP) techniques for accurately recognizing borders, contrast changes, and shapes of skin cancer images. These results often contain many features, leading to high computational costs and potential over-fitting issues. Hence, we applied Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to select the most informative and discriminating features, reducing the dimensionality while retaining important information for accurate classification. After reducing the feature set with PSO, we applied these sets to Machine learning classification algorithms: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF), and Neural Networks (NN). The results show that SVM has the lowest time complexity of 0.0458 seconds, followed by the Neural Network at 0.08730 seconds, and the Random Forest model has the highest time complexity of 0.1622 seconds. The SVM and Neural Network models are faster to train than the Random Forest model, making them more suitable for real-time or latency-sensitive applications. We also compared our proposed model with the state-of-the-art models and obtained the accuracy of 86.9%, which is the highest among the models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0448.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: airport operation and management; air passenger index(API) prediction; machine learning(ML); mutual information(MI); support vector regression (SVR); K-Means
Online: 20 August 2020 (08:31:36 CEST)
Air passenger traffic prediction is crucial for the effective operation of civil aviation airports. Despite some progress in this field, the prediction accuracy and methods need further improvement. This paper proposes an integrated approach to the prediction of air passenger index as follows. Firstly, the air passenger index is defined and classified by the K-means clustering method. Based on the mutual information (MI) principle, the information entropy is used to analyze and select the key influencing factors of air passenger travel. By incorporating the MI principle into the support vector regression (SVR) framework, this paper presents an innovative MI-SVR machine learning model used to predict the air passenger index. Finally, the proposed model is validated by passenger throughput data of the Shanghai Pudong International Airport, China. The experimental results prove the model feasibility and effectiveness by comparing them with conventional methods, such as ARIMA, LSTM, and other machine learning models, outperformed by the MI-SVR model. Besides, it is shown that the prediction effect of each model could be improved by introducing influencing factors based on mutual information. The main findings are considered instrumental to the airport operation and air traffic optimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0392.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: airport operation and management; air passenger index(API) prediction; machine learning(ML); mutual information(MI); support vector regression (SVR); K-Means
Online: 18 August 2020 (16:25:20 CEST)
Air passenger traffic prediction is crucial for the effective operation of civil aviation airports. Despite some progress in this field, the prediction accuracy and methods need further improvement. This paper proposes an integrated approach to the prediction of air passenger index as follows. Firstly, the air passenger index is defined and classified by the K-means clustering method. Based on the mutual information (MI) principle, the information entropy is used to analyze and select the key influencing factors of air passenger travel. By incorporating the MI principle into the support vector regression (SVR) framework, this paper presents an innovative MI-SVR machine learning model used to predict the air passenger index. Finally, the proposed model is validated by passenger throughput data of the Shanghai Pudong International Airport, China. The experimental results prove the model feasibility and effectiveness by comparing them with conventional methods, such as ARIMA, LSTM, and other machine learning models, outperformed by the MI-SVR model. Besides, it is shown that the prediction effect of each model could be improved by introducing influencing factors based on mutual information. The main findings are considered instrumental to the airport operation and air traffic optimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0683.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs), fault diagnosis, wavelet transform, support vector machine, Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)
Online: 29 October 2018 (12:51:44 CET)
Machine fault diagnosis systems need to collect and transmit dynamic monitoring signals, like vibration and current signals, at high-speed. However, industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) are generally based on low-speed wireless protocols, such as ZigBee and IEEE802.15.4. To address this tension when implementing machine fault diagnosis applications in IIoT, this paper proposes a novel IWSN with on-sensor data processing. On-sensor wavelet transforms using four popular mother wavelets are explored for fault feature extraction, while an on-sensor support vector machine classifier is investigated for fault diagnosis. The effectiveness of the presented approach is evaluated by a set of experiments using motor bearing vibration data. The experimental results show that compared with raw data transmission, the proposed on-sensor fault diagnosis method can reduce the payload transmission data by 99.95%, and reduce the node energy consumption by about 10%, while the fault diagnosis accuracy of the proposed approach reaches 98%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Machine Learning; Support Vector Machine; Multilayer Perceptron; Photonic Biosensor; Signal Processing; Tamm Plasmon Polariton; Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:03:16 CEST)
We describe a machine learning (ML) approach to process the signals collected from Covid-19 optical-based detector. Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were used to process both raw data and feature engineering data, and high performances for qualitative detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus with concentration down to 1 TCID50/ml has been achieved. Valid detection experiments contain 486 negative and 108 positive samples; and control experiments, in which biosensors without antibody functionalization were used to detect SARS-CoV-2, contains 36 negative samples and 732 positive samples. Data distribution patterns of the valid and control detection dataset, based on T-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE), was used to study the distinguishability between positive and negative samples, and explain the ML prediction performances. This work demonstrates that ML can be a generalized effective approach to process signals and dataset of biosensors dependent on resonant modes as biosensing mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0891.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: Fragmentation; Artificial neural network; Random Forest regression; Support vector regression; XG Boost Regression; Sensitivity analysis
Online: 13 June 2023 (08:04:17 CEST)
In a limestone quarry mine, fragmentation is a crucial outcome of blasting operations. The optimization of blasting operations greatly benefits from the prediction of rock fragmentation. The main factors that affect fragmentation are rock mass characteristics, blast geometry, and explosive properties. This paper is a step towards the implementation of machine learning and deep learning algorithms for predicting the extent of fragmentation (in percentage) in opencast mining. Various parameters can affect fragmentation. But, in this paper initially, ten parameters (spacing, drill hole diameter, burden, average bench height, powder factor, number of holes, charge per delay, uniaxial compressive strength, specific drilling, and stemming) are collected to train the model. However, due to a weak correlation with rock fragmentation, drill diameter, Average bench height, compressive strength, stemming, and charge per delay are eliminated to reduce model complexity. A total of 219 data sets having five input features i.e., the number of holes, spacing, burden, specific drilling, and powder factor are used to develop the models. To predict rock fragmentation due to blasting in limestone quarry mines, both machine learning models (Random Forest Regression (Bagging), Support Vector Regression, and XG Boost Regression (Boosting)), as well as a deep learning model (Neural Network Regression), are applied to develop a model that can optimize the prediction of fragmentation. The Artificial neural network model optimization showed that the model with architecture 64-32-16-1 can perform well giving MSE (mean squared error) values of 41.32 and 28.59 on training and test data respectively. The R2 value for both training and test is 0.83. Random Forest regression is also performing well compared to SVR and XG boost with the MSE value 12.37 and 9.89 on training and testing data respectively. Here, the R2 value for both sets are 94%. Based on the permutation importance and Shapely plot values, the powder factor has the highest impact, and the burden has the lowest impact on fragmentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1287.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Spatial and Temporal Distribution; Coral Reef; Random Forest; Support Vector Machine; Classification and Regression Tree.
Online: 21 November 2023 (08:05:33 CET)
This study provides a comprehensive assessment of Derawan Island's coral reefs over two decades (2003, 2011, and 2021) from a machine learning classification perspective. Employing non-parametric algorithms like Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Classification and Regression Tree (CART), our analysis primarily focused on spatial and temporal changes in coral habitats. RF emerged as the most accurate method, demonstrating an accuracy of 71.43% with Landsat 9, 73.68% with Sentinel 2, and 78.28% with Multispectral Aerial Photos. We found that the accuracy of our classification results was significantly influenced by the geographic resolution, as well as the quality of field and satellite/aerial image data. Through spatial clustering, the coral habitats exhibited an Nearest Neighbor Index (NNI) value of 0.8727, indicating specific patterns of distribution. The analysis revealed a decrease in coral reef extent from 2003 to 2011, shrinking to 16 hectares with varying densities, followed by a slight area increase but with more heterogeneous densities between 2011 and 2021. This study not only highlights the dynamic nature of coral reef habitats over two decades but also underscores the critical role of machine learning in environmental monitoring and conservation efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0133.v3
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: multi-step ahead forecasting; neural networks; random forests; stochastic vs machine learning models; support vector machines; time series
Online: 17 January 2019 (15:51:22 CET)
Research within the field of hydrology often focuses on comparing stochastic to machine learning (ML) forecasting methods. The comparisons performed are all based on case studies, while an extensive study aiming to provide generalized results on the subject is missing. Herein, we compare 11 stochastic and 9 ML methods regarding their multi-step ahead forecasting properties by conducting 12 large-scale computational experiments based on simulations. Each of these experiments uses 2 000 time series generated by linear stationary stochastic processes. We conduct each simulation experiment twice; the first time using time series of 100 values and the second time using time series of 300 values. Additionally, we conduct a real-world experiment using 405 mean annual river discharge time series of 100 values. We quantify the performance of the methods using 18 metrics. The results indicate that stochastic and ML methods perform equally well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0293.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: machine Learning (ML); artificial neutral network (ANN); bagging decision tree (BDT); SUpport Vector Machines (SVM); no free lunch theorem (NFLT); hyperparameter optimisation; model comparison; heat meter
Online: 13 November 2018 (04:41:07 CET)
Heat metres are used to calculate the consumed energy in central heating systems. The subject of this article is to prepare a method of predicting a failure of a heat meter in the next settlement period. Predicting failures is essential to coordinate the process of exchanging the heat metres and to avoid inaccurate readings, incorrect billing and additional costs. The reliability analysis of heat metres was based on historical data collected over many years. Three independent models of machine learning were proposed, and they were applied to predict failures of metres. The efficiency of the models was confirmed and compared using the selected metrics. The optimisation of hyperparameters characteristics for each of models was successfully applied. The article shows that the diagnostics of devices does not have to rely only on newly collected information, but it is also possible to use the existing big data sets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0638.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Image Processing; Automated Plant Diseases Detection; Histogram Oriented Gradient (HOG); Local Binary Pattern (LBP); Support Vector Machine (SVM)
Online: 28 July 2021 (17:18:04 CEST)
