ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0116.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: sunflower; intercropping; legumes; sustainable production
Online: 7 October 2021 (10:56:35 CEST)
Changing climate conditions coupled with the transformations of cultivation practices and land use in sole crop-based sunflower production may significantly decline yield stability of this oilseed crop. Given that sunflower takes the third place in the world oilseed market, with 45 million tons per year, and in the fourth place in vegetable oil production, it is necessary to adapt production technologies toward sustainable agriculture. Considering that, the goal of the research was to analyze and beneficial sustainable production technology of sunflower in intercropping systems. A four-year trial was conducted in Serbia’s agroecological rain-fed conditions (45°34’23.2"N 19°86’18.9"E) using a split-plot design. Two oil types and one confectionary sunflower hybrid were intercropped with common vetch, red clover and alfalfa. Analyses showed that intercropping of sunflower with common vetch resulted in the decrease in almost all sunflower trait values. Also, sunflower × alfalfa intercropping provided to be the most appropriate. The yield of NS Gricko and Rimi PR were statistically on the same level with sole cropping, while alfalfa biomass had better results when intercropped with NS Gricko as compared to sole cropping. Concerning the general belief that yields are more stable in intercropping than in sole crop, further research in this respect is needed, in addition to the research of time and method of sowing.
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: sunflower; growth-regulating factor; expression pattern; abiotic stress
Online: 11 December 2019 (04:58:22 CET)
Growth-regulating factor (GRF) is a plant-specific transcription factor family, which is involved in nearly all of the central developmental processes in plants. However, little is known about GRF family genes in cultivated sunflower. In this study, 17 GRF genes were identified and characterized from sunflower genome. Their gene structures, conserved motifs, chromosomal distributions and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed. The expression patterns of these genes were detected in various tissues of sunflower inbred line SK02R, which revealed that the 10 seed-specific GRF genes may play important roles during seed development in sunflower. Additionally, transcripts changes of the GRFs under two major abiotic stresses and phytohormones showed that most of the detected GRFs were reduced significantly by GA3 treatment, and other treatments(ABA, NaCl and PEG6000) differently regulated various sunflower growth-regulating factors at different time points. MiR396 target analysis indicated that there may exist a complicated homeostasis between miR396 and its targets GRF and WRKY transcription factor genes in cultivated sunflower. The phylogenetic and expression analyses of the GRF gene family in sunflower would be useful for further cloning and function exploration of the HaGRF genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0207.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: prime numbers; galactic spiral equations; ROTASE model; phyllotaxis; sunflower seed head
Online: 16 May 2022 (11:04:46 CEST)
In this paper, the sequential prime numbers are used as variables for the galactic spiral equations which were developed from the ROTASE model. Special spiral patterns are produced when prime numbers are treated with the unit of radian. The special spiral patterns produced with the first 1000 prime numbers have 20 spirals arranged in two groups. The two groups have perfect central symmetry with each other and are separated with two spiral gaps. The special spiral pattern produced with natural numbers from 1 to 7919 shows 6 spirals in the central area and 44 spirals in the outer area. The whole 7919 spiral points can be plotted with either 6-spiral pattern or 44-spiral pattern. For the spirals only produced by the prime numbers in the 6-spiral pattern plotting, the spiral 2 and spiral 3 each has only one spiral point produced by prime number 2 and 3, respectively, all other spiral points produced by other prime numbers are located on the spiral 1 and spiral 5. The special spiral pattern is well explained with careful analysis, it is concluded that all prime numbers greater than 3 must meet one of the equations: P1 = 1 + 6 * n (n > 0) P5 = 5 + 6 * n (n ≥ 0) In other words, every prime number greater than 3 is either a P1 prime number or a P5 prime number, no exception. Matching one of the equations is a necessary condition for a number to be a prime number, not a sufficient condition. Hope such sufficient condition can be found in the future. The number of P1 prime numbers roughly equal the number of P5 prime number in the first 2 billion prime numbers. The galactic spiral equations with golden angle can duplicate Vogel’s result for the simulation of sunflower seed head pattern, and a pinwheel pattern can be produced also with galactic spiral equations and 1 degree more than golden angle.
