REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0269.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: subjective paranormal experience, homeostasis, trauma, dissociation, depersonalisation, compartmentalisation, fantasy proneness, safety, control, survival
Online: 26 June 2019 (13:59:44 CEST)
Subjective paranormal experience (SPE) has been a notable part of the human historical narrative. Alleged miracles, telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, witchcraft, spiritualism, monsters and ghosts have received a supernatural interpretation. The incidence and prevalence of reported SPE remains at high levels in all populations investigated to date. Previous research on SPE has focused on the cognitive and social factors that facilitate paranormal beliefs and experiences. I consider here developmental factors in the brain’s responses to trauma that appear to predispose certain individuals towards SPE. The theory draws upon the established mechanisms of dissociation and fantasy generation to describe and explain the origins of paranormal experience. The theory hypothesizes that childhood abuse and victimization trigger autonomic responses of dissociation, depersonalization and compartmentalization. Freezing and associated releases of fantasy serve as a survival strategy in the homeostatic regaining of safety and control. The predictions from the homeostasis theory are consistent with the findings of multiple studies and falsifying evidence has yet to be identified.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: subjective cognitive decline; preclinical dementia; fMRI; compensation
Online: 2 November 2018 (07:17:11 CET)
Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) is a possible earliest detectable sign of dementia, but we do not know what mental processes lead to elevated concern. We summarize the previous literature on the biomarkers and functional neuroanatomy of SCD. To extend the current most-popular theory of SCD, compensatory hyperactivition, we introduce a new model: breakdown of homeostasis in the prediction error minimization system. A cognitive prediction error is a discrepancy between an implicit cognitive predictions and the corresponding outcome. Experiencing frequent prediction errors may be a primary source of elevated subjective concern. Our homeostasis breakdown model explains the progression both from normal cognition to SCD and from SCD to advanced dementia stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0854.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Loneliness; Subjective well-being; Environmental safety; Urban residents
Online: 11 August 2023 (02:32:27 CEST)
Loneliness, as a well-established risk factor of mental health, has been strongly associated with low subjective well-being (SWB). However, less is known about potential boundary conditions that may ameliorate this ‘dark side’ of loneliness. Social connections are critical to well-being from the standpoint that the lack of belonging was detrimental to human survival in the evolutionary past. We thus hypothesized that loneliness would exert a more pronounced influence on people’s SWB when the need for others (social resource) is perceived to be high–the presence of environmental harshness. With a particular focus on urban (i.e., Seoul) residents who are presumed to be more vulnerable to loneliness, two studies examined whether feeling lonely matters less to SWB under favorable environmental conditions. As expected, loneliness was less harmful to the SWB of individuals who perceived their surroundings as relatively secure and favorable (Study 1). We then experimentally replicated the results by exposing people to cues of either a harsh (e.g., images of scarcity) or a favorable environment (Study 2).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0324.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: subjective immersion; avatar identification; video games; ambient sounds; character sounds; soundscape; audio-visual interaction; game experience; sound design
Online: 6 December 2023 (07:07:48 CET)
Elaborate sound design, including background music, ambient sounds (sounds describing the game world), and character sounds (sounds generated by the character’s actions), plays a pivotal role in modern videogames. However, the influence of these different types of sound on the player experience has not been extensively researched. This study examines the influence of these sound types on immersion, avatar identification, fun and perceived competence. In two experiments, participants played League of Legends in four different sound conditions. The first experiment revealed a non-significant trend in the effect of character sound on avatar identification. Ambient sounds, however, were limited in this experiment because the task restricted participants’ movement across the game map. Consequently, we adapted the task to allow for a wider variety of ambient sounds in the second experiment. Here, a significant impact of character sounds on immersion, avatar identification, and fun, was observed, as well as an interaction effect of character sounds and ambient sounds on fun. Furthermore, we observed a trend, though not statistically significant, suggesting that ambient sounds may influence the player’s sense of flow. These findings underline the distinct effects of different sound types and we discuss implications for the design of sound in video games.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Quality of Experience; Quality of Service; QoE evaluation video on demand; Quality of Service; QoS correlation; subjective testing
Online: 11 December 2019 (04:46:57 CET)
In addition to the traditional QoS metrics of delay, delay jitter, and packet loss probability (PLP), Quality of Experience (QoE) is now widely accepted as a numerical proxy for actual user experience. The literature has reported many mathematical mappings between QoE and QoS. These QoS parameters are measured by the network providers using sampling. There are some papers studying sampling errors in QoS measurements; however there is no account of propagation of these sampling errors to QoE evaluation. In this paper, we used industrially acquired measurements of PLP and jitter to evaluate the sampling errors and correlation in measurements. Focussing on Video-on-demand (VoD) applications, we use subjective testing and regression to map QoE metrics onto PLP and jitter. The resulting mathematical functions of QoE and theory of error propagation was used to evaluate the propagated error in QoE, and this error was represented as confidence interval. Using the guidelines of UK government for sampling, our results indicate that confidence intervals around estimated QoE in a busy hour can be between MOS=1 to MOS=5 at targeted operating point of QoS parameters. These results are a new perspective on QoE evaluation, and are of great significance to all organisations that need to estimate the QoE VoD applications precisely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0237.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Game-based therapy; robot-mediated therapy; neuromotor disability; cerebral palsy; subjective assessment; patient-centered assessment; caregiver burden; ankle range of motion; ankle strengthening; home exercise program
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:09:19 CEST)
Technological advances in game-mediated robotics provide an opportunity to engage children with cerebral palsy (CP) and other neuromotor disabilities in more frequent and intensive therapy by making personalized, programmed interventions available 24/7 in children’s homes. Though shown to be clinically effective and feasible to produce, little is known of the subjective factors impacting acceptance of what we term assistive/rehabilitative (A/R) gamebots by their target populations. This research describes the conceptualization phase of an effort to develop a valid and reliable instrument to guide the design of A/R gamebots. We conducted in-depth interviews with 8 children with CP and their families who had trialed an exemplar A/R gamebot, PedBotHome, for 28 days in their homes. The goal was to understand how existing theories and instruments were either appropriate or inappropriate for measuring the subjective experience of A/R gamebots. Key findings were the importance of differentiating the use case of therapy from that of assistance in rehabilitative technology assessment, the need to incorporate the differing perspectives of children with CP and those of their parents into A/R gamebot evaluation, and the potential conflict between the goals of preserving the quality of the experience of game play for the child while also optimizing the intensity and duration of therapy provided during play.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0294.v1
