ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0312.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Health cadres; knowledge; motivation; stunting children; stunting prevention
Online: 20 December 2021 (12:40:36 CET)
Stunting in children is a serious problem of nutritional disorders and is strictly monitored by the Indonesian government, it is not only cause physical but also cognitive abnormalities in the form of less intelligence in children so that when they grow up, their productivity will decrease. The incidence of stunting in 2018 in Indonesia was 30.8 %, while in West Java was 29.92%, still at a moderate to high level, consequently, prevention and early detection efforts need to be carried out by various parties, including health professionals and health cadres. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between the socio demographic characteristics factors as well as the knowledge and motivation of health cadres in the stunting prevention in West Java. A correlational study with a cross-sectional approach was employed with the samples of health cadres from 8 districts/cities in West Java Province: Karawang, Tasikmalaya, Garut, Bandung, Subang, Sukabumi, Cianjur, and West Bandung. A total of 363 health cadres participated and the sampling technique used is the stratified method. The data were collected using a questionnaire developed specifically for this study and were analyzed using a correlation with Chi-Square test and presented in the form of a frequency distribution. The study findings found that majority of the health cadres have good knowledge of 81.27%, which was significantly influenced by education level and marital status with p <0.05. Meanwhile, approximately half of the respondents had moderate motivation with 47.66%, while one-third or 39.12% had high motivation. This motivation was significantly influenced by education level, marital status, and age with p <0.05. It was concluded that health cadres need to further enhance the roles and functions in the prevention and early detection of stunting in West Java by providing continuous guidance, stunting training prevention and award presentations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0279.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: rural; stunting; household size; Indonesia
Online: 13 July 2021 (08:28:03 CEST)
(1) Background: Stunting remains a challenge in Indonesia, where 30.8% of under-five children are stunted and may never reach full potential height and cognitive function. We aimed to investigate the risk factors of stunting in Nangapanda subdistrict, East Nusa Tenggara; (2) Methods: The design was cross-sectional study located in rural area as part of PINTERMIDI UI project. We collected quantitative data on social determinants, weight, height, hemoglobin, ferritin, serum zinc, CRP, worm infection, history of deworming, co-morbidity, food security, and nutrient intake; (3) Results: A total of 196 under-five children included and 74% households were food insecure. The prevalence of stunting was 29.9% in this population (31.8% worm infection, 30.3% iron deficiency, and 28.1% zinc deficiency). Multivariate analysis showed household with 5-8 members (AOR 3.076; 95% CI 1.132 – 8.356) and unsafe drinking water (AOR 1.702; 95% CI 0.825 – 3.512) were significant independent risk factors of stunting after adjusted by child’s gender, father’s occupation, caregiver’s education, monthly expenses, sanitary facilities, and food security status; (4) Conclusions: The number of household members is the only independent risk factor of stunting among children age 24-59 months in rural area of Eastern Indonesia. Development of nutrition sensitive intervention and promotion of family planning are needed in order to increase adequate child’s care and feeding practices in rural area of Eastern Indonesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0350.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Children; Malnutrition; India; Overweight; Stunting; Anaemia
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:22:25 CEST)
The study examines malnutrition's triple burden, including anaemia, overweight, and stunting, among children aged 6-59 months. Using data from the National Family Health Survey-5 (2019-21), the study identifies risk factors and assesses the contribution at different levels to existing malnutrition burden. A random intercept multilevel logistic regression model and spatial analysis are employed to identify child, maternal, and household level risk factors for stunting, overweight, and anaemia. The study finds that 34% of children were stunted, 4% overweight, and 66% anaemic. Stunting and anaemia prevalence were higher in central and eastern regions, while overweight was more prevalent in the north-eastern and northern regions. At macro-level, the coexistence of stunting, overweight, and anaemia circumstantiates the triple burden of childhood malnutrition with substantial spatial variation (Moran’s I: stunting-0.53, overweight-0.41 and anaemia-0.53). Multilevel analysis reveals that child, maternal, and household variables play a substantial role in determining malnutrition burden in India. The nutritional health is significantly influenced by a wide range of determinants, necessitating multilevel treatments targeting households to address this diverse group of coexisting factors. Given the intra-country spatial heterogeneity, the treatment also needs to be tailor-made for various disaggregated levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0194.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Children; Growth; Development Modeling; Role Modeling; Stunting