: On earth, plants play the most important part. Every organ of a plant plays a vital role in the ecological field as well as the medicinal field. But on the whole earth there are several species of plants are available. Different plants have different diseases. Therefore it is needed to identify the plants and their diseases to prevent loss. Now to identify the plants and their diseases manually is very time consuming. In this research an automatic plant and their disease detection system is proposed. For experimental purposes, high-quality leaf images are accepted for training and testing. For detecting the healthy and diseased area in a leaf, region-based and color-based region thresholding techniques were used. For feature selection Histogram Oriented Gradient (HOG) and Local Binary Pattern (LBP) method were applied. Finally for classification two-class and multi-class Support Vector Machine (SVM) was used. It is observed that both feature selection processes with SVM give 99% accuracy. Finally to understand the automated system a graphical user interface was created for all users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0316.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: sustainability; geo-resilience support system(GRSS); chaos sets; structure health monitoring (SHM); DADO machine; RETE; TREAT; LEAPS; GATOR; Internet of Things (IoT)
Online: 28 July 2019 (14:58:59 CEST)
Swift and diligent resilience response is mandatory in sustainable geo-distributed ecosystems. The real-time geo-spatial resilience requires agility in millions of parallel and distributed data processing tasks on data acquired from regional condition monitoring(RCM) systems. These tasks include expiditous resolution of complex sustainability conflict sets, promptly anomalies characterization in chaos sets, and resilience response uniqueness. This work is an archetype of a paragon geo-resilience support system(GRSS) for regional sustainability using a novel melioration in DADO production machine. The proposed expert system capitalized the synergic strengths of RETE, TREAT, LEAPS and GATOR networks was designed and implemented as a synthetic DADO machine(SDM). The generic architecture of DADO machine was improved in this work by enrichment in rule set conditions and solution set for regional scale resilience rule set conditions. The condition left-hand side(LHS) X equal to the solution set 2X for right-hand side (RHS) was the goal achieved by working memory(WM) optimization and conflict resolution strategy(CRS) in alpha and beta networks rules. A round-trip time of 80.2 seconds for first event response set using 1492 segment size and sequence number 360,000 with maximum packets at a single geospatial structure was 21 packets/sec was a noticeable landmark in this work. LEAPS and Concurrent-read algorithm for GATOR cluster networks in the proposed synthetic DADO machine architecture was the overall implementation that enabled urban scale resilient system practically possible on physical SHM deployment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0285.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Uneven-aged forest management; Forest growth modelling; Machine learning; Diameter distribution; Silvicultural decision support
Online: 19 July 2022 (10:03:36 CEST)
Growth models of uneven-aged forests on the diameter class level can support silvicultural decision making. Machine learning brings added value to the modeling of dynamics at the stand or individual tree level based on data from permanent plots. The objective of this study is to explore the potential of machine learning for modeling growth dynamics in uneven-aged forests at the diameter class level based on inventory data from practice. Two main modeling approaches are conducted and compared: i) fine-tuned linear models differentiated per diameter class, ii) an artificial neural network (multilayer perceptron) trained on all diameter classes. The models are trained on the inventory data of the Canton of Neuchâtel (Switzerland), which are area-wide data without individual tree-level growth monitoring. Both approaches produce convincing results for predicting future diameter distributions. The linear models perform better at the individual diameter class level with test R2 typically between 50 and 70% for predicting increments in the numbers of stems at the diameter class level. From a methodological perspective, the multilayer perceptron implementation is much simpler than the fine-tuning of linear models. The linear models developed in this study achieve sufficient performance for practical decision support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1177.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Suicidal Ideation, major depression in adults, natural language written texts, Romanian depression support forum, machine learning text mining,
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:44:06 CEST)
Detecting suicidal ideation in adults with major depression is crucial for timely intervention and prevention of self-harm. As suicide is influenced by various biological, socio-cultural and psychological factors, traditional screening methods have accuracy and efficiency limitations. In certain cultures, societal stigma and marginalization can compel individuals with depression to conceal their suffering. Such individuals often turn to online social media platforms and share their experiences with peers under the protection of anonymity. Our research explored the potential of machine learning detection of suicidal ideation among Romanian adults with major depression that contributed to a web-based depression support forum. A trained algorithm (C4.5 decision tree) analyzed 125 posts fed to on a free access online support forum over 5 years (2014 – 2018) and classified them based on suicidal ideation content. 32 texts (25%) were identified as having a high probability of suicidal ideation content. 65% of the authors were male, with a mean age of 36.7±10.3 years and an average duration of illness of 3.4±1.4 years. Texts indicating positive suicidal ideation were generally shorter and elicited more general responses but fewer professional responses compared to those without suicidal ideation content. The study's main limitations include the relatively small number of classified texts, the absence of prospective information and the lack of qualitative evaluation of the excerpts' content. As socio-demographic and linguistic actuarial results were comparable to data reported by real life studies, we may consider basic text mining techniques as a screening tool that is able to detect suicidal ideation in texts written in unstructured Romanian language.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1595.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Convolutional Neural Network; Seed viability; Principal component analysis; Outlier; Support vector machine; Linear Discriminant Analysis
Online: 27 November 2023 (05:17:44 CET)
Seeds can maintain their quality for a limited time; after that, they will lose their germination ability and vigor. Some physiological and physicochemical changes in the structure of the seeds during storage can decrease the quality of the seeds which is known as aging. Therefore, detection of the strong young seeds from the old ones is a vital issue in the modern agriculture. Conventional methods of detection of the seed viability and germination are destructive, time-consuming and costly. In this research, two peanut cultivars, namely North Carolina 2 (NC-2) and Florispan were selected and three artificial aging levels were induced to them. Hyperspectral images (HSI) of the samples were acquired and the seed viability was evaluated using two pre-trained convolutional neural network (CNN) image processing models, AlexNet and VGGNet. The noise of the reflection spectra of the samples was relatively resolved and modified by combining Preprocessing techniques of moving average (MA) and standard normal variate (SNV). Using principal component analysis (PCA), the dimensions were declined and three principal components (PC) were extracted. These PCs were then used as variables in the classification of support vector machine (SVM) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The results showed the high capability of CNN architectures such as AlexNet and VGGNet in detection of the seed viability based on the HIS with no pre-processing and feature extraction. The mentioned architectures reached the accuracy of 0.985 and 0.986, respectively. The combination of feature extraction method of PCA with LDA and SVM classifiers showed that the use of a limited number of PCs instead of all wavelengths can decrease the complexity of modeling, while enhancing the efficiency of the models such that LDA and SVM classifiers achieved the accuracy of 0.983 and 0.986 in classification of peanut sees, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0033.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: PV/T collector; electrical efficiency; renewable energy; intelligent models; optimization; machine learning; multilayer perceptron (MLP), artificial neural network (ANN); adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS); least squares support vector machine (LSSVM); photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T)
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:10:59 CEST)
Solar energy is a renewable resources of energy which is broadly utilized and have the least pollution impact between the available alternatives of fossil fuels. In this investigation, machine leaening approaches of neural networks (NN), neuro-fuzzy and least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) are used to build the models for prediction of the thermal performance of a photovoltaic-thermal solar collector (PV/T) by estimating its efficiency as an output of the model while inlet temperature, flow rate, heat, solar radiation, and heat of sun are input of the designed model. Experimental measurements was prepared by designing a solar collector system and 100 data extracted. Different analyses are also performed to examine the credibility of the introduced approaches revealing great performance. The suggested LSSVM model represented the best performance regarding the mean squared error (MSE) of 0.003 and correlation coefficient (R2) value of 0.99, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0470.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: social support; depression; stroke
Online: 7 November 2023 (13:25:24 CET)
Research has shown a protective association between social support and depression, depression among stroke patients, and health impacts of depression. Yet not much is known on the effect of social support on depression among stroke patients. This review aims to summarize the current research examining the association between social support and depression among stroke patients. A literature search was performed in PubMed to find original peer-reviewed journal articles from 2016 to Mar. 12, 2023 that examined the association between social support and depression among stroke patients. The search terms were depression and "social support" and stroke, which lead to 172 articles. After abstract review, seven observational studies that studied the target association among stroke patients were selected. One additional study was found using PsycINFO as a complementary source with the same search strategy and criteria. Overall, a negative association was found between social support and depression among stroke patients in seven studies, with more social support leading to lower rates of depression post-stroke. One study found that social support was positively related with depression, but the result was nonsignificant. Overall, the results of recent studies suggest that social support is negatively associated with depression among stroke patients. In most studies, this association was statistically significant. The findings suggest the importance of improving social support perceived by stroke patients in the prevention of depression after the occurrence of stroke.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1009.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electrical power systems; Support vector machines; random Forest; machine learning; wavelet transform; transmission lines fault; Electrical power quality; short circuit; Classification of faults; localization of faults; decision trees; Ensemble learning; K-nearest neighbors
Online: 15 September 2023 (04:54:55 CEST)
Keywords: Electrical power systems, Support vector machines, Random Forest, Machine learning, Wavelet transform, Transmission lines fault, Electrical power quality, Short circuit, Classification of faults, Localization of faults, Decision trees, Ensemble learning, K-nearest neighbors.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0655.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock; mechanical circulatory support; extracorporeal life support; microaxial flow pump; Impella
Online: 11 September 2023 (09:58:17 CEST)
Mechanical circulatory support has proven effective in managing postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock by stabilizing patients' hemodynamics and ensuring adequate organ perfusion. Among the available device modalities, the combination of extracorporeal life support and a microaxial flow pump for left ventricular unloading has emerged as a valuable tool in the surgical arma-mentarium. In this publication, we provide recommendations for the application and weaning of temporary mechanical circulatory support in cardiogenic shock patients, derived from a con-sensus among leading cardiac centers in German-speaking countrie
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0463.v1
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:34:11 CEST)
The Ranau Earthquake that struck on 5, June 2015 and follow by February 2018 and April 2021, were a new disaster in Sabah and caused many Sabahan to panic. The unpredicted disaster also caused a serious impact on all aspects of life in Sabah. The earthquake has caused severe damage to eight primary schools in the vicinity of the epicenter; although no casualties were reported. However, the disaster has passing deep psychological effects among students. In this study, we examine how the primary school teachers enabled the student to be resilient during and after the disaster. Based on the interviews of 16 primary school students it was revealed that most of the teachers used WhatsApp to support resilience during and after the earthquake. Interviews with 16 primary school teachers revealed there were two main reasons for them to communicate with students namely, delivering emotional aid and monitoring their stress. Based on student interviews, five content categories of emotional support were identified: caring, reassuring, emotion sharing, belonging, and distracting. The main contribution of this study is social media can be used as a spontaneously and proactive tool to support student's resilience during and after the earthquake trauma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0175.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: demand prediction, energy systems; machine learning; artificial neural network (ANN); support vector machines (SVM); neuro-fuzzy; ANFIS; wavelet neural network (WNN); big data; decision tree (DT); ensemble learning; hybrid models; data science; deep learning; renewable energies; energy informatics; prediction; forecasting; energy demand