Online: 5 September 2023 (09:38:38 CEST)
Background: There is a significant role for mind in health and disease. Subjective well-being (SWB) is an important indicator of a person’s psychological status beyond the traditional anxiety and depression. Shell and core (S&C) model of SWB is new modular framework has placeholders for various forms of positive feeling that can be adopted as an assessment tool in clinical settings.Method: 416 subjects recruited using social media platforms to complete an anonymous online survey probing into their demographic information, financial status, several well-being attributes, and personality traits. The obtained information was analyzed and the factors that most closely correlated with the sense of overall SWB were included in the model.Results: Overall, 73% of the subjects indicated that they are happy and the overall sense of SWB did not depend on gender or household income. Only those psychological traits with significant correlation with SWB were used to construct the proposed S&C model. The model comprises three main components—the shell of happiness that represents experiential happiness, i.e., positive feelings as a result of one’s experiences with their environment. The core of happiness represents inner happiness. The interface layer, between the shell and core of happiness consists of a set of coping and defense mechanisms that protects the core of happiness denoted as a happiness suit of armor (HSOA).Conclusion: The S&C model is a comprehensive model of SWB that is used as a framework to capture various aspects of happiness under a unifying umbrella. It can thus be used as an assessment tools at both personal and population level. It could also be adopted to identify the personality traits and coping mechanisms that are important for the overall sense of well-being, which could then be targeted as a part of psychological interventions aimed at individuals with different medical conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0164.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: social isolation; subjective health; instrumental variables
Online: 26 February 2018 (11:32:20 CET)
We investigate the relationship between social isolation and subjective health, considering that this relationship is potentially affected by endogeneity due to the presence of self-reported measures. Thus, if an increase in social isolation may impact the perception on health, alternative paths of causality may also be hypothesized. Using data from round 7 of the European Social Survey, we estimate an instrumental variable model in which isolation is explained as being a member of an ethnic minority and having experienced some serious family conflicts in the past. Our results confirm that changes in social isolation influence subjective general health. In particular, greater isolation produces a strong and significant deterioration of the perceived health status. With respect to the literature on social isolation and health, we try to advance it by supporting a path of causality running from social isolation to subjective health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1425.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: attitude; subjective norm; awareness of consequences; behavioral intention
Online: 22 November 2023 (12:13:51 CET)
This article's goal is to investigate the structural model that explains how awareness of consequences, subjective norms, attitude and behavior control variables influence plastic wastes behavioral intention in Jeddah's beaches, Saudi Arabia. A quantitative approach was employed. For data analysis, structural equation modeling was used. Based on the literature analysis, the study used a structured questionnaire. Multiple statistical analyses were used to examine the hypotheses. This study conducts a survey on a sample of 390 local tourists to investigate their intention to reduce plastic wastes. To increase the explaining power for behavioral intention, this study extended the TPB by adding awareness of consequences. The study's participants were selected randomly. 340 of them agreed and answered the questionnaire, yielding a percentage response rate 87%. This produced 271 valid questionnaires for data analysis after closely examining the survey. The results demonstrate a positive influence of subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and consequences awareness on environmental behavioral intention. On the other hand, attitude does not significantly contribute to predict EBI. Governments, legislators, and researchers may use the work's findings to create and execute efficient waste management programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0424.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Aging; Attitudes; Subjective Well-being; Ageism; Psychometric Validation
Online: 25 August 2022 (03:17:06 CEST)
Scientific literature shows increased interest in the aged and the aging phenomenon. The Aging Attitudes Questionnaire - AAQ was validated for the Portuguese population to understand the importance of attitudes towards old age and their impact on the subjective well-being of the elderly. A sample of 400 subjects (from 18 to 93 years) answered a socio-demographic questionnaire, and the AAQ was composed of three subscales (psychosocial losses, physical change, and psychological growth). The CFA confirmed the tri-factorial structure with very good adjustment of the model to the data with the Cronbach alpha of the total scale scoring .84 and ranging from .65 to .77 for each factor. A total of 9 items were omitted both for poor factor loadings (<0.50. Notwithstanding, 3 items below the criteria were maintained, as they conceptually fit into the factor. Of the final 15 AAQp items, 5 belong to the Psychosocial Loss factor, 6 to Physical Change, and 4 to Psychosocial Growth. This tree factor model explained 50.1 % of the total variance. In conclusion, this study supports that AAQ has acceptable validity, confirming the composite reliability and the discriminant validity, but not the convergent validity. Through multi-group analysis, the invariance of the scale was confirmed. This validation is of pivotal importance once it allows measuring the attitudes towards aging, thus facilitating the promotion of wellbeing across the lifespan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Chronic Kidney Disease; Protein-Energy Wasting; Modified-Subjective Global Assessment
Online: 25 April 2022 (04:53:13 CEST)
Background: Chronic kidney disease, one of the most common diseases in the world, is characterized by irreversible impairment of the kidney’s metabolic, excretory, and endocrine functions. During end-stage renal disease, patients require renal replacement therapy, such as hemodialysis (HD). Protein-energy wasting is a common health problem among HD patients. However, this study aims to assess the nutritional status of HD patients at two HD centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and to determine its associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at two different Dialysis Centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 211 female and male HD patients. Malnutrition was recognized using the Modified-SGA (M-SGA) comprising two parts: medical history and physical examination. Sociodemographic and health status for all patients were also determined. Patients were classified based on their M-SGA score into two groups: normal and malnourished. Results: Overall, 54.5% of the participants showed malnutrition. Unemployment, low muscle strength and mass, high level of medication use, and high dialysis vintage were positively (P<0.05) associated with malnutrition. Conclusion: The M-SGA score indicates a high prevalence of malnutrition among HD patients. These results show the importance of regular assessment and follow-ups for HD patients ensuring better health and nutritional status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0512.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: MSDs; exoskeleton; upper limb assistance; EMG; balance test; subjective questionnaire