Subject: Keywords: hybridization; gene flow; different sunflower forms; imazamox; tribenuron-methyl; ALS gene
Online: 29 June 2021 (11:41:09 CEST)
Weedy sunflower is an invasive plant on the territory of the Republic of Serbia, which causes high yield losses in many crops. During the harvesting of the sunflower crops the dispersal of the seeds occurs, and as a result- the volunteer plants appear next year. Weedy sunflowers originate from volunteer plants that live through a longer period in one place. Spontaneous hybridization of weedy sunflower with other sunflower forms makes them more aggressive. If the volunteer plants originate from the hybrids tolerant to ALS inhibiting herbicides, they can be the carriers of herbicide tolerance genes and thus will not be sensitive to these herbicides. The exchange of the genetic material also enables the transfer of the ALS (AHAS) gene (responsible for the tolerance to the ALS inhibiting herbicides) to the progeny. In this study we have examined the spontaneous hybridization between different sunflower forms (volunteer sunflowers, weedy sunflowers, susceptible and tolerant sunflower hybrids to ALS inhibiting herbicides) in field conditions during three years. The progeny (F1 generation), which was assumed to possess the ALS gene, was tested with the application of the recommended doses of the Express (a.i. tribenuron-methyl) and Pulsar 40 herbicides (a.i. imazamox). The significant percent of the progeny of different forms of sunflowers, survived the herbicide treatment (6-31%). Molecular analysis of the ALS gene sequence in weedy sunflower progeny confirmed gene transfer in two cases at a distance of 30 and 120 m from the gene donor, i.e. tolerant hybrid Sumo 1 PR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0083.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: olive oil; sunflower oil; spicy olive oil; canned eel; colour; sensory analysis
Online: 9 April 2022 (01:36:15 CEST)
The different vegetable oils used in canned fish as filling medium have a preserving effect and contribute to the palatability of the product. In this study, the colour of European eels and the filling medium (sunflower oil, olive oil or spicy olive oil) was measured at different steps of the canning process. The sensorial characteristics of canned eels packed in the different oils were also evaluated. Colour scores (CieLab values) were higher in canned eels packed in sunflower and spicy olive oil than in canned eels packed in olive oil. The changes in colour parameters depended on the type of oil, the stage of the process and the storage time. Colour changes in canned eels packed in olive oil were highest during the sterilization process. Spicy olive oil was the filling medium in which the colour change was greatest, probably due to the migration of some of the spice components into the oil. Organoleptic properties were directly related to the type of oil used as the filling medium. The canned eels packed in sunflower oil were those awarded the highest scores in consumer tests, although the preferences varied depending on the age and gender of the consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: metal-working coolants (MWC); lubricant; rolling; strip rolling; waste recycling; sunflower oil production
Online: 23 April 2018 (12:36:43 CEST)
The efficiency of cold steel rolling depends mainly on the quality of the metal-working coolant (MWC) and its cost. In this connection, it is actual to search for new compositions of lubricants and emulsions, which provide the lowest values of the friction coefficients in deformation zone and are obtained by waste recycling in other industries. In this study we have developed new compositions of the MWC on basis of mono- and diglycerides and their esters of boric acid synthesized from the wastes of sunflower oil production. The new compositions of MWC were tested in DSEA on laboratory rolling mill 100x100 with a roll diameter of 100 mm. The efficiency of new MWC during cold rolling of brass L63 samples was determined by factor of metal stretch forming λ. We found the new metal-working coolants to show the most efficiency under higher cobbing that provides the highest metal stretch forming. The composition with 30 % of mono- and diglycerides is the most effective because it provides the minimum coefficient of friction that leads to increase of factor of metal stretch forming. Thereby the metal-working coolants on basis of mono- and diglycerides obtained from the wastes of sunflower oil production can be recommended for use in strip rolling of copper-zinc alloys because of a low cost, availability and high efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0115.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Controlled drainage; Water content; Salinity (EC); Mineral nitrogen; Nitrogen loss; Yield of oilseed sunflower
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:06:58 CEST)
