REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0414.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Embedded Sensors; Sensing Technology; Smart Materials; Structural Health Monitoring; Non-Destructive Evaluation
Online: 26 October 2022 (12:19:56 CEST)
Sensing Technology (ST) plays a key role in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems. ST focuses on developing sensors, sensory systems or smart materials that monitor a wide variety of materials properties aiming to create smart structures and smart materials, using Embedded Sensors (ESs), and allowing continuous and permanent measurements of the structural integrity. The integration of ESs is limited to the processing technology to embed the sensor due to its high-temperature sensitivity and the possibility of damage during its insertion into the structure. In addition, the technological process selection is dependent on the base material composition, either metallic or composite parts. The selection of smart sensors or the technology underlying them is fundamental to the monitoring mode. This paper presents a critical review of the fundaments and applications of sensing technologies for SHM employing ESs, focusing on the actual developments and innovation of these, as well as analysing the challenges that these technologies present, to build a path that allows a connected world through distributed measurement systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0245.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: MEMS vibrometer; Structural Health Monitoring (SHM); Guided Ultrasonic Waves (GUW); Fiber Metal Laminates (FML); wafer bonding
Online: 17 June 2022 (03:55:30 CEST)
Structural health monitoring of lightweight constructions made of composite materials can be performed using guided ultrasonic waves. If modern fiber metal laminates are used, this requires integrated sensors that can record the inner displacement oscillations caused by the propagating guided ultrasonic waves. Therefore, we have developed a robust MEMS vibrometer that can be integrated with structural and functional compliance. This vibrometer is directly sensitive to the high-frequency displacements from structure-borne ultrasound when excited between its first and second natural frequency. The vibrometer is mostly realized by processes earlier developed for a pressure sensor but with additional femtosecond laser ablation and wafer bonding. The piezoresistive transducer made from silicon is encapsulated between top and bottom glass lids. The natural frequencies are experimentally determined using an optical micro vibrometer setup. The vibrometer functionality and usability for structural health monitoring are demonstrated on a customized test rig by recording application-relevant guided ultrasonic wave packages with a central frequency of 100 kHz at a distance of 200 mm from the exciting ultrasound transducer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0412.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Geographical Area Network (GAN); Structural Health Monitoring (SHM); Utility Computing (UC); Things as a Service (TaaS); Internet of Things (IoT)
Online: 19 November 2018 (03:58:56 CET)
In view of intensified disasters and fatalities caused by natural phenomena and geographical expansion, there is a pressing need for a more effective environment logging for a better management and urban planning. This paper proposes a novel utility computing model (UCM) for structural health monitoring (SHM) that would enable dynamic planning of monitoring systems in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The proposed UCM consists of network-attached data drive that stores data from SHM logger, population count system and Geographic Information System (GIS) enhanced with a Cloud IoT data backup, display, and analysis server. The UCM using this data and data from building information systems applies a simple machine learning algorithm to generate real-time structure health and suggests re-planning of SHM units. The health of structure varies dynamically with disturbances created by higher occupancy and structure density per zone. The proposed SHM-UCM is unique in terms of its capability to manage heterogeneous SHM resources. This was tested in a case study on Qatar University (QU) in Doha Qatar, where it looked at where SHM nodes are distributed along with occupancy density in each building. This information was taken from QU simulated occupation and zone calculation models and then compared to ideal SHM system data. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed model in logging and dynamically planning SHM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: inverse Finite Element Method; iFEM; Digital-Twin; Structural Health Monitoring; crack; Digital Image Correlation
Online: 6 February 2023 (09:04:08 CET)
The inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM) is a model-based technique to compute the displacement (and then the strain) field of a structure from strain measurements and a geometrical discretization of the same. Different literature works exploit the error between the numerically reconstructed strains and the experimental measurements to perform damage identification in a Structural Health Monitoring framework. However, only damage detection and localization are performed, without attempting a proper damage size estimation. The latter could be based on machine learning techniques, however, an a priori definition of the damage conditions would be required. To overcome these limitations, the present work proposes a new approach in which the damage is systematically introduced in the iFEM model to minimize its discrepancy with respect to the physical structure. This is performed with a maximum likelihood estimation framework, where the most accurate damage scenario is selected among a series of different models. The proposed approach is experimentally verified on an aluminum plate subjected to fatigue crack propagation, which enables the creation of a Digital-Twin of the structure itself. The strain field fed to the iFEM routine is experimentally measured with an Optical Backscatter Reflectometry fiber and the methodology is validated with independent observations of lasers and the Digital Image Correlation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Structural Health Monitoring; Deep Learning; Lamb waves; Autoencoder; Anomaly Detection
Online: 14 June 2023 (07:49:07 CEST)
Lamb wave-based structural health monitoring is widely acknowledged as a reliable 11 method for damage identification, classification, localization and quantification. However, due to 12 the complexity of Lamb wave signals, especially after interacting with structural components and 13 defects, interpreting these waves and extracting useful information about the structure's health is 14 still a major challenge. However, deep learning-based strategy offers a great opportunity to address 15 such challenges as the algorithm can operate directly on raw discrete time-domain signals. Unlike 16 traditional methods, which often require careful feature engineering and preprocessing, deep learn-17 ing can automatically extract relevant features from the raw data. This paper proposes an autoen-18 coder based on a bidirectional long short-term memory network with maximal overlap discrete 19 wavelet transform layer to detect the signal anomaly and determine the location of the damage in 20 the composite structure. This approach has the potential to greatly enhance our ability to detect and 21 locate structural damage in composite structures, thereby increasing safety and efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0030.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: occupational stress; job burden-capital model; structural equation model; depression; well-being
Online: 4 August 2016 (12:47:57 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to identify the association between occupational stress and depression-well-being by proposing a comprehensive and flexible job burden-capital model with its corresponding hypotheses. Methods: For this research, 1618 valid samples were gathered from the electronic manufacturing service industry in Hunan Province, China; self-rated questionnaires were administered to participants for data collection after obtaining their written consent. The proposed model was fitted and tested through structural equation model analysis. Results: Single-factor correlation analysis results indicated that coefficients between all items and dimensions had statistical significance. The final model demonstrated satisfactory global goodness of fit (CMIN/DF=5.37, AGFI=0.915, NNFI=0.945, IFI=0.952, RMSEA=0.052). Both the measurement and structural models showed acceptable path loadings. Job burden and capital were directly associated with depression and well-being or indirectly related to them through personality. Multi-group structural equation model analyses indicated general applicability of the proposed model to basic features of such a population. Gender, marriage and education led to differences in the relation between occupational stress and health outcomes. Conclusions: The job burden-capital model of occupational stress-depression and well-being was found to be more systematic and comprehensive than previous models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0029.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Mobility; infrastructure; flexible pavement; pavement condition index (PCI); international roughness index (IRI); artificial intelligence (AI); predictive models; ensemble learning; structural health monitoring; machine learning
Online: 3 April 2020 (09:35:44 CEST)
The construction of different roads, such as freeways, highways, major roads or minor roads must be accompanied by constant monitoring and evaluation of service delivery. Pavements are generally assessed by engineers in terms of the smoothness, surface condition, structural condition and surface safety. Pavement assessment is often conducted using the qualitative indices such as international roughness index (IRI), pavement condition index (PCI), structural condition index (SCI) and skid resistance value (SRV), which are used for smoothness assessment, surface condition assessment, structural condition assessment, and surface safety assessment, respectively. In this paper, Tehran-Qom Freeway in Iran has been selected as the case study and its smoothness and pavement surface conditions are assessed. At 2-km intervals, a 100-meter sample unit is selected in the slow-speed lane (totally, 118 sample units). In these sample units, the PCI is calculated after a visual inspection of the pavement and the recording of distresses. Then, in each sample unit, the average IRI is computed. The purpose of this study is to provide a method for estimating PCI based on IRI. The proposed theory was developed by Random Forest (RF), and Random Forest optimized by Genetic Algorithm (RF-GA) methods and these methods were validated using correlation coefficient (CC), scattered index (SI), and Willmott’s index of agreement (WI) criteria. The proposed method reduces costs, saves time and eliminates the safety risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: structural health monitoring; sensing element; split ring resonator; continuous monitoring; sensor network
Online: 18 August 2022 (07:48:54 CEST)
The aim of this work is to propose two different and complementary sensors for the structural health monitoring of concrete beams. In particular, a diffused sensing element and a split ring resonator network are presented. The first sensor is able to detect the variation of the dielectric properties of the concrete along the whole beam length, for a diffuse monitoring both during the important concrete curing phase and also for the entire life cycle of the concrete beams. The resonators instead work punctually, in their surroundings, allowing an accurate evaluation of the permittivity both during the drying phase and after. This allows the continuous monitoring of any presence of water both inside the concrete beam and in points that can be critical, in the case of beams in dams, bridges or in any case subject to a strong presence of water which could lead to deterioration, or worse, cause serious accidents. Moreover, the punctual sensors are able to detect the presence of cracks in the structure and to localize them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0013.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transportation infrastructure; concrete bridges; structural health monitoring; bridge condition index; analytical hierarchy process; prioritizing
Online: 1 April 2021 (11:14:27 CEST)
This paper proposes a method for monitoring the structural health of concrete bridges in Iran. In this method, the bridge condition index (BCI) of bridges is determined by the analytical hierarchy process. BCI constitutes eight indices that are scored based on the experts' views, including structural, hydrology and climate, safety, load impact, geotechnical and seismicity, strategic importance, facilities, and traffic and pavement. Experts' views were analyzed by Expert Choice software, and the relative importance (weight) of indices were determined using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Then, the gave scores of experts were assigned to indices for various conditions. Bridge inspectors can examine the bridge, determine the scores of indices, and compute BCI. Higher values of BCI indicate better conditions. Therefore, bridges with lower BCI take priority in maintenance activities. Five bridges in Iran, Semnan province, were selected as the case studies, and BCI calculation of these bridges was conducted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0270.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Non-Destructive Tests, Structural Health Monitoring, Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity, Rebound Hammer, Surface Hardness, Compressive Strength, Linear regression
Online: 28 January 2019 (09:43:18 CET)
This work investigates the use of Non-destructive tests as a tool for monitoring the structural performance of concrete structures. The investigation encompassed four phases; the first of which involved the use of destructive and non-destructive mechanisms to assess concrete strength on cube specimens. The second phase research focused on site assessment for a twin engineering theatre located at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos using rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tester. The third phase was the use of linear regression analysis model with MATLAB to establish a relationship between calibrated strength as well as ultrasonic pulse velocities with their corresponding compressive strength values on cubes and values obtained from existing structures. Results show that the root-mean squared-R2 values for rebound hammer ranged between 0.275 and 0.742 while ultrasonic pulse velocity R2 values were in the range of 0.649 and 0.952 for air curing and water curing systems respectively. It initially appeared that the Ultrasonic pulse velocity was more suitable for predicting concrete strength than rebound hammer but further investigations showed that the latter was adequate for early age concrete while the former was more suited for aging concrete. Hence, a combined use is recommended in this work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0298.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: digital image correlation; semantic filter; structural health monitoring; unique salient patterns; wind turbine
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:38:16 CEST)
Large structures such as wind turbines are subject to environmental factors and varying operational loads which may result in structural damage, making components of these large structures prone to performance and mechanical degradation. The use of high-definition optical vision sensors in digital image correlation (DIC) allow for the application of a non-destructive image registration technique in which it measures finite three-dimensional deformations on surfaces through correlations of a unique pattern or set of unique localized patterns. However, the physical placement of an artificial marker such as a unique speckled pattern on the surface of the structure is time-consuming and often impractical for large structures. Therefore, we propose a novel auto-mated methodology that searches and segments salient and unique regions of an image as well as for all subsequent images to assist in performing efficient displacement measurements for vibrational study and structural health monitoring purposes. Our algorithm is validated on a con-trolled set of images, as well as on a small structure and large real-world wind turbine, which suggests the algorithm’s efficacy without the use of artificial markers for large structural health monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Bayesian inference; Uncertainty quantification; Nonlinear hysteretic systems; Bouc-Wen model; Model calibration; Hysteretic system identification; Structural Health Monitoring.
