ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0085.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: microglia; cyanobacterium; Scytonema; lipopolysaccharide; cytokine; chemokine; superoxide; MMP-9; rat
Online: 10 January 2018 (08:52:56 CET)
Cosmopolitan Gram-negative cyanobacteria may affect human and animal health by contaminating terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments with toxins, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cyanobacterial genus Scytonema (S) produces several toxins, but to our knowledge the bioactivity of genus Scytonema LPS has not been investigated. We recently reported that cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. LPS elicited classical and alternative activation of rat microglia in vitro . Thus, we hypothesized that treatment of brain microglia in vitro with either cyanobacteria S. javanicum or S. ocellatum LPS might stimulate classical and alternative activation with concomitant release of superoxide anion (O2−), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and cytokines and chemokines. Microglia were isolated from neonatal rats and treated in vitro with either S. javanicum LPS, S. ocellatum LPS, or E. coli LPS (positive control) in a concentration-dependent manner for 18 hours at 35.9 °C. We observed that treatment of microglia with either E. coli LPS, S. javanicum or S. ocellatum LPS generated statistically significant and concentration-dependent O2−, MMP-9 and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, pro-inflammatory chemokines MIP-2/CXCL-2, CINC-1/CXCL-1 and MIP-1α/CCL3, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Thus, our results provide experimental support for our working hypothesis because both S. javanicum and S. ocellatum LPS elicited classical and alternative activation of microglia and concomitant release of O2-, MMP-9 and cytokines and chemokines in a concentration-dependent manner. To our knowledge this is the first report on the toxicity of cyanobacteria S. javanicum and S. ocellatum LPS to microglia, an immune cell type involved in neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity in the central nervous system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0036.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: ROS; histochemical; superoxide; hydrogen peroxide
Online: 3 December 2018 (16:17:03 CET)
The present protocol described staining protocol for Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in aromatic crop grown under nutrient stress through DAB and NBT histochemical method. Spearmint (Mentha spicata) were grown under manganese and salt toxicity stresses and after 10 and 20 days of the stress treatments, plants showed stunted growth. The morphological characteristics of leaves under stresses were observed. Manganese toxicity and salt stress induced the production of ROS. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide was characterised as brown spots from the DAB polymerisation which were emerged and clearly observed in leaves from plant grown under 2.5 and 5 mM concentrations of manganese as well as 300 mM concentration of salt. Furthermore, accumulation of superoxide anion was characterised as blue pigments based upon the ability of cells to reduce NBT. Spearmint leaves showed the distribution of the blue pigment which was obviously observed under the 5 mM of manganese and 300 mM of salt. DAB and NBT staining method can be the rapid method to characterise ROS accumulation in plant cell under the abiotic stresses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: bioflavonoids; superoxide generation; oxidative phosphorylation; translocation
Online: 5 October 2020 (12:13:08 CEST)
In present work, the effects of bioflavonoids (ginkgetin and sciadopitysin) on stimulus-induced superoxide generation, tyrosyl and serine/threonine phosphorylation of proteins in human neutrophils, and the translocation of cytosolic compounds (p47phox, p67phox and Rac) to cell membrane were studied, which were isolated from the needles of Taxus media var. Hicksii. Meanwhile, three normal flavonoids (apigenin, quercetin and isoquercetin) were involved as contrasts. The results indicated that ginkgetin and sciadopitysin were capable of concentration-dependently inhibitory effects on the superoxide generation induced by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), arachidonic acid (AA) and phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). And they also suppressed fMLP- and AA- induced tyrosyl or PMA-induced serine/threonine phosphorylation and the translocation of cytosolic compounds (p47phox, p67phox and Rac) to cell membrane, which were in parallel with the suppression of the stimulus-induced superoxide generation. The effect of these compounds on the radical-scavenging was also investigated. Ginkgetin and sciadopitysin did not show remarkable effect on DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and they didn’t display the radical-scavenging activity on superoxide anion generated by phenagine methoxysulfate (PMS)-NADH system. Apparently, ginkgetin and sciadopitysin had great performance in pharmacological value and they are worthy of in-depth study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0511.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Ferroptosis; glutathione peroxidases; heme peroxidases; hydrogen peroxide; lipid peroxidation; nitrogen monoxide radical; superoxide dismutase; superoxide radical; thioredoxin
