CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0312.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: intramural hematoma; superior mesenteric artery; treatment; steroid
Online: 6 November 2023 (13:42:55 CET)
(1) Background: Spontaneous isolated intramural hematoma of the superior mesenteric artery (SIHSMA) is a rare entity often considered as a subset of spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SIDSMA). It is characterized by a completely thrombosed false lumen with or without ulcer-like projection with computed tomography (CT) imaging. The recent literature describes few reports with a relatively short-term follow-up. The natural course, prognosis, and treatment options for SIHSMA still lack consensus. We present two cases of acute abdominal pain in a young man due to IMH of the superior mesenteric artery with an extensive literature review. (2) Case report: A 46-year-old male patient was submitted to an urgent CTA for acute abdominal pain, showing the presence of an isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery, determining significant stenosis of the vessel with collateral vessel patency. The patient referred to a recent COVID-19 infection, whose course was paucisymptomatic. He was treated conservatively with antiplatelet therapy and corticosteroid treatments, and, after a few days, the symptomatology completely regressed; also, 2-month- control CTA showed the complete IMH regression and the absence of any signs of residual stenosis. The second patient is a 61-year-old male patient who was submitted to an urgent CTA for acute abdominal pain, showing the presence of an isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery, not determining significant vessel stenosis. He was treated conservatively with antiplatelet therapy and corticosteroid treatment, and after a few days, the symptomatology completely regressed, and the radiological control showed a complete dissection regression. (3) Conclusion: SISHSMA is a rare entity of vascular pathology, and conservative management represents the best medical strategy. We propose corticosteroid treatment as one of the most appropriate tools in the conservative treatment of SISHSMA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1702.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: slow-transit constipation; superior rectal artery; anastomosis leakage
Online: 24 August 2023 (08:07:19 CEST)
Our previous retrospective observational study demonstrated the safety of laparoscopically assisted subtotal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis and preservation of the superior rectal artery (SRA), without instances of leakage, in patients with slow-transit constipation (STC). Thus, we extended the enrollment period and enlarged the sample size to detect the differences in the post-operative complications, and surgical and functional outcomes between patients who underwent laparoscopically assisted subtotal colectomy with and without SRA preservation. We conducted a retrospective single-center analysis of patients with STC who underwent laparoscopically assisted subtotal colectomy between 2016 and 2020. The diagnosis of STC was based on the colonic transit and anal functional tests, and barium enema to exclude secondary causes. Patients were divided into group A that underwent surgery with SRA preservation, and group B that underwent ligation of the SRA during surgery. Outcome assessments for both groups included the incidence of anastomotic breakdown, intraoperative complications, length of hospital stay, estimated blood loss, time to first flatus, and complications. Propensity-score matching allocated 34 patients to groups A and B each. Postoperative bowel function, including time to first flatus, stool, and oral intake, recovered better in group A than that in group B. Anastomotic leakage, a significant postoperative complication, was less frequent in patients with SRA preservation. Preservation of the SRA in patients undergoing laparoscopically assisted subtotal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis for STC is associated with favorable postoperative bowel function recovery and lower anastomotic leakage rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0336.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Walnut diversity; germplasm evaluation; late-leafing; pomological characteristics; superior geno-types
Online: 22 September 2022 (08:47:22 CEST)
Evaluating genetic diversity in walnut (Juglans regia L.) populations is a rapid approach used by walnut breeding programs to distinguish superior genotypes. The present study identified the Hamedan province walnut population as one of the richest, most genetically diverse regions in Iran during 2019-2020. After initial screening, 47 genotypes were selected for further evaluation of pomological and phenological traits based on International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) descriptors. Nut and kernel weights among the selected genotypes ranged between 7.15-21.05 g and 3.0-10.8 g, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) categorized genotypes into three distinct groups while cluster analysis (CA) further categorized genotypes into one of four groups. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation (P <0.01) between nut weight (NWT), nut size, and kernel weight (KW) while a negative correlation (P <0.01) between shell thickness (STH) and packing tissue thickness (PTT) with kernel percentage (KP) was observed. Lastly, 10 of 47 genotypes (TAL8, TAL9, TAL10, TAL14, TAL19, TAL22, TB2, TB4, TB6, and RDGH5) were considered superior. Superior genotypes were late-leafing (25-40 days after the standard) and displayed a lateral bearing (LB) habit with heavy nuts (12.52–16.82 g) and kernels (6.53–8.15 g), thin-shells (1.06–1.25 mm), and lightly-colored kernels. Cuttings of superior genotypes were then grafted in the orchard. Detecting superior and late-leafing genotypes in this investigation suggests cultivars resistant to late-spring frost may soon be isolated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0321.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Perceived Trust; Psychological Empowerment; Work Performance; Perceived Information Disclosure; Perceived Superior Dependence
Online: 18 November 2021 (11:13:48 CET)
As a potential motivation, psychological empowerment stimulates employees' work behaviors, and it determines the degree of effort and duration of employees' work. Only when employees are psychologically empowered, will they have an impact on their behavior when they believe that they are trusted. This paper chose to set the independent variable as the employee's perceived trust and the dependent variable as the company's work performance, and explored the mediating role of psychological empowerment in the two. The psychological empowerment of employees had a positive impact on work performance. Employees with high psychological empowerment tended to be proactive in their work, and had more input in the work, which in turn encouraged employees to have higher work performance. The four dimensions of psychological empowerment can positively affect employee task performance, and the ability and influence of psychological empowerment had a positive impact on relationship performance. Psychological empowerment as a whole perception played a part of the mediating role between the perception of superior dependency and task performance, and it played a part of the mediating role between perception of superior dependency and relationship performance. As a whole perception, psychological empowerment played a part of mediating role between perceived information disclosure and task performance, and part of mediating role between perceived information disclosure and relationship performance. In the study of perceived trust and work performance, this article focused on the mediating role of psychological empowerment, and further understood the internal mechanism of perceived trust.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1000.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: superior gluteal nerve; greater sciatic notch; bony landmarks; cadaver study; dissection; surgical anatomy