Online: 9 July 2020 (11:55:52 CEST)
Bayesian model calibration techniques are commonly employed in the characterization of nonlinear dynamic systems, as they provide a conceptual and effective framework to deal with model uncertainties, experimental errors and procedure assumptions. This understanding has resulted in the need to introduce a model discrepancy term to account for the differences between model-based predictions and real observations. Indeed, the goal of this work is to enhance model-driven Structural Health Monitoring procedures by incorporating the posterior uncertainty linked to updated model discrepancy, and thus make relevant considerations for its use in the Structural Health Monitoring. Specifically, the Bayesian inference has been applied to the calibration of nonlinear hysteretic systems to both provide: (i) most probable values (MPV) of the parameters following the calibration, and; (ii) estimates of the model discrepancy posterior distribution. The effect of the model discrepancy in the calibration is first illustrated recurring to a single degree of freedom Bouc-Wen type oscillator, and then applied for calibrating a reference nonlinear Bouc-Wen model, deriving from real data acquired on a monitored masonry building.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0347.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: structural health monitoring (SHM); acoustic emission, guided waves, Lamb waves, sensors, ultrasound, piezoelectric, composites, piezopolymers, PVDF, interdigital transducer (IDT), PWAS, C-MUT, CMUT, mems, analog electronic front end; analog signal processing, impact localization, impact detection, sensor node, wireless sensor networks (WSN), IoT, aerospace, automotive, infrastructure, condition monitoring.
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:03:14 CEST)
This review article is focused on the analysis of the state of the art of sensors for guided 9 ultrasonic waves for the detection and localization of impacts, therefore of interest for the structural 10 health monitoring (SHM). The recent developments in sensor technologies are then reported and 11 discussed through the many references in recent scientific literature. The physical phenomena re-12 lated to impact event and the main physical quantities are then introduced to discuss their im-13 portance in the development of the hardware and software components for SHM systems. An im-14 portant aspect of the article is the description of the different ultrasonic sensor technologies cur-15 rently present in the literature and what advantages and disadvantages they could bring, in relation 16 to the various phenomena investigated. In this context, the analysis of the front-end electronics is 17 deepened, the type of data transmission both in terms of wired and wireless technology and in terms 18 of online and offline signal processing. The integration aspects of sensors for the creation of net-19 works with autonomous nodes with the possibility of powering through energy harvesting devices 20 and the embedded processing capacity is also studied. Finally, the emerging sector of processing 21 techniques using deep learning and artificial intelligence concludes the review by indicating the 22 potential for the detection and autonomous characterization of the impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0076.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Piezoresistivity; impact sensing; polyurethane foam; structural health monitoring (SHM); smart materials
Online: 2 May 2023 (09:48:25 CEST)
Smart flexible materials with piezoresistive property are increasingly used in sensors field. When embedded in structures, they would allow an in-situ structural health monitoring and damage assessment of impact loading such as crash, bird strikes and ballistic impacts. However, this could not be achieved without a deep characterization of the relation between piezoresistivity and mechanical behavior. The aim of this paper is to study the potential use of the piezoresistivity effect of a conductive foam made of a flexible polyurethane matrix filled with active carbon for integrated Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and damage assessment applications. To do so, PolyUrethane Foam filled with Active Carbon, namely PUF-AC, are manufactured and tested under quasi-static compression tests and under Dynamic Mechanical Analyser (DMA) with in-situ measurement of its resistivity during tests. A relation is proposed for describing the evolution of the resistivity versus strain and stress. In addition, a demonstrative experiment of a PUF-AC sample subjected to low velocity impact assesses the interest of this type of materials for damage assessments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0335.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: structural health monitoring; fiber optic sensor; accelerometer; hetero-core; low-frequency vibration measurement
Online: 21 June 2018 (07:53:45 CEST)
In this paper, a novel pendulum-type accelerometer based on hetero-core fiber optics has been proposed for structural health monitoring targeting large-scale civil infrastructures. Vibration measurement is a non-destructive method for diagnosing the failure of structures by assessing natural frequencies and other vibration patterns. The hetero-core fiber optic sensor utilized in the proposed accelerometer can serve as a displacement sensor with robustness to temperature changes in addition to immunity to electromagnetic interference and chemical corrosions. Thus the hetero-core sensor inside the accelerometer measures applied acceleration by detecting the rotation of an internal pendulum. A series of experiments showed that the hetero-core fiber sensor linearly responded to the rotation angle of the pendulum ranging within ±5°, and furthermore the proposed accelerometer could reproduce the waveform of input vibration in a frequency band of several Hz order.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1937.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Structural Health Monitoring; Natural frequencies; Mode tracking; Permanent monitoring systems; Seismic monitoring.
Online: 28 September 2023 (05:20:51 CEST)
In recent years, the use of long-term seismic monitoring systems for the protection of structures is becoming increasingly widespread. This is because more and more awareness is gradually developing regarding the importance of keeping structures under observation so as to prevent any damage scenarios. Within the field of Structural Health Monitoring, data driven techniques allow to process and analyze data collected on site. This paper presents a Mode Tracking procedure to obtain the time-histories of the natural frequencies of a monumental structure. The procedure is applied on the Sanctuary of Vicoforte, an important monumental structure site in Piedmont known for its imposing oval dome and characterized by a permanent structural monitoring system. Through the procedure presented in the paper it has been possible to obtain and observe the time series of the first natural frequencies of the structure considering various aspects, including the temperature variation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0049.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: bridge stability; scour; physical modelling; structural health monitoring; modal analysis
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:04:48 CEST)
The generation of vortices around bridge piers can lead to removal of riverbed materials from around piers, especially during flood events and heavy rainfalls, which can compromise the stability of the bridge and consequently its failure, if not properly detected and mitigated. Bridge failures pose serious threats to the local socio-economic and public safety and can cost lives. As such, real-time monitoring and early warning systems for scour-induced bridge failure can serve as a vital tool to protect the community and civil infrastructure against disastrous events. Vibration-base monitoring of bridge scour is an attractive option due to its low cost and relatively easy installation without the need to block the road and close the bridge to traffic. While limited number of previous studies have shown the capabilities of acceleration-based monitoring techniques in this area of research, they generally lack a rigorous framework for data analysis within and relating those to evaluate scour. This paper is an attempt to provide such framework that would enable a fast and low-cost analysis of vibration data within a physical modelling study on a simplified bridge pier. To achieve this, three experiments were conducted on an ideal single-pier scaled model bridge in a hydraulic flume, where water flows at a velocity near the critical velocity for the sand bed which in turn generates a scour hole around the pier. Then, the vibration data recorded using two mounted wireless accelerometers, were used to conduct an operational modal analysis through which the natural frequencies are extracted. The extracted natural frequencies and measured scour depths are then used to provide a chart that relates these two parameters. The results of this study showed the promising capability of the vibration-based data analysis in finding this relationship, indicating an up to around 30-50% reduction in natural frequencies as a result of around 50% scour ratio (ratio of maximum scour depth to buried depth), and beyond 50% scour ratio the natural frequencies remain constant. While the data presented in this paper are preliminary, they clearly show a promising potential for application in real-time monitoring of bridge stability under the effect of local scour and further works are underway to enrich the experimental data and empower the proposed methodologies at the laboratory scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0521.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: displacement monitoring; ground-based interferometric radar; non contact measurement; structural health monitoring (SHM)
Online: 26 October 2020 (12:04:58 CET)
In this paper, we introduce a non-invasive approach for monitoring bridge infrastructure with ground-based interferometric radar. This approach is called the mirror mode, since it utilises the flat surface of the bridge underside as a mirror to reflect the signal to a corner reflector on the ground placed opposite of the radar sensor. For proving the feasibility of this approach, a measurement campaign has been carried out at an exemplary bridge in Karlsruhe (Germany) including a radar sensor in mirror mode, a second radar sensor in the default mode and a laser profile scanner. We investigate the potential of this approach to monitor the bridge displacement in vertical direction and compare the results with the two other sensors. The derived results reveal the potential for monitoring bridge infrastructure. Finally, we propose further research aspects of this approach to analyse its capabilities and limitation in the context of non-invasive infrastructure monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0097.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: acoustic emission; atmospheric corrosion; aluminum; aircraft structure; pitting corrosion; hydrogen bubbles; structural health monitoring
Online: 4 August 2022 (03:55:40 CEST)
Atmospheric corrosion of aluminum aircraft structures occurs due to numerous reasons. A typical phenomenon leading to corrosion is the deliquescence of contaminants such as salts due to changes in relative humidity (RH) caused by aircraft operation at different altitudes and climate zones. Currently, corrosion of aircrafts is controlled by scheduled inspections. In contrast, the present contribution aims for a continuous monitoring approach by using the acoustic emission (AE) method to detect and further evaluate atmospheric corrosion. The AE method is frequently used for corrosion detection at typically immersion-like conditions or for corrosion types where stress-induced cracking is involved. However, it has not yet been demonstrated for atmospheric corrosion at unloaded aluminum structures. To address this question, the present investigation uses small droplets of a corrosive sodium chloride (NaCl) solution to induce atmospheric corrosion on aluminum alloy AA2024-T351. Operating conditions of an aircraft are simulated by a controlled variation in RH. In addition, videos of the corrosion site are recorded to visually observe the corrosion process. Pitting corrosion is generated and clearly measurable AE signals are detected. An automatic video processing algorithm looking for sudden changes on the corrosion site mainly detects hydrogen bubbles formed when aluminum reacts with aqueous solutions. A clear correlation between the observed pitting corrosion, the AE and the hydrogen bubble activity and the RH, i.e., the electrolyte present at the aluminum surface, is found. Thus, the findings demonstrate the applicability of the AE method for monitoring atmospheric corrosion of aluminum aircraft structures by today’s measurement equipment. Numerous potential effects that can cause measurable AE signals are investigated and discussed. Among these, bubble activity is clearly considered to be the most emissive one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1743.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: distributed fiber optic strain monitoring; structural health monitoring; cementitious matrix; concrete beams
Online: 25 August 2023 (04:52:58 CEST)
Distributed fiber optic strain measurement techniques have become increasingly important in recent years, especially in the field of structural health monitoring of reinforced concrete structures. Numerous publications show the various monitoring possibilities from bridges to special heavy structures. The present study is intended to demonstrate the possibilities, but also the challenges, of distributed fiber optic strain measurement in reinforced concrete structures. For this purpose, concrete beams for 3-point bending tests were equipped with optical fibers on the reinforcement and concrete surface as well as in the concrete matrix in order to record the strains in the compression and tension zone. In parallel, an analytical approach based on the maximum strains in the uncracked and cracked states was performed using the Eurocode~2 interpolation coefficient. In principle, the structural design correlates with the measured values, but the strains are underestimated, especially in the cracked zone. During load increase, structural distortions in the compression zone affected the strain signal, making reliable evaluation in this zone difficult. The information content of distributed fiber optic strain measurement in reinforced concrete structures can offer tremendous opportunities. Future research should consider all aspects of the bond, sensor selection and positioning. In addition, there is a lack of information on the long-term stability of the joint and the fiber coating, as well as the effects of dynamic loading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0401.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: OSH Management system; Employee productivity; Structural equation modeling; Development
Online: 4 August 2023 (12:36:15 CEST)
Manufacturing is a significant sector of the economy in many nations and is frequently regarded as an engine of economic expansion, particularly in developing nations. Despite its importance, the metal sector is seen as unsafe due to frequent and high accident rates as well as worker health issues. Therefore, the primary goal of this research is to create a safety model with the goal of development in occupational safety and health in order to reduce workplace injuries, diseases, and deaths in the Akaki Basic Metal Industry. The hypothesized model was developed and tested on a sample 215 respondents who worked for production businesses. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0 was used to enter and analyze the acquired data, and the Analysis Moment of Structure (AMOS) version 21 software was used to build the model. Through the use of structural equation modeling (SEM) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), research models were examined and confirmed. A good-fit structural model (PCLOSE=0.001, Goodness of Fit Index=0.971, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.121, Comparative Fit Index=0.986 and TLI =0.906) indicated that Safety culture, safety police and safety climate constructs direct influence on firm productivity. The new structural model can be used to provide better understanding of the links between firm productivity indicators and contributing components, and make stronger recommendations for effective intervention in construction projects
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: sensor placement option; hotspot damage, lamb wave, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), Finite Element Modelling, image processing, additive color model
Online: 26 March 2018 (10:46:40 CEST)
In this paper, we investigated transducer placement strategies for detecting crack in primary aircraft structures using ultrasonic Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The approach developed is for an expected damage location based on fracture mechanics, for example fatigue crack growth in a high stress location. To assess the performance of the developed approach, finite-element (FE) modelling of a damage tolerant aluminum fuselage has been performed by introducing an artificial crack at a rivet hole into the structural FE model and assessing its influence on the Lamb wave propagation, compared to a baseline measurement simulation. The efficient practical sensor position was determined from the largest change in area that is covered by reflected and missing wave scatter using an additive color model. Blob detection algorithms were employed in order to determine the boundaries of this area and to calculate the blob centroid. To demonstrate that the technique can be generalized, the results from different crack lengths and from tilted crack are also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0380.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: maternal health; new media; bibliometric analysis; cited reference analysis; structural variation analysis; hot spots
Online: 26 October 2021 (12:17:49 CEST)
Background: The new media provides a convenient digital platform to access, use and exchange health information. As a special group of health care, maternal is still of international concern due to their high mortality rate. Improving maternal health as a Millennium Development Goal of the United Nations is an important quest for the health care system. Scientific research provides advice on how to improve maternal health through stringent reasoning and accurate data. However, the dramatic increase of publications, the diversity of themes, and the dispersion of researchers may reduce efficiency. Objective: This study aims to analyze the research progress on maternal health under the global new media environment, exploring the current research hotspots and research frontiers. Methods: A scientometric analysis was carried out by CiteSpace5.7.R1, searching in the core database of Web of Science for articles published in English from 1998 to 2021, and combined topic words such as new media, maternal, and health. In total, 3312 articles have been retrieved, of which 2270 studies have been included for further analysis. Top countries and institutions, potentially high-impact literature, research frontiers, and hotspots were analyzed in this study. Results: The number of publications grew rapidly after 2008, from 29 publications sharply increasing to 472 publications by 2020. Research centers concentrated in Latin America, such as the University of Toronto, the University of California. The work of Larsson M, Lagan BM, Tiedje L, and Helle C had a high potential impact. Most of the research subjects were maternal and newborn babies, and the research frontiers focused on health education and maternal psychological problems. Maternal mental health, maternal and infant nutrition, weight, production technology, and equipment were hotspots. Conclusion: The development of new media has brought a new era for maternal health, characterized by psychological qualities, healthy and reasonable physical conditions, and advanced technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0780.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Infant mortality rate; Macroeconomic; Sociodemographic; Health status and resources; Oman; Partial least squares structural equation model.
