ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0829.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: depression; vitamins and supplements; adults; prevention
Online: 12 June 2023 (11:04:19 CEST)
Background: Studies addressing diet quality and mental health have shown a strong association. There is limited evidence of specific vitamins essential for treating depression. This study aims to understand the impact of diet quality through supplementation of vitamins D, B6, and magnesium on depressive symptoms. Methods: Multiple datasets from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017-March 2020 investigated the associations between vitamin D, B6, and magnesium on depression symptoms. A cross-sectional sample of adults over 20 was extracted (n=9,232). Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations. Results: Individuals with low doses of vitamin D were more likely to report symptoms of depression relative to those with low doses of vitamin B6 (χ²=3.9063, p=0.0481 vs. χ²=5.2071, p=0.0225). These results remained significant among those with high magnesium proportionate to high vitamin B6 (χ²=6.1272, p=0.0133 vs. χ²=5.2071, p=0.0225). Logistic regression results provided associations for all models except unadjusted vitamin D and adjusted vitamin D. Conclusions: Preventive measures could be addressed by identifying the risks of vitamin deficiencies. Further epidemiological research is needed for the individual effects of vitamin supplementation and depression symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0792.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: nutrivigilance; adverse reactions; food supplements; HACCP
Online: 12 June 2023 (07:39:38 CEST)
Introduction: The assumption that food resources and dietary supplements are natural and do not have side effects, or do not interact with drugs, is wrong, and can lead to unplanned symptoms or even hospital admissions. Also, not communicating with the family doctor, or the pharmacist, can make their work considerably more difficult in establishing the correct treatment. Methods: PubMed, ResearchGate, EUR-Lex, and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center databases for scientific literature were analyzed, for the keywords "adverse reactions", nutrivigilance", and "drug interaction". The method proposed by us for the implementation of nutrivigilance in the re-search-development stage is the application and adaptation of HACCP principles (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) to nutrivigilance. Results: The implementation of nutrivigilance in the Romanian food supplements industry and healthcare system represent a real tool for improving public health management by preventing adverse reactions, and reducing the costs of the health system. From our knowledge, the proposal regarding the implementation of nutrivigilance in the research stage of food and food supplements, based on the principles of HACCP is unique. Conclusions: We believe that the proposed method is useful starting with the research-development of food supplements, followed by post-sale analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0258.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Sports Nutrition; Dietary Supplements; Athletic Performance
Online: 16 January 2023 (01:29:53 CET)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effect of caffeine supplementation on performance in official soccer matches. In double-blind, randomized crossover design, 13 professional soccer players performed two complete matches, with Caffeine (CAF) (6 mg/kg) and placebo (PLA) supplementation. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed that there was no effect of supplementation on the total distance covered (p = 0.536; ŋp² =0.033) or the total distance covered at different speeds (p = 0.453; ŋp² = 0.048), acceleration or deceleration (p = 0.387; ŋp² = 0.063) number of sprints (p = 0.521; µ² = 0.035) Heart Rate mean (p = 0.484; ŋp² = 0.042) Heart Rate maximum (p = 0.110; ŋp² = 0.199), Rate Perceived Effort (p = 0.151) or efficiency index (p = 0.480). Therefore, acute caffeine supplementation not effective to increase the performance of soccer players in official matches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0541.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: antioxidant activity; dietary supplements; microalgal cultivation
Online: 25 August 2020 (08:41:14 CEST)
Microalgae production is expensive and demands high volumes of water and energy to meet all market demands and yet the production of secondary metabolites using alternative media needs deeper studies. Among alternative media, the use of sugar cane vinasse has gained attention for microalgae cultivation. In this work, we’ve compared the biomass yield and secondary metabolites of Chlorella sorokiniana grown in a commercial medium (Sueoka) and in alternative medium prepared with cane vinasse (0.1%) supplemented with N, P2O5 and K2O (commercial formula 20-5-20 g.L-1). The production of microalgae biomass grown in an alternative medium was 2.2% lower, but reached its maximum growth point 14 days faster than the commercial medium. The average level of Phenolic compounds on the commercial medium were 6.02 ± 0.13 mg GAE .g-1 and increased to 15.28 ± 0.32 mg GAE.g-1when C. sorokinianawere grown in the vinasse medium. Same how, Flavonoids contents varied from 13.12 ± 1.33 to 72.30 ± 5.28 mg QE. g-1 to commercial and vinasse medium, respectively. The maximum AOA of C. sorokiniana grown in vinasse medium was 88.05% at a concentration of 1500 µg.mL-1 of extract, with IC50 at 357.7 ± 27.35 µg.mL-1. Different factors seem to induce variances on secondary metabolites synthesis, mostly stress due to QOD and ions added to the medium by vinasse. The authors recognize there are more investigations to be done, but increasing a natural and low cost pathway for flavonoids yield open up an interesting field for the bioprospection of microalgae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0168.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: nutritional supplements; tennis; ergogenic aids; amateurs
Online: 12 April 2018 (14:16:39 CEST)
Literature on the use of nutritional supplements (NS) in tennis players is scarce. The objective of the present study was to evaluate NS consumption in a group of men's tennis players who participated in the 2016 Andalusian team championship. A total of 70 questionnaires from 7 different clubs were registered. The questionnaire was previously designed and evaluated through piloting in which the validity of the content, its application, its structure and its presentation were observed. The results showed that 100% of the sample group was in favor of NS consumption within the law, 88.6% claimed to have consumed them at some time and 61.4% presently consume them. The NS most consumed by study participants were sports drinks (69.35%), energy bars (29%), a vitamin complex (19.35%), protein (serum) (17.74%) and creatine (14.51%). A high percentage of NS consumers thought that they had obtained positive results from NS consumption. The percentages and the findings regarding NS consumption in the present study were similar to the contributions made by other studies which evaluated supplementation in athletes, although with some subtle differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: vitamin and mineral dietary supplements; mercury