Online: 26 October 2020 (10:43:02 CET)
The beginnings of redox biology are recalled with special emphasis on formation, metabolism and function of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in mammalian systems. The review covers the early history of heme peroxidases and the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide, the discovery of selenium as integral part of glutathione peroxidases, which expanded the scope of the field to other hydroperoxides including lipid hydroperoxide, the discovery of superoxide dismutases and superoxide radicals in biological systems and their role in host defense, tissue damage, metabolic regulation and signaling, the identification of the endothelial-derived relaxing factor as the nitrogen monoxide radical and its physiological and pathological implications. The article highlights the perception of hydrogen peroxide and other hydroperoxides as signaling molecules, which marks the beginning of the flourishing fields of redox regulation and redox signaling. Final comments describe the development of the redox language. In the 18th and 19th century, it was highly individualized and hard to translate into modern terminology. In the 20th century, the redox language co-developed with the chemical terminology and became clearer. More recently, the introduction and inflationary use of poorly defined terms has unfortunately impaired the understanding of redox events in biological systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0148.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: osteosarcoma; cancer; tumor; vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; vitamin D receptor; vdr; mitochondria; ROS; SOD; SOD1; SOD2; superoxide; superoxide dismutase
Online: 9 March 2020 (02:40:08 CET)
Superoxide, a form of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is catabolized by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and contributes to carcinogenesis via the oxidative damage it inflicts on cells. The aim of this research was to analyze the potential vitamin D-mediated regulation of the antioxidative “SOD1-to-SOD2 switch” within the human MG-63 osteosarcoma model. For this study; real-time PCR analysis was performed using MG-63 cells exposed to metabolically active 1,25(OH)2D3. Frist; a sustained statistically significant >2-fold suppression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) transcripts was observed after 10nM but not at 100nM of 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment; suggesting a cytostatic effect. In order to assess regulators of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation; gene expression of COX2 and COX4l1 of the mitochondrial complex IV and antioxidative enzymes (SOD1; SOD2 and Catalase (CAT)) were monitored. For COX2 and COX4l1; no changes in gene expression were observed. However; a concomitant decrease in CAT and SOD1 mRNA; and increase in SOD2 mRNA after 24 hours of 10nM 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment were observed. A ~8-fold increase in SOD2 mRNA was apparent after 48 hours. The significant increase in SOD2 activity in the presence of vitamin D indicates an antioxidant potential and sensitization of vitamin D during osteosarcoma transformation and mitochondrial detoxification over time.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Ultraviolet; superoxide; singlet Oxygen; cell blebbing; skin aging; peroxidative cascade; antioxidants
Online: 21 October 2020 (10:32:55 CEST)
The interaction of ultraviolet radiation with biological matter results in direct damage such as pyrimidine dimers in DNA. It also results in indirect damage provoked by the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) catalyzed by photo-sensitizers. Photosensitizers can be endogenous (e.g. Tryptophan) or exogenous (e.g. TiO2 and other photo-stable UVA sunscreens). Direct damage triggers an inflammatory response and the oxidative and proteolytic bursts that characterize its onset. The inflammatory reaction multiplies the effects of one single photon. Indirect damage, such as the peroxidative cascade in membrane lipids, can extend to thousands of molecular modifications per absorbed photon. Sunscreens should therefore be formulated in the presence of appropriate anti-oxidants. Superoxide and Singlet Oxygen are the main ROS that need to be tackled: this review describes some of the molecular, biochemical, cellular and clinical consequences of exposure to UV radiation as well as some results associated with scavengers and quenchers of Superoxide and Singlet Oxygen, as well as with inhibitors of singlet Oxygen production.