Online: 23 April 2023 (07:14:43 CEST)
Background: The infant mortality rate (IMR) is an important reflection of the well-being of infants and the overall health of the population. This study aims to examine the macroeconomic (ME), sociodemographic (SD), and health status and resources (HSR) effects on IMR, as well as how they may interact with each other. Methods: A retrospective time-series study using yearly data for Oman from 1980 to 2022. Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) was utilized to develop the exploratory model of the determinants of IMR. Results: The model indicates that HSR determinants directly but negatively affect IMR (= -0.617, p<0.001). SD directly and positively affects IMR (= 0.447, p<0.001). ME only indirectly affects IMR (=-0.854, p<0.001). ME determinants also exert some direct influences on both HSR (= 0.722, p<0.001) and SD (= -0.916, p<0.001) determinants. Conclusions: These findings indicate that an integrated policy that addresses socioeconomic and health-related factors and the overall ME environment is necessary for the health and well-being of the children and the population overall in Oman.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1153.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: geological mapping; structural mapping; structural analysis; blueschist unit; hellenides
Online: 18 September 2023 (10:49:31 CEST)
New detailed geological/structural mapping as well as field-based structural analysis were carried out to investigate the deformation pattern of well-preserved high-pressure rocks of the Blueschist Unit exposed on SE Syros (Cyclades, Greece). Our new geological mapping revealed the occurrence of a metasedimentary sequence underlain by a meta-igneous sequence. The contact between these two sequences displays typically interfingering patterns in map-scale due to folding. The earlier ductile deformation phase recognized in the mapped area, is associated with the development of a penetrative foliation, which was formed under eclogite/blueschist facies conditions at peak conditions. The subsequent main deformation phase occurred at blueschist facies conditions synchronous with the early stages of exhumation of the high-pressure rocks. This phase is mainly associated with the formation of map-scale WNW-trending folds and a pervasive axial planar foliation linked with ESE-directed shearing. The main deformation ceased within blueschist facies conditions and exhumation of the rocks to greenschist facies conditions took place under very weak deformation. Greenschist retrogression observed in the southwestern part of the mapped area seems to be controlled by fluids rather than by intense deformation. Our results indicate that the high-pressure rocks of the Blueschist Unit exposed on Syros Island represent a large-scale pod of low deformation under blueschist to greenschist facies conditions, likely occupying the core of an extrusion wedge.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0292.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: lithium-ion batteries; silicon anode; structural optimization; surface structural; artificial SEI
Online: 5 July 2023 (12:34:25 CEST)
Silicon anodes have been considered one of the most promising anode candidates for the next generation of high-energy density lithium-ion batteries due to the high theoretical specific capacity (4200 mAh g-1) of Si. However, high lithiation capacity endows silicon anodes with severe volume expansion effects during the charge/discharge cycling. The repeated volume expansions not only lead to the pulverization of silicon particles and the separation of electrode materials from the current collector, but also brings rupture/formation of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) and also continuous electrolyte consumption, which seriously hinders the commercial application of silicon anodes. Structural design and optimization is the key to improving the electrochemical performances of silicon anodes, which has attracted wide attention and research in recent years. This paper mainly summarizes and compares the latest research progress for the structural design and optimization of silicon anodes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0862.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: strain energy; entropy; buckling; structural mechanics; structural engineering; steel structures; initial imperfections
Online: 14 November 2023 (11:14:55 CET)
A new utilization of entropy in the context of buckling is presented. The novel concept connecting strain energy and entropy for a pin-ended strut is derived. This concept rationalizes the ranking of buckling modes based on strain energy under the assumption of given entropy. By assigning identical entropy to all buckling modes, they can be ranked according to their deformation energy. Conversely, with identical strain energy assigned to all modes, ranking according to entropy is possible. Decreasing entropy was found to represent the scaling factors of buckling modes that coincide with the measurement of initial out-of-straightness imperfections in IPE160 beams. Applied to steel plane frames, scaled buckling modes can be used to model initial imperfections. It is demonstrated that the entropy (scale factor) for given energy roughly decreases with the inverse square of the mode index. For practical engineering, the study presents the possibility of using scaled buckling modes of steel plane frames to model initial geometric imperfections. Entropy proves to be a valuable complement to strain energy in structural mechanics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0171.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: excitation constancy; geometric structure; Lyapunov exponent; structural identification; structural identifiability; S-synchronization
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:45:35 CEST)
The structural identification (SI) problem of control objects has not been solved. The formalization and interpretation complexity of the structure concept is the main problem. In identification systems, the form of the model (its structure) choice is intuitive and bases on the experience and knowledge of the researcher in most cases. The task of parametric identification is often interpreted as SI. It introduces certain confusion in understanding of the task and decision-making. This is two different areas of research. The structural identification problem is multifaceted and includes many subtasks, and their solution gives the final result. Some tasks have been solved. The purpose of this work is to review existing approaches and methods to the structural identification problem of control objects from a system perspective. It is necessary to give the SI problem statement at the multiple-informational level to reflect the difficulties of formalizing SI. New directions to analyse that were not SI areas until now.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0582.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: structural analysis; structural design; rotary piercing; seamless pipes; bulk metal forming; FSI
Online: 24 September 2020 (11:43:12 CEST)
The development of numerical simulations is potentially useful in predicting the most suitable manufacturing process and ultimately improving product quality. Seamless pipes are manufactured by rotary piercing process in which round bars are fed between two rolls and pierced by a stationary plug. During this process, the material undergoes severe deformation which renders it impractical to be modelled and analysed with conventional finite element methods. In this paper, three dimensional numerical simulations of the piercing process are performed with Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation in LS DYNA software. Details about the material model as well as the elements formulations are elaborated here and mesh sensitivity analysis was performed. The results of the numerical simulations are in good agreement with experimental data found in the literature and the validity of the analysis method is confirmed. The effects of varying workpiece velocity, process temperature, and wall thickness on the maximum stress levels of the product material/pipes are investigated by performing simulations of sixty scenarios. Three dimensional surface plots are generated which can be utilized to predict the maximum stress value at any given combination of the three parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0252.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: structural optimization; system design; artificial intelligence; morphological operations; topology optimization; structural design
Online: 26 January 2018 (07:23:02 CET)
Structural system design is the process of giving form to a set of interconnected components subjected to loads and design constraints while navigating a complex design space. While safe designs are relatively easy to develop, optimal designs are not. Modern computational optimization approaches employ population based metaheuristic algorithms to overcome challenges with the system design optimization landscape. However, the choice of the initial population, or ground structure, can have an outsized impact on the resulting optimization. This paper presents a new method of generating such ground structures, using a combination of topology optimization (TO) and a novel system extraction algorithm. Since TO generates monolithic structures, rather than systems, its use for structural system design and optimization has been limited. In this paper, truss systems are extracted from topologies through morphological analysis and artificial intelligence techniques. This algorithm, and its assessment, constitutes the key contributions of this paper. The structural systems obtained are compared with ground truth solutions to evaluate the performance of the algorithms. The generated structures are also compared against benchmark designs from the literature. The results indicate that the presented truss generation algorithm produces structures comparable to those generated through metaheuristic optimization, while mitigating the need for assumptions about initial ground structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0073.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: structural reliability; asymmetric yielding behavior; seismic risk analysis; seismic design; structural tilting
Online: 13 November 2017 (03:04:25 CET)
A reliability-based criterion to estimate strength amplification factors for buildings with asymmetric yielding located within a seismic region presenting different soil conditions is proposed and applied. The approach involves the calculation of the mean annual rate of exceedance of structural demands of systems with different levels of asymmetric yielding. Two simplified mathematical expressions are developed considering different soil conditions of the valley of Mexico. The mathematical expressions depend on the ductility of the structural systems, their level of asymmetric yielding, their fundamental vibration period and the dominant period of the soil. In addition, the proposed expressions are compared with that recommended by the current Mexico City Building Code (MCBC). Since the expressions are developed with the help of simplified structural systems, the validity of such expressions is corroborated by comparing the expected ductility demand of multi-degree of freedom (MDOF) structural systems with respect to that of their equivalent simplified systems. Both structural representations are associated with a given annual rate of exceedance value of an engineering demand parameter. The expressions proposed in this study will be incorporated in the new version of the MCBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0610.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: power equipment; structural and heat resistant steels; mechanical properties, structural-phase state, acoustic and magnetic characteristics, deformation localization zone, structural-mechanical criterion
Online: 20 April 2023 (05:37:01 CEST)
The use of acoustic and magnetic methods of non-destructive testing to detect zones of stable localization of deformation in order to assess and predict the performance of long-term equipment is of scientific and practical interest at present. A structural-mechanical criterion has been developed, that reflects the revealed relationships between the structural and substructural states, internal stress fields and stable localization of deformations with the characteristics of non-destructive tests in the metal of long-term equipment made of structural 0.2 С steel and heat-resistant 0,12C-1Cr-1Mo-1V steel. The values of the structural-mechanical criteria Ks.-m for structural 0.2 С steel and for heat-resistant 0,12C-1Cr-1Mo-1V steel, corresponding to the moment of stable localization of deformation, are established. At the same time, it is recommended to replace the checked equipment nodes due to the exhaustion of the resource. The proposed and justified approach to assessing and predicting the performance and residual life of long-term power equipment, based on the identified relationships between the structural and substructural states, internal stress fields and stable localization of deformations with the characteristics of non-destructive tests and the calculation of the structural-mechanical criterion, was applied at a number of power plants in the Kemerovo region – Kuzbass. A methodology has been developed for evaluating the residual life, based on the identification and use of relationships between structural and substructural states, internal stress fields and stable localization of deformations with the characteristics of non-destructive tests and the calculation of a structural-mechanical criterion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1815.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Phrenic; Nerve; Sonography; Structural changes