Online: 29 March 2018 (03:52:58 CEST)
Dietary supplements are more and more often used to increase daily intake of essential vitamins and minerals. These preparations are classified as special category of foods and are subject to food law, not pharmaceutical regulations. As a result the requirements to dietary supplements are much less restrictive than to medications. Also simple and inexpensive procedure of registration causes that the number of dietary supplements is widely spread every year. On every manufacturing phases of dietary supplements, there is a risk of contamination. One of the pollutions might be mercury which is classified as heavy metal. Its inorganic compounds damage kidneys and liver and methylmercury is easily absorbed from gastrointestinal system. Methylmercury is distributed in all tissues, also in nervous system. The aim of study was to determine the level of mercury in multivitamins and multiminerals preparations and to analyze the results. The study included 22 dietary supplements containing vitamins and minerals available on Polish market. Mercury was analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometry using AMA 254. The concentrations of Hg was 0.22–5.85 µg/kg (the average content was 2.40 µg/kg). The highest average mercury content was 4.51 µg/kg, whereas the lowest one was 0.31 µg/kg. The results was also analyzed in individual groups depending on main component and indication for use as well as pharmaceutical formulation. Also according to manufacturer’s recommendation, the dose of mercury taken with a single medicine was estimated for time of a day, a week, a month, 3 months and also a year. The findings were compared to limits defined in regulations of European Union and PTWI set by JECFA to assess the health risk. The results presented in this study proved that the amount of mercury in tested dietary supplements is much lower than the value of valid regulations. Analyzed supplements as long as they are used with the recommendation of manufacturer, do not pose a threat to human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0322.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: fertility; male reproduction; semen parameters; supplements; ingredients
Online: 19 April 2020 (04:18:39 CEST)
Background: Dietary supplements (DS) represent a possible approach to improve sperm parameters and male fertility. A wide range of DS containing different nutrients is now available. Although many authors demonstrated benefits from some nutrients in male infertility, their real effectiveness is still under debate. The aim of this study was to critically review the composition of DS using the Italian market as sample. Materials & Methods: Active ingredients and their minimal effective daily dose (mFED) were identified through literature search. Thereafter, we created a formula to classify the expected efficacy of each DS. Considering active ingredients, their concentration and the recommended daily dose, DS were scored into three classes of expected efficacy: higher, lower and none. Results: Twenty-one DS were identified. Most of them had a large number of ingredients, frequently at doses below mFED or with unproven efficacy. Zinc was the most common ingredient of DS (70% of products), followed by selenium, arginine, coenzyme Q and folic acid. By applying our scoring system, 9.5% of DS fell in higher class, 71.4% in lower class and 19.1% in the class with no expected efficacy. Conclusions: DS marketed in Italy for male infertility frequently include effective ingredients but also a large number of substances at insufficient dose or with no proven efficacy. Manufacturers and physicians should better consider the scientific evidence on effective ingredients and their doses before formulating and prescribing these products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0696.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: vitamin D; supplements; sport nutrition; swimming; adolescent athletes.
Online: 9 August 2023 (09:49:06 CEST)
The purpose of this research was two-fold: (a) to observe whether highly trained adolescent swimmers abide to vitamin D supplement recommendations; and (b) to monitor changes in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) that occur between the autumn and winter months. Twenty swimmers (age: 17 ± 2 years) from a UK high-performance swimming club volunteered to complete two blood spot cards to determine 25(OH)D concentration: the first in an autumn training phase (October) and the second during winter training (January). All swimmers were advised to consume vitamin D3 supplements across the assessment period; however, only 50% of swimmers adhered to this recommendation. Resultantly, a winter decline in 25(OH)D was observed in non-supplementing swimmers (79.6 ± 25.2 to 52.6 ± 15.1 nmol·L-1, p = 0.005), with swimmers either displaying an ‘insufficient’ (60%) or ‘deficient’ (40%) vitamin D status. In comparison, greater maintenance of 25(OH)D occurred in supplementing swimmers (92.0 ± 25.5 to 97.2 ± 38.3 nmol·L-1, p = 0.544), although variable outcomes occurred at the individual level (four increased, three maintained, three declined). These findings highlight possible risks of vitamin D insufficiency during the winter for swimmers in the UK, possibly requiring standardised supplement practices. Moreover, alternative educational strategies may be required for swimmers to transfer knowledge to practice in order to improve supplement adherence in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0418.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: sport nutrition; ergogenic aids; swimming; adolescent athletes.; supplements
Online: 6 July 2023 (10:58:16 CEST)