Online: 14 May 2019 (14:00:40 CEST)
Electricity demand prediction is vital for energy production management and proper exploitation of the present resources. Recently, several novel machine learning (ML) models have been employed for electricity demand prediction to estimate the future prospects of the energy requirements. The main objective of this study is to review the various ML models applied for electricity demand prediction. Through a novel search and taxonomy, the most relevant original research articles in the field are identified and further classified according to the ML modeling technique, perdition type, and the application area. A comprehensive review of the literature identifies the major ML models, their applications and a discussion on the evaluation of their performance. This paper further makes a discussion on the trend and the performance of the ML models. As the result, this research reports an outstanding rise in the accuracy, robustness, precision and the generalization ability of the prediction models using the hybrid and ensemble ML algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1229.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: early adolescents; socialization contexts; parental support; teacher support; peer support; cognitive and affective well-being; global and domain-based satisfaction with life; school satisfaction
Online: 16 June 2023 (11:00:41 CEST)
(1) Background: Adolescent well-being is a multifaceted construct embedded in family, school, and peer socialization contexts. By adopting a social-psychological perspective we test the association between three sources of support (parents, teachers, peers) and specific components of subjective well-being (cognitive, affective, global-and-domain-specific) to determine whether there is a functional specialization of the role that these crucial socialization agents play for adolescents to attain well-being in specific life domains. (2) Methods: Cross-sectional Albanian data from Wave 3 of the Children’s Worlds International Survey (www.isciweb.org) were used, including 2,339 adolescents (age range 9-13; girls = 49.3%). A structural equation model (SEM) was employed to explore associations between supportive relationships with parents, teachers, and peers and adolescent well-being. (3) Results: Findings support a functional specialization hypothesis as parental support was significantly related to global cognitive and affective well-being; teacher support was significantly related with school satisfaction; and significant relations were found between peer support and almost all well-being variables (context-free, domain-based life satisfaction and affective subjective well-being). (4) Conclusions: Findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the role of supportive relationships with adults and peers in adolescents’ proximal socialization contexts (family, school, peer groups) and specific components of subjective well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0812.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: oxidative esterification; Au nanoparticles; support effects
Online: 13 October 2023 (08:36:00 CEST)
One-step oxidative esterification of 2, 5-furandiformaldehyde (DFF) derived from biomass to prepare Dimethyl Furan-2, 5-dicarboxylate (FDMC) not only simplifies the catalytic process and increases purity of product, but also avoids the polymerization of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) at high temperature condition. Gold supported on a series of acidic oxide, alkaline oxide and hydrotalcite were prepared by colloidal deposition to explore the effect of support on the catalytic activities. The Au/Mg3Al-HT catalyst exhibited the best catalytic activity in all catalysts, 97.8% selectivity of FDMC at 99.9% conversion of DFF. And this catalyst is suitable to oxidative esterification of benzaldehyde and furfural as well. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and CO2 temperature programmed desorption (CO2-TPD) were performed to characterize the catalysts. The results indicated that the medium and strong basic sites in the heterogeneous catalysts benefited for the absorption of intermediate spices, further facilitated the oxidative esterification of aldehyde groups. While, neutral or acidic support tended to aldol condensation reaction. It was worth noting that basicity on the support surface reduce electronic state of the Au nanoparticle (Auδ-), thus enhance the catalytic selectivity of oxidative esterification. This finding demonstrated the support plays crucial role in oxidative esterification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1093.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: government support; corporate entrepreneurship; innovation performance
Online: 15 August 2023 (11:42:20 CEST)
The study of the effect of corporate entrepreneurship(CE) which is a key indicator of success in corporate innovation performance(IP) is a central research topic. However, an empirical study on whether various types of government support(GS) have a moderating effect between these two variables is of new interest. This study empirically analyzed the effects of CE on IP and analyzed the indirect effects of GS on CE and IP based on 4000 Korean manufacturing firms. The results showed that all five factors of CE (innovativeness, risk-taking, proactiveness, autonomy, and competitive aggressiveness) had a positive effect on IP. In addition, the moderating effect of GS on the relationship between CE and IP was validated in seven categories: taxation, subsidies, financial support, human resources, technology, certification, and procurement. The results showed that five types of GS, other than financial support and technical support, strengthened the effect of CE on IP. This study provides a basis for establishing a strategy for strengthening organizational entrepreneurship and for selecting and focusing on various types of GS. It can be concluded that for more effective government support policies, direct government financial support or technical support should be more elaborately implemented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0109.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online environment; students; adaptation; counseling; support
Online: 6 January 2023 (02:13:25 CET)
The period of study in the online environment can be a very demanding trial for students and masters, especially for those who are not familiar with computer technology. This is largely due to a complex of factors that come from the changes to which they are subjected, such as: leaving the parental home and settling into another living environment (living in dormitories or other forms of accommodation) but also settling with an unfamiliar and very different educational environment from what they were familiar with. Along with all the changes occurring in the family and social plan, the students had to adapt to the educational system made exclusively online. Higher educa-tion institutions in Romania use, as a method of knowledge transmission, traditional learning methods, namely they use face-to-face lecture-type courses in a lecture hall or practical and ex-planatory activities in a seminar/laboratory room. The emergence of this pandemic forced higher education institutions to switch to an online teaching mode for all types of activities included in the educational process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0126.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Social Suppport; Tuberculosis; Nursing; Information Support
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:27:39 CEST)
Background Tuberculosis is a type of infectious disease that can cause death if treatment is not completed. the duration of tuberculosis treatment can reach 6 to 8 months so it really requires discipline when doing treatment. This makes tuberculosis patients in dire need of health information and social support which is very helpful in providing motivation, health information, and monitoring treatment from nurses. Aim of this literature review is to provide an overview of the The Role Of Nurses In Providing Social Support In Tuberculosis Treatment: Literature Review. Method is a literature review research, this study uses electronic database searches using keywords according to research questions from the online library PubMed, Content Science, and Science Direct. Result it was found that the role of nurses in the aspect of social support, namely in providing motivation, supervision, comfort, empathy, and information. this is very necessary for patients with tuberculosis at the time of treatment. Conclution social support is needed by tuberculosis patients who are currently undergoing treatment to provide motivation, health information, and as a nurse's supervision of patient adherence to tuberculosis treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: burnout; passion; positivity; social support; athletes.
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:19:23 CET)
The Burnout syndrome is a negative experience for the athlete development and it has been demonstrated that it gets worse when a sport is practiced in an obsessive way. The interventions about a positive vision through the sport could be a protective factor to boost the athlete’s wellbeing. The aim of the present study was to analyze the mediator effect from social support, the relationship between the burnout, positivity and passion in young Mexican athletes. The sample was composed by 452 Mexican athletes, males and females from 12 to 18 years of age (M = 16.29, SD = 1.66). Participants answered the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire, The Scale of the Social Support Perceived by Athletes, the Passion Scale and the Positivity Scale. The results of structural equation modeling showed the model presented a good adjustment (χ2 = 813.507; df = 229; χ2 /df = 3.552; p < 0.01; CFI = 0.93; TLI = 0.91; IFI = 0.93; NFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.07). The positivity and harmonious passion presented direct and indirect effects over the burnout, being the perceived social support the mediator variable of the indirect effects. However, the effect of the obsessive passion mediated by the perceived social support did not resulted significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0258.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: local activities, regional products, sustainability support
Online: 26 January 2018 (16:19:26 CET)
Regional product labeling can help develop regional business activities, especially with traditional regional products. Their general popularity is a significant source of income for the less developed regions. The Gemer-Malohont region belongs to economically underdeveloped areas with high unemployment rate. The subject of the survey was regional food products, which are made by small farmer. The analysis was carried out on a questionnaire survey in the period April-July 2017 in each of the region's districts. The results obtained by questionnaire survey have been statistically processed using the statistical method (two-step cluster analysis, radar chart, box-plots, regression analysis) using Microsoft Excel and IBM SPSS Statistics 23 software. Through cluster analysis and based on the preference of regional food, we divided consumers into two groups - knowledgeable regional food purchasers and priced oriented consumers. We have shown that the more developed regions (Rimavská Sobota, Rožňava) show a higher rate of purchase of regional foods. Less developed regions (Poltár, Revúca) are represented by lower-income consumers for whose the food price is the decisive criterion. Local residents of backward regions should pay attention to domestic food and local small farmers, who are the way to create local capital and local development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0093.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: decision support; energy system modelling; optimization; collaborative development; open science
Online: 27 March 2018 (05:34:38 CEST)
Energy system models have become indispensable to shape future energy systems by providing insights into different trajectories. However, sustainable systems with high shares of renewable energy are characterized by growing cross-sectoral interdependencies and decentralized structures. To capture important properties of increasingly complex energy systems, sophisticated and flexible modelling tools are needed. At the same time open science becomes increasingly important in energy system modelling. This paper presents the Open Energy Modelling Framework (oemof) as a novel approach in energy system modelling, representation and analysis. The framework forms a toolbox to construct comprehensive energy system models and has been published open source under a free license. With a collaborative development based on open processes the framework seeks for a maximum level of participation and transparency to facilitate open science principles in energy system modelling. Based on a generic graph based description of energy systems it is well suited to flexibly model complex cross-sectoral systems and incorporate various modelling approaches. This makes the framework a multi-purpose modelling environment for modelling and analyzing different systems ranging from an urban to a transnational scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Child sexual abuse; Social Networking; Social Support.