Online: 28 August 2023 (08:20:43 CEST)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects both the upper and lower motor neurons in the nervous system, causing muscle weakness and severe disability. The progressive course of the disease reduces the functional capacity in the affected patients, limits daily activities and leads to complete dependence on caregivers, ultimately resulting in a fatal outcome. Respiratory dysfunction mostly occurs later in the disease and is associated with a worse prognosis. 46 participans were included in our study, with 23 patients in ALS group and 23 individuals in the control group. The ultrasound examination of the phrenic nerve (PN) was performed by two authors using a high-resolution "Philips EPIQ 7" ultrasound machine with a linear 4-18 MHz transducer. Our study revealed that the phrenic nerve is significantly smaller on both sides in ALS patients compared to the control group arba controls (p < 0.001). Only one significant study on PN ultrasound in ALS, conducted in Japan, also showed significant results (p < 0.00001). These small studies are particularly promising, as they suggest that ultrasound findings could serve as a additinioal diagnostic tool for ALS
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0300.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: DNA Nucleotides; Transcription; Structural Symmetry
Online: 14 September 2020 (04:39:55 CEST)
To activate gene expression, the initiation of transcription is a highly regulated process involving the interaction of proteins and DNA nucleotides at the promoter site, which consists of a small number of base pairs. As it involves interactions at the atomic scale, it is challenging to determine the mechanism of binding responsible for the great specificity between the amino acid residuals comprising the transcription binding protein and the DNA nucleotides comprising the promoter. Here, a new approach to characterize the transcription initiation process is developed and verified from analysis of comparative pharmacological efficacy data and elemental modeling. The newly developed description of a mechanism for transcription initiation involves the direct binding of small molecule ligands of approximately twenty carbon atoms, which are both structurally symmetric to DNA nucleotides, and also chemically complementary in its functional groups for interaction with the oxygen element at the carbon two position of thymine and with the phosphodiester chain. The results indicate that the activating ligands are transported to the DNA nucleotide promoter site by protein transcription factors, which serve as delivery vectors, for transfer of the ligand to the DNA nucleotide pairs. The ligands examined in this study include the steroid hormones, synthetic steroid molecules, derivatives of vitamin D, and prostaglandins, particularly PGJ2 and 15d-PGJ2. The transcription factors evaluated include glucocorticoid receptors, VDR, PPAR, and TBP. Through the developments, it is shown that because of the chemically complementary binding of the ligand to DNA nucleotide pairs, the resultant intermolecular complex produces three hydrogen bonds for the A-T and T-A configurations, which matches that of G-C and C-G. The orientation of the nucleotide base pairs is also seen to adjust as an inversion of the nominal position of the nucleobases to a dimer configuration presented via TBP transcription factor. The developments comprise a new approach to characterizing the initiation of the transcription process comprising the direct binding and interaction of ligands with DNA nucleotides as verified through comparative analysis of pharmacological activity and through perfect structural correspondence between the steroid hormone class as ligands with Watson-Crick DNA nucleotide pairings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: inverse analysis; parameter identification; structural identification; structural optimisation; dynamic modal measurements; historic reinforced concrete bridge
Online: 18 July 2023 (05:34:45 CEST)
In the context of Inverse Analysis in Civil Engineering, parameter identification and model calibration, of a structural system, relying on dynamic measurements, are subjects of a growing research interest. In the present contribution, the topic is tackled with reference both to simplified structural numerical examples and to a specific case study, namely a historical road three-span reinforced concrete arched bridge, with vibrational data previously acquired by standard wired accelerometers on the deck, under operational traffic conditions. In particular, the present work aims at focussing on the identification issues, concerning the definition of a maximum allowable threshold number of sought material parameters (e.g., Young’s moduli and mass densities of different structural components), with respect to the amount of available measurement data, and the investigation of the inverse analysis discrepancy function to be optimised, in order to set the intrinsic issue of multiple “realizations”, in case of a plain use of modal properties, and in view of forming a well–posed optimisation problem. Structural modelling, sensitivity analysis and numerical optimisation approaches are herein combined toward a robust and efficient identification strategy, to be effectively employed in structural assessment and diagnosis, also with respect to originally available or enriched sets of experimental data. The proposed methodology, and collected results, shall outline an efficient identification procedure, in view of automated inverse analysis, practically oriented to the dynamic assessment and structural diagnosis in the Civil Engineering context, as applied e.g. to strategic bridge infrastructures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1439.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: continuous assessment; protocol; sewer; structural defecets
Online: 21 September 2023 (08:28:09 CEST)
In order to better plan new or update sewer pipe condition assessment protocols, this paper presents systematic comparisons of four most widely-used sewer condition assessment protocols, including the fourth edition of Sewer Rehabilitation Manual (SRM-4) in UK, Pipeline Assessment and Certification Program (PACP) in America, Sewer Physical Condition Grading Protocols (SPCCM) in Canada, and Technical Specification for Inspection and Evaluation of Urban Sewer (TSIEUR) in China. In qualitative comparison, the defects, deduct values and assessment methods of the four protocols were analyzed; in quantitative comparison, protocols were used to evaluate the same 182 sewer pipe segments based on field data and the assessment results were compared. It was found that SRM-4 are the most optimistic with 59% pipes being Grade 1 and Grade 2, while SPCCM gives the most pessimistic results with 62% pipes being Grade 3 and Grade 4. Assessment results by PACP and TSIEUR are in the middle. The main reasons for the different evaluation results were due to the different weight of defect and evaluation methods used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0052.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Strategic Foresight Model; Structural Equations; Pymes
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:36:09 CEST)
Queretaro is currently one of the states with the highest growth rate in the automotive industry. In the last five years, the number of companies has increased, reaching more than 300 small and medium-sized companies in the sector. However, they show a high degree of ignorance and lack of strategic foresight, which translates into poor planning in the short, medium and long term and low competitiveness, leading many of them to failure. This paper presents the results of a study within a strategic foresight evaluation with the development of a Structural Equation Model that allows the analysis of foresight and strategic planning within the automotive SMEs in the state of Queretaro. The study analyzes the necessary indicators to be evaluated and establishes the relationship of dependence between the variables, which is necessary to create the constructs of the model. It is confirmed that the adjustment of the model used is adequate for the evaluation of SMEs. The contributions of the research were: A theoretical contribution related to strategic foresight within SMEs and the construction of the structural equation model to evaluate strategic foresight in automotive SMEs in the state of Queretaro.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0236.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: greenness; brownness; depression; structural equation models
Online: 12 October 2020 (12:19:23 CEST)
Background: While greenness has been associated with lower depression, the generalizability of this association in arid landscapes remains undetermined. We assessed the association between depression and greenness among nursing students living in El Paso, Texas (the Chihuahuan desert). Methods: Depression was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scale, and greenness with the normalized difference vegetation index (at buffer sizes =250m, 500m, 1000m). Using data from the National Land Cover Database two additional measures of land patterns were analyzed: grayness and brownness. Structural equation models were used to assess the relationships of these land patterns to depression and quantify the indirect effects of peer alienation. Results: After adjusting for individual characteristics, at buffers 250 m greenness was associated with a decrease in the Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) of depression by 49% (IRR, 0.51; 95%CI, 0.12-2.10), greyness with increases by 64% (IRR, 1.64; 95%CI, 1.07-2.52) and brownness with decreases by 35% (IRR, 0.65; 95%CI, 0.42-0.99). At buffer 250 m peer alienation explained 17.43% (95% CI, -1.79-36.66) of the association between depression and brownness, suggesting a pathway to depression. Conclusions: We did not observe an association between depression and residential greenness in El Paso, Texas. However, we did observe a protective association between brownness and depression as well as an adverse association with grayness. These results have theoretical implications as based on commonly used frameworks in this literature and adverse association of brownness (and the lack of greenness) and depression was expected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0319.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: COVID-19; structural break; growth stage
Online: 20 May 2020 (04:24:15 CEST)
COVID-19 is an infectious disease, growth of which depends upon the linked stages of the epidemic, the average number of people one person can infect and the time it takes for those people to become infectious themselves. We have studied the COVID-19 time series to understand the growth behaviour of COVID-19 cases series. A structural break occurs in the COVID-19 series at the change time form one stage to another. We have performed the structural break analysis of data available for 207 countries till April 20, 2020. There are 42 countries which have recorded five breaks in COVID cases series. This means that these countries are in the sixth stage of growth transmission and show a downward pattern in reporting in the daily cases, whereas countries with two and three breaks, record the rapid growth pattern in the daily cases. From this study, we conclude that the more the breaks in the series, there is more possibility to determine the constant or decreasing rate of daily cases. It is well fitted using lognormal distribution as this distribution is archived at its highest peak after some period and then suddenly it decreases at a longer time period. This can be seen in various countries like China, Australia, New Zealand and so on.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0415.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: LiDAR: structural complexity; species richness; topography
Online: 23 April 2020 (14:59:15 CEST)
Questions: Elevation, biodiversity, and forest structure are commonly correlated, but their relationships near the positive extremes of biodiversity and elevation are unclear. We asked 1) How does forest structure vary with elevation in a high biodiversity, high topographic complexity region? 2) Does forest structure predict vascular plant biodiversity? 3) Is plant biodiversity more strongly related to elevation or to forest structure? Location: Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USAMethods: We used terrestrial LiDAR scanning (TLS) to characterize vegetation structure in 12 forest plots. We combined two new canopy structural complexity metrics with traditional TLS-derived forest structural metrics and vascular plant biodiversity data to investigate correlations among forest structure metrics, biodiversity, and elevation. Results: Forest structure varied widely across plots spanning the elevational range of GRSM. Our new measures of canopy density (Depth) and structural complexity (σDepth) were sensitive to structural variations and effectively summarized horizontal and vertical dimensions of structural complexity. Vascular plant biodiversity was negatively correlated with elevation, and more strongly positively correlated with vegetation structure variables. Conclusions: The strong correlations we observed between canopy structural complexity and biodiversity suggest that structural complexity metrics could be used to assay plant biodiversity over large areas in concert with airborne and spaceborne platforms.