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: exhaustive exercise; oxidative stress; regular physical activity; saliva; peroxidase; catalase; superoxide dismutase
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:27:32 CEST)
Acute intense exercise causes significant oxidative stress and consequently an increase in total antioxidant capacity; however, the mechanisms and combined effects of intense exercise and smoking on oxidative stress among active and non-active smokers are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute intense exercise on antioxidant enzyme activity responses in active and non-active individuals exposed to cigarette smoke. The study included 40 subjects who were equally classified as: smokers that did exercise (SE), smokers that did not do exercise (SnE), non-smokers that did exercise (NSE), and non-smokers that did not do exercise (NSnE). The adjusted Astrand test was used to exhaust the subjects. Salivary enzymes of peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured, by spectrophotometry methods, at 3 different time points: pre-test (TP1), post-test (TP2), and one hour after finishing the test (TP3). Significant (p<0.05) group x time interactions were found for the three enzymes. Salivary POX, CAT and SOD increased in all groups from TP1 to TP2 and decreased from TP2 to TP3. Only the NSE showed a significant difference between TP1 to TP3 in POX and SOD by +0.011 ± 0.007 and +0.075 ± 0.02 (U/ml), respectively. The NSE showed significantly higher levels of POX, CAT and SOD in TP2 compared to the other groups. Furthermore, NSE and NSnE had higher levels of POX, CAT and SOD in TP1 and TP3 (p<0.05) compared with SE and SnE. Only in the NSnE, were no differences observed in CAT compared with SE and SnE in TP3. These results showed that the antioxidant level at rest and in the recovery time after the acute intense exercise was lower in SE and SnE compared with NSE and NSnE, suggesting that smoking habit may reduce the ameliorating effect of regular physical activity on acute exercise-induced oxidative stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0010.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: ascorbate; ascorbate-glutathione cycle; capsaicin; catalase; dihydrocapsaicin; glutathione; NADP-dehydrogenases; superoxide dismutase
Online: 2 August 2020 (10:52:06 CEST)
Capsicum is the genus where a number of species and varieties have pungent features due to the exclusive content of capsaicinoids such as capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. In this work, the main enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems in pepper fruits from four varieties with different pungent capacity has been investigated at two ripening stages. Thus, a sweet pepper variety (Melchor) from California type fruits, and three autochthonous Spanish varieties were used, including Piquillo, Padrón and Alegría riojana. The capsaicinoids contents were determined in pericarp and placenta from fruits showing that these phenyl-propanoids were mainly localized in placenta. The activity profile of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD, total and isoenzymatic), the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle (AGC) and four NADP-dehydrogenases indicate that some interaction with the capsaicinoid metabolism seems to occur. Among the results obtained on enzymatic antioxidant, the role of an Fe-SOD and the glutathione reductase from the AGC is highlighted. Additionally, it was found that ascorbate and glutathione content were higher in those pepper fruits which displayed the greater contents of capsacinoids. Taken together, all these data indicate that antioxidants may contribute to preserve capsaicinoids metabolism to maintain their functionality in a framework where NADPH is perhaps playing an essential role.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0006.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cultured neurons; insulin; glutamate; [Ca2+]i; mitochondrial potential; ATP; oxygen consumption rate; superoxide; ROS
Online: 2 August 2021 (09:10:44 CEST)
Glutamate excitotoxicity is implicated in the pathogenesis of many disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer’s disease, for which central insulin resistance is a comorbid condition. Massive glutamate release primarily through ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) causes a sustained rise in [Ca2+]i, followed by mitochondrial depolarization and an increase in intracellular O2• (superoxide) production. Recently, we found that insulin protected neurons against excitotoxicity by diminishing the delayed calcium deregulation (DCD), However, a role of insulin in superoxide production in excitotoxicity still needs to be clarified. The present study is aimed to investigate the effects of insulin on glutamate-evoked superoxide generation and DCD using the fluorescent indicators dihydroethidium, MitoSOX Red, and Fura-FF in rats cultured cortical neurons. We found that insulin significantly diminished both the intracellular and mitochondrial superoxide production in neurons exposed to glutamate and there was a strong linear correlation between [Ca2+]i and intracellular superoxide. MK 801, an inhibitor of NMDAR-gated Ca2+ influx, completely abrogated the glutamate effects in both the presence and absence of insulin. In experiments on sister cultures, insulin diminishes neuronal death. Thus, collectively, data obtained suggest that insulin diminishes glutamate-induced superoxide production in neurons via fall of [Ca2+]i increased and thereby improves viability of neurons