Online: 14 June 2022 (05:28:12 CEST)
Stunting, during the Covid-19 pandemic, is increasingly becoming a big problem in the world, especially in poor and developing countries. Observational studies have shown that stunting is associated with poor nutrition, especially a plant-based diet, inflammation, caused by infection, enteric dysfunction, an environment with clean water, inadequate sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and endogenous inflammation associated with excess adiposity. This causes nutritional interventions to be often unsuccessful (Kemenkes RI, 2018).The government intervenes to reduce stunting to the target party, which is divided into two categories. The first category is specific nutrition intervention, namely monitoring children under five at the posyandu, giving immunizations, giving vitamin A, giving Supplementary Foods (PMT), and others. The second category is sensitive nutrition interventions, namely the provision of drinking water and proper sanitation, postnatal family planning (KB) services, providing information related to stunting, food social assistance, conditional cash assistance, and others. (KEMEN-PMK, 2018). WHO states, that the impact of stunting can be divided into short-term and long-term impacts. The short-term impacts are; increased incidence of morbidity and mortality; cognitive, motor, and verbal development in children is not optimal; and increased healthcare costs. While the long-term impact; Posture that is not optimal as an adult (shorter than usual); Increased risk of obesity and other diseases; The decline in reproductive health; Less than optimal learning capacity and performance during school years; and Low productivity and work capacity (Kemenkes RI, 2018). The nursing goal is to help people achieve quality, holistic health. Implementation of Modeling and Role Modeling Theory is an option in implementing nursing care for children with stunting. “Modeling” is gaining an understanding of the client’s world from the client’s perspective. That is to build a “model” of the client’s worldview. “Role‑Modeling” is based on the assumption that all humans want to interact with others, they want to carry out selected roles in society. Role-Modeling is using the client’s model of the world to plan interventions that meet his or her perceived needs, grow, develop and heal. Role-Modeling requires that we aim to build trust, promote a positive orientation and a sense of control, affirm strengths and set specific mutual goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1107.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Stunting; determinants; children under five; national nutrition survey; Pakistan
Online: 17 July 2023 (12:05:27 CEST)
Introduction: Child stunting remains a public health concern. It is characterized as poor cognitive and physical development in children due to inadequate nutrition during the first 1,000 days of life. Across South Asia, Pakistan has the second-highest prevalence of stunting. This study has assessed the most recent nationally representative data, the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) 2018, to identify the stunting prevalence and determinants among Pakistani children under five. Methods: The NNS 2018, a cross-sectional household-level survey, was used to conduct a secondary analysis. Data on malnutrition, dietary practices, and food insecurity was used to identify the prevalence of stunting among children under five years by demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics. The prevalence of stunting was calculated using the World Health Organization (WHO) height for age z-score references. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to identify factors associated with child stunting. Results: Analysis showed that out % of 52,602 children under five, 40.0% were found stunted. Male children living in rural areas were more susceptible to stunting. Furthermore, stunting was more prevalent among children whose mothers had no education, were between 20 and 34, and were employed. In the multivariable logistic regression, male children (AOR=1.08, 95% CI[1.04-1.14], P<0.001) from rural areas (AOR=1.07, 95% CI [1.01-1.14], P=0.014), with the presence of diarrhea in the last two weeks (AOR=1.15, 95% CI [1.06-1.25], P<0.001), with mothers who have no education (AOR=1.57, 95% CI [1.42-1.73], P<0.001) or lower levels of education (Primary: AOR=1.35, 95% CI [1.21-1.51], P<0.001; Middle: AOR=1.29, 95% CI [1.15-1.45], P<0.001) had higher odds of stunting. Younger children aged <6 months (AOR=0.53, 95% CI [0.48-0.58], P<0.001) and 6-23 months (AOR=0.89, 95% CI [0.84-0.94], P<0.001), with mothers aged 35-49 years (AOR=0.78, 95% CI [0.66-0.92], P=0.003) had lower odds of stunting. At the household level, the odds of child stunting were higher in the poorest households (AOR=1.64, 95% CI [1.46-1.83], P<0.001), with ≥7 members (AOR=1.09, 95% CI [1.04-1.15], P<0.001), with no access to improved sanitation facilities (AOR=1.14, 95% CI [1.06-1.22], P<0.001) and experiencing severe food insecurity (AOR=1.07, 95% CI [1.01-1.14], P=0.02). Conclusion: Child stunting in Pakistan is strongly associated with various factors, including gender, age, diarrhea, residence, maternal age and education, household size, food and wealth status, and access to sanitation. To address this, interventions must be introduced to make locally available food and nutritious supplements more affordable, improve access to safe water and sanitation, and promote female education for long-term reduction in stunting rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0105.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Rwanda; stunting; children; poor; household; factors; intimate partner violence