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: KPIs; offshore structural integrity; Bowtie; FAHP
Online: 21 February 2020 (07:42:14 CET)
Leading and lagging Key performance indicators (KPIs) provide a means for assurance that risk control systems, to prevent or limit major hazards. The relative importance degree of KPIs provides a theorical guidance for monitoring, inspection and maintenance of structural integrity. In this paper, structural integrity KPIs are classified into leading and lagging KPIs based on Bowtie methodology and the importance degree of the KPIs are evaluated by weight calculation on the basis of Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0034.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: microcystin; cyanobacteria; cyanotoxin; structural elucidation; toxicology
Online: 3 October 2019 (03:43:55 CEST)
Hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) are the most widespread class of cyanotoxins and the one that has most often been implicated in cyanobacterial toxicosis. One of the main challenges in studying and monitoring MCs is the great structural diversity within the class. The full chemical structure of the first MC was elucidated in the early 1980s and since then the number of reported structural analogues has grown steadily and continues to do so, thanks largely to advances in analytical methodology. The structures of some of these analogues have been definitively elucidated after chemical isolation using a combination of techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance, amino acid analysis and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Others have only been tentatively identified using liquid chromatography-MS/MS without chemical isolation. An understanding of the structural diversity of MCs, the genetic and environmental controls for this diversity and the impact of structure on toxicity are all essential to the ongoing study of MCs across several scientific disciplines. However, because of the diversity of MCs and the range of approaches that have been taken for characterizing them, comprehensive information on the state of knowledge in each of these areas can be challenging to gather. We have conducted an in-depth review of the literature surrounding the identification and toxicity of known MCs and present here a concise review of these topics. At present, at least 269 MCs have been reported. Among these, about 20% (54 of 269) appear to be the result of chemical or biochemical transformations of MCs that can occur in the environment or during sample handling and extraction of cyanobacterial, including oxidation products, methyl esters, or post-biosynthetic metabolites. The toxicity of many MCs has also been studied using a range of different approaches and a great deal of variability can be observed between reported toxicities, even for the same congener. This review will help clarify the current state of knowledge on the structural diversity of MCs as a class and the impacts of structure on toxicity, as well as to identify gaps in knowledge that should be addressed in future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0238.v4
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Brand Identity; Corporate Identity Management; Food SMEs; Halal; Machine Learning; Structural Equation Modeling; Structural Topic Modelin
Online: 16 November 2023 (14:36:09 CET)
Corporate identity has played a vital role in the Halal industry to create a strong foundation for its reputation in the long run. This paper used two modeling analyses for two different data. The first analysis aims to predict the relationship between Corporate Identity Management between Internal Brand and Employee Brand Support (consequence) mediated by CIM using partial-least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). A total of 206 employees from Malaysia’s Halal food SMEs took part in the survey. The second analysis to identify topic proportions patterns using the topic modeling approach on Halal brand identity Machine learning approach of knowledge mining was applied for this analysis. Metadata of 1,091 articles were mined from the Scopus database on Halal studies across all social sciences fields. The result revealed that there was a partial relationship between Internal Brand (antecedent) and Employee Brand Support (consequence) mediated by CIM. This finding was supported by the identified topic proportions patterns from the topic modeling approach that pointed out a weak topic proportion on the Halal brand identity discussion globally, interestingly the result also found that the Halal brand identity discussion involving the Halal food industry is almost non-existed in Malaysia’s Halal food SMEs. The contributions of this paper were apparent in three major areas which are methodology, theoretical and future suggestions. The utilization of two different model analyses was able to confirm the consistency of the major findings with the literature review which opens up more possibilities for future researchers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Rail transit tunnel; structural uneven settlement; distributed optical fiber sensing technique; structural condition assessment; support vector machine.
Online: 5 July 2021 (08:05:05 CEST)
Rail transit tunnels span long distances, are large-scale structures and pass through complicated geological conditions; thus, the risk of uneven settlement cannot be ignored. To address this issue, a method for diagnosing the uneven settlement of regional railway tunnels based on the spatial correlation of high-density strain measurement points is proposed in this study. First, distributed optical fiber sensing technology is implemented to obtain a massive amount of strain data from densely distributed measurement points along regional railway tunnels, and a method for determining the intervals of strain measurement points with strong spatial correlations is proposed based on a support vector machine. Second, combined with the statistical analysis of the influence range of the uneven settlement of a tunnel, an algorithm for diagnosing the uneven settlement of regional railway tunnels based on the spatial correlation of high-density strain measurement points is proposed; this approach realizes the accurate identification of the uneven settlement area of long-distance urban railway tunnels. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulation and actual tunnel data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0372.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: structural genomics; protein-protein interactions; structural bioinformaticscomparative modeling; functional annotation; antiviral design; SARS-CoV-2; 2019-nCoV
Online: 25 February 2020 (11:24:10 CET)
During its first month, the recently emerged 2019 Wuhan novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has already infected many thousands of people in mainland China and worldwide and took hundreds of lives. However, the swiftly spreading virus also caused an unprecedentedly rapid response from the research community facing the unknown health challenge of potentially enormous proportions. Unfortunately, the experimental research to understand the molecular mechanisms behind the viral infection and to design a vaccine or antivirals is costly and takes months to develop. To expedite the advancement of our knowledge we leverage the data about the related coronaviruses that is readily available in public databases, and integrate these data into a single computational pipeline. As a result, we provide a comprehensive structural genomics and interactomics road-maps of SARS-CoV-2 and use these information to infer the possible functional differences and similarities with the related SARS coronavirus. All data are made publicly available to the research community at http://korkinlab.org/wuhan .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1338.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: butadiene; expanded perlite; modification; composite; structural characterization
Online: 20 October 2023 (11:50:50 CEST)
The article presents a method for obtaining new composites using a well-known mineral, expanded perlite (EP), and an industrial polymer, butadiene rubber (BR). For the design of composites, a joint oxidative chlorophosphorylation reaction of BR and EP (as well as BR and modified EP) was carried out, and the modifications obtained from this reaction were further hydrolyzed. The structure and morphology of the obtained samples were characterized in detail using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, as well as scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. EP and BR were separately modified with a similar reaction and characterized for data interpretation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0915.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Factor Analysis; Structural Equation Model; Marine Ecology
Online: 13 June 2023 (09:46:21 CEST)
In order to sustain the marine environment relationship between the environmental factors and marine biota must be investigated. This study aims to study such a correlation in the adjacent waters of Nan Wan Bay, Kenting, Taiwan, and to explore the covariance of environmental factors on marine life (whether they enhance or diminish it). To achieve these objectives, factor analysis was used to identify potential latent variables that could affect the water quality of the adjacent waters, including phytoplankton (quantity), zooplankton (quantity), and fish (quantity and species). These potential variables were named based on the results of past studies and related literature. Finally, a structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to establish a marine ecological model among the potential variables. The factor analysis results revealed that nutrients, upwelling, and primary productivity are the primary factors affecting the environmental changes in the adjacent waters of Nan Wan Bay. The comprehensive SEM showed that nutrients and primary productivity significantly impact plankton. Path analysis indicated that primary productivity has the highest direct effect on the phytoplankton cluster. However, the upwelling has a low significance in its effect on phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish clusters. Compared to the results of past related studies, the SEM proposed in this study can reflect a considerable degree of change in the waters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0630.v1
Online: 9 May 2023 (09:52:46 CEST)
The paper explores the potential of a low-cost advanced video-based technique for the assessment of structural damage induced to buildings by seismic loading. A low-cost high-speed video camera was utilized for motion magnification (MM) processing of footages of a two-story reinforced concrete frame building subjected to shaking table tests. The damage after seismic loading was estimated by analyzing the dynamic behavior (i.e. in terms of modal parameters) and the structural deformations of the building in the MM videos. The results by MM were compared for method validation to damage assessment obtained by the analyses of conventional accelerometers and high-precision optical markers tracked by a passive 3D motion capture system. Also, 3D laser scanning to obtain an accurate survey of the building geometry before and after the seismic tests was carried out. In particular, accelerometers were also processed and analyzed by using several stationary and non-stationary techniques with the aim to analyze the linear behavior of the undamaged structure and the nonlinear structural behavior during damaging shaking table tests. The proposed MM-based procedure provided accurate estimate of the main modal frequency and the damage location through the analysis of modal shapes, which were confirmed by advanced analyses of accelerometric data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1251.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: robotics; flexible; control; structural filter; space robotics
Online: 30 April 2023 (03:39:25 CEST)
Compared with the traditional robots on earth, space robotics present additional difficulties including complicated, multi–body dynamics (including anti–resonances absent with earthly robotic systems), space environmental forces and torques, communication delays, and high expense. Pointing accuracy requirements necessitate control algorithms that can accommodate flexible, multi–body dynamics particularly. The high cost of placing systems in space drives necessarily lightweight systems lacking structural stiffness. Natural frequencies of space robot vibration are often so low, the act of implementing control torques causes structural resonance. Seeking improved performance, this manuscript introduces and compares a dozen options, revealing seventy–percent reduction in tracking error may be achieved with only ten percent increase in control effort. Prequel work recommended tracking sinusoidal shaped trajectories while structurally filtering the first mode’s resonance and anti–resonance. The future research recommended in that prequel is manifest in this present work which recommends a simpler system of lower order, eliminating the notch compensation of the first resonance while no longer compensating the first anti–resonance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0743.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: Coating; Nano Structural; Tribological and Mechanical properties
Online: 23 April 2023 (03:26:25 CEST)
Advanced Nano structural hard coatings are thin materials films that range in thickness from a few nanometers to a few micrometers and are applied to different surfaces to increase their hardness and wear resistance. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) or chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods are frequently used to deposit these coatings. These coating’s distinctive characteristics result from their microstructure, which is made up of material columns or grains with a diameter of only a few nanometers. Increased hardness, higher wear resistance, and improved tribological properties result from these short dimensions. In applications with significant wear and/or high contact pressures, such as cutting tools, bearings, and engine parts, the usage of sophisticated Nano structural hard coatings is crucial. Advanced Nano structural hard coatings include, 1. Amorphous carbon coatings with high hardness, low friction, and exceptional wear resistance are known as diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings. DLC coatings are frequently used in a variety of industries, including the automotive, aerospace, and biomedical ones. 2. Coatings made of titanium nitride (TiN): These metallic coatings have high hardness and wear resistance. Cutting tool, machining, and aerospace industries frequently use TiN coatings. 3. Chromium nitride (CrN) coatings: These coatings have great corrosion resistance, good wear resistance, and high hardness. Cutting tools, gears, and bearings are just a few of the objects that use CrN coatings. 4. Tungsten carbide (WC) coatings: These coatings, which have a high degree of hardness and wear resistance, are frequently employed in cutting tools and other applications that require wear resistance. Advanced Nano structural hard coatings provide many advantages over conventional coatings, including better hardness, increased wear resistance, and improved tribological qualities. The automotive, aerospace, and biomedical industries are just a few that could use these coatings. In this paper the author will explain about the design synthesis and applications of advanced Nano structural hard coating in aerospace and automotive applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0186.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: neural; brain; structural intelligence; cell expression; evolution
Online: 4 November 2022 (09:43:59 CET)
This concept paper gives a narrative about intelligence from insects to the human brain, showing where evolution may have been influenced by the structures in these simpler organisms. The ideas also come from the author's own cognitive model, where a number of algorithms have been developed over time and the precursor structures should be codable to some level. Through developing and trying to implement the design, ideas like separating the data from the function have become architecturally appropriate and there have been several opportunities to make the system more orthogonal. Similarly for the human brain, neural structures may work in-sync with the neural functions, or may be slightly separate from them. Each section discusses one of the neural assemblies with a potential functional result, that cover ideas such as timing or scheduling, structural intelligence and neural binding. Another aspect of self-representation or expression is interesting and may help the brain to realise higher-level functionality based on these lower-level processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0297.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Wharton's Jelly; Minimal Manipulation; Structural Tissue Defect