The aim of this study was to observe the nutritional supplement practices of highly trained swimmers on a national talent pathway, since it is often reported that swimmers engage in widespread supplement use at the elite level. Thus, this study conducted short interviews based on a validated supplement intake questionnaire with forty-four swimmers from a high-performance swimming club, which had three distinct talent stages: development (aged 11–14 years, n = 20), age-group (aged 13 – 17 years, n = 13), and national level (aged ≥16 years, n = 11). Ninety-eight percent of the interviewed swimmers reported using at least one supplement, with performance (34%) and recovery (19%) cited as the primary reasons. National swimmers used more total supplements (8.1 ± 3.4 supplements) compared to age-group (4.8 ± 2.0 supplements, p = 0.003, g = 1.17) and development (3.9 ± 1.7 supplements, p <0.001, g = 1.69) swimmers, mostly because of a greater intake of ergogenic aids (2.4 ± 1.4 supplements vs. age-group: 0.5 ± 0.5 sup-plements, p <0.001, g = 1.12; vs. development: 0.1 ± 0.2 supplements, p <0.001, g = 1.81). Par-ents/guardians were the primary supplement informants of development swimmers (74%, p <0.001, V = 0.50), whereas performance nutritionists informed ~50% of supplements used by age-group and national swimmers (p <0.001, V = 0.51). Based on these results, supplement edu-cation and greater focus on basic sport nutrition practices may be required for parents/guardians at the development level. Moreover, further research is needed to support the high number of ergogenic aids used by national swimmers, with the efficacy of these supplements currently equivocal in the applied setting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1255.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: caffeine; health benefits; athletics effects; dietary supplements; nanocarriers
Online: 17 May 2023 (14:19:41 CEST)
Caffeine is a naturally occurring alkaloid found in various plants. It acts as a stimulant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and even an aid in pain management, and is found in several over-the-counter medications. This naturally derived bioactive compound is the best-known ingredient in coffee and other beverages, such as tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks, and is the most widely consumed substance worldwide. Therefore, it is extremely important to research the effects of this substance on the human body. With this in mind, caffeine and its derivatives have been extensively studied to evaluate its ability to prevent diseases and exert anti-aging and neuroprotective effects. This review is intended to provide an overview of the effects of caffeine on cancer, cardiovascular, immunological, inflammatory, and neurological diseases, among others. The heavily researched area of caffeine in sports will also be discussed. Finally, recent advances in the development of novel formulations, in the form of dietary supplements of caffeine and nanocarriers, to enhance the bioavailability of caffeine and its beneficial effects will be discussed. On the other hand, caffeine may contribute to elevated blood pressure, anemia, and migraine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0515.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: antioxidant supplements; ROS; oxidative stress analysis; metabolic diseases
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:46:04 CET)
Cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as by-products of metabolism, which can give rise to a two-sided effect on the body under balanced and imbalanced oxidant homeostasis conditions. Antioxidant supplements exert their beneficial efficacy in the treatment of metabolic diseases only when the oxidant homeostasis is imbalanced with the over-production of ROS. Over-supplementation of antioxidant(s) can also cause an imbalanced oxidant homeostasis to exert detriments to the induction of metabolic diseases. This commentary raises a concern that prior to precise supplementation of antioxidants, an establishment of oxidant homeostasis status is required in avoiding an imbalanced oxidant homeostasis in vivo. In searching for valid oxidant stress makers, 3-Nitrotyrosine seems to fit in with the selection criteria and its quantification can be correlated with the degree of oxidative stress in vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0245.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, fatigue, dietary supplements, vitamins, folic acids
Online: 11 May 2021 (14:11:39 CEST)
Despite recent advances in immune-modulatory drugs, pharmacological therapies have been proven ineffective in severe presentations of multiple sclerosis (MS), including secondary progressive MS. At present, therapeutic interventions' performance is primarily focused on ameliorating symptoms to improve the patient's quality of life. Among complementary treatments, nutrition has been considered a decisive factor to control symptoms and enhance the wellness of MS patients. Although no special diets are associated with MS, the impact of diet and dietary supplements on the course of progressive forms of the disease have been studied during the last years. Fatigue is among the most common and disabling symptoms reported by MS patients. Fatigue has been defined in the Multiple Sclerosis Council for Clinical Practice Guidelines (MSCCPG, 1998) as a "subjective lack of physical and/or mental energy that the individual perceives as an interference with habitual and desired activities". This study aimed to compare the psychometric functioning of the "Fatigue Severity Scale" (FSS) and the "Modified Fatigue Impact Scale" (MFIS) in our sample of people with MS. Specifically, during chronic treatment, the change in these two parameters with two vitamin-rich dietary supplements (Citozym® and Ergozym®) was evaluated. The impact of these nutritional supplements revealed differences in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory parameters between treatment groups with subsequent improvement in fatigue. In conclusion, the results obtained have confirmed the effectiveness of complementary nutritional therapies, evaluated essentially based on hematological biomarkers, through which it is possible to act on disability to improve the quality of life of MS patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes; saffron; turmeric; food supplements; supplementation; physical exercise
Online: 7 June 2020 (06:01:12 CEST)
Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the world and one of its main features is chronic hyperglycemia. Among the therapeutic forms used to control the pathology are pharmacotherapy and the use of other alternatives such as regular exercise, which participates in glycemic control and the ingestion of plant extracts with antioxidant effects in the body. Among the different plants used, curcumin is a possible plant to be used to attenuate the hyperglycemic picture triggered by Diabetes Mellitus. Some studies suggest that this plant is antioxidant and hypoglycemic. The review aimed to know the antioxidant and hypoglycemic potential of curcumin supplementation in DM. The search was performed considering articles published between 2010 to 2019, in English and Portuguese, and a theoretical survey of relevant information was conducted in the main databases of scientific publications: Virtual Health Library and its indexed databases as Pubmed, LILACS, Scielo and Scientific Electronic Library Online. The associated use Turmeric and Physical Exercise demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic activity caused by Diabetes Mellitus. We may suggest that these are potential therapeutic ways to improve the quality and survival of diabetic patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0062.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: microbiome; probiotics, dietary supplements; nutrition; HIV infection, inflammation