Online: 26 November 2021 (18:09:02 CET)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the Hapo ms, a passive upper limbs exoskeleton developed to assist workers for tasks with arms in front of the body. Twelve participants had to perform a static task, a manual handling task and a load carrying task two times: with and without the exoskeleton. In all cases subjective (perceived effort in arm and back areas, comfort) and objective (muscular activity, postural balance) criteria were evaluated. Results have shown a decrease in anterior deltoid (-12 to -18% depending of the task) and in biceps brachii (-19% to -33% depending of the task) muscular activity. No significant difference was pointed out in back muscle and postural balance was not significantly perturbed due to the wear of the exoskeleton. Finally, perceived effort reduction was observed during the three tasks (except in back area for task 1). To conclude, the Hapo ms seems well adapted to assist upper arms during tasks with arms in front of the body.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0448.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: moral identity; subjective well-being; identity commitment quality; internalization; symbolization
Online: 20 July 2021 (11:52:09 CEST)
Moral identity can promote people’s well-being, but existing research has paid little attention to the mechanism of the link between the two. The current study proposed that the eudaimonic identity function is a critical mechanism that links moral identity and well-being. Specifically, the quality of identity commitment mediates the link between subjective well-being and the two dimensions of moral identity, namely, internalization and symbolization. We examined these hypotheses in 419 participants, who completed the Self-importance of Moral Identity Questionnaire, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Scale of Positive and Negative Experience, and Questionnaire for Eudaimonic Well-being. Results from the obtained data confirmed our hypotheses: There is a significant correlation between moral identity and subjective well-being. Both the internalization and symbolization dimensions of moral identity promote subjective well-being through the mediating role of identity commitment quality. We discussed these findings with respect to implications and proposed research suggestions for future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0301.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: consciousness; information compression; internal representation; QBIT theory; qualia; subjective experience
Online: 26 July 2019 (12:59:02 CEST)
The QBIT theory is an attempt toward solving the problem of consciousness in the light of Quantum mechanics, Biology, Information theory, and Thermodynamics. “Internal representation” is a key concept in the QBIT theory of consciousness. An internal representation is defined as a pack of information (within a cognitive system) that represents an external stimulus.The QBIT theory suggests that when robustness of an internal representation exceeds a certain threshold, a conscious experience (or a quale) is generated. In this paper, the concept of internal representation and its relation with consciousness is explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0318.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Subjective sleep assessment; Autism spectrum disorder; REM sleep; NREM sleep
Online: 27 December 2018 (10:21:06 CET)
Sleep disturbances very common in children with autism. That is why it requires instruments that facilitate its evaluation. Goals: Perform the evaluation of sleep from a subjective prospect in a group of children with primary autism and compare to a control group, using the Sleep Habits in Children Survey (CSHQ), In order to determine sleep disturbances, according to the sub-scales results. Method: A prospective cross-sectional study of the sample was carried out. A group with primary Autism n = 21 was selected. For the assessment of the dream we chose (CSHQ). The differences between independent groups were calculated by applying a Mann Whitney U test (p <0.05). Results: The group of children with autism showed the highest values of the total scale (mean = 48.00) wish is congruent with a greate disfuntion of sleep, compared to the control group (mean = 36.47) for p = 0.00. Significant differences were found for all sub scales p = 0.00, with the exception of sub-scale number 7. Conclusions: There is a high presence of sleep disturbances in children with primary autism, which are related to multifactorial causes, with the exception of sleep breathing disorders that did not show statistically significant differences between groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0449.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: IoV; MEC; Data Sharing; Reputation Management; Subjective Logic Trust Model; Blockchain
Online: 17 April 2023 (10:40:19 CEST)
With the rapid development of Internet of Vehicles (IoV), particularly the introduction of mobile edge computing (MEC), vehicles can efficiently share data with one another. However, edge computing nodes are vulnerable to various network attacks, posing security risks to data storage and sharing. Moreover, the presence of abnormal vehicles during the sharing process poses significant security threats to the entire network. To address these issues, this paper proposes a novel reputation management scheme, which proposes an improved multi-source multi-weight subjective logic algorithm. This algorithm fuses direct and indirect opinion feedback of nodes through the subjective logic trust model while considering factors such as event validity, familiarity, timeliness, and trajectory similarity. Vehicle reputation values are periodically updated, and abnormal vehicles are identified through reputation thresholds. Finally, blockchain technology is employed to ensure the security of data storage and sharing. By analyzing real vehicle trajectory datasets, the algorithm is proven to effectively improve the differentiation and detection rate of abnormal vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0332.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; Tokyo Olympics 2020; Happiness; Subjective well-being; OMOTENASHI; JAPAN
Online: 15 August 2020 (03:55:01 CEST)
The 2020 Tokyo Olympics has been postponed due to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The implications for industries related to the Olympics—tourism, hotels and restaurants, and others—are expected to be affected by reduced demand. Japanese workers in these industries were prepared to offer their hospitality to visitors from around the world. They would be satisfied from not only an increase in income but also in offering visitors a taste of Tokyo’s great hospitality if the Olympics had been held in 2020. However, postponement of the sporting event is likely to have a significant impact on their happiness level. We independently collected individual-level panel data from March to April 2020. Based on this, we found that the happiness level of workers in the tourism and restaurant sectors declined drastically after the announcement of the postponement. Only two weeks later, their happiness level did not alter from the pre-announcement level. This tendency was strongly observed in Tokyo and the surrounding prefectures, but not in other prefectures. However, workers engaged in the tourism and restaurant sectors did not predict a decrease in their income even after the postponement. Combined, these findings indicate that loss of extending hospitality, rather than reduction in income, temporarily reduces the happiness level of workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0385.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: hedonic well-being; utilitarianism; machine ethics; attitudinal hedonism; subjective desire satisfactionism