Online: 7 December 2022 (01:30:54 CET)
We assessed the prevalence and correlates of stunting among children aged 6-23 months from poor households in Rwanda. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 817 mother-child dyads living in poor households from five districts with a high prevalence of stunting. We used descriptive statistics to determine the prevalence of stunting, bivariate analysis, and a multivariate logistic re-gression model to measure the strength of the Association between childhood stunting and exposure variables. Stunting was at 34.1%. Children aged 19-23 months (AOR = 4.410, 95% CI: [1.911-10.173], p-value=0.01), children aged 13-18 months (AOR=2.788, 95% CI: [1.302-5.968], p-value=0.08), children from households that do not have a vegetable garden (AOR=2.165, 95% CI: [1.201-3.905], p-value<0.01) were more likely to be stunted. On the other hand, children whose mothers were not exposed to physical violence (AOR= 0.145, 95% CI: [0.074-0.287], p-value<0.001), children whose fathers were working (AOR=0.036, 95% CI: [0.005-0.242], p-value=0.001), children whose both parents were working (AOR=0.208, 95% CI: [0.051-0.851], p-value=0.029) and children whose mothers had good hand-washing practice (AOR=0.181, 95% CI: [0.091-0.362], p-value<0.001) were less likely to be stunted. Our findings underscore the importance of integrating the promotion of hand-washing practices, owning vegetable gardens, and intimate partner violence prevention in the interventions to fight stunting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: breastfeeding; mortality; obesity; overweight; stunting; wasting; education; life expectancy
Online: 20 March 2018 (10:29:32 CET)
Background: The preexistence of obesity with nutritional anaemia is becoming an increasing problem in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). Much controversy exists around the role of continued breastfeeding in alleviating the health and survival consequences of these problems in the region. Aim: To examine trends and relationships of nutritional anaemia (NA) in women and children under-five years of age (CU5) with obesity and breastfeeding practices in the EMR. Methods: Data from regional database banks of WHO and UNICEF for anaemia in pregnant and non-pregnant women and CU5 from 22 countries in EMR were retrieved, compiled, and statistically analyzed. Breastfeeding indicators for timely first suckle (TFS), exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and continued breastfeeding for 12 (BFC12) and 24 months (BFC24), low-birth-weight (LBW), stunting, overweight, total fertility rates (TFR) and mortality rates (MR) were correlated with nutritional anaemia and analyzed by income groups into 5 low income countries (LIC), 11 middle income countries (MIC) and 6 high income countries (HIC). Results: Trends in mean prevalence of anaemia in women showed a concave curve increasing after a short decrease in the early 2000 in all income groups (P > 0.05). Trends in anaemia in the CU5 exhibited a steep decrease from a mean of 52.59 ± 16.4 in 2000 to 37.3 ± 14.9 in 2016 at P < 0.002, the steep decline was significant in HIC (P < 0.01) and MIC (P < 0.02), but not for LIC (P > 0.05). Anaemia prevalence in women and CU5 was significantly correlated to LBW, stunting, and with overweight and obesity in adults but negatively in CU5. All age specific MRs were highly correlated with anaemia in pregnant, non-pregnant and CU5 at P < 0.001 and TFR at P < 0.05. BFC for shorter durations was negatively correlated with anaemia in pregnant women (r-0.5) at P < 0.05 and was positively correlated in MIC and HIC. In non-pregnant women, BFC12 and BFC 24 correlated positively with anaemia prevalence in all three income groups at P < 0.01. Conclusions: Completing optimal breastfeeding for two years should be promoted to protect women and CU5 from anemia and obesity. Nutritional anemia during pregnancy increases regional rates of LBW, stunting and mortality. Spacing out births by encouraging longer duration of breastfeeding, to replenish iron stores, can help alleviate many of the health and nutritional problems in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0740.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Poverty: Non-Cash Food Assistance; Stunting; Economic Growth; Public Private Partnership
Online: 23 April 2023 (03:27:09 CEST)