Online: 8 May 2017 (12:10:17 CEST)
Microbiota plays a key role in various body’s functions, physiological, metabolic and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that resides on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer participate in interactions with the host immune system, and a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity. The immunomodulatory activity of probiotics has been proposed in several bowel disorders or in aging-related dysfunctions. In HIV infected patients, the intestinal immune system is affected and inflammation persists during ART therapy too. Several studies are in progress to investigate the ability of probiotics to modulate epithelial barrier functions, microbiota composition and microbial translocation in HIV infection. This mini-review aims to suggest how the use of probiotics is beneficial not only in maintaining a healthy status but also to improve conditions in HIV subjects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2090.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: spinal cord injury; cell therapy; neuroprotection; supplements; peptides; inflammation
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:24:19 CEST)
Spinal cord injury is a traumatic injury that causes a catastrophic state in patients due to neuronal deficits, loss of motor and sensory function, and this is due to secondary deleterious events subsequent to mechanical damage that expands the death of neural cells beyond the initial trauma. One of the most important events is inflammation, which activates molecules like pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha) that provoke a toxic environment, inhibiting axonal growth and exacerbating CNS damage. As there is no effective treatment, one of the strategies developed is neuroprotection to preserve healthy neural tissue and reduce neuroinflammation. Some of the neuroprotective treatments that have been practiced are the use of cell therapy, the administration of peptides and molecules or supplements that have been shown to favor an anti-inflammatory environment, and help to preserve the cells and tissues surrounding the injured area, favoring axonal growth and improving locomotor function. In this review we will explain some of these strategies used in different animal models of spinal cord injury, their activity as modulators of the immune system and the benefits they have shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0383.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: anaerobic digestion; hydrolytic bacteria; biogas additives; evogen biogas additive; supplements
Online: 6 June 2023 (05:32:29 CEST)
Biogas production from organic waste is a promising renewable energy source, but achieving optimal production and digester stability can be challenging. This study investigated the impact of the Evogen microbial additive on biogas production and digester quality through microbial abundance and physicochemical parameter analysis. Two biogas plants, BG01 and BG02, were examined using 16S rRNA profiling to assess microbial abundance. Simultaneously, physicochemical parameters, including FOS/TAC ratio, total solids, volatile solids, biogas production, and VFA profile, were measured to evaluate digester performance. Results revealed distinct microbial community shifts in Evogen-treated digesters. Increased abundance of methanogenic archaea and hydrolytic bacteria indicated improved anaerobic digestion. Evogen supplementation also positively affected digester performance, with higher FOS/TAC ratios indicating enhanced acidification and methanogenesis. Reductions in total solids and volatile solids demonstrated improved organic matter degradation. Significantly higher biogas production was observed in Evogen-treated digesters, highlighting its potential as a microbial additive. Furthermore, VFA profiling demonstrated improved process stability and reduced substrate inhibition in Evogen-treated digesters. In summary, Evogen microbial additive positively influenced microbial dynamics, improving biogas production and digester quality. These findings contribute to optimizing biogas production systems and understanding the complex microbial interactions within anaerobic digesters.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0261.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: protocol; soccer performance; supplements; diet; systematic review; soccer professional players
Online: 12 April 2023 (08:28:31 CEST)
The unique physical demands of soccer necessitate optimal nutrition strategies for enhancing players' performance, recovery, and overall health. However, the effects of nutrition interventions on professional soccer players remain underexplored. This review aims to synthesize the current literature on the impact of nutrition interventions on professional soccer players' performance to inform future research and practical applications. The review will follow the PRISMA guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews. We will employ a four-part search strategy to identify relevant studies, including electronic bibliographic databases, trial registers, the web of clinical trials, and bibliography screening. Inclusion criteria will encompass randomized clinical trials involving professional or semiprofessional soccer players utilizing a nutrition or diet intervention. Quality assessment will be conducted using the Risk of Bias 2 (RoB 2) tool. A narrative synthesis will be provided, detailing the intervention types and their effects on performance. This review will offer a comprehensive understanding of the potential benefits of nutrition interventions for soccer professionals, helping coaches, nutritionists, and players to tailor their approaches for optimal performance and recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0202.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: blueberries; bile acids; dietary supplements; polyphenols; LC-MS/MS profiling
Online: 10 August 2022 (11:57:59 CEST)
Cholesterol-derived bile acids (BAs) affect numerous physiological functions such as glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and absorption, intestinal inflammation and immunity, as well as intestinal microbiota diversity. Diet influences the composition of the BA pool. The present study analyzes the impact of a dietary supplementation with a freeze-dried blueberry powder (BBP) on the fecal BA pool composition. The diet of 11 men and 13 women at risk for metabolic syndrome was supplemented with 50g/day of BBP for 8 weeks, and feces were harvested before (pre) and after (post) BBP consumption. BAs were profiled using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. No significant changes in total BAs were detected when comparing pre- vs post-BBP consumption samples. However, post-BBP consumption samples exhibited significant accumulations of glycine-conjugated BAs (p=0.04), glycochenodeoxycholic (p=0.01) and glycoursodeoxycholic (p=0.01) acids, as well as a significant reduction (p=0.03) of the secondary BA levels, when compared to pre-BBP feces (p=0.03). In conclusion, the fecal bileacidome is significantly altered after the consumption of BBP for 8 weeks. While additional studies are needed to fully understand the underlying mechanisms and physiological implications of these changes, our data suggest that the consumption of blueberries can modulate toxic BAs elimination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1198.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: nitric oxide; dietary supplements; endothelium function; hypertension; cardiovascular disease; blood flow