Online: 28 May 2018 (06:10:04 CEST)
Formally specifying hedonic well-being is difficult, but relevant to utilitarian theories of morality. In this paper we describe a starting point based on attitudinal hedonism, which posits that hedonic well-being is determined by the extent to which a moral patient believes her preferences to be fulfilled. While this assumption probably does not capture the sought-out notion of well-being fully, our formalization seems to be relevant first step towards more satisfactory definition of hedonic well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0037.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: social learning; self-efficacy; subjective norm; betel nut chewing; taxi driver
Online: 6 November 2017 (07:27:59 CET)
The betel nut chewing habit of taxi drivers has shown that can promote companionship, relaxation, and emotional stability at work. 19.3% of betel nut behaviors are instigated by an invitation among drivers to engage in the habit. The objective of this study was to explore the impact of social learning, subjective norm, and self-efficacy on betel nut chewing in taxi drivers in Taiwan. We conducted a cross-sectional study on taxis’ driver of betel nut behaviour and measured their evaluations of its consequences using a self-report questionnaire. Other variables include socio-demographic characteristics and chewing-related experience. The overall variance is 44.5% in socio-demographic variable, social learning, self-efficacy, and subjective norm. Results show that the variables of affected betel nut chewing behavior, driving years has the strongest influence, followed by learning about betel nut from the media, relatives, and friends, and education level, which positively affect betel nut chewing behavior. Findings indicated that education related to quitting betel nut chewing, significant others, and rules of the taxi fleet are adopted to design a plan for quitting betel chewing to reduce the positive expectations of taxi drivers for betel nut chewing and decrease their betel nut chewing behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2132.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: digital village; rural households; subjective well-being; digital transformation; rural digital economy
Online: 30 May 2023 (11:45:40 CEST)
With the advancement of the economy and society, policymakers acknowledge the significance of improving rural households' well-being as a crucial factor in promoting sustainable economic and social development. Based on the matching data of China Household Finance Survey and Digital Rural County Index, this study empirically examines the effect and mechanisms of digital village construction on subjective well-being of rural households. The results revealed that digital village construction has a significant improvement in their subjective well-being. The impact of digital village construction is particularly significant in rural areas located in the western regions of China, as well as among households possessing higher levels of human capital. The process through which digital village construction enhances the subjective well-being of rural households involves the augmentation of household income, the promotion of non-farm employment opportunities, and the enhancement of rural governance. This study provides robust micro-empirical evidence highlighting the positive welfare effects of digital rural construction. This study provides insights into the digital village construction within the happiness economy framework, offering a new perspective. The imperative to strengthen rural digital infrastructure and improve farmers' proficiency in modern information skills is a strategic policy aimed at enhancing well-being of rural households.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0015.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: sustainable apparel consumption; emerging countries; value; subjective norm; perceived behavioural control; knowledge
Online: 2 August 2019 (05:26:10 CEST)
The growth of sustainable apparels provides grounding for the emergence of a new consumer market. Surprisingly, this movement has not only taken place in developed countries but also in emerging countries. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no systematic reviews have been carried out on sustainable apparels, focused specifically on emerging countries. The goal of this systematic review is to analyse the existing literature on various factors that influence sustainable apparel consumption in emerging countries, as well as presenting future research directions. This detailed literature review is guided by the PRISMA Statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) review method, and its searches encompass sources such as Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar databases which, in result, identified 19 related studies. Furthermore, the reviewers segregated the factors into four major domains which include value, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and knowledge. The results of this review demonstrate that most customers in the emerging countries have already experienced a growing interest in sustainable apparel with a strong development of knowledge, great concern, values and social circle. In sum, this systematic literature review provides an insightful information about sustainable apparel purchase behaviour and helps academicians, manufacturers and retailers to position and market their sustainable clothing brands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Urban resilience, flood resilience programme, robust evaluation, subjective resilience, Senegal, Africa, BACI
Online: 11 June 2018 (16:52:35 CEST)
In the last decade, sub-Saharan African countries have taken various measures to plan for and adapt to floods in order to reduce exposure and its impacts on human health, livelihoods and infrastructure. Measuring the effects of such initiatives on social resilience is challenging as it requires to combine multiple variables and indicators that embrace thematic, spatial and temporal dimensions inherent to the resilience thinking and concept. In this research, we apply a before-after-control-intervention (BACI) evaluation to empirically measure the impacts of the “Live with Water” (LWW) project on suburban households in Dakar, Senegal. We developed a resilience index that combines anticipatory, adaptive and absorptive capacity – considered as structural dimensions – with the concept of transformative capacity – considered as a temporal reconfiguration of the first three dimensions. Our finding let us estimate that the project increased the absorptive and the anticipatory capacities by 10.61% and 4.61%, respectively. However, adaptive capacity remained unchanged. This may be explained by the fact that the programme was more successful in building drainage and physical infrastructures, rather than improving multi-level organisations and strategies to cope with existing flood events. Further flood resilience program should better combine engineering approaches with institutional change and livelihood support to poor urban dwellers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0426.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: automated driving virtual simulation; subjective empowerment; objective empowerment; combined testing; test case generation
Online: 7 November 2023 (09:30:32 CET)
