ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0234.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: submerged arc; heat resistant steel; square waveform welding; aggregate quality index; bay area; melting efficiency; process; model; process map
Online: 14 December 2021 (12:46:10 CET)
The demand for efficient processes through a comprehensive understanding and optimization of welding conditions continues to grow in the manufacturing industry. This study involves heat-resistant 2.25 Cr-1 Mo V-groove steel welding using the square-waveform alternating cur-rent. Experiments were conducted to build the relationship between input variables—such as current, frequency, electrode negativity ratio, and welding speed—and process performance, such as penetration, bay area, deposition rate, melting efficiency, percentage dilution, flux–wire ratio, and heat input. The process was analyzed in light of the defect-free high-deposition weld groove weld, the sensitivity to process parameters, and the optimization and development of the process map. The study proposes an innovative approach to reducing the cost and time of optimizing the one-pass-each-layer V-groove welding process using bead-on-plate welds. Square waveform welding creates a metallurgical notch in the form of a bay at the fusion boundary that can be minimized by selecting appropriate welding conditions. The square waveform submerged arc welding is more sensitive towards changes in current and welding speed than the frequency and electrode negativity ratio; however, the electrode negativity ratio and frequency are minor but helpful parameters to achieve optimal results. The proximity of the planned and experimental results to within 3% confirms the validity of the proposed approach. The investigation shows that 90% of the maximum deposition rate is possible for one-pass-each-layer V-groove welds within heat input and weld width constraints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0012.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Endopolygalacturonase; biocatalysts; biosynthesis; heteropolysaccharide; inducer; submerged fermentation
Online: 1 June 2022 (09:58:48 CEST)
Endopolygalacturonase (EndoPGase) is one of the crucial pectinases belonging to the class of carbohydrase. The catalytic action of EndoPGase captivate the attention for production of this extremely valuable catalyst of industrial sector. The main focus was to ascertain a potential bacterial candidate for endoPGase production. The isolated bacterial strain was further identified by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. A genomic library was constructed by using Lambda ZAP II vector system to investigate the pectinolytic potential of the expressed genes. The parameters for enzyme biosynthesis were optimized by single as well as multiple factor approach at a time. The results of our investigation led to the identification of a potent strain of Bacillus subtilis NR2. The strain was found active for pectic enzyme activity under shaking- flask fermentation at pH 5.0 and 50 °C temperature of incubation. Among all monomeric and polymeric substrates, citrus pectin followed by wheat bran was considered the best enzyme inducers at 1 % concentration. Moreover, an increasing trend in enzyme activity was observed with the increasing inducer concentration. The combined effect of three variables (pH, substrates, and substrate concentration) was explored by response surface methodology involving Box Benken Design (BBD). The study concluded that the soil isolated B. subtilis can be utilized for commercial scale pectinase enzyme production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0072.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: bioretention; fly ash; structures; submerged zone; nutrient removal
Online: 7 April 2019 (12:50:05 CEST)
Both sand and fly ash were found to be promising for phosphorus removal in bioretention systems. However, nutrient removal in bioretention systems with sand, soil and fly ash was still uncertain due to a lack of data about the influence of layer structure and submerged zone. In this study, a mixture with sand, soil and fly ash (1:1:1) was selected as the base in bioretention systems with different packed layer structures and heights of submerged zone. The comparison of multi-layered structure with mixed structure implied that the used bioretention system with multi-layered structure was superior to that with mixed structure for nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The investigation of the influence of submerged zones on nutrient removal indicated that the submerged zone could significantly improve nitrate removal efficiency with 67.52%-86.32%, while sharply reduce the removal of ammonia nitrogen (from 95.15% to 51.81%) and TP (from 88.66% to 44.50%). Overall evaluation of the effect of packed layer structures and submerged zones suggested that the bioretention system with multi-layered structure at the height of submerged zone at 20-40cm was the most satisfactory, due to its microbial environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1020052
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: bainite; submerged arc welding; hardfacing; reprofiling; railway wheel; wear
Online: 4 September 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)
When a railway vehicle moves on a curved rail, sliding contact occurs between the rail head side and wheel flange, which wears the wheel flange down. The thinned flange needs to be restored above the required minimum thickness for structural safety. In this study, a new process and welding wire for restoring worn-out railway wheels by submerged arc welding was developed. To characterize the properties of the restored wheel, dilatometric analysis of phase transformation, SEM/EDX analyses, hardness measurement, and residual stress measurement using the X-ray diffraction method were performed. Finally, wear tests with full-size wheel/rail specimens were carried out. It was confirmed that the weld metal was composed of bainitic microstructures as intended, and welding defects were not observed. The wear amount of the restored wheel was greater than that of the base material, but it was less than half of the wear depth of the weld-repaired wheel with ferritic–pearlitic microstructures. The developed process seems applicable to industry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0052.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: submerged speleothem, phreatic speleothem, sea level change, sea caves, GIA.