Online: 16 June 2023 (08:39:59 CEST)
Hypertension and arterial stiffness are the main factors contributing to cardiovascular disease. L-citrulline, a nitric oxide precursor, has been proposed as a blood pressure-lowering intervention. This study aimed to investigate the impact of L-citrulline on central and peripheral blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and muscle oxygenation at rest and during an isometric knee extension exercise protocol. Twelve older males received 6 g of L-citrulline or a placebo for six days using a double-blind crossover design. Blood hemodynamics parameters (i.e., arterial and brachial systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, heart rate), arterial stiffness (i.e., augmented pressure, augmentation index, forward, backward wave pressure and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity) and muscle oxygenation [i.e., oxyhemoglobin (Δ[O2Hb]) and deoxyhemoglobin (Δ[HHb]), total hemoglobin concentration (Δ[tHb]) and tissue saturation index (TSI%)], were measured at baseline, post-supplementation and during isometric exercise. No significant effects of L-citrulline supplementation were observed at rest or during exercise on blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and muscle blood flow. Both central and peripheral blood pressure were increased during the exercise, which is consistent with isometric contractions. The results of the present study question the efficacy of short-term L-citrulline in decreasing blood pressure at rest or attenuating blood pressure increases during isometric exercise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0291.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: food exchange list; sports foods; dietary supplements; dietetic practice; menu planning
Online: 24 June 2020 (09:41:43 CEST)
Food exchange lists have been widely used in dietary practice in health and disease situations, but there are still no exchange lists for sports foods. The aim of this study was to develop a sports foods exchange list based on previously published statistical criteria. A cross-sectional study of the nutritional composition of sports foods, regarding macronutrients and energy, was carried out. A total of 323 sports foods from 18 companies were selected and divided into seven groups: sports drinks; sports gels; sports bars; sports confectionery; protein powders; protein bars; and liquid meals. A sports foods composition database based on portion size was created. Food exchange groups, with the definition of the amounts - in grams - of each sports foods within each group, were designed using the same methodology and statistical criteria as previously published. The nutritional composition of the portions usually consumed by athletes and/or recommended in commercial packaging was used to calculate the mean energy and macronutrient values for each group. Within each sports foods group, different subgroups were defined due to differences in the main and/or secondary macronutrient. The mean nutrient values of each exchange group and the subgroups were determined according to previously established rounding criteria. This sports foods exchange list, made up of commercial sports products, is a novel tool for dietetic practice. Its management will allow dietitians to adapt dietary plans more precisely to the training and/or competition of the athlete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0323.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: vascular; omega-3; exercise; cerebral blood flow; middle cerebral artery; supplements
Online: 23 February 2020 (13:05:55 CET)
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) decreases across the lifespan, and chronic conditions such as dementia and stroke accelerate this decline. Impaired CBF results in reduced delivery of oxygen and nutrients, which can damage the brain over time. Thus, there is a need to identify lifestyle interventions including diet and exercise to maintain CBF with aging and in the presence of chronic disease. In the present study, we used transcranial Doppler ultrasound to record middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv), a surrogate measure of CBF, during moderate-intensity exercise in sedentary, cognitively-normal older adults (N = 90). A multiple linear regression model (F(4, 85) = 3.21, p = 0.02) showed self-reported omega-3 supplement use significantly moderated the association between age and mean exercising MCAv in these individuals (p = 0.01). Older age was associated with lower exercising MCAv in the group not taking omega-3 supplements, while exercising MCAv showed no decline with increasing age in the group who reported omega-3 supplement use. These findings suggest omega-3 supplementation may have an important role in the preservation of CBF with aging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0629.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: bronchial asthma; antioxidant; vitamins; minerals; supplements; biomarkers; oxidative stress; inflammation; smokers; nonsmokers
Online: 9 May 2023 (09:47:33 CEST)
Bronchial asthma (BA) is considered a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Increased oxidative stress (OS) is a clinical feature of BA, which promotes the inflammatory responses in bronchial/airway epithelial cells. Smokers and nonsmokers with asthma have been shown to have increases in several OS and inflammatory biomarkers. A few studies suggest a relationship between antioxidant intake from diet/supplements and BA in smoking and nonsmoking asthmatics. Dietary carotenoids and vitamin C (VC) intake might reduce BA risk in smokers and/or non-smokers. Evidence is lacking on the protective role of antioxidant vitamin and/or mineral consumption against BA in smokers and nonsmokers with respect to inflammation and OS biomarkers. Therefore, the aim of this review is to highlight current knowledge regarding the relations between antioxidant intake, BA and its associated biomarkers in smokers and nonsmokers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0125.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: herbal medicinal products; food supplements; botanicals; normative; phytotherapy; Italian pharmaceutical market; parapharmaceuticals
Online: 28 October 2016 (08:06:07 CEST)