In this paper, we propose a method for the generation of simulation test scenarios for autonomous driving. Based on the requirements of standard regulatory test scenarios, we can generate virtual simulation scenarios and functional scenario libraries for autonomous driving, which can be used for simulation verification of different ADAS functions. Firstly, the design operation domain (ODD) of the functional scenario is selected and the weight values of the ODD elements taken are calculated; then a combination test algorithm based on parameter weights is improved to generate autonomous driving virtual simulation test cases for the ODD elements, which can effectively reduce the number of generated test cases compared with the traditional combination test algorithm; then the traffic participant elements under each test case are Then, the values of the subelements under the traffic participant element in each test case are sampled and clustered to obtain hazard specific scenarios. Finally, the specific scenarios are applied to the automatic emergency braking (AEB) system on the model-in-the-loop (MIL) testbed to verify the effectiveness of this scenario generation method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0506.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: street view image; subjective and objective perceptions; housing prices; machine learning; computer vision
Online: 22 March 2021 (10:16:03 CET)
The relationship between the street environment and the health, education, mobility, and criminal behaviors of its citizens has long been investigated by economists, sociologists and urban planners. Home buyers were found to pay a premium for better street appearance. Prior studies considering streetscapes mainly focus on objective measures such as the number of nearby trees, the tree canopy area, or the view index of physical features such as greenery, sky or building. However, subjective perceptions may have complex or subtle relationships to physical features, individual physical features or simply summing them up do not capture people’s comprehensive perception. In contrast, this study proposed a new approach for the urban-scale application to quantify both subjectively and objectively measured streetscape scores for six important perception qualities, namely Greenness, Walkability, Safety, Imageability, Enclosure, and Complexity. Built on prior quantitative studies in urban design quality and emerging applications in deep learning and open source street view imagery for urban perceptions, we integrated existing frameworks to (1) effectively collect and evaluate both subjectively and objectively- measured perceptions; (2) investigate the coherence and divergence in ML-predicted subjective scores and formula-derived objective scores; and (3) compare their effects in affecting house prices taking Shanghai as a case study using a large-scale dataset on home transactions. The results implied: first, the percentage increase in sales price attributable to street scores is significant for both subjective and objective measurements. In general subjective scores explained more variance over structural attributes and objective scores in hedonic price model. Particularly, objective Greenness, subjective Safety and Imageability scores positively affected house prices. Second, for Greenness and Imageability scores, the subjective and objective measures exhibited opposite signs in affecting house prices, which implied that there might be mechanisms related to the psychological, social-demographical characteristics of street users that have not been fully incorporated by objective measures that taking view indices or recombination of them. In addition, certain objective measure might outperform subjective counterpart when the connotation of the perception is self-evident and not complicated, for example the Greenness. For those concepts were not familiar to the average person, subjective framework exhibits better performance. This is the first study comprehensively expanding hedonic price method with both subjectively and objectively measured streetscape qualities. It suggested that city authorities could levy a street environment tax to compensate the public budget invested in street environment where developers secured benefits from a price premium. This study enriches our understanding of the economic values of the subjective and objective measures street qualities. It sheds light on promising future study areas where the coherence and divergence of the two measurements should be further stressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0335.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: volunteers; self-efficacy; optimism; empathy; psychological well-being; subjective well-being; incremental contribution
Online: 15 July 2020 (11:54:51 CEST)
Optimism and self-efficacy have been associated with psychological health. Empathy has also been found to promote positive functioning and to have a unique role in community health volunteering. This study investigated whether self-efficacy and optimism were associated with psychological and subjective well-being in a group of healthcare volunteers and whether empathy added incrementally to these associations. A sample of 160 Italian clown doctors volunteering in various hospitals completed self-report measures of self-efficacy, optimism, empathy, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being. Results indicated that self-efficacy and optimism were associated with both outcomes and that aspects of empathy, such as others’ perspective-taking and personal distress for others’ difficulties, incrementally added to these associations, although with opposite effects. The present study adds to previous research on the role of self-efficacy, optimism, and empathy for community health volunteers’ psychological health and offers suggestions regarding the training of this type of volunteer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0086.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: inter-subjective objectivity; complexity measure; computational complexity; criticality; citizen science; open complex system;
Online: 14 April 2017 (10:51:07 CEST)
Recently emerging data-driven citizen sciences need to harness increasing amount of massive data with varying quality. This paper develops essential theoretical frameworks and example models and examine its computational complexity for interactive data-driven citizen science within the context of guided self-organization. We first define a conceptual model that incorporates quality of observation in terms of accuracy and reproducibility, ranging between subjectivity, inter-subjectivity, and objectivity. Next, we examine the database's algebraic and topological structure in relation to informational complexity measures, and evaluate its computational complexities with respect to exhaustive optimization. Conjectures of criticality are obtained on self-organizing processes of observation and dynamical model development. Example analysis is demonstrated with the use of biodiversity assessment database, the process that inevitably involves human subjectivity for the management in open complex systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1131.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Flamenco Dance; Mood; Subjective Well-being; social identity; Older Women; Self-esteem; Social dance
Online: 15 June 2023 (11:29:06 CEST)
This study investigated the effects of flamenco dance on mood and subjective well-being in older women. In a broader context, the question was raised about how participation in dance activities could influence the emotional well-being of this demographic group. Thirty-four older women, aged between 62 and 79 years, with a mean age of 70.11 years (SD = 5.13), voluntarily participated in the study after providing informed consent. All of them were enrolled in a 12-week flamenco dance workshop conducted by the Autoestima Flamenca Association, with one two-hour session per week. Mood measurements (sadness, anxiety, anger, and joy) were taken biweekly before and after each session, and subjective well-being assessments were conducted before and after the intervention. The results revealed significant improvements in the overall mood of the participants, as well as an increase in their subjective well-being. These improvements were observed at both the individual and group levels. In conclusion, participation in flamenco dance demonstrated a positive impact on the mood and subjective well-being of older women. These findings support the idea that physical and artistic activities, such as flamenco dance, can play an important role in promoting emotional well-being in this age group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0115.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: qualitative analysis; deconversion; case study; Faith Development Interview; subjective religiosity; narrative identity; content analysis