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:24:03 CEST)
This research mapped significant social networks of victims of childhood sexual abuse, identifying relationships between childhood trauma and social bonds in adult life. Ten adult women, aged between 20 and 40 years, in psychiatric care for the consequences of trauma suffered in childhood participated in the research. For data collection, the map of significant social networks was used and analyzed through the structure, functions and attributes of the bonds. The network is composed of people from the Friendship, Family, Community, Work/Study and Health Teams group. The networks of friendships, family, co-workers or studies play a predominant role of emotional support, while the Health Teams also offer emotional support, but primarily provide clinical support in overcoming trauma and its consequences. The network of relationships has specific functions that maintain psychosocial integrity and help women to overcome the abuse suffered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1685.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: human gait; criticality analysis; support vector machine
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:36:57 CEST)
The way in which a person walks, known as human gait, is a significant indicator of overall health and well-being. Abnormalities in gait can indicate the presence of metabolic disorders, such as diabetes or obesity. However, detecting these disorders can be challenging using traditional methods, which often involve subjective assessments or invasive procedures. In this study, a novel methodology known as Criticality Analysis (CA) was proposed for the detection and monitoring of human gait in people with metabolic disorders taking part in an intervention to increase activity and reduce weight. The CA approach utilised inertial measurement unit gait data, alongside clinical health measures. This allows for the control of nonlinear growth in the system, resulting in lower dimensional, nonlinear, free-scale, stable, controlled, and organised trajectories. These trajectories were then analysed using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm, which is well-suited for this task due to its ability to handle nonlinear and dynamic data. The combination of the CA approach and the SVM algorithm demonstrated high accuracy and non-invasiveness in detecting metabolic disorders, yielding an average accuracy within the range of 78.2% to 90%. Additionally, the classification technique accuracy, at a group level was observed to reduce during period of the intervention (e.g., from week 2 to week 3) alongside changes in fitness and health, which indicates the potential of using the approach to measure and monitor biological systems. As such, this novel methodology has the potential to be a valuable tool for healthcare professionals in detecting and monitoring metabolic disorders, as well as other unknown diseases associated with the human biological system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0135.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: decision support; framework; stakeholders; information systems; analysis
Online: 3 May 2023 (10:43:58 CEST)
Decision makers have to work on resolving multiple forms of problems within their organizations. The problems can be structured, semi-structured, or unstructured. Handling these issues requires intensive time dedication and resource allocation. Looking at the perspective of strategic decision making in Saudi Arabia, current operations are lacking in various sectors. This indulges an immediate need to introduce proper systems and highlight the loopholes that would allow the leaders make informed decisions aided by a support system. For this reason, the researchers set out to work on two research questions. The first question focused on how decision makers ensured accuracy of the decisions they are making. It would allow to identify why such system is important that should also guarantee consistency and accuracy. The second question asked about the proper process that would govern and control the outcome of decision. Considering the above questions, this research aimed at identifying the ideal framework, and whether the proposal developed would fit into the Saudi organizations. A case study in health sector has been reviewed containing various models across the world. Following this, interviews with five decision makers in their organization were conducted to perform the qualitative research. The researcher identified that most organizations lacked systems to ensure their decisions were accurate. The research also concluded that the tools and elements presented in the proposed informed decision framework would fit into most Saudi organizations to eliminate the identified problem, and especially due to the inclusion of the non-digital sources of information as part to the decision process. Furthermore, the analysis was conducted and discussion was determined stating validations of the study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: international students, social support, depression, vital exhaustion
Online: 8 December 2022 (08:51:35 CET)
Background: Our study aimed to assess the differences between domestic and international students in terms of social support, vital exhaustion, and depression during the time of COVID-19. Methods: The online cross-sectional survey was conducted via Google Forms® at three time intervals during the pandemic. Results: Respectively 1320, 246, and 139 students completed our questionnaires in the different time intervals. International students reported significantly lower values of perceived social support. Women reached higher scores regarding vital exhaustion in both samples. Concerning depression, international female students had higher values than their male counterparts but the difference diminished with time. No differences could be found in the comparison of depression between domestic female and male students. Significant correlations were found between depression, perceived social support, and vital exhaustion. Discussion: International students perceive diminished social support just when they need more. Decreased levels of perceived social support may contribute to the development of their psychological problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Social support; emotional maturity; anxiety; online learning
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:26:27 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia makes a significant impact both physically and psychologically. One month after the President of the Republic of Indonesia announced about the COVID-19 patient cases, the Indonesian Child Protection Commission data during April 2020, depicted that 76.7% of children were not happy to participate in distance learning because 81.8% were only given assignments by the teacher and 73.2% felt they had a heavy task and had a short period of time to complete. This reaction is an indicator of the children’s anxiety about distance learning. The anxiety that occurs in these students is assumed to depend on their social support and emotional maturity. When students get optimal family support and are able to control their emotions in the face of a pandemic, they can reduce anxiety in facing online learning. The subjects of this study were 202 junior high and high school students. The results showed that social support and emotional maturity simultaneously affect anxiety in online learning (Freg = 45.066, p = 0.00 <0.01). These results can be used as a basis for providing psycho-education to increase family support and emotional maturity to reduce anxiety in online learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0290.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: breastfeeding; telemedicine; lactation support; telelactation; COVID-19
Online: 11 December 2020 (16:09:48 CET)
The objectives were to identify conditions under which mothers may be willing to use telelactation and explore associations between participant characteristics, willingness, and beliefs regarding telelactation use. Mothers 2-8 weeks postpartum were recruited from two Florida maternal care sites and surveyed to assess demographics, breastfeeding initiation, and potential telelactation use. Analyses included descriptive statistics and logistic regression models. Of the 88 participants, most were white, married, earned less than $50,000 per year, had access to technology, and were willing to use telelactation if it was free (80.7%) or over a secure server (63.6%). Fifty-six percent were willing to use telelactation if it involved feeding the baby without a cover, but only 45.5% were willing if their nipples may be seen. Those with higher odds of willingness to use telelaction under these modesty conditions were experienced using videochat, white, married, and of higher income. Mothers with security concerns had six times the odds of being uncomfortable with telelactation compared to mothers without concerns. While telelactation can improve access to critical services, willingness to use telelactation may depend on conditions of use and sociodemographics. During the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond, these findings offer important insights for lactation professionals implementing virtual consultations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0086.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: life support for space; plant molecular pharming
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:31:34 CEST)
Space missions have always assumed that the risk of spacecraft malfunction far outweighs the risk of human system failure. This assumption breaks down for longer duration exploration missions and exposes vulnerabilities in space medical system. Space agencies can no longer buy down the majority of human system risk through the crew member selection process and emergency re-supply or evacuation. No mature medical solutions exist to close the risk gap. With recent advances in biotechnology, there is promise in augmenting a space pharmacy with a biologically-based space foundry for on-demand manufacturing of high-value medical products. Here we review the challenges and opportunities of molecular pharming, the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, as the basis of a space medical foundry to close the risk gap in current space medical systems. Plants have long been considered an important life support object in space and can now also be viewed as programmable factories in space. Advances in molecular pharming-based space foundries will have widespread application in promoting simple and accessible pharmaceutical manufacturing on Earth.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: ERAS Protocol; nutrition support; fasting; colorectal surgery
Online: 2 October 2018 (22:31:38 CEST)
Traditionally, overnight fasting before elective surgery has been the routine in medical practice for risk reduction of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. Several original study and international societies recommend a 2‐h preoperative fast for clear fluids and a 6‐h fast for solids in most elective patients. We conducted a narrative review of the literature, searching electronic databases (Medline and CINAHL). We used PICO approach. The results of our review suggest that nutrition support in the perioperative period is very important to reduce length of hospital stay and reduced postoperative complication.