The Italian herbal products market is the most prosperous in Europe. The proof is represented by the use of these products in several marketing categories, ranging from medicine to nutrition and cosmetics. Market and legislation in Italy are at the same time cause and consequence of this peculiar situation. In fact, the legislation on botanical food supplements in Italy is very permissive and at the same time the market shows an overall satisfaction of users and strong feedback in terms of consumption, which brings a widening use of medicinal plants, formerly the prerogative of pharmaceuticals, to other fields such as nutrition. This review summarizes the market and normative panorama of herbal products in Italy, highlighting the blurred boundaries of health indications, marketing authorizations and quality controls between herbal medicines and non pharmaceutical products, such as food supplements, cosmetics and other herbal-based “parapharmaceuticals”.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0070.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Nutraceuticals; Personalized Medicine; Precision Medicine; Probiotics; Vitamins; Covid; Dietary Supplements; Adverse Drug Effects
Online: 3 November 2022 (06:27:25 CET)
Nutraceuticals have taken the spotlight during the past two decades as evidenced by the exponential publications on them. Long a part of routine in Traditional Medicine Systems, the rise of their mainstream use globally raises both safety concerns and need for better understanding of efficacious dosing. We attempt to answer these questions in this preliminary scoping review by an analysis of current literature on nutraceutical use as a personalized or prescription medicine. Using Covidence, Rayyan, and manual searches of PubMed, 598 unique publications were selected. 32 are systematic reviews, of which we overview the scope. We also overview 30 papers that address adverse drug reactions. To obtain an unbiased landscape of the 598 papers, we analyzed keywords using multiple methods. Expectedly, the most frequent keywords were probiotics and vitamins. Unexpectedly and remarkably, among the highest keyword yield was ‘COVID’. Further exploring this aspect, we review 15 pertinent papers, that not only provide robust evidence for nutraceutical benefits as part of SARS-CoV-2 treatment, but also amplify the notion that nutraceuticals are protective. Overall, the strident note is that further robust targeted research is needed in order to reap the full benefits of nutraceuticals in a safe and efficacious manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0049.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: garcinia mangostana; inflammation; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; diabetes; xanthones; mangostin; phytotherapy; dietary supplements
Online: 4 April 2018 (06:19:44 CEST)
Insulin resistance is the most important underlying cause of obesity and type 2 Diabetes (T2DM), and insulin sensitizing treatments have proved effective in preventing diabetes and inducing weight loss. Obesity and T2DM are also associated with increased inflammation. Mangosteen is a tropical tree, whose fruits, widely known for their antioxidant properties, have been recently suggested having a possible further role in the treatment of obesity and T2DM. The objective of this pilot study has been to evaluate safety, compliance and efficacy of mangosteen on insulin resistance, weight management, and inflammatory status in obese female patients with insulin resistance. 22 patients were randomized 1:1 to behavioral therapy alone or behavioral therapy and mangosteen and 20 completed the 26-week study. The mangosteen group reported a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity (HOmeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance, HOMA-IR -53.22% vs -15.23%, p=.0037), and a trend decrease in inflammation markers serum levels, together with trend greater weight loss and trend increased HDL levels. No side effect attributable to treatment was reported. Given the positive preliminary results we report and the excellent safety profile, we suggest a possible role of mangosteen in the treatment of obesity, insulin resistance and inflammation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0485.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: eating disorders 1; dietary supplements 2; disordered eating 3; eating disorder risk factors 4
Online: 28 February 2023 (02:16:28 CET)
Disordered eating is a serious health concern globally. The etiology is complex and multidimensional and differs somewhat for each specific eating disorder. Several risk factors have been identified which include psychological, genetic, biochemical, environmental, and sociocultural factors. Poor body image, low self-esteem, teasing, family dynamics, and exposure to media images have also been identified as risk factors. While it is enticing to consider a single behavioral risk factor, doing so fails to consider the documented environmental, social, psychological, biological, and cultural factors that contribute to the development of an eating disorder in a multidimensional and complex integration that is undoubtedly unique to everyone. Focusing only on any one factor without taking the complex etiology into account is remiss. For example, it has been suggested that the use of dietary supplements may lead to eating disorders, despite a lack of evidence to support this conjecture. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the evidence-based risk factors for eating disorders and discuss why connecting dietary supplements to eating disorder etiology is not supported by the scientific literature and may interfere with treatment. Established, effective prevention and treatment approaches for eating disorders should be the focus of public health initiatives in this domain.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Nutritional Psychiatry; Mental Health Professionals; Psychiatrists; Psychologists; Psychotherapists; Education; Psychiatric Disorders; Diet; Supplements; Nutrition
Online: 16 February 2021 (13:36:58 CET)
Abstract: Nutritional interventions have beneficial effects on certain psychiatric disorder symptomatology and common physical health comorbidities. However, studies evaluating nutritional literacy in mental health professionals (MHP) are scarce. This study aimed to assess the degree of self-rated training and literacy relating to nutrition in MHPs. We conducted a cross-sectional survey across 52-countries. Surveys were distributed via colleagues and professional societies. Data were collected regarding self-reported general nutrition knowledge, nutrition education, learning opportunities, and the tendency to recommend food supplements or specific diets in clinical practice. In total, 1056 subjects participated in the study: 354 psychiatrists, 511 psychologists, 44 psychotherapists, and 147 MHPs in-training. All participants believed the diet quality of individuals with mental disorders was poorer compared to the general population (p<0.001). The majority of the psychiatrists (74.2%) and psychologists (66.3%) reported having no training in nutrition. Nevertheless, many of them used nutrition approaches, with 58.6% recommending supplements and 43.8% recommending specific diet strategies to their patients. Only 0.8% of participants rated their education regarding nutrition as ‘very good’. Almost all (92.9%) stated they would like to expand their knowledge regarding ‘Nutritional Psychiatry’. There is an urgent need to integrate nutrition education into MHP training, ideally in collaboration with nutrition experts to achieve best practice care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0070.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: genistein; soy isoflavone extracts; anti-menopausal dietary supplements; bacterial growth; viability of human cells