Online: 4 January 2021 (15:55:39 CET)
The investigation of submerged speleothems for sea level studies has made significant contributions to the understanding of the global and regional sea level variations during the Middle and Late Quateranry. This has been especially the case for the Mediterranean Sea, where more than 300 submerged speleothems sampled in 32 caves have been analysed so far. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the results obtained from the study of submerged speleothems since 1978. The studied speleothems cover the last 1.4 Ma and are focused mainly on Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1, 2, 3, 5.1, 5.3, 5.5, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 and 7.5. Results reveal that submerged speleothems represent extraordinary archives providing accurate information on former sea level changes, also considering that the Mediterranean Sea is devoid of any tropical corals since the Miocene. New results from a stalagmite collected at Palinuro (Campania, Italy) characterized by marine overgrowth are also reported. The measured elevations of speleothems are contaminated by the local response to glacial- and hydro-isostatic adjustment (GIA), and thus might significantly deviate from the global eustatic signal. Age and altitude comparation between Mediterranean speleothems, flowstone from Bahamas with local GIA provide a new scenario for MIS 5 and 7 sea level reconstrutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0383.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: bioretention; nitrogen removal; submerged zone; alternate wet and dry conditions
Online: 31 January 2020 (11:31:15 CET)
Adding a submerged zone (SZ) is deemed to promote denitrification during dry periods and thus improve NO3--N removal efficiency of a bioretention system. However, few studies had investigated the variation of nitrogen concentration in the SZ during dry periods and evaluated the effect of the variation on nitrogen removal of the bioretention system. Based on the experiment in a mesocosm bioretetion system with SZ, this study investigated the variation of nitrogen concentration of the system under 17 consecutive cycles of wet and dry alternation with varied rainfall amount, influent nitrogen concentration and antecedent dry periods (ADP). The results indicated that (1) during the dry periods, NH4+-N concentrations in SZ showed an exponential decline trend, decreasing by 50% in 12.9 ± 7.3 hours; while NO3--N concentrations showed an inverse S-shape decline trend, decreasing by 50% in 18.8 ± 6.4 hours; (2) during the wet periods, NO3--N concentration in the effluent showed an S-shape upward trend; and at the early stage of the wet periods, the concentration was relatively low and significantly correlated with ADP, while the corresponding volume of the effluent was significantly correlated with the SZ depth; (3) in the whole experiment, the contribution of nitrogen decrease in SZ during dry periods to NH4+-N and NO3--N removal accounted for 12% and 92%, respectively; and the decrease of NO3--N in SZ during the dry period was correlated with the influent concentration in the wet period and the length of the dry period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0007.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: acetic fermentation; alcoholic fermentation; submerged process; volatile compounds; acetic bacteria
Online: 1 December 2016 (10:47:37 CET)
The alcoholic fermentation process with agitation/static, followed by the acetic fermentation submerged in banana was evaluated. Kinetics parameters of alcoholic fermentation for the maximum ethanol/glycerol metabolites in agitated process was 29 and 27 h, and in static 47 and 45 h, respectively. For acetic fermentation, the kinetics parameters were medium time of 39.9 h, acetic acid yield of 53.1% and acetic acid productivity of 0.216 g/Lh. Wines from agitated/static process presented 5.73 and 6.81% (v/v) of alcohol content, respectively. Wine obtained by the static process presented higher concentrations of volatile compounds. The vinegar showed 49.2 g/L of acetic acid and the esters concentrations were higher than in wine. The wine and vinegar minerals were consistent with amount observed in the pulp, with an increase in sulphur concentration after alcoholic fermentation and decrease after acetic fermentation. Products showed chemical and composition of sensory and nutritional interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0236.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: basidiomycetes; biopolymers; chitin; chitosan; fungal biomass; solid state fermentation; submerged fermentation
Online: 4 May 2023 (08:31:41 CEST)
The isolation and potential applications of chitosan from the fungal source is an alternative to crustacean chitosan and synthetic polymers. The strains of Basidiomycota (Heterobasidion annosum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor, Lentinus lepideus) with different environmental distribution, ecological importance, and industrial application were studied for mycelial biomass production in submerged (SF) and solid state fermentation (SSF). Further, the chitosan from fungal cells was extracted and characterized by elemental analyses (nitrogen) and FTIR spectroscopy. The fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus bisporus and Ganoderma ap-planatum were chosen as a reference material of chitosan content in basidiocarps. Stationary SF gave the lowest biomass yield in comparison with shaken SF and SSF. The role of aeration and agitation in biomass production was clearly observed in shaken SF with the highest yield achieved by P. chrysosporium. The highest biomass yield in SSF produced P. ostreatus and T. versi-color. The content of chitosan within fungal species varied depending on the method of cultiva-tion. The highest chitosan yield among the cultivated strains was obtained from mycelium of P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor in SF. The highest chitosan yield in fungal fruiting bodies demon-strated commercially cultivated mushroom A. bisporus. The extracted chitosan is proposed as functional biopolymer additive for ecological materials to substitute the synthetic wet and dry strength agents in packaging materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0574.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: hydrodynamic; gas retention; submerged membrane bioreactor; influence of temperature; oxygen mass transfer coefficient