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0244.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: proton-coupled electron transfer; superoxide radical anion; antioxidants; cyclic voltammetry; electron spin resonance spectrum; pyrogallol
Online: 17 January 2022 (16:14:58 CET)
Abstract: Scavenging of electrogenerated superoxide radical anion (O2•−) by pyrogallol (PyH3) was investigated on the basis of cyclic voltammetry and in situ electrolytic electron spin resonance spectrum in N,N-dimethylformamide with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Quasi-reversible dioxygen/O2•− redox coupe was modified by the presence of PyH3, suggesting that O2•− was scavenged by PyH3 through proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) involving two proton transfer and one electron transfer. The DFT calculation suggested that the formation of hydrogen bond (HB) complex and the subsequent concerted-two-proton coupled electron transfer (2PCET) characterized by catechol moiety in PyH3 is plausible mechanism which embodies the superior kinetics of the O2•− scavenging by PyH3 as shown in the electrochemical results. Furthermore, it was clarified that three hydroxyl groups of PyH3 promote the formation of prereactive HB complex, in comparative analyses using related compounds, resulting the promotion of the O2•− scavenging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0058.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: proton-coupled electron transfer; superoxide radical anion; antioxidants; cyclic voltammetry; electron spin resonance spectrum; tocopherol
Online: 3 December 2021 (15:01:26 CET)
Abstract: Elimination of superoxide radical anion (O2•−) by tocopherols (TOH), and related compounds was investigated on the basis of cyclic voltammetry and in situ electrolytic electron spin resonance spectral measurements in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Quasi-reversible O2/O2•− redox was modified by the presence of TOHs, suggesting that the electrogenerated O2•− was eliminated by α-, β-, γ-TOH through proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), but not by δ-TOH. The structure–activity correlation of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-TOH characterized by methyl group on the 6-chromanol ring was experimentally confirmed, where the methyl group promotes the PCET mechanism. Furthermore, comparative analyses using some related chemical analogues suggested that methoxyl group of the 6-chromanol ring is required for a successful electron transfer (ET) to O2•− through the PCET. The electrochemical and DFT results in dehydrated DMF suggested that the PCET mechanism involves preceding proton transfer (PT) forming hydroperoxyl radical followed by a concerted PCET (ET–PT). The O2•− elimination by TOH proceeds efficiently along the net PCET mechanism involving one ET and two PTs.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: proton-coupled electron transfer; superoxide radical anion; mesalazine; cyclic voltammetry; electron spin resonance; ulcerative colitis
Online: 29 December 2020 (08:44:37 CET)
The elimination of superoxide radical anions (O2•−) by 5-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (mesalazine, 5-ASA), 4-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-ASA), and related compounds used for ulcerative colitis treatment was investigated using cyclic voltammetry and electron spin resonance (ESR) analyses aided by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Quasi-reversible O2/O2•− redox was found to be modified by the compounds, suggesting that an acid-base reaction in which a hydroperoxyl radical (HO2•) is formed from O2•− occurs. However, the deprotonated 5-ASA anion can eliminate O2•− through proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), forming a radical product. This electron transfer (ET) was confirmed by ESR analysis. The 4-aminophenol moiety in 5-ASA plays an important role in the PCET involving two proton transfers and one ET based on -conjugation. The electrochemical and DFT results indicated that O2•− elimination by 5-ASA proceeds efficiently viathrough the PCET mechanism after deprotonation of the 1-carboxyl group. Thus, 5-ASA may act as an anti-inflammatory agent in the alkali intestine through PCET-based O2•− elimination.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0222.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: ROS; oxidative stress; catalytic antioxidants; superoxide dismutase; catalase; peroxidase; manganese; salen-type ligands; animal studies
Online: 11 July 2020 (03:30:41 CEST)