Online: 20 July 2022 (07:39:43 CEST)
One in four adults in the US suffer from cartilage degeneration of the Intervertebral Disc (DDD) or load bearing joints (DJD). Combined DDD and DJD leads to billions of dollars in surgical health care costs annually. Since cartilage is avascular, it has a limited regenerative capacity. Conventional non-surgical treatment modalities provide brief symptomatic relief, have sided effects, and do not address the actual structural tissue defect in the cartilage itself. As such, new alternatives are needed. Perinatal tissue allografts have emerged as a novel frontier for bio-mechanical cartilage engineering research. Birth product-specific therapeutic roles and clinical outcomes are actively being investigated. The tissues of interest include umbilical cord-derived Wharton’s Jelly (WJ). This study assessed WJ tissue samples via ZEISS Supra 55VP Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at 100 and 300nm resolution scales. The captured images of pre and post-processed structural tissue matrices in WJ allografts were analyzed against themselves and peer-reviewed SEM images of articular cartilage, intervertebral disc cartilage, and muscle fascia. SEM images of post-processed WJ structural tissue matrices were analogous to structural tissue matrices in human articular cartilage, intervertebral disc cartilage, and muscle fascia. Relevant characteristics of pre- and post-processed structural tissue matrices in WJ allografts were comparable. This is the first study, that we are aware of, to utilize SEM to compare the pre-and post-processing relevant structural characteristics of WJ allografts and additionally demonstrate that structural collagen matrices in post-processed WJ allografts are analogous in structure to the cartilage in articular joints, intervertebral discs, and muscle fascia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0015.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Structural Decomposition Analysis; Technological Change; Primary Sectors
Online: 3 May 2021 (16:55:58 CEST)
This paper deals with the structural decomposition input-output for the economic analysis of agriculture, forestry and fishing in six EU-28 countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy and Spain) in the 2010-2015 period. The objective is to determine the causes of changes in production in these sectors with a particular focus on disaggregation technological change by distribution factors associated with a specific normalisation of the Leontief inverse. In calculating the net multipliers, an attempt was made to exclude sectors' own consumption appropriately. However, the treatment of own consumption upon introducing a time factor requires further investigation to avoid questionable quantifications. In general, typical characteristics of primary sectors include the accumulation of a significant amount of their own consumption, facilitated by symmetric accounting. Therefore, attention is drawn to these sectors so as to reveal possible analysis techniques that will provide nuance or validate existing techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0049.v3
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: halloysite nanotubes; surface modification; structural characteristics; controlled release; biocompatibility
Online: 15 November 2017 (07:55:33 CET)
Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are natural occurring mineral clay nanotubes that have excellent application potential in different fields. However, HNTs are heterogeneous in size, surface charge and formation of surfacial hydrogen bond, which lead to weak affinity and aggregation at a certain extent. It is very important to modify the HNTs’ surface to expand its applications. In this review, the structural characteristics, performance and the related applications of surface-modified HNTs are reviewed. We focus on the surface-modified variation of HNTs, the effects of surface modification on the materials and related applications in various regions. In addition, future prospects and the meaning of surface modification were also discussed in HNTs studies. This review provides a reference for the application of HNTs modifications in the field of new nanomaterials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0010.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Stock Beta, Endogenous Structural Breaks, Time Horizon
Online: 8 July 2016 (08:35:15 CEST)
The stock beta coefficient literature extensively discusses the proper methods for the estimation of beta as well as its use in asset valuation. However, there are relatively few references with respect to the appropriate time horizon that investors should utilize when evaluating the risk-return relationship of a stock. We examine the appropriate time horizon for beta estimation differentiating our results by sector according to the Industry Classification Benchmark. We employ data from the NYSE and we estimate varying lengths of beta employing data from 30 to 250 trading days. The constructed beta series is then examined for the presence of breaks using the endogenous structural break literature. Results show evidence against the use of betas that employ more than 90 trading days of data provisional to the sector under study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1680.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: automated structural design; Building Information Modeling (BIM); design automation; generative design; interoperability; Structural Design Optimization (SDO); systematic framework
Online: 25 September 2023 (11:25:42 CEST)
Structural design optimization (SDO) plays a pivotal role in enhancing various aspects of construction projects, including design quality, cost-efficiency, safety, and structural reliability. Recent endeavors in academia and industry have sought to harness the potential of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and optimization algorithms to optimize SDO and improve design outcomes. This review paper aims to synthesize these efforts, shedding light on how SDO contributes to project coordination. Furthermore, the integration of sustainability considerations and the application of innovative technologies and optimization algorithms in SDO necessitate more interactive early-stage collaboration among project stakeholders. This study offers a comprehensive exploration of contemporary research in integrated SDO employing BIM and optimization algorithms. It commences with an exploratory investigation, employing both qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques following the PRISMA systematic review methodology. Subsequently, an open-ended opinion survey was conducted among construction industry professionals in Europe. This survey yields valuable insights into the coordination challenges and potential solutions arising from technological shifts and interoperability concerns associated with widespread SDO implementation. These preliminary steps of systematic review and industry survey furnish a robust knowledge foundation, enabling the proposal of an intelligent framework for automating early-stage sustainable structural design optimization (ESSDO) within the construction sector. The framework ESSDO addresses the challenges of fragmented collaboration between architects and structural engineers. This proposed framework seamlessly integrates with the BIM platform, i.e., Autodesk Revit for architects. It extracts crucial architectural data and transfers it to the structural design and analysis platform, i.e., Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis (RSA), for structural engineers via the visual programming tool Dynamo. Once the optimization occurs, optimal outcomes are visualized within BIM environments. This visualization elevates interactive collaborations between architects and engineers, facilitating automation throughout the workflow and smoother information exchange.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0572.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: formate dehydrogenase; Candida boidinii; protein engineering; X-ray crystallography; structural biology; structural dynamics; Turkish Light Source; Turkish DeLight.
Online: 30 December 2022 (08:03:07 CET)
Candida boidinii NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase (CbFDH) has gained significant attention for its potential applications in the production of biofuels and various industrial chemicals from inorganic carbon dioxide. In this study, we present an atomic X-ray crystal structure of the apo CbFDH to 1.4 Å resolution determined at cryogenic temperature at the Turkish Light Source, “Turkish DeLight”. This structure offers a comprehensive view of the apo enzyme's dynamics, filling the gaps in our understanding from previous studies. Also, comparison of our high-resolution apo and previously available holo enzyme structures reveals major conformational changes of this dynamic enzyme in the absence and presence of the coenzyme and substrate/inhibitor complexes. Collectively all these information may provide invaluable insights into future protein engineering efforts that could enhance enzymatic activity and stability, potentially increasing its efficiency and effectiveness of CbFDH in industrial processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0328.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: thin-film sensors; foil sensors; composite structures; structural bonding; multifunctional bondline; function conformity; sensor integration; structural health monitoring
Online: 18 August 2022 (03:41:32 CEST)
We present an integrable, sensor inlay for monitoring crack initiation and growth inside bondlines of structural carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) components. The sensing structures are sandwiched between crack stopping polyvinyliden fluoride (PVDF) and a thin reinforcing polyetherimide (PEI) layer. Good adhesion at all interfaces of the sensor system and to the CFRP material is crucial as weak bonds can counteract the desired crack stopping functionality. At the same time, the chosen reinforcing layer must withstand high strains, safely support the metallic measuring grids and possess outstanding fatigue strength. We show that this robust sensor system, which measures the strain at two successive fronts inside the bondline, allows to recognize cracks in the proximity of the inlay regardless of the mechanical loads. Feasibility is demonstrated by static load tests as well as cyclic long-term fatigue testing with up to 1,000,000 cycles. In addition to pure crack detection, crack distance estimation based on sensor signals is illustrated. The inlay integration process is developed with respect to industrial applicability. Thus, implementation of the proposed system will allow the potential of lightweight CFRP constructions to be better exploited by expanding the possibilities of structural adhesive bonding.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: structural safety assessment; experimental monitoring; strain transducers; reinforcement; civil engineering; optical fiber sensors; life time structural monitoring; Brillouin
Online: 4 June 2020 (03:54:44 CEST)
This work describes a new transducer prototype for continuous monitoring both in the structural and geotechnical fields. The transducer is synthetically constituted by a wire of optical fiber embedded between two fiber tapes (fiberglass or carbon fiber) and glued by a matrix of polyester resin. The fiber optical wire ends have been connected to a control unit whose detection system is based on Brillouin optical time-domain frequency analysis. Three laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the sensor's reliability and accuracy. In each experiment, the transducer was applied to a sample of inclinometer casing sets in different configurations and with different constraint conditions. The experimental data collected were compared with theoretical models and with data obtained from the use of different measuring instruments to perform validation and calibration of the transducer at the same time. Several diagrams allow comparing the transducer and highlighting its suitability for monitoring and maintenance of structures. The characteristic of the transducer suggests its use as a mixed system for reinforcing and monitoring, especially in lifetime maintenance of critical infrastructures such as transportation and service networks, and historical heritage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1822.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Microsporidia, Structural annotation, dedicated workflow, high quality annotation.
Online: 30 October 2023 (06:25:15 CET)
With nearly 1,700 species, Microsporidia represent a group of obligate intracellular eukaryotes with veterinary, economic and medical impacts. To help in understanding the biological functions of these microorganisms, complete genome sequencing is used routinely. Nevertheless, the proper prediction of their gene catalogue is challenging due to taxon-specific evolutionary features. As innovative genome annotation strategies are needed to obtain a representative snapshot of the overall lifestyle of these parasites, the MicroAnnot tool, a dedicated workflow for microsporidian sequence annotation using data from curated databases of accurately annotated microsporidian genes, has been developed. Furthermore, specific modules have been implemented to perform small genes (< 300bp) and transposable element identification. Finally, functional annotation was performed using the signature-based InterProScan software. MicroAnnot’s accuracy has been verified by the re-annotation of four microsporidian genomes for which structural annotation had previously been validated. With its comparative approach and transcriptional signal identification method, MicroAnnot provides accurate prediction of translation initiation sites, efficient identification of transposable elements, as well as high specificity and sensitivity for microsporidian genes including those under 300 bp. Thanks to its web interface (https://microannot.org), MicroAnnot is available to the community to ensure high quality annotation of microsporidian genomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1407.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Safety; Collision; Fender; Finite Element Methods; Structural Analysis
Online: 23 October 2023 (08:07:50 CEST)
The design of water Vessel fender system can minimize impact energy, which could result in severe vessel or offshore structure damage during collision. In order to protect Offshore structures and vessels from damage after impact, a Fender design approach is proposed which uses Soft materials like rubber, sand, inflated rubber tube, etc. to reduce damage on impacted vessels as well as offshore structures like wind turbines, bridges, oil drilling platforms in water etc. The fender is designed in such a way that it can handle vessels made of different material, sizes, and weights.The proposed solution is a fender consisting of a number of layers of soft sandwich materials, each layer getting softer as it moves away from the structure i.e. Hard-Soft fender design which can absorb impact energy upon collision. To handle lighter vessels made of soft or brittle materials, the outer layer is made of inflatable or Very soft foam rubber; however, the inner layer covering the offshore structure is made of hard material to handle heavy vessels made of hard material such as steel. Furthermore, the use of sand as a natural fender along waterways such as narrow channels is also proposed to reduce the cost of fender installation and catastrophic vessel impact damage on rocky ground since it produces less deformation just like rubber fender as demonstrated in the simulation. Finite Element Analysis using ANSYS software, Explicit Dynamic Autodyn, was performed. The results showed a considerable decrease in the total deformation and internal energy of the vessel and fended structure when collision occurs. Furthermore, the result showed that Hard-Soft fender layer performs much better than Soft-Hard-Soft followed by Soft-Hard Fender layer design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1146.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: bioinformatics; structural biology; CagY protein; T4SS; deep learning
Online: 18 October 2023 (09:56:34 CEST)