Online: 14 June 2023 (07:22:01 CEST)
Because most of the recognized causes of superior gluteal nerve (SGN) injury are iatrogenic, detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the SGN is crucial to prevent its injury associated with surgical procedures. This study aims to describe the precise location of SGN or its branches at the greater sciatic foramen, measure the distances of these nervous structures to palpable bony landmarks, and evaluate the possible correlation between these parameters and pelvis size. Twenty human cadaveric hemipelvises were studied. After dissection to expose the SGN or its branches at the greater sciatic foramen, the distances from these nervous structures to the greater trochanter (GT), to the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS), to the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS), to the ischial tuberosity (IT), and to the greater sciatic notch were measured. We found that at the greater sciatic foramen the SGN emerges as a common trunk in 75% of hemipelvises, and already divided in its superior and inferior branches in 25% of hemipelvises. When the SGN exits the pelvis as a common trunk, it does so, in most cases, in contact with the bone at the apex of the greater sciatic notch or superior to it. The median distance from the SGN at the greater sciatic notch to the PSIS, ASIS, GT and IT is 7.6 cm, 10.9 cm, 7.5 cm and 10.8 cm, respectively. We found a positive correlation between some of the analyzed parameters and the size of the pelvis. The anatomical data of this study may serve as pivotal guides during orthopedic pelvic surgery, contributing to minimize SNG iatrogenic lesions with significant implications in the patient's quality of life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0348.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotion; visual thalamus; initial evaluation; lateral geniculate nucleus; thalamic reticular nucleus; pulvinar; superior colliculus
Online: 11 May 2021 (10:32:30 CEST)
Current proposals on the temporal sequence in the processing of emotional visual stimuli are partially incompatible with growing empirical data. In the majority of them, the initial evaluation structures (IES) postulated to be in charge of the earliest detection of emotional stimuli (i.e., salient for the individual), are high order structures (i.e., those receiving visual inputs after several synapses). Thus, their latency of response cannot account for the first visual cortex response to emotional stimuli (peaking 80 ms in humans). Additionally, these proposed structures lack the necessary infrastructure to locally analyze the visual features of the stimulus (shape, color, motion, etc.) that define a stimulus as emotional. In particular, the amygdala is defended as the cornerstone IES also in humans, and cortical areas such as the ventral prefrontal cortex or the insula have been proposed as well to intervene in this initial evaluation process. The present review describes several first-order brain structures (i.e., receiving visual inputs after one synapsis), and second order structures (two synapses) that may complement the former, that accomplish with both prerequisites: presenting response latencies compatible with the observed activity at the visual cortex and possessing the necessary architecture to rudimentarily analyze in situ relevant features of the visual stimulation. The visual thalamus, and particularly the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), a first-order thalamic nucleus that actively processes visual information, is a good candidate to be the core IES, with the complementary action of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). This LGN-TRN tandem could be supported, also in an ascending, initial evaluation phase, by the pulvinar, a second order thalamic structure, and first-order extra-thalamic nuclei (superior colliculus and certain nuclei of pretectum and the accessory optic system). In sum, the visual thalamus, scarcely studied in relation to emotional processing, is a serious candidate to be the missing link in early emotional evaluation and, in any case, is worth exploring in future research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1240.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: review; chronic mesenteric ischemia; superior mesenteric artery; revascularization; treatment; endovascular revascularization (ER); percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA); primary stenting (PMAS)
Online: 19 October 2023 (10:14:50 CEST)
Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia (CMI) arises from the inability to achieve adequate intestinal blood flow after meals, leading to an imbalance between oxygen and metabolite supply and demand. The true incidence of CMI remains uncertain. However, the occurrence of mesenteric artery occlusive disease (MAOD) is relatively common among the elderly population. Delays in diagnosing CMI can often be attributed to several factors, including the variability of patient symptoms, the range of potential causes for chronic abdominal pain with weight loss. Mikkelson pioneered the introduc-tion of a surgical treatment for occlusive lesions of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) in 1957. The inaugural performance of endovascular revascularization (ER) for visceral vessels took place in 1980. The literature has documented two types of endovascular revascularization (ER) methods: percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and primary stenting (PMAS). Despite the limited quality of available evidence, the consensus among experts is strongly in favor of PMAS over PTA alone for the treatment of atherosclerotic mesenteric artery stenosis. There are several key areas of focus for chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) treatment. Randomized controlled trials comparing different stent types, such as covered stents versus bare metal stents, are needed to evaluate effi-cacy, patency rates, and long-term outcomes in CMI patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0098.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Campenot, neurons, superior cervical ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, virus, alphaherpesvirus, herpes simplex virus, pseudorabies virus, fluorescence microscopy, cryo electron tomography
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:08:12 CEST)
The development of compartmentalized neuron culture systems has been invaluable in the study of neuroinvasive viruses, including the alpha herpesviruses Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) and Pseudorabies Virus (PRV). This chapter provides updated protocols for assembling and culturing rodent embryonic superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in Campenot trichamber cultures. In addition, we provide several illustrative examples of the types of experiments that are enabled by Campenot cultures: 1. Using fluorescence microscopy to investigate axonal outgrowth/extension through the chambers, and alpha herpesvirus infection, intracellular trafficking, and cell-cell spread via axons. 2. Using correlative fluorescence microscopy and cryo electron tomography to investigate the ultrastructure of virus particles trafficking in axons.