Online: 9 May 2022 (10:02:48 CEST)
This article addresses the question how the religious narrative identity and subjective religiosity change over the course of 15 years. The cases portrayed are deconverts who have changed their religious affiliations multiple times. It will be carved out what led to their deconversion and what remains as a core of their faith after they have turned away from organized religion for good. Interviews have been conducted at three time points and are analyzed using content analysis. It will become clear that the needs and expectations of the two individuals differ highly, as well as the reasons for turning away from a religious community; yet what is a common core in this joint faithful journey is their need to live their religiosity, now in a private setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0787.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: body image; healthy diet; weight-related stigma; subjective well-being; excessive weight; cluster analysis
Online: 31 March 2021 (17:35:50 CEST)
This study explored intraindividual multidimensional profiles integrating psychosocial factors, namely, body image and satisfaction, weight-related self-stigma, positivity, and happiness, and behavioural-lifestyle factors, namely, adherence to a healthy diet, among Spanish adults with overweight or obesity. We further aimed to investigate the association of excess weight (i.e., measured body mass index, BMI) with the abovementioned multidimensional configurations. A convenience sample of adult individuals with excessive weight completed self-reports regarding the study variables, and their weight and height were measured. With a perspective centered on the individual, a cluster analysis established three distinct intraindividual psychosocial and diet-related profiles: a group of healthy individuals with excess weight; a group of individuals who were negatively affected by their excessive weight and showed the most distressed profile; and a group of dysfunctional individuals who seemed to be excessively unrealistic and optimistic regarding their excessive weight and unhealthy lifestyles. Furthermore, individuals in the affected cluster had higher obesity. The results showed that there are specific psychosocial and lifestyle profiles in the adult population with excess weight and that there are relationships among psychological, behavioural, and body-composition factors. For clinical application purposes, it is important to account for the heterogeneity within individuals who are obese and to individualize the interventions, with a focus from weight change to individual's overall well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0198.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: body image; healthy diet; weight-related stigma; subjective well-being; excessive weight; cluster analysis
Online: 5 March 2021 (21:27:00 CET)
This study explored intraindividual multidimensional profiles integrating psychosocial factors, namely, body image and satisfaction, weight-related self-stigma, positivity, and happiness, and behavioural-lifestyle factors, namely, adherence to a healthy diet, among Spanish adults with overweight or obesity. We further aimed to investigate the association of excess weight (i.e., measured body mass index, BMI) with the abovementioned multidimensional configurations. A convenience sample of adult individuals with excessive weight completed self-reports regarding the study variables, and their weight and height were measured. With a perspective centred on the individual, a cluster analysis established three distinct intraindividual psychosocial and diet-related profiles: a group of healthy individuals with excess weight; a group of individuals who were negatively affected by their excessive weight and showed the most distressed profile; and a group of dysfunctional individuals who seemed to be excessively unrealistic and optimistic regarding their excessive weight and unhealthy lifestyles. Furthermore, individuals in the affected cluster had higher obesity. The results showed that there are specific psychosocial and lifestyle profiles in the adult population with excess weight and that there are relationships among psychological, behavioural, and body-composition factors. For clinical application purposes, it is important to account for the heterogeneity within individuals who are obese.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: cognitive impairment screening; cognitive reserve; subjective memory complaints; Internet; television; reading; marital status; sleep.
Online: 12 June 2020 (12:25:24 CEST)
Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) would correspond to a preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to find associations between lifestyle individual factors compatible scores with cognitive impairment (CI) in SCD people. Methods: This is a case-control study to detect SCD, CI and potential associated factors in 497 patients over 50 years in Community Pharmacies. Three screening tests detected possible CI and patients with at least one test compatible with CI were referred to Primary Care to be evaluated. Results: In self-complaint patients statistically significant with depressive feelings were found (86.8%) with benzodiazepines consumers (83.9%) and female patients (81.2%). Thirty percent of our sample obtained scores compatible with CI. Being older than 70 years old increased the odds of obtaining scores compatible with CI. High level education, reading and internet use were able to reduce the odds of positive scores compatible with CI (37%-91%, 7%-18% and 67%-86%), whereas, one extra hour television/day increased the risk in 8%-30%. Reading was able to nullify the effect of both internet and TV consumption. Conclusion: Not just the age but also modifiable lifestyle factors are acting in favour of a cognitive decline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: background reconstruction; image quality assessment; image dataset; subjective evaluation; perceptual quality; objective quality metric
Online: 17 May 2018 (09:36:33 CEST)
With an increased interest in applications that require a clean background image, such as video surveillance, object tracking, street view imaging and location-based services on web-based maps, multiple algorithms have been developed to reconstruct a background image from cluttered scenes. Traditionally, statistical measures and existing image quality techniques have been applied for evaluating the quality of the reconstructed background images. Though these quality assessment methods have been widely used in the past, their performance in evaluating the perceived quality of the reconstructed background image has not been verified. In this work, we discuss the shortcomings in existing metrics and propose a full reference Reconstructed Background image Quality Index (RBQI) that combines color and structural information at multiple scales using a probability summation model to predict the perceived quality in the reconstructed background image given a reference image. To compare the performance of the proposed quality index with existing image quality assessment measures, we construct two different datasets consisting of reconstructed background images and corresponding subjective scores. The quality assessment measures are evaluated by correlating their objective scores with human subjective ratings. The correlation results show that the proposed RBQI outperforms all the existing approaches. Additionally, the constructed datasets and the corresponding subjective scores provide a benchmark to evaluate the performance of future metrics that are developed to evaluate the perceived quality of reconstructed background images.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: statistical mechanics; information theory; game theory; subjective utility; entropy; income inequality; distributive justice; monetary policy