CagY is the largest and most complex protein from Helicobacter pylori's type IV secretion system (T4SS) and may participate in the modulation of gastric tissue inflammation. A three-dimensional structure has been reported for only two segments of the protein. To build a more complete model, particularly the region that spans between the outer membrane (OM) and the inner membrane (IM), we employed different approaches, including homology modeling, ab initio, and deep learning techniques. For the long-middle repeat region (MRR), modeling was performed using deep learning techniques and Molecular Dynamics. The modeled segments were assembled into a chain of 1595 aa, and a 14-chain CagY multimer structure was composed by structural alignment. The final multimer structure correlated with previously published struc-tures and allows to show how the multimer may form the T4SS channel through which CagA and other molecules are translocated to gastric epithelial cells. The model further confirmed that MRR, the most polymorphic and complex region of CagY, presents numerous cysteine residues forming disulfide bonds that stabilize the protein and suggest this domain probably functions as a contractile region that may play an essential role in the modulatory activity of CagY on tissue inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0200.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: total quality management; performance; hospitals; structural equation modelling
Online: 5 September 2023 (05:20:02 CEST)
The main aim of this study is to examine the effects of Total Quality Management (TQM) practices (leadership of management, decision making, continuous improvement, customer focus, employee involvement, process management and relations with suppliers) on the financial and operational performance of hospitals in service industry. The data of the study were collected by the questionnaire prepared in the light of published studies and the suggestions of medical and administrative staff. Medical and administrative staff were chosen as target participants that reflect perspectives of hospitals. 1069 questionnaires were answered in 6 private and 26 public hospitals in the Marmara region in Turkey. The results claim that “customer focus” affects both operational performance as well as the financial performance of hospitals more than other TQM practices. While “process management” and “customer focus” explain the variance of financial performance significantly. “Process management” does not explain variance of operational performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0799.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Swim Transformer; Resizer; CNN; structural MRI; Alzheimer’s disease
Online: 12 July 2023 (12:02:04 CEST)
Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) is widely used in the clinical diagnosis of diseases due to its advantages: high definition and noninvasive. Therefore, computer-aided diagnosis based on sMRI images is broadly applied in classifying Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to the excellent performance of Transformer in computer vision, Vision Transformer (ViT) has been employed for AD classification in recent years. ViT relies on access to large datasets, while the sample size of brain imaging datasets is relatively insufficient. Moreover, the pre-processing procedures of brain sMRI images are complex and labor-intensive. To overcome the limitations mentioned above, we propose Resizer Swin Transformer (RST), a deep learning model that can extract information from brain sMRI images that are only briefly processed to achieve multi-scale and cross-channel features. In addition, we pre-trained our RST on a natural image dataset and obtained better performance. The experimental results of ADNI and AIBL datasets prove that RST can achieve better classification performance in AD prediction compared with CNN-based and Transformer models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0268.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Nursing research; Structural equation modelling; bibliometric analysis; Visualization
Online: 16 January 2023 (03:47:21 CET)
ObjectivesThe present study is aimed at characterizing and identifying the important research trends of the application of structural equation modelling (SEM) in nursing research by bibliometric analysis, and further providing reference for nursing researchers to conduct SEM research.MethodsA descriptive bibliometric analysis of publications in the application of SEM in nursing research. Literatures were retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS) core collection database On April 30, 2022. CiteSpace 6.1.R1 and VOSviewer 16 software were used for visualization and bibliometric analysis.ResultsThe annual publication indicated an increasing trend in the future. The intellectual structures of the application of SEM in nursing researches included patient safety, cross-cultural comparison, compassion fatigue, benchmarking, patient discharge, China, psychometrics, and policy. The hotpots and development trends include job satisfaction, nursing home, and nursing student.ConclusionThe hotspots and development trends related to the application of SEM in nursing research mentioned in this study may be helpful for researchers to explore new directions in this field. The intellectual structures and development trends were found in the application of SEM in nursing researches in this study. The awareness of the clusters and bursts in this field can help nursing researchers avoid overlooking some important issues when conducting SEM, and provide nurse researchers with good practice guidelines for conducting SEM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: active range of motion; Structural Integration; Rolfing; fascia
Online: 5 September 2022 (03:32:00 CEST)
Background: Recent work has investigated significant force transmission between the compo-nents of myofascial chains. Misalignments in the body due to fascial thickening and shortening can therefore lead to complex compensatory patterns. For the treatment of such nonlinear cause-effect pathology, a comprehensive neuro-musculoskeletal therapy such as the Rolf Meth-od of Structural Integration (SI) could be targeted. Methods: A total of 727 subjects were retro-spectively screened from the medical records of an SI practice over a 23-year period. 383 subjects who had completed 10 basic SI sessions met eligibility criteria and were assessed for active range of motion (AROM) of the shoulder and hip before and after SI treatment. Results: Shoulder flex-ion, external and internal rotation, and hip flexion improved significantly (all p < 0.0001) after 10 SI sessions. Left shoulder flexion and external rotation of both shoulders increased more in men than in women (p < 0.0001), but were not affected by age. Conclusions: SI intervention produces multiple changes in the components of myofascial chains that could help maintain upright pos-ture in humans and reduce inadequate compensatory patterns. SI affects differently the outcome of some AROM parameters in women and men.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0136.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: structural MRI; MRS; maternal immune activation; altered trajectories
Online: 10 March 2022 (03:06:59 CET)
Serological human birth cohort studies have identified maternal infection during pregnancy as a risk factor for development of disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder and schizophrenia in offspring. Similarly, in experiments using animal models, maternal immune activation (MIA) has been shown to alter neuroanatomical and behavioral development in offspring. This study employs magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in conjunction with behavioral assays to refine our understanding of the impact of MIA on neurobiological development in exposed animals. On gestational day nine, pregnant dams were injected with either polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (POL) to induce MIA or saline (SAL) as a control. Whole-brain MRI, localized proton MRS, and behavioral tests (open field, three chambered social approach, and prepulse inhibition) were acquired at two timepoints, during adolescence (postnatal day [PND] 35) and adulthood (PND 60). Whole-brain voxel-wise volumetric analyses revealed that MIA offspring exhibited altered volume in the hippocampus and caudate putamen (CPu) between adolescence and early adulthood. MRS data were assessed at each timepoint separately; MIA offspring during early adulthood but not adolescence exhibited trending reductions in γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) (p = 0.06) and myo-inositol (Ins) (p = 0.08) compared to saline controls. However, these metabolite differences did not reach levels of significance, even before multiple comparison corrections. Open field testing revealed that during adolescence, MIA offspring displayed a more anxious phenotype than controls wherein they spent less time in the anxiogenic center zone of the open field arena (p < 0.007), but this difference normalized by adulthood. There were no significant differences in sociability preference, novelty preference, or prepulse inhibition comparing the groups. Results suggest that early gestational exposure to MIA results in subtle neuroanatomical changes in the trajectories of development, trending behavioral changes in adolescent offspring, and slight neurochemical changes in young adult offspring. Maternal infection alone may not be enough; additional genetic or environmental risk factors may be required to elicit the more typical symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0229.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Steel, Conversion coating; Self-healing; Micro-structural characteristics
Online: 12 January 2021 (15:47:40 CET)
A phosphate/molybdate and cerium-modified phosphate/molybdate conversion coatings were deposited on a carbon steel surface and their protective and self-healing abilities were evaluated. Surface morphology and inner structure of the coatings were examined using FE-SEM-FIB and TEM techniques, chemical composition and element distribution depth profiles in conversion layers were determined using EDX measurements, whereas XPS was applied for the analysis of Mo and Ce oxidation states. Voltammetric measurements and EIS were performed to assess the corrosion behavior of the samples. The higher protective and stronger self-healing abilities were found for phosphate/molybdate/cerium conversion coating deposited in a sulphate-containing solution. This was attributed to higher values of both: total cerium and Ce(IV) content in the conversion layer as well as to lower number of structural defects in the coating. It was demonstrated that the micro-structural characteristics of protective coatings are also important in determining self-healing abilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0352.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; ARDS; non-structural proteins; mitochondria
Online: 29 June 2020 (10:40:07 CEST)
Mitochondria are classically termed as powerhouse of a mammalian cell. Most of the cellular chemical energy in the form of adenosine tri phosphate (ATP) is generated by mitochondria and dysregulation of mitochondrial functions thus can be potentially fatal of cellular homeostasis and health. Acute respiratory distress has been earlier linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. SARS-CoV-2 infection severity leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and can be fatal. We tried to investigate possible connection between SARS-CoV-2, ARDS and mitochondria. Here, we report identification of SARS-CoV-2 non-structural proteins (particularly Nsp12 and 13) that have recognition sequence with respect to mitochondrial entry. We also report that these proteins can potentially shuttle between cytoplasm and mitochondria based on the localization signals and help in downstream maintenance of the virus. Their properties to use ATP for enzymatic activities may cause ATP scavenging allowing viral RNA functions in lieu of host cell health.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0221.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19; 2019-nCoV; diagnostics; antibodies; structural vaccinology
Online: 12 March 2020 (15:02:49 CET)
The appearance of the novel betacoronavirus 2019-nCoV represents a major threat to human health, and its diffusion around the world is predicted to have dramatic economic consequences. The knowledge of the 3D structures of 2019-nCoV proteins can facilitate the development of diagnostic and therapeutic molecules. Herein, we apply our energy-based method for the prediction of potential epitopes on viral proteins to design peptide-based molecules that can subsequently be used in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. We discuss these aspects in the paper.The designs have not been tested. Our aim is to share information that can be useful in the development of novel biomolecules with potential interesting activities against 2019-nCoV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0394.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Dimensionless number; Similarity; Scaling; Geometric distortion; Structural impact
Online: 26 February 2020 (12:28:04 CET)
A framework of similarity laws, termed oriented-density-length-velocity (ODLV) framework, is suggested for the geometric distorted structures subjected to impact loading. The distinct feature of this framework is that the newly proposed oriented dimensions, dimensionless numbers and scaling factors for physical quantity are explicitly expressed by the characteristic lengths of three spatial directions, which overcome the inherent defects that traditional scalar dimensional analysis could not express the effects of structural geometric characteristics and spatial directions for similarity. The non-scalabilities of geometrical distortion as well as other distortions such as different materials and gravity could be compensated by the reasonable correction for the impact velocity, the geometrical thickness and the density, when the proposed dimensionless number of equivalent stress is used between scaled model and prototype. Three analytical models of beam, plate and shell subjected to impact mass or impulsive velocity are verified by equation analysis. And a numerical model of circular plate subjected to dynamic pressure pulse is verified in more detail, form the view of point of space deformation, deformation history and the components of displacement, strain and stress. The results show that the proposed dimensionless numbers have attractively perfect ability to express the dimensionless response equations of displacement, angle, time, strain and strain rate. When the proposed dimensionless numbers are used to regularize impact models, the structural responses of the geometrically distorted scaled models can behave the completely identical behaviors with those of the prototype on space and time —not only for the direction-independent equivalent stress, strain and strain rate but also for the direction-dependent displacement, stress and strain components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0014.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: elasticity of substitution; cointegration; self-employment; structural breaks
Online: 3 December 2018 (09:01:28 CET)
This paper provides estimates of the elasticity of substitution between operational and managerial jobs in the US economy covering a period of almost five decades, derived from an aggregate CES production function. Estimating the long-term relationship between (the log of) the aggregate employment/self-employment ratio and (the log of) the returns from paid-employment relative to self-employment and testing for structural breaks, we report different estimates of the elasticity of substitution in each of the two regimes identified. Our results help to understand and interpret one of the most intriguing aspects in the evolution of self-employment rates in developed countries: the reversal of the trend in self-employment rates. Our estimates show that a higher level of development is associated with a greater number of entrepreneurs and smaller firms. Some rationales for understanding the growth of the elasticity between paid-employment and self-employment, including the recent trends in the digital economy—are also suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0286.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: military installations project; risk factor; structural equation model
Online: 15 October 2018 (06:32:30 CEST)