Online: 29 September 2018 (03:53:05 CEST)
Gas-liquid reactors pose transfer difficulties due to diffusion effects. It is necessary to master the aeration and hydrodynamics of the medium to conduct the reaction well and get a good performance. For this purpose, a study in a submerged membrane bioreactor with a useful volume of 30L, consisting of a microfiltration membrane with an average pore size of 0.14 mm having an effective surface area of 0.2 m2 and a PVC cylindrical air diffuser of radius 4 cm has been studied. The saline tracing method associated with a conductimetric follow-up made it possible to determine the residence times and the mixing time in the reactor at 4 different points both in recirculation and in the absence of recirculation. Gas retention was measured by the manometric method. The experiments were carried out at different temperatures of 25 ° C, at 45 ° C, with a variable air flow rate of 0.5 to 16 mL / s and different solutions (osmosis water, ammonium formate solution, solution ammonium formate + salt, synthetic rubber effluent). The results show that the mixing time varies from one point to another and the recirculation of the mixture reduces the mixing time. One of the positions is limiting, the transfer is done most by diffusion with a mixing time of 115 min without circulation and 65 min with circulation. Gas retention increases with aeration rate and temperature. On the other hand, the more the medium becomes rich in organic substances, the more the gaseous retention decreases. The homogeneous fine-bubble regime is obtained for an air flow rate of between 3 and 10 mL / s of aeration. Beyond this flow rate, the regime becomes heterogeneous without a transition phase for ammonium formate and formate ammonium + salt solutions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0100.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: submerged speleothem; phreatic speleothem; sea level change; sea caves; vertical tectonic movements; Ustica; Favignana
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:11:18 CEST)
This study presents a world review as well as new additional data in form of submerged speleothems that are used for paleo sea level reconstructions. Speleothems significantly contributed to the understanding of the global and regional sea level variations during the Middle and Late Quaternary. The studied speleothems cover the last 1.4 Myr and are focused mainly on Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1, 2, 3, 5.1, 5.3, 5.5, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 and 7.5. Results reveal that submerged speleothems represent extraordinary archives providing detailed information on former sea level changes. We present also new results from stalactites collected in central Mediterranean sea, at Favignana and Ustica islands (Sicily, Italy), both characterized by continental, phreatic or marine layers. The study and analysis of the latter speleothems provide results of great interest for relative sea level changes over the last 1000 years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0353.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Y-shaped confluence channel; non-submerged rigid vegetation; longitudinal velocity; secondary flow; turbulent kinetic energy.
Online: 20 August 2018 (11:27:58 CEST)
Vegetation has a significant influence on velocity distribution and turbulent energy in a confluence channel. A laboratory measurement with ADV was used to investigate the flow through a Y-shaped confluence channel partially covered with rigid vegetation on its inner bank. In this study, the flow velocities in cases with and without vegetation were measured by the ADV in a Y-shaped confluence channel. The results clearly show that the existence of non-submerged rigid plants has changed the internal flow structure, that the velocity in the non-vegetated area is greater than in the vegetated area, and that there is a large exchange of mass and momentum between the vegetated and non-vegetated areas. The velocity on both sides is significantly reduced when vegetation is present. In the vicinity of tributaries, due to the presence of vegetation, the high-velocity area moved rapidly to the middle of the non-vegetated area, and the secondary flow phenomenon disappeared. In the mainstream, when vegetation was present, circulation disappeared, and the degree of lateral mixing decreased. The presence of vegetation caused a great change in the internal flow structure and made the flow in non-vegetated areas more intense.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0096.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: fish assemblages; community dynamics; alternate stable states; eutrophication; submerged aquatic vegetation; nutrient load reduction; point-source pollution
Online: 11 May 2017 (07:54:59 CEST)
After a local pollution control plant significantly reduced phosphorus loading into a phytoplankton-dominated tributary of the Potomac River in the early 1980’s, water quality and biological communities were monitored bi-weekly from April-September. After a 10-year time-lag, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), once abundant in this freshwater tidal embayment, returned to the area in 1993. After additional reductions in nitrogen load starting in 2000, the system completely switched to a SAV-dominated state in 2005. Fish abundance didn’t change during these distinct phase changes, but the fish community structure did. Increases in SAV provided refuge and additional spawning substrate for species with adhesive eggs such as Banded Killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), which is now the most abundant species in the embayment. Other changes seen were a decrease in the relative contribution of open water dwelling species such as White Perch (Morone americana), and an increase of visual predators such as Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides). The 30-year record of data from this Potomac River tributary has revealed many important long-term trends that validate the effectiveness of initiatives to improve water treatment, and will aid in the continued management of the watershed and point source inputs.