Online: 13 April 2017 (05:33:06 CEST)
Flavonoids, compounds present in many dietary supplements, affect growth of different bacterial species when tested as purified or synthetic substances. Here, we asked if soy isoflavone extracts, commonly used in many products sold as anti-menopausal dietary supplements, influence bacterial growth similarly to synthetic isoflavone, genistein. Four commercially available products were tested in amounts corresponding to genistein concentrations causing inhibition of growth of Vibrio harveyi (a model bacterium sensitive to this isoflavone) and Escherichia coli (a model bacterium resistant to genistein). Differential effects of various extracts on V. harveyi and E. coli growth, from stimulation, through no changes, to inhibition, were observed. Moreover, contrary to genistein, tested extracts caused a decrease (to different extends) in viability of human dermal fibroblasts. These results indicate that effects of various soy isoflavone extracts on bacterial growth and viability of human cells are different, despite similar declared composition of the commercially available products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0320.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: aging; longevity; supplements; geroprotectors; SIRT1; NAD+; NMN; resveratrol; nutraceuticals; age-related diseases; flavonoids; senolytics; healthspan
Online: 17 November 2022 (02:51:11 CET)
Disrupted biological function, manifesting through the hallmarks of aging, poses as one of the largest threats to healthspan and risk of disease development, such as metabolic disorders, cardiovascular ailments, and neurodegeneration. In recent years, numerous geroprotectors, senolytics, and other nutraceuticals have emerged as potential disruptors of aging and may be viable interventions in the immediate state of human longevity science. In this review, we focus on the decrease of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) with age and the supplementation of NAD+ precursors, such as nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) or nicotinamide riboside (NR), in combination with other geroprotective compounds to restore youthful NAD+ levels. Furthermore, these geroprotectors may enhance the efficacy of NMN supplementation while concurrently providing their own numerous health benefits. By analyzing the prevention of NAD+ degradation through inhibition of CD38 or supporting protective downstream agents of SIRT1, we provide a potential framework of the CD38/NAD+/SIRT1 axis through which geroprotectors may enhance the efficacy of NMN supplementation and reduce the risk of age-related diseases, thereby potentiating healthspan in humans.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2170.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: N-acetylcysteine; amino acid supplements; L-arginine; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; mdx mouse; osmolytes; supportive therapy; taurine
Online: 30 June 2023 (07:13:00 CEST)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the severest form of muscular dystrophy, is characterized by progressive muscle weakness with fatal outcome most often before the fourth decade of life. Despite recent addition of molecular treatments, DMD remains a disease without a cure, and the need persists for the development of supportive therapies aimed to help improve patients’ quality of life. This review focusses on the therapeutical potential of amino acid and derivative supplements, summarizing results obtained in preclinical studies in the murine disease model. Several promising compounds have come forward, with L-arginine, N-acetylcysteine and taurine featuring among the most intensively investigated. Beneficial effects include improved muscle function and reduced muscle fiber necrosis and reduced inflammatory and oxidative damage to muscle tissues, however mild side effects have also surfaced. In order to identify amino acid formulae that are safe and of true benefit to DMD patients, more explorative, placebo-controlled and long-term clinical trials need to be conducted, documenting therapeutic outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2034.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: iodine deficiency; glucose challenge test; large for gestational age; thyroglobulin; io-dine-containing supplements; maternal dysglycemia
Online: 30 May 2023 (04:08:48 CEST)
It is unclear how maternal glycemic status and maternal iodine status influence birth weight in mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency (ID). We studied the association between birth weight and both maternal glucose levels and iodine intake in pregnant women with mild-to-moderate ID. Glucose values were assessed using a glucose challenge test (GCT), non-fasting glucose before delivery; iodine status was assessed using an iodine food frequency questionnaire, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC). Thyroid antibodies and free thyroxine (FT4) were measured. Obstetric and an-thropometric data were also collected. Large for gestational age (LGA) was predicted using a Cox proportional hazards model with multiple confounders. Tg>13g/L was in-dependently associated with LGA (adjusted hazard ratio = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.4–10.2, p=0.001). Estimated iodine intake correlated with FT4 among participants reporting io-dine-containing supplements (ICS) after adjusting for confounders (β = 0.4 95 %CI: 0.0002-0.0008, p=0.001). Newborn weight percentiles were inversely correlated with maternal FT4 values (β=-0.2 95 %CI:-0.08 - -56.49, p=0.049). We conclude that in mild-to-moderate ID regions, maternal insufficient iodine status may increase LGA risk. Iodine status and ICS intake may modify the effect maternal dysglycemia has on offspring weight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0232.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: food safety; risk assessment; Cannabis sativa; tetrahydrocannabinol; food supplements; cannabidiol; benchmark dose; health-based guidance value (HBGV); liver toxicity
Online: 24 November 2022 (02:53:03 CET)