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Bioregenerative life support; closed ecological life support; in-situ resource utilization; lunar industrial ecology; 3D bioprinting; gene editing
Online: 28 June 2021 (15:23:39 CEST)
In this review, we explore a broad-based view of technologies for supporting human activities on the Moon. Primarily, we assess the state of life support systems technology beginning with physicochemical processes, waste processing, bioregenerative methods, food production systems and the robotics and advanced biological technologies that support the latter. We observe that the Moon possesses in-situ resources but that these resources are of limited value in CELSS – indeed, CELSS technology is most mature in recycling water and oxygen, the two resources that are abundant on the Moon. This places a premium on developing CELSS that recycles other elements that are rarified on the Moon including C and N in particular but also other elements such as P, S and K which might be challenging to extract from local resources. Although we focus on closed loop ecological life support systems, we also consider related technologies that involve the application of biological organisms to bioregenerative medical technologies and bioregenerative approaches to industrial activity on the Moon as potential future developments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1005.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: surgical management; safety analysis; support Decision; FMEA; FTOPSIS
Online: 16 November 2023 (03:58:09 CET)
This paper proposes a model that combines multi-criteria and multi-faceted risk assessment. Using two data sources, a fuzzy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution FTOPSIS method combined with FMEA assessment. The FMEA method presented in this paper combines the technique of prioritising preferences according to FTOPSIS similarity to the ideal solution and conviction structure to overcome the defects of traditional FMEA indicators. The paper describes the exact process and tool selection, and the results obtained in the study verified accurate data. Finally, a numerical case study was presented on hospital reorganization services and case adaptation to prioritize surgical abandonment in Poland. The problem considered in the publication is the priority of patients’ operations in hospitals. The selection of relevant criteria, their importance and patient preferences are presented. The results obtained from the method provide a viable action plan for the proposed research problem. The proposed method is multi-faceted and can be part of an information system supporting reorganization, restructuring, and modification of the operational process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1008.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; fatigue; parents; social support; spirituality
Online: 15 November 2023 (13:47:07 CET)
The high demands of caring for and raising a child with autism spectrum disorder on a daily basis fatally lead parents to the appearance of physical and mental fatigue. This study aimed to assess the effect of social support and spirituality on the fatigue of parents with children with autistic spectrum disorder. A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample was conducted in Schools of Special Education in Attica (Greece). The sample consisted of 123 parents who completed The Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS), the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT Sp-12) to measure the levels of fatigue, social support, and spirituality, respectively. Demographic data were, also, recorded. Data analysis was applied using IBM SPSS 21.0. The mean age was 47.3 years old, 81.3% were women, and 38.9% stated much / very much religious. The mean of total FAS was 28.4 (SD±7.5), of total FACIT Sp-12 was 31.5 (SD±8.7), and of total MSPSS 5.1 (SD±1.1). Higher levels of total MSPSS and FACIT Sp-12 were associated with lower total FAS (r= -0.50, p <0.001 and r= -0.49, p<0.001 respectively). Social support and spirituality are significant predictors of fatigue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1980.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: preschool; caregiver; vegetable consumption; fruit consumption; social support
Online: 28 July 2023 (09:29:46 CEST)
This research objective was to develop a promoting vegetable and fruit consumption behaviors program among preschool children based on 4 aspects of House’s social support framework to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in preschool the program. This study was quasi-experimental. The sample consisted of preschool children and their caregivers who were randomly selected based on the inclusion criteria. The experimental and control groups had 96 pairs of preschool-aged children and their caregivers. The experimental group was given the program, while the control group was to resume normal activities. The program development was based on the caring lifestyle of caregivers in Muang District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. The tools consisted of a preschool care eating behavior assessment and a caregiver knowledge test about the child's fruit and vegetable intake and how to modify the child's fruit and vegetable intake. In addition, fruit and vegetable eating behaviors in preschoolers and a handbook for nurses and primary caregivers were approved by five experts and deemed suitable for the caregiver support framework. The results of the development indicated that a 10-week program was appropriate and tended to increase preschoolers' consumption of fruits and vegetables. In especially experimental group both caregivers increasingly gained knowledge and behavior of caregivers to promote fruit and vegetable eating behavior and preschool increasing the fruit and vegetable consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0903.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Geodesign; Collaborative Spatial Decision Support System; Wasted Roadscapes
Online: 13 July 2023 (09:42:21 CEST)
The continuous transformations that characterise cities have placed at the centre of the political debate the theme of urban regeneration, as urban, environmental, and social rehabilitation, especially about degraded urban areas that become fertile ground for new urban functions. Considering degraded areas as the result of economic, social, physical, and environmental transition processes, their regeneration must consider an inclusive and multi-actor process involving different stakeholders and users. Such an understanding examines multiple cultural and design approaches to urban regeneration and geographical transformation. This paper implements the Geodesign approach to investigate and develop a Collaborative Decision Support System oriented to the planning and assessing wasted roadscapes regeneration. The wasted roadscapes are conceived as degraded areas located close to roads, which need sustainable strategies with particular attention to local problems related to accessibility and the inclusion of degraded areas in the planning process. Bacoli’s city (South of Italy), has been selected as a best-fit case study for testing the decision-making process elaborated, involving a working group of professors, researchers, PhD candidates, students, local authorities, and citizens. The Geodesign approach facilitated the definition of sustainable planning strategies among people with diverse backgrounds and interests, aiming at recovering degraded landscapes and connecting them to urban accessibility strategies, facing conflicts and supporting the elaboration of a shared vision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2028.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: assistance dogs; aged care; older adults; regulation; support
Online: 28 June 2023 (12:29:06 CEST)
Assistance dogs provide significant benefits to older adult owners. However, despite protective legislation, aged care facilities continue to not allow owners to retain their dog on relocation. The purpose of the current study was to explore whether older adults should be allowed to retain their dog on relocation to an aged care facility, and what factors should impact this decision. Further, if allowed to retain their dog, what would be the best practice to allow for this. A deliberative democracy methodology was used, with a range of key stakeholders recruited. Focus groups were held, with follow up questionnaire to establish deliberation for all questions. Results indicated that with sufficient objective measurement, fair decisions can be made to ensure the welfare and wellbeing for owner and dog. Key policy and procedure changes would also be necessary to ensure ongoing support, such as training, care plans, and emergency directives. By ensuring sufficient policies and procedures are in place, training and support could lead to an ideal outcome where facilities could be at the forefront of a better future for aged care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0269.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: information and accounting support; accounts receivable; management; business
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:32:41 CEST)
The article explores the subject of information and accounting solutions for accounts receivable management that include appropriate accounting solutions and analytical techniques. The study focuses on the statutory framework for accounting for accounts receivable under the Russian Accounting Standards (RAP), International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). The analytical techniques are described in the context of the authors' view on the essence of accounts receivable management that implies analysis, the establishment of a credit policy and of a discount policy. The article places emphasis on the use of available information technology for accounts payable management, such as blockchain-based smart contracts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0298.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: burnout; moral distress; COVID-19; perceived organizational support
Online: 22 March 2022 (09:02:27 CET)
The purpose of this study was to explore the role of moral distress on physician burnout during COVID-19. Physicians in the US were interviewed between February and March 2021; 479 responded to our survey. Results indicated that moral distress was a key mediator in explaining the relationship between perceived organizational support, medical specialization, emotional labor, and coping on burnout. There was no support for increased burnout among female physicians, and contracting COVID-19 likewise did not play a role in burnout. Our findings suggest that physician burnout can be mitigated by increasing perceived organizational support; likewise, physicians who engaged in deep emotional labor and problem-focused coping tended to fare better when it came to feelings of moral distress and subsequent burnout.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: peer group support; peer group education and technology
Online: 15 April 2021 (10:28:41 CEST)
AbstractBackground: the development of nursing, especially related to the nursing intervention approach, is running so fast. This can be seen from the use of peer group support in nursing interventions in individual humans. The purpose of this literature is to find the impact of implementing nursing interventions using a peer group support approach.Method: this literature review method uses JBI and Prisma on 120 articles taken from journal databases, namely Scopus, PubMed and Sciendirect.Result: From the articles analyzed, it was found that the application of peer groups can improve individual abilities both in psychological and behavioral aspects.Conclusion: the application of the peer group approach is able to be one of the approaches in the world of nursing in carrying out nursing actions today.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: mesothelioma; predictive modeling; decision support system; early diagnosis
Online: 5 August 2019 (11:57:51 CEST)
Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an atypical, belligerent tumor that matures into cancer in the pleura, a stratum of tissue bordering the lungs. Pleural mesothelioma is a common type of mesothelioma that accounts for about 75 percent of all mesothelioma diagnosed yearly in the United States. Diagnosis of mesothelioma takes several months and is expensive. Given the difficulty of diagnosing MPM, early identification is crucial for patient survival. Our study implements artificial intelligence and recommends the best fit model for early diagnosis and prognosis of MPM. Method: We retrospectively retrieved patient’s medical reports generated by Dicle University, Turkey and implemented multi-layered perceptron (MLP), voted perceptron (VP), Clojure classifier (CC), kernel logistic regression (KLR), stochastic gradient decent SGD), adaptive boosting (AdaBoost), Hoeffding tree (VFDT), and primal estimated sub-gradient solver for support vector machine (s-Pegasos). We evaluated the models, compared and tested using paired T-test (corrected) at 0.05 significance based on their respective classification accuracy, f-measure, precision, recall, root mean squared error, receivers characteristic curve (ROC), and precision-recall curve (PRC). Results: In phase-1 SGD, AdaBoost.M1, KLR, MLP, VFDT generates optimal results with the highest possible performance measures. In phase-2, AdaBoost with a classification accuracy of 71.29% outperformed all other algorithms. C-reactive protein, platelet count, duration of symptoms, gender, and pleural protein were found to be the most relevant predictors that can prognosticate mesothelioma. Conclusion: This study confirms that data obtained from biopsy and imagining tests are strong predictors of mesothelioma but are associated with high cost, however, can identify mesothelioma with optimal accuracy. Predictive analytics without using biopsy results can diagnose mesothelioma with acceptable accuracy. Implementation of phase-2 followed by phase-1 can address diagnosis expenses and maximize disease prognosis. Additionally, results indicate improved MPM diagnosis using AI methods dependent upon the specific application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0350.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Support vector machine, motion descriptor, features, human behaviors
Online: 29 May 2019 (11:19:19 CEST)
Identifying human actions in complex scenes is widely considered as a challenging research problem due to the unpredictable behaviors and variation of appearances and postures. For extracting variations in motion and postures, trajectories provide meaningful way. However, simple trajectories are normally represented by vector of spatial coordinates. In order to identify human actions, we must exploit structural relationship between different trajectories. In this paper, we propose a method that divides the video into N number of segments and then for each segment we extract trajectories. We then compute trajectory descriptor for each segment which capture the structural relationship among different trajectories in the video segment. For trajectory descriptor, we project all extracted trajectories on the canvas. This will result in texture image which can store the relative motion and structural relationship among the trajectories. We then train Convolution Neural Network (CNN) to capture and learn the representation from dense trajectories. . Experimental results shows that our proposed method out performs state of the art methods by 90.01% on benchmark data set.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0288.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: calcium phosphate cement; methylcellulose; 3D plotting; support; hydroxyapatite
Online: 16 July 2018 (12:55:42 CEST)
3D plotting is an additive manufacturing technology enabling biofabrication, thus the integration of cells or biologically sensitive proteins or growth factors into the manufacturing process. However, most (bio-)inks developed for 3D plotting were not shown to be processed into clinical relevant geometries comprising critical overhangs and cavities, which would collapse without a sufficient support material. Herein, we have developed a support hydrogel ink based on methylcellulose (mc), which is able to act as support as long as the co-plotted main structure is not stable. Therefore, 6 w/v %, 8 w/v % and 10 w/v % mc were allowed to swell in water, resulting in viscous inks, which were characterized for their rheological and extrusion properties. The successful usage of 10 w/v % mc as support ink was proven by multichannel plotting of the support together with a plottable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) acting as main structure. CPC scaffolds displaying critical overhangs or a large central cavity could be plotted accurately with the newly developed mc support ink. The dissolution properties of mc allowed complete removal of the gel without residuals, once CPC setting was finished. Finally, we fabricated a scaphoid bone model by computed tomography data acquisition and co-extrusion of CPC and the mc support hydrogel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0114.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: WSN; IoT; seawater temperature prediction; marine aquaculture support
Online: 23 September 2017 (11:31:13 CEST)
Aquaculture is growing ever more important due to the decrease in natural marine resources and increase inworldwide demand. To avoid losses due to aging and abnormalweather, it is important to predict seawater temperature in order to maintain a more stable supply, particularly for high value added products, such as pearls and scallops. The increase in species extinction is a prominent societal issue. Furthermore, in order to maintain a stable quality of farmed fishery, water temperature should be measured daily and farming methods altered according to seasonal stresses. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to estimate seawater temperature in marine aquaculture by combining seawater temperature data and actual weather data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1687.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: women entrepreneurship capability; sustainability performance; family support; motivation; barriers
Online: 19 October 2023 (02:15:50 CEST)
The research fills the policy research gap for the women entrepreneurship and sustainability performance for examining key successful factors. Previous women entrepreneurship research fails to offer policy recommendations. The research purpose is to investigate these factors affect women entrepreneurship capabilities and sustainability performance by using SEM analysis and making policy recommendation. This research employs online and mail survey and obtains 175 women entrepreneur sample. The study finds that family support and motivation have positive effect on women entrepreneurship capabilities and sustainability performance. Barriers have no effect on performance. Hopefully, the research can provide the guidance to contribute to women’s entrepreneurship opportunities for achieving SDGs. Policy recommendation and managerial implication are discussed in the article.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0425.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: climate change; mental health; policies; interventions; support; vulnerable communities
Online: 7 September 2023 (03:05:17 CEST)
The complex and interconnected challenges of climate change, water stress, disasters, and health crises have far-reaching implications for sustainable development and global sustainability agendas, such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, one critical issue that has been overlooked is the nexus between climate change impacts and mental health (CCMH). Recognizing and addressing the negative emotions associated with this global phenomenon is essential to fostering a holistic approach to climate action planning and building long-term resilience. In this assessment, we present a set of narratives to argue that CCMH research requires a collaborative, transdisciplinary approach that integrates socio-economic and socio-cultural complexities. For this assessment, we used a case study approach to elucidate that the mental health impacts of climate change are unequally distributed, disproportionately affecting vulnerable groups based on age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status. The assessment presented in this study concluded that adequate mental health support programs are limited due to sociocultural stigmas and limited socioeconomic resources in some regions. Existing climate-related mental health services mechanisms lack coordination and specific action plans, leaving affected populations underserved. Unlike traditional understandings of the climate-health nexus, this research calls for experts from multiple fields to work together and for enhanced attention to and investment in CCMH research to bridge the gap between scientific knowledge and practical solutions. Such solutions will lead to scalable and lasting change as communities can implement research findings to support those in need and enhance disaster resilience. Furthermore, by collectively recognizing the climate and mental health nexus, global commitments such as the SDGs and the Paris Declaration can advance awareness and action in climate-related mental health, ultimately promoting a healthier relationship between humanity and nature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0182.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Keywords: emotional distress: pregnancy; comorbidities; COVID-19; emotional support.