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:11:55 CET)
Economics has long sought to bridge the principles of microeconomics into the realm of macroeconomics. This paper presents a formal attempt to do so by using a maximum entropy based approach derived from statistical mechanics coupled with subjective game theory and elements from political philosophy. This approach is then applied to income distributions and to the Cobb-Douglas production function, to create a framework for future applications, and to illustrate where past work had made implicit assumptions regarding the system. The paper then explores the consequences of the approach, illustrating self-contradictions in the political philosophy of distributive justice, formally deriving an equation of state for the transactions on the Bitcoin network, and deriving from this the ideal gas law and polytropic process for an economy proving that expansionary monetary policy is not stimulative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0275.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: customer- oriented service; behaviour; distribution channel; commissions and fees; objective and subjective advice; sustainable insurance brokerage
Online: 24 January 2020 (10:36:31 CET)
This research focuses on the customer orientation of insurance brokers, whose activity is regulated by the Law of 26/2006 of July 17 on the mediation of private insurances and reinsurances. The goal is to ascertain whether the intermediation inherent in the insurance broker’s activity, which implies a customer-oriented service, entails a positive behaviour that transcends the immediate environment, reaching society. This study presents a comparative analysis between the insurance brokerage society, characterised by providing a personalised customer service, and banks’ advisory services on insurance. To this end, we study the evolution of the total volume of business and new production, compared for a portfolio of insurance products. The results presented in this research suggest that the customer values the advisory service provided by the broker. However, for a particular business segment in standardised insurance products and products related to banking assets, customers are more likely to resort to the bank’s services. In addition, the results indicate that the commission percentages applied by the entities operating in the banking insurance channel exceed those perceived by the insurance broker. With all this, intermediation in the development of the insurer’s activity can entail an ethical and social behaviour that involves customer-orientation and, possibly, social service, which does not always benefit the insurer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0241.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Attitude Toward Behavior; Subjective Norms; Perceived Behavioral Control; Outcome Expectation; Social Entrepreneurial Intention; Generation Z; Generation Millennials
Online: 14 February 2023 (09:01:41 CET)
As one of the world's most populous countries, Indonesia is struggling with the composition of its people, the majority of whom are unemployed productive-age individuals with low education levels. Another issue is the high poverty rate, which is followed by issues of gender inequality. The government cannot solve these social issues on its own. There is a need for community support to solve these problems through sustainable social entrepreneurship activities. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior and Outcome Expectation, this study will determine the factors that influence the interest of individuals known as the Z and Millennial generation, aged 18 to 34 years old, in becoming social entrepreneurs. This study applied a quantitative approach with a judgmental sampling technique to a sample of Generation Z and Millennials who have ever participated in social activities but have not yet started their own business. The study gathered 210 respondents, who were then analyzed using the PLS-SEM method with multiple group analysis generation-based comparison. According to the findings, the Millennial Generation's Attitude Toward Behavior, Subjective Norms, and Outcome Expectation all had a positive impact on Social Entrepreneurial Intention. Meanwhile, Subjective Norms had no effect on Social Entrepreneurial Intention in the Z Generation. Only attitude toward behavior, perceived behavioral control, and outcome expectation have a positive effect on the development of social entrepreneurial intentions. Furthermore, the findings of this study confirm that subjective norms influence attitude toward behavior and Perceived Behavioral Control in both Generation Z and millennials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0005.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Physical Education; social and emotional learning; Sport Education model; subjective well-being; trait emotional intelligence; social anxiety
Online: 3 January 2019 (09:34:10 CET)
The aim of this article has been to evaluate the impact of a physical-sport education programme, based on the pedagogical model of Sport Education within the framework of quality Physical Education and approached from the field of social and emotional learning, on a set of psychological variables: subjective well-being (quality of life related to health, positive affect and negative affect); trait emotional intelligence and social anxiety. A total number of 113 Compulsory Secondary Education students were involved, aged 12 to 15 years old, 44 of whom belonged to the control group (CG) and 69 to the experimental group (EG). A quasiexperimental design of repeated pretest and posttest measures with the CG was used. The results obtained in this investigation revealed that the intervention programme caused significant improvements in the subjective well-being and the trait emotional intelligence for the EG. These findings reinforce the pedagogical efficiency of the programme with regards to the aim that has been set. Likewise, the findings also highlight the suitability and appropriateness in terms of innovative teaching proposals. In the same way, the results showed relevant empirical contributions in this given school context due to its psychological benefits and the encouragement of healthy living.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0418.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Diagnosis; Health sensing system; Nocturnal perspiration; Parameter; Pathology; Predictor; Q-strip; Subjective measurement; Sweat pattern; Symptoms; Prodromal; biomarker
Online: 23 April 2020 (15:26:39 CEST)
One third of a person’s life is spent on sleep, therefore the quality and habit of sleep affects health. A single case study indicated that perspiration could serve as a prognostic marker. Diagnosing nocturnal perspiration is common clinical practice, since this serves as a major symptom in many pathologies. Till this day no specific evidence-based approach for diagnosing nocturnal perspiration exists. By introducing the Q-strip, a device which quantitatively measures nocturnal perspiration, this could be acquired. The Q-strip could serve a purpose in diagnosing nocturnal perspiration more efficient without being intrusive. In addition to its health sensing potentials, the Q-strip makes it possible to visualise perspiration patterns. This introduces the possibility to examine the quality of sleep. Future research is recommended to investigate this.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0092.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Urban spatial perception; building function classification; objective mapping; subjective perception; machine learning; point of interest (POI); street view images
Online: 1 June 2023 (13:07:49 CEST)