Manganosalen complexes are coordination compounds that possess a chelating salen-type ligand, a class of bis-Schiff bases obtained by condensation of salicylaldehyde and a diamine. They may act as catalytic antioxidants mimicking both the structure and the reactivity of the native antioxidant enzymes active site. Thus, manganosalen complexes have shown to exhibit superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities, and they could potentially facilitate the scavenging of excess ROS, thereby restoring the redox balance in the damaged cells and organs. Initial catalytic studies compared the potency of these compounds as antioxidants in terms of rate constants of the chemical reactivity against ROS, giving catalytic values approaching and even exceeding that of the native antioxidative enzymes. Although most of these catalytic studies lack of biological relevance, subsequent in vitro studies have confirmed the efficiency of many manganosalen complexes in oxidative stress models. These synthetic catalytic scavengers, cheaper than natural antioxidants, have accordingly attracted intensive attention for the therapy of ROS-mediated injuries. The aim of this review is to focus on in vivo studies performed on manganosalen complexes and their activity on the treatment of several pathological disorders associated with oxidative damage. This disorders, ranging from the prevention of fetal malformations to the extension of lifespan, include neurodegenerative, inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases, tissue injury, and other damages related to liver, kidney or lungs.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: radiation track chemistry; chemical track structure; oxygen effect; oxygen depletion; ion beam therapy; ROS; superoxide anion
Online: 5 December 2019 (03:32:18 CET)
The radiosensitivity of biological systems is strongly affected by the system oxygenation. On the nanoscopic scale and molecular level, this effect is considered to be strongly related to the indirect damage of radiation. Even though particle track radiolysis has been the object of several studies, still little is known about the nanoscopic impact of target oxygenation on the radical yields. We present here an extension of the chemical module of the Monte Carlo particle track structure code TRAX, taking into account the presence of dissolved molecular oxygen in the target material. The impact of the target oxygenation level on the chemical track evolution and the yields of all the relevant chemical species is studied in water under different irradiation conditions: different linear energy transfer (LET) values, different oxygenation levels, and different particle types. Especially for low LET radiation, a large production of two highly toxic species (HO2• and O2•− ), which are not produced in anoxic conditions, is predicted and quantified in oxygenated solutions. The remarkable correlation between the HO2• and O2•− production yield and the oxygen enhancement ratio observed in biological systems suggests a direct or indirect involvement of HO2• and O2•− in the oxygen sensitization effect. The results are in agreement with available experimental data and previous computational approaches. An analysis of the oxygen depletion rate in different radiation conditions is also reported.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0044.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: extracellular vesicles; mesenchymal cells; proximal tubular cells; renal ischemia/reperfusion; mitochondria; anion superoxide; acellular therapy; regenerative medicine
Online: 3 February 2022 (10:07:54 CET)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) is characterized by intense anion superoxide (O2•-) production and oxidative damage. We investigated whether extracellular vesicles secreted by adipose tissue mesenchymal cells (EVs) administrated during reperfusion can suppress the exacerbated mitochondrial O2•- formation after I/R. We used Wistar rats submitted to bilateral renal arterial clamping (30 min) followed by 24 h of reperfusion. The animals received EVs (I/R+EVs group) or saline, I/R group) in the kidney subcapsular space. The 3rd group was of the false-operated rats (SHAM). Mitochondria were isolated from proximal tubule cells and immediately used. Amplex Red™ was used to measure mitochondrial O2•- formation and MitoTracker® Orange to evaluate Δψ. In vitro studies were carried out by using human renal proximal tubular cells (HK-2) co-cultured or not with EVs under hypoxia conditions. Administration of EVs restored O2•- formation to SHAM levels in all mitochondrial functional conditions. The expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase remained unmodified; transcription of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was upregulated. The co-cultures of HK-2 cells with EVs revealed an intense decrease in apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanisms by which EVs recover the renal structure and function after I/R are related to the normalization of the mitochondrial redox environment. The intravesicular catalase is central in the preservation mechanisms that, with the aid of the upregulated antioxidant HO-1/Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 system, depress early processes of cell death after I/R and open new vistas for the treatment of AKI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0429.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Aging; Almond; Chlorogenic acid; Lipid peroxidation; Mitochondria; 8-Oxo-guanine; Oxidative stress; Protein carbonylation; Sirtuin; Superoxide dismutase; Yeast