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:25:35 CEST)
Pregnant women have been considered a high-risk group for SARS-CoV-2 infection; the impact of the disease on the health of a mother and her child is still being studied. The emotional impact of the pandemic on pregnant women has been extensively studied. Emotional distress is proposed as a perspective to explain the emotional manifestations of women during this stage as something common rather than pathological. The objective of this study was to know the emotional experience of women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 towards the end of their pregnancy, during the first and second waves of COVID in Mexico. A qualitative study was carried out: 18 pregnant women with COVID were interviewed. A thematic analysis of the data was performed, resulting in three main themes and 14 subthemes. The COVID-infected mothers-to-be experienced mild to moderate emotional distress. It was more intense for those with comorbidities. This distress was aggravated during obstetrical complications and comorbidities, as well as during COVID and postpartum. The emotional distress was appeased by both the perception of medical care and social support. The emotional distress of pregnant women with COVID requires emotional accompaniment to reduce its impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2253.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: Carbon support; PtCo/C; Fuel cells; Electrocatalysis; High-loading
Online: 31 May 2023 (13:16:11 CEST)
Increasing the loading density of nanoparticles on carbon support is essential for making Pt-alloy/C catalysts practical in H2-air fuel cells. The challenge lies in increasing the load-ing while suppressing the sintering of Pt-alloy nanoparticles. This work presents a 40% Pt-weighted sub-3 nm PtCo/C alloy catalysts via a simple incipient wetness impregnation method. By carefully optimizing the synthetic conditions such as Pt/Co ratios, calcination temperature and time, the size of supported PtCo alloy nanoparticles is successfully con-trolled below 3 nm, and a high electrochemical surface area achieves of 94 m2/g is achieved, which is 2.8 times of commercial PtCo/C-TKK catalysts. Demonstrated by elec-trochemical oxygen reduction reaction, PtCo/C alloy catalysts present an enhanced mass activity of 0.45 A/mg at 0.9 V vs. RHE, which is 1.7 times that of PtCo/C-TKK catalyst. Therefore, the developed PtCo/C alloy catalyst can potentially be a highly practical cata-lyst for H2-air fuel cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1352.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: gratitude; prosocial behavior; social support; basic psychological needs; adolescence
Online: 18 May 2023 (14:58:48 CEST)
Prosocial behavior is vital for positive social development among adolescents, contributing to improved peer relationships, emotional well-being, and social competence. Gratitude, a positive emotion arising from recognizing and appreciating benefits received from others, has been identified as a potential contributor to adolescent prosocial behavior. This study aimed to investigate the mediating roles of social support and basic psychological needs in the relationship between gratitude and prosocial behavior among adolescents. A total of 390 middle school students participated in a longitudinal study, completing questionnaires assessing gratitude, social support, basic psychological needs, and prosocial behavior at two time points with a six-month interval. The results indicated that gratitude positively correlated with social support, basic psychological needs, and prosocial behavior. Structural equation modeling revealed that social support and basic psychological needs partially mediated the relationship between gratitude and adolescent prosocial behavior. Moreover, a chain-like mediation effect was observed, wherein social support influenced basic psychological needs, which in turn predicted prosocial behavior. These findings emphasize the importance of gratitude in fostering prosocial behavior among adolescents and highlight the mediating roles of social support and basic psychological needs in this relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0606.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: PKU; Phenylketonuria; social media; Facebook; healthcare professionals; dietitians; support
Online: 20 April 2023 (05:16:16 CEST)
Background: The diagnosis of phenylketonuria (PKU) in an infant is a devastating and overwhelming event for their parents. Providing appropriate information and support is paramount, especially at the beginning of a child’s life. Investigating if parents are receiving the right support is important for their continued care. Methodology: An online survey was distributed to explore parents’ perceptions of current support and information provided by their healthcare provider and to rate sources of other support (n=169 participants). Results: Dietitians received the highest (85%) rate of “very helpful” support. Overall, parents found Facebook to be helpful for support, but had mixed reactions when asked if healthcare professionals (HCPs) should provide advice as part of the groups. When rating the most effective learning methods, the top three were: 1:1 sessions (n=109, 70%), picture books (n=73, 50%) and written handouts (n=70, 46%). Conclusion: Most parents were happy with the support and information they received from their dietitian, but required more support from other HCPs. Facebook groups provide parents with the social support that HCPs and their family may be unable to offer, suggesting a place for social media in future PKU care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0238.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Social support; older persons; smokers; NHMS 2018; community survey
Online: 12 April 2023 (04:17:11 CEST)
Background Globally the average age of the worlds’ population of older persons continues to upsurge and social support becomes increasingly relevant. Overall, in Malaysia, social support and networking prevalence was found to be lower among older persons at 30.76%. In view of the scarce data on social support and its association with smoking status and its associated factors among the older Malaysian population this study was conducted. Methods Data from the National Health and Morbidity (NHMS) 2018 survey on health of older Malaysian adults was analyzed. This was a cross sectional population-based study using a two-stage stratified random sampling design. Elderly population aged 60 years and above was selected. Data were collected were sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status, and social support. A validated Malay language, interviewer-administered questionnaire of 11-item Duke Social Support Index was applied for assessing social support among the elderly. A complex sampling design analysis was used for the descriptive statistics. The associated risk factors for social support were identified using Multiple Logistic Regression analysis. Results A total of 3923 elderly respondents participated in the study. The prevalence of good social support was significantly higher among the 60-69 years old respondents compared to the > 80 years old (73.1%, 95% CI :69.3% -76.5% vs 50.1 %, 95% CI:41.7 %- 58.6%).Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of poor social support were 1.7 times (aOR: 1.72 % ,95%CI: 1.19 -2.48) higher for the respondents aged > 80 years old, than those aged 60-69 years. Respondents with no formal education were 1.93 higher odds of poor social support than the respondents with tertiary education (aOR: 1.93%, 95%CI: 1.13,3.30). Respondents with income < RM 1000 were 1.94 times more likely to have poor social support compared to respondents with income > RM 3000 (aOR: 1.94, 95% CI : 1.21 -3.13). Former smokers have good social support compared to current smokers (73.6% ,95% CI: 67.7-78.7 vs 65.1 %, 95%CI:58.4 -71.2). For current smokers, the odds of poor social support were 42.0% higher than for non-smokers (aOR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.05 -1.91. Conclusion There is poor social support among the older persons who are current smokers, advancing age, no formal education and low income However, further longitudinal studies are needed to determine the exact effects of the studied variables. These findings could assist the policymakers to develop strategies at the national level to enhance social support among the older smokers to ensure cessation of smoking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: support caregivers’ potential; food consumption; iron supplement; anemia prevention
Online: 8 March 2023 (08:41:09 CET)
Children under two years old are at risk for anemia because young children have an increased need for iron for their physical growth and brain development. The purpose of this study was designed to evaluate the effects of a caregiver potential support program on anemia prevention in children six months to two years old attending the subdistrict health-promoting hospital in Thasala District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. This study was quasi-experimental. The sample included children aged six months to two years old and their caregivers, who were selected by random sampling and allocated to either the experimental or control group, with 40 pairs per group. The experimental group received a potential support program, while the control group received regular care. Both groups were followed for 12 weeks. The instruments used were the potential caregiver assessment, children’s anemia assessment, and a program to support the potential of primary caregivers. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and t-tests were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that 11.4% of the children had anemia, and a hematocrit count of less than 33% (range = 30-40, M = 34.89, SD = 1.97). The mean scores of knowledge about anemia and iron supplementation after using the program in the experimental group and control group were significantly different (p < 0.001). The mean scores of knowledge about anemia in the experimental and control group were 15.75, SD = 0.54, and 13.28, SD = 1.43 respectively. The mean scores of knowledge about iron supplementation in the experimental and control group were 10.75, SD = 0.49, and 8.15, SD = 1.54 respectively. It was found that the experimental group had a higher mean score on food care behaviors than the control group for 6-11 months and 1-2 years, with statistical significance. The experimental group also had a higher mean score of care behaviors concerning children’s consumption of medicine than the control group (M = 58.20, SD = 4.05; M = 45.78, SD = 9.66, respectively), (p < 0.001). The mean score of the hematocrit level for the experimental group was found to be higher than the control group after receiving the program (M = 35.80, SD = 1.55; M = 34.83, SD = 2.14, respectively), (p < 0.05). Therefore, healthcare providers should support caregivers' capacity to provide continued care for children to prevent anemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0150.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Image Detection; Intracranial Hemorrhage; Deep Learning; Decision Support System.