Controlled drainage (CD) is an important agricultural measure for maintaining soil moisture and nutrients, controlling groundwater level, and increasing crop yield. In arid regions, CD can be used to improve the water supply in agriculture and reduce environmental pollution. In this study, we investigated the effect of CD, including a drainage depth of 40 cm (CWT1) and 70 cm (CWT2) during the plant growth period, free drainage (FD), and open ditch drainage (OD) on the migration of water, nutrients, and salts in the soil; the dynamics of groundwater level; the loss of soil nitrogen; and the growth of oilseed sunflower plants. Compared with FD, CD increased the water and nutrient content in the soil, reduced nitrogen loss, and enhanced the ability of the soil to continuously supply nitrogen to the oilseed sunflower plants, which benefited plant growth at later growth stages and reduced environmental pollution. During the period between irrigation at the budding stage and harvest stage, the average soil water content in the 0–20 cm soil layer in CWT1 increased by 3.67%, 4.78%, and 0.55%, respectively, compared with that in CWT2, FD, and OD. The soil mineral content in CWT1 was 25.17%, 35.05%, and 17.78% higher than that in CWT2, FD, and OD, respectively, indicating that higher soil salinity occurred at the later stage of plant growth in CWT1, which actually had little effect on the plants due to their enhanced salt tolerance and increased need for water and nutrients at that stage. In addition, CD delayed the decline in groundwater level, which allowed the plants to use groundwater at later growth stages, and as a result the yield and water use efficiency were improved. CWT1 significantly increased oilseed sunflower yield by 4.52–11.14% and increased water use efficiency by 1.16–10.8%. Moreover, CWT1 also increased the survival rate of the oilseed sunflower plants by 2.62–2.92%, and the plants demonstrated good growth. Therefore, under CD conditions, plants used soil water and nitrogen more efficiently and, as a result, their productivity was increased, and the water quality was improved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0033.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: willow-leaf sunflower; Jerusalem artichoke; supercritical extraction; water as co-solvent; antimicrobial activity; biocidal effect
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:47:35 CET)
The extracts from the aerial parts of Helianthus salicifolius A. Dietr and Helianthus tuberosus L. collected in June were obtained using carbon dioxide supercritical fluid extraction with water as co-solvent. The antimicrobial activity in vitro of these extracts were determined against the reference species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi, representing by the yeast species of Candida spp. The following parameters were estimated: minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) or minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Both extracts were found to possess antimicrobial activity with MIC = 0.62-5 mg mL-1 for bacteria and MIC = 5-10 mg mL-1 for yeasts, showing bactericidal (MBC/MIC = 2-4) or fungicidal effect (MFC/MIC = 1-2 ). The highest activity was observed against S. aureus ATCC 29213 (MIC = 0.62 mg mL-1 for H. salicifolius extract; MIC = 2.5 mg mL-1 for H. tuberosus extract). Bactericidal effect of both extracts against S. aureus ATCC 29213 was confirmed by time-kill assay. Higher antioxidant activity was found for H. tuberosus extract (EC50 = 0.332 mg mL-1) as compared to that of H. salicifolius (EC50 = 0.609 mg mL-1). The total polyphenol content (TPC) expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) was 13.75 ± 0.50 mg GAE (g of H. salicifolius extract)-1 and 33.06 ± 0.80 mg GAE (g of H. tuberosus extract)-1. There was a correlation between the antioxidant potential of both extracts and TPC but not between antistaphylococcal activity and TPC. The obtained data suggest potential application of these extracts as the natural preparations with the biocidal activity, including those with antistaphylococcal activity. Besides, both extracts may be regarded as potential natural conservants in cosmetics as well as natural preservatives in food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0290.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: metal-working coolants (МWC); steel rolling; coefficient of metal rolling-out; friction coefficient; sunflower oil
Online: 23 April 2018 (12:03:26 CEST)
The efficiency of cold sheet and strip rolling of steels and non-ferrous metals in the main depends on the quality of the technological lubricant and its cost. In this regard, it is important to develop new compositions of effective metal-working coolants (MWC) having low cost and providing the maximum reduction in the friction coefficient. We developed and tested the new compositions of the MWC on basis of chicken fat, and mono- and diglycerides and their esters of boric acid synthesized from the wastes of sunflower oil production. The MWC were tested in DSEA on laboratory rolling mill 100x100 with a roll diameter of 260 mm during steel 08Kp rolling. The efficiency of the coolants was determined by the factor of metal stretch forming λ and the coefficient of friction μ in the deformation zone which was found by forward slip method. We found the metal-working coolant with 100 % concentration of boric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides is the most effective in steel rolling. Thus the new MWC on basis of boric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides synthesized from the wastes of sunflower oil production can be recommended for use in rolling of structural steels on account of availability, high efficiency, and a low cost.