Online: 24 April 2020 (08:54:52 CEST)
Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb) is one of the largest nut crops in the world. Recently, phenolic compounds, mostly stored in almond skin, have been associated with much of the health-promoting behavior associated with their intake. The almond skin enriched fraction obtained from cold-pressed oil residues of the endemic Moroccan Beldi ecotypes is particularly rich in chlorogenic acid. In this study, both almond skin extract (AE) and chlorogenic acid (CHL) supplements, similar to traditional positive control resveratrol, significantly increased the replicative life-span of yeast compared to the untreated group. Our results showed that AE and CHL significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), most likely due to their ability to maintain mitochondrial function during aging, as indicated by the maintenance of normal mitochondrial membrane potential in treated groups. This may be associated with the observed activation of the anti-oxidative stress response in treated yeast, which results in activation at both gene expression and enzymatic activity levels for SOD2 and SIR2, the latter being an upstream inducer of SOD2 expression. Interestingly, the differential gene expression induction of mitochondrial SOD2 gene at the expense of the cytosolic SOD1 gene confirms the key role of mitochondrial function in this regulation. Furthermore, AE and CHL have contributed to the survival of yeast under UV-C-induced oxidative stress, by reducing the development of ROS / RNS, resulting in a significant reduction in cellular oxidative damage as evidenced by decreased membrane lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content and 8-oxo-guanine formation in DNA. Together, these results demonstrate the interest of AE and CHL as new regulators in the replicative life-span and control of the oxidative stress response of yeast.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0606.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: viroid; pathogenicity; RNA silencing; Dicer-like proteins; small interfering RNA; microRNA398; microRNA398a-3p; superoxide dismutase 1; reactive oxygen species; systemic necrosis
Online: 28 November 2018 (06:50:07 CET)
To examine the role of RNA silencing in defense against viroid, a Dicer-like 2 and 4 (DCL2&4)—double knockdown transgenic tomato line 72E was created. The expression of endogenous DCL2 and DCL4 in line 72E decreased to about a half of the empty cassette line EC. When challenged with potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), 72E allowed significantly higher level of PSTVd accumulation early in infection and showed lethal systemic necrosis. The size distribution of PSTVd-derived small RNA was significantly changed: the numbers of 21 and 22 nucleotides (nt) species in line 72E was approximately 66.7% and 5% of those in line EC, respectively. Conversely, the numbers of 24-nt species increased by 1100%. Furthermore, expression of miR398a-3p and miR398 increased 770–868% in the PSTVd-infected 72E, compared to the PSTVd-infected EC. In parallel, superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in PSTVd-infected 72E showed higher expression levels. In concert with miR398a-3p, SOD1 controls detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in cells. Since high levels of ROS production and its scavenging activity were observed in PSTVd-infected 72E, the lack of full-activity of DCLs was thought to have made the plant incapable to control excessive ROS production and thus resulted in to develop lethal systemic necrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0475.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus; liver; duckweed; Lemna minor; Cu; Zn; Glutathione Peroxidase; GPx; Glutathione-S-Transferase; GST; Superoxide dismutase; SOD; Catalase; CAT; remediation assessment
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:41:41 CEST)
A two-fold integrated research study was conducted; firstly, to understand effects of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) on the growth and oxidative stress in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus; secondly, to study the beneficial effects of the duckweed Lemna minor L. as a heavy metal remover from wastewater. Experiments were conducted in mesocosms with and without duckweed. Tilapia fingerlings were exposed to Cu (0.004 and 0.02 mg/L) and Zn (0.5 and 1.5 mg/L) and fish fed for four weeks. We evaluated the fish growth performance, the hepatic DNA structure using comet assay, the expression of antioxidative genes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPx and glutathione-S-transferase, GST) and GPx and GST enzymatic activity. The results showed that Zn exhibited more pronounced toxic effects than Cu. Low dose of Cu did not influence the growth whereas higher doses of Cu and Zn significantly reduced the growth rate of tilapia compared to control, but addition of duckweed prevented weight loss. Further, in the presence of a high dose of Cu and Zn, DNA damage decreased, antioxidant gene expressions and enzymatic activities increased. In conclusion, results suggest that duckweed and Nile tilapia can be suitable candidates in metal remediation wastewater assessment programs.