Online: 20 December 2022 (10:31:23 CET)
Intracranial hemorrhage is a serious medical problem that requires rapid and often intensive medical care. Identifying the location and type of any hemorrhage present is a critical step in the treatment of the patient. Diagnosis requires an urgent procedure, and the detection of hemorrhage is a difficult and time-consuming process for human experts. In this paper, we propose methods based on EfficientDet’s deep-learning technology that can be applied to the diagnosis of hemorrhages and thus become a decision-support system. Our proposal is two-fold. On the one hand, the proposed technique classifies slices of computed tomography scans for the presence hemorrhage or its lack, achieving 92.7% accuracy and 0.978 ROC-AUC. On the other hand, our methodology provides visual explanations of the classification chosen using the Grad-CAM methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0183.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: platinum; high-index facets; carbon support; glucose oxidation; electrocatalysts
Online: 13 October 2022 (02:23:07 CEST)
Catalyst with high catalytic activity and good stability are desirable in the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. Herein, Pt concave nanocubes with high-index facets (HIFs) supported by carbon black (Pt CNC/CB) are prepared through a hydrothermal method. The experimental results demonstrate that the peak current densities in different potential regions on the Pt CNC/CB anode are 0.22, 0.20, and 0.60 mA cm−2, respectively. The glucose oxidation reaction shows superior performances in basic and neutral conditions than in acid conditions. Better stability is achieved by Pt CNC/CB than Pt concave nanocubes (Pt CNCs). Abundant surface defects with low-coordinated atom numbers, such as the steps, kinks, and edges, are served as active sites in the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. With the addition of carbon black, the catalytic activity can be improved by facilitating the full exposure of the active surface defects on the HIFs of Pt CNCs. Moreover, to address the aggregation of Pt CNCs, caused by the high surface energy of HIFs, the introduction of carbon material is an effective way to preserve the HIFs, and thus enhance the stability of the catalyst. Hence, the prepared Pt CNC/CB electrocatalyst has great potential to be applied in the electrooxidation of glucose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0445.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Adult children's education; parental longevity; truncated regression; emotional support.
Online: 26 August 2022 (04:18:44 CEST)
Background: Some developing countries, such as China, population is aging rapidly, meanwhile, the average years of schooling for residents is constantly increasing. However, the question of whether adult children’s education has an effect on the longevity of older parents, remains inadequately studied. Methods: This paper uses China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS) data to estimate the causal impact of adult children's education on their parents' longevity. Identification is achieved by using the truncated regression model and using historical education data as instrument variables for adult children’s education. Results: For every unit increase in adult children’s education, the father’s and mother’s longevity increased by 0.89 years and 0.75 years, respectively. Mechanism analysis shows that adult children's education has a significant positive impact on parents' emotional support, financial support and self-reported health. Further evidence shows that for every unit increase in adult children’s education, the father-in-law’s and mother-in-law’s longevity increased by 0.40 years and 0.46 years, respectively. Conclusions: It is conclusion that improving the level of adult children’s education can increase parents’ and parents-in-law’s longevity. Adult children’s education might contribute to the longevity of older parents by three channels that providing emotional, economic support and affecting parents’ health.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0332.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Decision Making Process; Social Networks; Social Commerce; Social Support
Online: 21 January 2022 (14:53:08 CET)
The introduction of social commerce ushered in a new era in business-consumer interaction. As a result, more power has passed from the vendor to the buyer, primarily fueling e-commerce acceptance. As a result, understanding consumer behaviour in the context of social commerce adoption has become essential for businesses looking to persuade customers by using the power of social ties and support.Furthermore, such social ties will facilitate trust as the most promising benefit while reducing perceived risk, which has always been a critical problem with online commerce. This study proposes a paradigm for understanding the impact of social commerce on the stages of the consumer decision-making process: need recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, and post-purchase behaviour, with a focus on social support. In this respect, relevant literature in the subject of social commerce either (1) lacks an adequate explanatory model, (2) has a solid theoretical base, or (3) contains practically complex theories with insufficient empirical data. The research model applies the Social Commerce Constructs (SCC): recommendations and referrals, forums and communities, and ratings and reviews to study the respective influence on the consumer decision-making process phases. This paper aims to understand the influence of social commerce on an integrative model that incorporates all customer choice phases while expecting new knowledge. Furthermore, it is advised that this conceptual model be empirically verified to evaluate the practical consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: pump-turbine; support bracket; runner axial force; stress; deformation
Online: 24 December 2021 (08:11:22 CET)
During operation, the support bracket is the main part to withstand the axial loads of the pumped storage unit. Moreover, the effects of axial loads including the hydraulic thrust of runner flow and the weight of runner body may cause the support bracket deformation and fatigue damage. For the safe and stable operation, the simulation of the axial force and the structural analysis of the support bracket of a pumped storage unit was carried out in this paper. The CFD simulation result has revealed the variation rule of the axial force in different operating conditions. Using ANSYS Mechanical, the static stresses and deformation of support bracket with axial loads were calculated. The results release the location and variations of maximum stress and maximum deformation caused by the axial loads. By comparing the predicted maximum axial force with the admission force calculated by the structural analysis, it is found that the axial force of the researched machine is within the safe range. This study provides the reference for the safety and stable operation of the pumped storage unit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0407.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: breast milk immunoactive factors; cortisol; maternal stress; social support
Online: 15 April 2021 (11:07:47 CEST)
Possible alterations of maternal immune function due to psychological stress may reflect immunoactive factor levels in breast milk. This study aimed to assess the association between maternal distress and breast milk levels of secretory IgA (SIgA), IgM, IgG, and lactoferrin (LF). We hypothesized this association is moderated by maternal social support achieved from others during lactation. The study group included 103 lactating mothers and their healthy 5-months-old infants. Maternal distress was determined based on the State Anxiety Inventory and the level of salivary cortisol. Social support was assessed using Berlin Social Support Scales. Breast milk samples were collected to test for SIgA, IgM, IgG, and LF using the ELISA method. Milk immunoactive factors were regressed against maternal anxiety, social support, salivary cortisol, and infant gestational age using the general regression model. Maternal anxiety was negatively associated with milk levels of LF (β=-0.22, p<0.05) and SIgA (β=-0.29, p<0.01), while social support was positively associated with milk IgG (β=0.25, p<0.05). Neither anxiety nor social support was related to milk IgM. No association was found between the level of maternal salivary cortisol and immunoactive factors in milk. Our results suggest that maternal psychological well-being and social support may affect milk immune properties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: social support; anxiety; depression; quality of life; breast cancer
Online: 6 April 2021 (11:31:59 CEST)
Background: Breast cancer is the second type of cancer diagnosed in women and is the first cancer in women worldwide. Breast cancer also causes high morbidity and mortality in women and becomes a heavy burden due to the incidence of disability due to the disease. Purpose: This literature review aims to examine how social support affects anxiety, depression and quality of life in breast cancer sufferers. Method: The data were obtained by searching for reputable and trustworthy journals. have high quality criteria, namely Scopus, Proquest, Science Direct, Elsevier, Pubmed. Journals or articles used in this review literature are searched using keywords and Boolean operators (AND, OR NOT, or AND NOT). Keywords in this review literature are as follows: social support OR family support, quality of life OR Quality, anxiety OR depression, AND Cancer OR cancer treatment OR Chronic disease. Results: The results of this literature review show that there is a significant influence between the social support received by breast cancer patients on the improvement of their quality of life. The social support provided is also able to reduce anxiety and depression in breast cancer sufferersConclusion: Social support given to breast cancer patients is proven to have an effect on improving the quality of life, reducing anxiety and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0482.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: nuclear accidents; decision support; protective measures, LPM, PTM, CBRN.
Online: 18 December 2020 (16:33:16 CET)
The systems ESTE are running in nuclear crisis centers at various levels of emergency preparedness and response in Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Austria, Bulgaria, and Iran (at NPP monitored by International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA). ESTE is a decision support system, running 24/7, and serves the crisis staff to propose actions to protect inhabitants against radiation in case of a nuclear accident. ESTE is also applicable as decision support system in case of a malicious act with radioactive dispersal device in an urban or industrial environment. Dispersion models implemented in ESTE are Lagrangean particle model (LPM) and Puff trajectory model (PTM). Described are models approaches as implemented in ESTE. PTM is applied in ESTE for the dispersion calculation near the point of release, up to 100 km from the point of nuclear accident. LPM for general atmospheric transport is applied for short-range, meso-scale and large-scale dispersion, up to dispersion on the global scale. Additionally, a specific micro-scale implementation of LPM is applied for urban scale dispersion modelling too. Dispersion models of ESTE are joined with radiological consequences models to calculate a complete spectrum of radiological parameters - effective doses, committed doses and dose rates by various irradiation pathways and by various radionuclides. Finally, radiation protective measures, like sheltering, iodine prophylaxis, or evacuation, evaluated on the base of predicted radiological impacts are proposed. Dispersion and radiological models of the state-of-the-art ESTE systems are described. Results of specific analyses, like number of particles applied, initial spatial distribution of the source, height of the bottom reference layer, are presented and discussed.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0405.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: infrared spectroscopy; visible image; support vector machine; olive quality.