Poverty alleviation must be carried out in a planned and sustainable manner by the central government and regional governments, the private sector, and the entire community to achieve a prosperous society by getting special attention from the government. This study aims to analyze the impact of the non-cash food assistance program on poverty alleviation, stunting and economic problems using a public private partnership (PPP) approach that involves the role of the government, the private sector and the community. This study uses a qualitative-explorative research method to examine Indonesia's non-cash food assistance program as a national initiative to fight poverty in the form of food. Data were collected from interviews, field observations, and relevant literature, then Nvivo 12 Pro was used to analyze the results. The location of this research is in Indonesia, namely Takalar Regency. The results of the study show that the implementation of the non-cash basic food assistance program has been effective. The involvement of the government, the private sector, and the community shows this. The success factors for the basic food assistance program are alleviating poverty in Indonesia, reducing stunting rates, and increasing economic growth because people are given a place to be part of small businesses. From the results of this analysis it was concluded that the non-cash basic food assistance program is a special program that can overcome various social problems in society. So that poverty alleviation programs are expected to be sustainable and improved to provide benefits for people's welfare. The implementation of the food aid program also involved several cross-sectoral efforts to channel government assistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0020.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: IBV; infectious bronchitis; variants; whole-genome sequencing, enteric tropism; runting-stunting syndrome
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:25:48 CEST)
Abstract: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) induces respiratory and urogenital disease in chickens. Although IBV replicates in the gastrointestinal tract, enteric lesions are uncommon. We have reported a case of runting-stunting syndrome in commercial broilers from which an IBV variant was isolated from the intestines. The isolate, CalEnt, demonstrated an enteric tissue tropism in chicken embryos and SPF chickens experimentally. Here, we determined the full genome of CalEnt and compared it to other IBV strains, in addition to comparing the pathobiology of CalEnt and M41 in commercial broilers. Despite the high whole-genome identity to other IBV strains, CalEnt is rather unique in nucleotide composition. The S gene phylogenetic analyses showed great similarity between CalEnt and Cal 99. Clinically, vent staining was slightly more frequent in CalEnt-infected birds than those challenged with M41. Furthermore, IBV IHC detection was more evident and the viral shedding in feces was overall higher with the CalEnt challenge compared with M41. Despite underlying intestinal lesions caused by coccidiosis and salmonellosis vaccination, microscopic lesions in CalEnt-infected chickens were more severe than in M41-infected chickens or controls, supporting the enteric tropism of CalEnt. Further studies in SPF chickens are needed to determine the pathogenesis of the virus, its molecular mechanisms for the enteric tropism, and its influence in intestinal health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0154.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: School health policy; educational attainment; early child development; stunting; causal models; critical realism
Online: 10 April 2023 (05:48:21 CEST)
Children’s health, development and education cannot be handled separated; they form one process and are profoundly interrelated. This article considers how to ensure children’s physical and mental fitness for school and maintain it once they are there. Rwanda Is a case study of health and development issues which render children unreceptive to education. This is not news to Rwanda’s government, but until recently the donor community was not interested in supporting implementation. The story of Rwanda illustrates the need to think about changes of policy and practice in their context of structures and culture – how they interact and how they are facilitated or constrained by structures and by cultural understandings. To grasp what is going on and for successful implementation of policy, it is necessary to look at situations as a whole and consider human and governmental agency as real influences rather than just consequences of causal mechanisms.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: development; milestones; screening; poverty; stunting; lead exposure; developmental risk; child health; global health; pediatrics
Online: 1 June 2018 (11:11:19 CEST)
There is a need for developmental screening that is easily administered in resource-poor settings. 1) We hypothesized that known risk factors would predict failed developmental screening on an adapted screening tool in East African children living in poverty. 2) The sample included 100 healthy Ugandan children aged 6-59 months. We adapted a parent-reported developmental screener based on the Child Development Review chart. The primary outcome was failure to meet age-appropriate milestones for any developmental domain. Venous blood was analyzed for lead, and caregivers completed a demographics questionnaire. We used multivariate logistic regression models to determine if elevated blood lead and stunting predicted failure on the screener, controlling for maternal education level, age in months past the lower bound of the child’s developmental age group, and absence of home electricity. 3) In the sample, 14% (n=14) of children failed one or more milestones on the screener. Lead levels or stunting did not predict failing the screener after controlling for covariates. 4) Though this tool was feasibly administered, it did not demonstrate preliminary construct validity and is not yet recommended for screening in high-risk populations. Future research should include a larger sample size and cognitive interviews to ensure it is contextually relevant.