In the European Union (EU), cannabidiol products require pre-marketing authorisation under the novel food regulation. Currently, 19 CBD applications are under assessment at the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). During the initial assessment of the application files, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) located several knowledge gaps in their 07 June 2022 statement on safety of cannabidiol as a novel food that need to be addressed before the evaluation of CBD can be concluded. Namely, the effect of CBD on the liver, gastrointestinal tract, endocrine system, nervous system, psychological function, and reproductive system needs to be clarified. Nevertheless, the available literature allows a benchmark dose (BMD)-response modelling of several bioassays, resulting in a BMD lower confidence limit (BMDL) of 20 mg/kg bw/day for liver toxicity in rats. Human data in healthy volunteers found increases in the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in a study at 4.3 mg/kg bw/day, which was defined by EFSA NDA panel as a lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL). The EFSA NDA panel currently concluded that the safety of CBD as a novel food cannot be evaluated, leading to a so-called clock stop of the applications until the applicants provide the required data. Meanwhile, the authors suggest that CBD products still available as food supplements on the EU market despite the lack of authorisation must be considered as “unsafe”. Products exceeding a health-based guidance value of 10 mg/day must be considered as being “unfit for consumption” (Article 14(1) and (2) (b) of Regulation No 178/2002), while the ones in exceedance of the human LOAEL must be considered “injurious to health” (Article 14(1) and (2) (a) of Regulation No 178/2002).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0164.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: coffee; dietary supplements; metabolic syndrome X; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; adiponectin; hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Online: 27 October 2017 (02:32:43 CEST)
Since coffee has been shown to influence positively the metabolism of subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS), we aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of a coffee-based supplement on different features of diet-induced MetS. 24 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control or nutraceuticals groups to receive a high-fat/high fructose diet with or without a mixture of caffeic acid (30 mg/day), trigonelline (20 mg/day), and cafestol (1 mg/day) for 12 weeks. An additional 11 rats were assigned to an acute crossover study. In the chronic experiment, nutraceuticals did not alter body weight or glycemic control but improved fed hyperinsulinemia and HOMA-IR, and plasma adiponectin levels. The impact of nutraceuticals on post-prandial glycemia tended to be more pronounced after acute administration than at the end of the chronic study. Circulating and intrahepatocellular alanine transaminase activity, assessed by hyperpolarized-13C NMR spectroscopy, were reduced by coffee nutraceuticals at endpoint. There was also a tendency towards lower liver triglyceride content and histological steatosis score in the intervention group. In conclusion, a mixture of coffee nutraceuticals improved insulin sensitivity and exhibited hepatoprotective effects in a rat model of MetS. Higher dosages with or without caffeine deserve to be studied in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic; Dietary patterns; BMI; Nutrition; Vitamins; Healthy Food; Dietary Supplements; Factor analyses; Internal Consistency; weight gain
Online: 17 November 2021 (12:09:58 CET)
Since its inception in 2019, COVID-19 has been associated with significant changes in lifestyle-related behavior, including physical activity, diet, and sleep, which are vital to maintaining our well-being. This study measures lifestyle-related behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown using a 21-item questionnaire. The responses were collected from March 2021 to September 2021. Four hundred sixty-seven participants were engaged in assessing the changes caused by the pandemic and their effect on BMI. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were tested for 71 participants. Cronbach's alpha values for the questionnaire all exceeded 0.7, demonstrating good validity and internal consistency for it. The effect of each question regarding physical activity and dietary habits over the BMI difference was studied using ANOVA. The study shows that more than half of the participants reported snacking more between meals and increased their sitting and screen time, while 74% felt more stressed and anxious. These indications were the cause of the increase in the BMI rate for individuals in the lockdown. In contrast, 62% of the participants showed more awareness about their health by increasing the intake of immunity-boosting foods, and 56% of the participants showed an increase in the consumption of nutrition supplements. Females and married individuals tended to be healthier, so their BMI showed stability compared to others based on their gender and marital status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0214.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: soccer performance; supplements; diet; systematic review; high carbohydrate diet; creatine supplementation; tart cherry; betaine; bicarbonate and minerals; professional players
Online: 11 April 2023 (08:47:56 CEST)
Background: More than 270 million participants and 128,893 professional players play soccer. Research only weakly supports the impact of diets and supplements on the performance and recovery of professional soccer players. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search in Pub-Med, Scopus, Web of Science, and clinical trial registers. Inclusion criteria focused on professional or semi-professional soccer players, nutrition or diet interventions, performance improvement outcomes, and randomized clinical trial study types. We assessed quality using the Risk of Bias 2 (RoB 2) tool. We identified 16 eligible articles involving 310 participants. No nutritional intervention during the recovery period effectively improved recovery. However, several perfor-mance-based interventions showed positive effects, such as tart cherry supplementation, raw pistachio nut kernels, bicarbonate and mineral ingestion, creatine supplementation, betaine consumption, symbiotic supplements, and a high carbohydrate diet. These interventions influenced various aspects of soccer performance, including endurance, speed, agility, strength, power, explosiveness, and anaerobic capacity. Conclusions: Specific strategies, such as solutions with bicarbonate and minerals, high carbohydrate diets, and supplements like creatine, betaine, and tart cherry, can enhance the performance of professional soccer players. These targeted nutritional interventions may help optimize performance and provide the competitive edge required in professional soccer. We did not find any dietary interventions that could enhance recovery during recovery.