Online: 16 December 2020 (11:18:07 CET)
The color and NIR spectrum are key to build an oil estimation model, thus it requires individual olives clustering before the Sohlext oil extraction method can be applied. The objective was to analyze an OC estimation model of individual olives, based on cluster of similar color and NIR spectrum in different combination of the first and/or the second season. This study was performed with Chilean Arbequina olives in 2016 and 2017. The descriptor of the cluster consisted of the 3 color channels of c1, c2, c3 color model plus 11 reflectance points between 1710 and 1735 nm of each olive, normalized with the Z-score index. Clusters of similar color and NIR spectrum were formed with the k-means++ algorithm, leaving a sufficient amount of olives to be able to perform the Sohlext analysis of OC, as reference value. The estimation models were based on the Support Vector Machine. The test was carried out with the Leave One-Out Cross Validation in different training-testing combinations. The best model predicted the OC with 6% and 13%deviation respect to the real value in one season by itself and when one season tested with another season, respectively. The use of clustering in estimation model is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0462.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: adolescents; dating violence; school social climate; school social support
Online: 22 October 2020 (12:07:46 CEST)
(1) To analyse the potential association between school social support CECSCE and school social climate CASSS and experiences of dating violence among adolescents in Europe; (2) Cross-sectional design. We recruited 1,555 participants age 13-16 from secondary schools in Spain, Italy, Romania, Portugal, Poland and UK. The analysis in this text concerns student with dating experience (n=993) (57.2% of girls and 66.5% of boys). The association of the exposure to physical and/ or sexual dating violence, control dating violence and fear was measured by calculating the prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI), estimated by Poisson regression models with robust variance. All the models were adjusted by country and by sociodemografic variables; (3) The results show that the average values of all types of social support are significantly lower in young people who have suffered any type of dating violence or were scared of their partner. The likelihood of suffering physical and/or sexual dating violence decreased when CECSCE increased [PR (CI95%): 0.96 (0.92; 0.99)]. In the same way, the likelihood of fear decreased when CASSS classmates increased [PR (CI95%): 0.98 (0.96; 0.99)]; (4) There is an association between school social support and school social climate and experiences of dating violence among adolescents in Europe. Our results suggest that in the prevention of dating violence, building a supportive climate at schools and building / using the support of peers and teachers should be important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0384.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: neuromuscular disorders; dynamic arm support; activity monitoring; motor performance
Online: 17 July 2020 (14:17:28 CEST)
Neuromuscular disorders cause progressive muscular weakness, which limits upper extremity mobility and performance during activities of daily life. A dynamic arm support can improve mobility and quality of life. However, their use is often discontinued over time for unclear reasons. This study aimed to evaluate whether users of dynamic arm supports demonstrate and perceive quantifiable mobility benefits over a period of two months. Nine users of dynamic arm supports were included in this observational study. They had different neuromuscular disorders and collectively used four different arm supports. They were observed for three consecutive weeks during which they were equipped with a multi-sensor network of accelerometers to assess the actual use of the arm support and they were asked to provide self-reports on the perceived benefits of the devices. Benefits were experienced mainly during anti-gravity activities and the measured use did not change over time. The self-reports provided contextual information in domains such as participation to social life, in addition to the sensor system. However self-reports overestimated the actual use by up to three-fold compared to the accelerometer measures. A combination of objective and subjective methods is recommended for meaningful and quantifiable mobility benefits during activities of daily life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0222.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: servant leadership; perceived organizational support; employee well-being; correlation
Online: 13 March 2020 (02:53:46 CET)
This current research follows up on Greenleaf’s oft-quoted best test of servant leadership that calls for employees to be better off financially, emotionally, physically, psychologically, etc. because of the time spent with the servant leader. While oft-quoted, little empirical work exists to see if this is true. In this study, 170 participants provided their perception of their supervisors’ level of servant leadership, their perception of the organization’s support, and their self-report of their general well-being. Gender and age bracket information described the participants, and there were no significant differences between gender or age brackets for participants’ perception of their supervisors’ servant leadership. The analysis showed that there was a moderate positive correlation between servant leadership, perceived organizational support, and general well-being. A modification of an existing general well-being instrument provided a new eight-item general well-being scale with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.956.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0436.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Expanded Public Works Programme; EPWP; SMMEs; Training; and Support
Online: 21 September 2018 (10:44:18 CEST)
Small business sector around the world is regarded as a catalyst of employment for the largest number of people. To reduce massive unemployment and inequality in the country, the Government of South Africa introduced various initiatives to stimulate and support small businesses, the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) is one of such initiatives. The enterprise development approach, is one of the delivery mechanisms of the EPWP, which seeks to transfer income to poor households in the short to medium-term. This study critically assess the impact and effectiveness of training and support interventions provided to small businesses through the EPWP. The study employs a quantitative research method and due to the size, availability and ease of access to the participants, the entire population of twenty (20) small businesses supported by the EPWP in Pretoria Region was sampled. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted. The study demonstrates that the training intervention provided through the EPWP is making positive impact and achieving its intended goals of enhancing business management skills to participants. It also reveals an interesting outcome that the majority of the participants are women. The study also identified some weaknesses in the programme which leads to the recommendation that long-term support mechanisms are essential to ensure sustainability of emerging enterprises.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0003.v3
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: sustainability; value modeling; decision support; value driven design; review
Online: 12 June 2017 (13:51:25 CEST)
Manufacturing organizations shall recognize sustainability as a business occasion to capitalize on, rather than an undesirable pressing situation. Still, empirical evidence shows that this opportunity is hard to capture and communicate in global strategic decisions, through planning by tactical management, to daily operational activities. This paper systematically reviews the modeling challenges at the crossroad of value and sustainability decisions making, spotlighting methods and tools proposed in literature to link sustainability to customer value creation at strategic, tactical and operational level. While statistical results show that the topic of sustainability and value modeling is trending in literature, findings from content analysis reveal that recent attempts to promote a value-based view in the sustainability discussion remain at a strategic level, with most of the proposed indicators being suited for managerial decision-making. The lack of support at operational level points to the opportunity of cross-pollinating sustainability research with value-centered methodologies originating from the aerospace sector. The Value Driven Design framework is proposed as main hub from which to derive models supporting engineers and technology developers in the identification of win-win-win situations, where sustainable improvements are aligned with business advantages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0091.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Government support; Innovation probability; Innovation destiny; Propensity score matching
Online: 10 May 2017 (18:04:33 CEST)
Government support plays an important role in Chinese economy. New energy industries, concerning innovation-driven source and environmental protection, are also supported by government. This paper aims to study the effects of the traditional government support at supply side on firms’ innovation and development. In this paper, we propose enterprise behavior model including characteristics of new energy industries, and study the innovation reaction of firms to government support in different situation. We further use propensity score matching to verify the results in theoretical model, and conduct robustness analysis. Our main conclusions include: (1) In the normal years government support can only promote the innovation output of firms which have innovated, however, can not promote the innovation probability of firms which have not innovated. That is to say, government support can only enhance the intensive margin of innovation, but can not enhance the extensive margin of innovation with less competition. (2) In the situation of bad economic environment and intense competition, firms’ innovation probability rises as the government support increase. Therefore, government should provide more R&D special subsidies and implement strict financial supervision to make the effectiveness of support policies especially in the normal years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0349.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: decision support; multi-criteria decision analysis; multiple criteria pareto frontier methods; criterium decision plus; net weaver developer; SADfLOR; ecosystem management decision support system
Online: 24 May 2018 (10:35:18 CEST)
This study examines the potential of combining decision support approaches to identify optimal bundles of ecosystem services. A forested landscape, Zona de Intervenção Florestal of Paiva and Entre-Douro and Sousa (Portugal), is used to test and demonstrate this potential. The landscape extends over 14,000 ha, representing 1,976 stands. The property is fragmented into 376 holdings. The overall analysis was performed in three steps. First, we selected six alternative solutions (A to F) in a Pareto frontier generated by a multiple criteria method within a decision support system (SADfLOR) for subsequent analysis. Next, an aspatial strategic multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) analysis was performed with the Criterium DecisionPlus (CDP) component of another decision support system (EMDS) to assess the aggregate performance of solutions A to F for the entire forested landscape with respect to their utility for delivery of ecosystem services. For the CDP analysis, SADfLOR data inputs were grouped into two sets of primary criteria: Wood Harvested and Other Ecosystem Services. Finally, a spatial logic-based assessment of solutions A to F for individual stands of the study area was performed with the NetWeaver component of EMDS. The NetWeaver model was structurally and computationally equivalent to the CDP model, but the key NetWeaver metric is a measure of the strength of evidence that solutions for specific land stands were optimal for the unit. Solutions D and B performed best in the aspatial strategic MCDA analysis, and a composite of the maps generated by NetWeaver demonstrated the spatial basis for the performance of solutions D and B in individual land stands. We conclude with a discussion of how the combination of decision support approaches encapsulated in the two systems could be further automated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2002.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: social support; psychological well-being; happiness; emotional intelligence; life satisfaction
Online: 31 October 2023 (10:02:51 CET)
The well-being in the people is a key aspect of the field of psychology. Hence, it is important to an-alyse the variables that are related to life satisfaction and happiness as perceived by individuals and that, therefore, increase their overall well-being. The main objective of this study was to ana-lyse the predictive capacity of emotional intelligence and perceived social support on both the level of life satisfaction and perceived happiness. A total of 380 psychology students completed the Trait Meta Mood Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. The results show that both emotional intelligence and social support are related to and predictive of subjective happiness and life satisfaction. The importance of developing the components of emotional intelligence and promoting an adequate social network in young people is highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1692.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: n/a; Ontology; Database; Cardiovascular Diseases; Diagnosis; Decision Support Systems
Online: 26 October 2023 (10:08:19 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are chronic diseases associated with a high risk of mortality and morbidity. Early detection of CVD is crucial to initiating timely interventions, such as appro- priate counseling and medication, which can effectively manage the condition and improve patient outcomes. Preventive measures should be implemented at the general public level, promoting a healthy lifestyle, and at the individual level, that is, in people with moderate to high risk of CVD or patients already diagnosed with CVD by addressing an unhealthy lifestyle. Personalized early diagnostic systems based on artificial intelligence (AI), ontologies, and other medical information processing systems may prove to be a great preventive measure. In this paper, we focus on the use of ontology-inspired database models in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, as well as their potential for use in web application development.