Urban spatial perception critically influences human behavior and emotional reactions, emphasizing the necessity of aligning urban spaces with human needs for enhanced urban living. However, functionality-based categorization of urban architecture is prone to biases, stemming from disparities between objective mapping and subjective perception. These biases can result in urban planning and designs that fail to cater adequately to the needs and preferences of city residents, negatively impacting their quality of life and the city's overall functionality. In this study, we apply machine learning to elucidate these biases within urban spatial perception research, utilizing a three-step methodology: objective mapping, subjective perception analysis, and perception deviation assessment. Our findings reveal that machine learning can expose hidden patterns within this research field, bearing substantial implications for urban planning and design. Of particular note, the study revealed significant discrepancies in the distribution centroids between commercial buildings and residential or public buildings. This result illuminates the spatial organization characteristics of urban architectural functions, serving as a valuable reference for urban planning and development. Moreover, it uncovers the advantages and disadvantages of different data sources and techniques in interpreting urban spatial perception, paving the way for a more comprehensive understanding of the subject. These findings underscore the importance of integrating both objective mapping and subjective perspectives in urban architectural functionality classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2085.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: organic food knowledge; attitude toward organic food purchase; subjective norm; organic food purchase intention; organic food purchase self-efficacy; gender; education
Online: 30 August 2023 (12:05:24 CEST)
The objectives of this study are threefold. First, we evaluate the applicability of the information–motivation–behavioral skills (IMB) model for predicting organic food purchase intention (OFPI) in adults with chronic conditions. Second, we examine the indirect effects of organic food knowledge, attitudes toward organic food purchase, and subjective norms on OFPI through self-efficacy. Third, we examine whether these indirect effects are moderated by gender and educational attainment. Data were collected from Indian adults with chronic conditions using a self-administered questionnaire. The results show significant indirect effects of organic food knowledge, attitude toward organic food purchase, and subjective norm on OFPI through self-efficacy. Moreover, the mediating effect of knowledge was moderated by gender and education attainment, with the effect being stronger for females and among individuals with a lower level of education. Organic food marketers, social marketers, and public health agencies promoting organic food consumption to people with chronic conditions should aim to increase their confidence in comprehending organic food. This study contributes to the literature by assessing the applicability of Fisher and Fisher’s (1992) IMB model in understanding behavioral intention toward organic food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0440.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; coronavirus; subjective sleep quality; risk perception; fear of infection; rumination; perception of collective coordinated defense; collective efficacy beliefs
Online: 24 September 2021 (14:34:47 CEST)
Background: Only few studies have studied the link between risk perception and sleep in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigates the effect of two distinct risk appraisals—risk perception and perception of collective coordinated defense (PCCD) on Chinese adults’ sleep quality during the COVID-19 pandemic, and tested COVID-19-related fear and rumination as potential mediators of the relationships. Methods: Data were collected using a self-report online questionnaire from a sample of 224 Chinese adults during the fourth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong. Results: COVID-19 risk perception and PCCD were related to poor sleep quality. Mediation analysis showed that both fear and rumination mediated the relationship between risk perception and sleep quality, whereas only fear mediated the relationship between PCCD and sleep quality. The model showed an excellent fit to the data and accounted for 44% of the variance in sleep quality in Chinese adults. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the distinct perceptual processes—risk appraisals in particular—contributed to poor sleep quality in Chinese adults during the COVID-19 public emergencies. These findings would be helpful for policy makers to address the sleep problems induced by psychological consequences of the pandemic.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: consciousness 1; subjective experience 2; will 3; agency 4; self 5; psychopathology 6; treatment 7; transcranial near infrared light 8; biophotomodulation 9
Online: 25 May 2021 (08:44:47 CEST)
In this paper I will address Dr. Sonne’s questions about will, agency, choice, consciousness, relevant brain regions, impacts of disorders and their therapeutics, and I will do this by referring to my theory, Dual-brain Psychology, which posits that within most of us there exist two mental agencies with different experiences, wills, choices, and behaviors. Each of these agencies is associated as a trait with one brain hemisphere (either left or right) and its composite regions. One of these agencies is more adversely affected by past traumas and is more immature and more symptomatic while the other is more mature and healthier. The theory has extensive experimental support through 17 peer-reviewed publications with clinical and non-clinical research. I will discuss how this theory relates to the questions that Dr. Sonne presented and will discuss also my published theory on the physical nature of subjective experience and its relation to the brain and how that theory interacts with DBP, and how the 2 theories relate to subjective experience, will, behavior, psychopathology and its treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0059.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: deciduous forest; female; forest bathing; forest therapy; Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; Profile of Mood States; Restorative Outcome Scale; restoration; Shinrin-Yoku; snow covered forest; Subjective Vitality Scale; winter
Online: 5 August 2019 (08:56:32 CEST)
Forest recreation can be successfully conducted for the purpose of psychological relaxation, as has been proven in previous scientific studies. During the winter in many countries, when snow cover occurs frequently, forest recreation (walking, relaxation, photography, etc.) is common. Nevertheless, whether forest therapy conducted in a forest environment with a snow cover will also have a positive effect on psychological indicators remains unknown. Furthermore, male subjects frequently participate in forest therapy experiments, whereas females are rarely involved. Thus, in this study, the effectuality of forest recreation during winter and with snow cover was tested on 32 young females. For these reasons, the experiment involved 15-minute periods of relaxation in a forest environment or in an urban environment, in addition to a pre-test under indoor conditions. Four psychological questionnaires (POMS, PANAS, ROS, SVS) were administered to participants before and after interventions. Results showed that participants’ levels of negative mood, as measured by different aspects of the POMS questionnaire (tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, depression-dejection, confusion, fatigue), decreased after exposure to the forest environment. In contrast, both tension-anxiety and anger-hostility increased in the urban environment. The indicator of negative affect from the PANAS questionnaire also increased after exposure to the urban environment, whereas the indicator of positive affect based on PANAS was higher in the forest environment than in the urban environment. Restorativeness and subjective vitality exhibited higher values after exposure to the forest environment in comparison to those from the control and pre-test. The changes in these indicators demonstrates that forest recreation in the snow during winter can significantly increase psychological relaxation in young females, as well as showing that recreation can be successfully conducted under these winter conditions.