Some of the recent large-scale national projects in South Korea are delayed or suspended due to belated responses to risk occurring on site. Currently, the Far East District (FED) project is being implemented to relocate the US Army bases from Yongsan to Pyeongtaek. Because of lack of experience and understanding about the characteristics of such a project, the deadline of taking over to the US Army Korea has been missed. This study identifies problems of each participant in the Yongsan Relocation Plan (YRP) of the US Army Korea with respect to construction project management and establishes a risk management strategy reflecting characteristics of FED project. To derive significant risk factors influencing YRP, various field data like weekly and monthly reports and other reports on construction condition are analyzed, and experts’ advices are collected and a survey is conducted. Mediators and latent variables are ultimately obtained. Furthermore, a structural equation model is used to both analyze and evaluate complex causal relations among many variables of YRP. The impact of risk factors on the schedule, quality and cost of the project is analyzed. In particular, the case of Site A is examined to see how the project is affected by those risk factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0389.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Extrapolative Predictions, Model Validation, Bayesian Inference, Structural Dynamics
Online: 19 September 2018 (16:05:50 CEST)
The creation of computer models is often driven by the need to make predictions in regions where there is no data (i.e. extrapolations). This makes validation challenging as it is difficult to ensure that a model will be suitable when it is applied in a region where there are no observations of the system of interest. The current paper proposes a method that can reveal flaws in a model which may be difficult to identify using traditional approaches for model calibration and validation. The method specifically targets the situation where one is attempting to model a dynamical system that is believed to possess time-invariant calibration parameters. The proposed approach allows these parameters to vary with time, even though it is believed that they are time-invariant. The of such an analysis is to identify key discrepancies - indications that a model has inherent flaws and, as a result, should not be used to influence decisions in regions where there is no data. The proposed method isn't necessarily a predictor of extrapolation performance, rather, it is a stringent test that, the authors believe, should be applied before extrapolation is attempted. The approach could therefore form a useful part of wider validation frameworks in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0071.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: social exchange theory; structural equation modeling; tourism development
Online: 26 July 2017 (06:32:58 CEST)
Background: Tourism is one of the prominent industry that has a capability to generate handsome income for developed as well as developing countries. However, the study to investigate specifically the perception of local residents towards tourism is still lacking. The perception of the locals is important since it could determine the extent of their support for tourism development. Plus, previous research found that male residents are more support better towards the tourism development. Thus, this factor is adapted as well in this study to examine whether this gender may influence to the tourism industry. 2) Methods: This study used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique for determining the structural estimates between constructs. 3) Results: The respondents agree that positive perception, negative perception and tourism impact has a significant impact on support for tourism development in which has been recognized as Social Exchange Theory model. Moreover, the finding also revealed that gender has a potential to moderates the causal effect of tourism impact on tourism development. 4) Conclusion: The resident understand the tourism sector could strengthen economic nation but they also want the natural resources should be protected.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: nonlinear plate vibration; structural acoustics; harmonic balance method
Online: 18 November 2016 (10:13:10 CET)
This paper addresses the analysis for the nonlinear vibration response of a rectangular tube with a flexible end and non-rigid acoustic boundaries. This is a further work of the linear structural acoustic problem in a well-known acoustic book. In fact, the acoustic boundaries of an enclosed space sometimes are non-rigid and the structural vibration responses are nonlinear. These two points are the focuses of this paper. The multi-level residue harmonic balance method is applied to this nonlinear structural acoustic problem. The results obtained from the multi-level residue harmonic balance method and numerical method are generally in good agreement. The effects of excitation magnitude, tube length, and phase shift parameter etc. are examined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Insulin icodec; Molecular design; Site-specific mutation; Structural biophysics
Online: 16 November 2023 (11:16:57 CET)
Insulin icodec of Novo Nordisk is a novel long-acting insulin analogue that exhibits an extended duration of action, providing a promising treatment option for individuals with diabetes. It has been reported that the incorporation of fatty acid moieties into insulin icodec plays a crucial role in its prolonged action, as these fatty acid chains facilitate the formation of stable hexameric structures, thereby delaying insulin absorption and promoting sustained release. Yet, the underlying biophysics still is elusive of the roles of the three site-specific mutations (Y14A\_E, Y37B\_H, F46B\_H) of insulin icodec in its prolonged activity. Thus, through a comprehensive structural and biophysical analysis of the insulin (both native and icodec) structures bound to its receptor, this article delves deep into the biophysics underlying the molecular design of insulin icodec, and identified a delicate biophysical mechanism through which two missense mutations of insulin icodec (Y37B\_H and F46B\_H) contribute to its prolonged duration of action. Overall, this structural and biophysical investigation provides valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying the relationship between three site-specific mutations and prolonged duration of action of insulin icodec, while understanding these modifications at a structural and biophysical level can aid in the rational design of future long-acting insulin analogues, offering further enhanced therapeutic options for diabetic patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: DAFoam; OpenMDAO; TACS; aero-structural optimization; multidisciplinary design optimization
Online: 17 October 2023 (10:36:02 CEST)
Wind energy is becoming increasingly important as a renewable energy source due to its environmental and economic benefits. Wind turbines are key components in wind energy systems, and their performance is critical for efficient power generation. Wind turbine blades are the most critical components as they interact with the wind, and their design has a significant impact on the overall system performance. Therefore, it is essential to optimize the design of wind turbine blades to enhance their efficiency and reduce their costs. This paper presents an aero-structural optimization approach for wind turbine blade design. The optimization aims to maximize the torque generated by the blade while minimizing its mass. The optimization is implemented using DAFoam software for CFD simulation, TACS for FEM simulation, and Mphys under the OpenMDAO framework for fluid-structure interaction between the CFD and FEM. The optimization results show a 6.78% increase in torque and a 4.22% decrease in mass, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Aerodynamic optimization focuses on maximizing the blade's torque by modifying the blade's shape. The optimization results show that the optimized blade generates more torque than the original blade design. Additionally, structural optimization aims to minimize the blade's mass while maintaining its structural integrity. This is achieved by adjusting the thickness of the blade's cross-section. The proposed aero-structural optimization approach presents an effective solution for the design optimization of wind turbine blades. The approach considers the interaction between the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the blade and optimizes them simultaneously. This leads to an optimized design that is efficient and cost-effective, which is crucial for the widespread adoption of wind energy systems. The results of this study highlight the importance of considering the interaction between the aerodynamic and structural aspects of wind turbine blades and the effectiveness of the proposed optimization approach in enhancing their performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0793.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: BoFLC homologs; cabbage flowering; flowering regulator; structural variation; vernalization
Online: 12 October 2023 (09:40:23 CEST)
Cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata) contains three FLC homolog genes (BoFLC1, BoFLC2, and BoFLC3) and one pseudogene (BoFLC5) that responds to low temperatures necessary for flowering. We isolated three BoFLC-encoding genes from early-, mid-, and late-flowering cabbage plants. Leaf samples were collected for RNA extraction and expression analysis. Gene structure analysis and phylogenetic comparison were performed for intra- or interspecific relationships of the BoFLC homologs. Gene expression related to flowering regulators (BoGI, BoCOOLAIR, and BoVIN3) was analyzed. While BoFLC genes commonly have seven exons and six introns of 3,361–4.384 bp, variations in insertion or deletion were evident between the early- and late-flowering genotypes. Repressed expression of BoFLC 1, 2, and 3 genes under chilling temperatures appeared to occur from 8 weeks after vernalization. Higher expression levels of GI, COOLAIR, and VIN3 were initiated 7 weeks after chilling (WAT) treatment in the early flowering genotype. The vernalization trigger repressed the expression of BoFLC homologs. This study provides molecular insights into BoFLC homologs between early- and late-flowering cabbage genotypes, in which structural variations in BoFLC1 appeared to be important as a binding motif to flowering regulating factors such as BoGI, BoCOOLAIR, and BoVIN3 for which motif analysis is further implemented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1516.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: EWOD; micropump; double-chamber; flow field; structural parameters; optimization
Online: 22 September 2023 (07:40:12 CEST)
In the current study, a two-dimensional numerical study is carried out to investigate the performance of a novel Double-chamber Parallel Flexible Valves micropump, which utilized the electrowetting-on-dielectrics (EWOD) effect to drive the microfluid flow. By observing the flow fields, the internal circulations are seen on both the left and right side of the pump. The generation of the backflow is discussed by tracking the movement of the vortices. Only slight flow fluctuation is seen in the micropump. Based on the simulation outcomes, the structural parameters including the width of the inlet/outlet, the width of the pumping channel and the diverging angle in the micropump are analyzed, the influence of these parameters on the pumping volume and the maximum pressure have been discussed. Eventually, a group of optimal parameter combinations is given according to the results to extend the operating potential of the micropump.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0150.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: boron carbide; phase transition; structural disorder; electronic properties; phonons
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:29:18 CEST)
The idealized rhombohedral unit cell of boron carbide is formed by a 12-atom icosahedron and a 3-atom linear chain. Phase transitions are second order and caused by the exchange of B and C sites or by vacancies in the structure. Nevertheless, the impact of such minimal structural changes on the properties can be significant. As the X-ray scattering cross sections of B and C atoms are very similar, the capability of X-ray fine structure investigation is restricted. Phonon spectroscopy helps closing this gap. Phase transitions known to date have been identified due to significant changes of properties: (1) The phase transition near the chemical composition B8C by clear change of the electronic structure; (2) The endothermic temperature-dependent phase transition at 712 K by the according change of specific heat; (3) The high-pressure phase transition at 33.2 GPa by the drastic change of optical appearance from opacity to transparency. These phase transitions affect IR- and Raman-active phonons and other solid-state properties. The phase transitions at B~8C and 712 K mean that a well-defined distorted structure is converted into another one each. In the high-pressure phase transition, an apparently well-defined distorted structure changes into a highly ordered one. In all these cases, the distribution of polar C atoms in the icosahedra plays a crucial role.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1338.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Disk brake rotor; Structural; Thermal; Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer
Online: 19 June 2023 (09:41:39 CEST)
The disc brake rotors are designed to withstand both, Maximum possible deceleration (emergency braking) and a series of frequent braking cycles. A effective rotor design and superior heat dissipating material provide better performance during the braking mechanism. In this experiment, modified ventilated disk brake rotors are developed with holes and slots and the stress, deformation, heat flux and temperature distribution has been analysed. Designing of the Finite element models of the rotor are created with SolidWorks and simulated using ANSYS. Structural and thermal characteristics are compared with a reference disk brake rotor of the motorcycle (TVS Apache RTR180). It is found that the modified rotors outperform the conventional one in terms of stress generation, temperature distribution and deformation. Furthermore, this Analysis helps us to find out the best suited material for one of the proposed designs. This experiment provides us an insight of the structural and thermal characteristics of the geometrically modified rotor that can be used to upgrade and outperform the current disc brake rotor used in the motorcycle (TVS Apache RTR180).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1144.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Waze Mobile Application; Technology Acceptance Model; Structural Equation Modeling
Online: 28 April 2023 (08:24:25 CEST)
The study aims to investigate Gen Z's intentions to utilize the Waze mobile application as a solution for sustainable traffic management in Meto Manila. The extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used to define user behavior and technology usage to determine the factors influencing Filipino drivers' application acceptance of Waze. The study’s data results have revealed that the System Quality, Perceived Location Accuracy, Perceived Usefulness, and Perceived Ease of Use affect Filipinos' intentions to use traffic navigation applications, particularly Waze. The study utilized a survey and was given to 300 Filipino drivers traveling within the National Capital Region to accurately measure the factors and their connections to usage intention and actual use. The analytical approach used for this investigation was partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The study's results can be applied as a theoretical framework for future researchers of Waze mobile applications, Waze route accuracy, and Waze overall application performance, as well as the features of the Waze application, to evaluate how the use of the Waze mobile application could help in the effective management of traffic situations in Metro Manila. The study was able to assess the effectiveness of the Waze navigation app as a platform for efficiently managing traffic situations in Metro Manila. Moreover, this study also highlighted the application performance of Waze and its acceptance by Filipino drivers in Metro Manila. Furthermore, the study implores a critical review of Waze's application performance. The study recommends that similar future studies must consider samples from a more diverse geographic background to obtain a more accurate representation of Filipinos traveling. Future researchers are also advised to adopt a qualitative research design to gain more detailed insights of Filipinos regarding their experience with the Waze application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0709.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: invasion sport; gender; primary school; sport experience; structural equation
Online: 21 April 2023 (10:03:41 CEST)
The satisfaction of basic psychological needs leads students to engage in a sport modality on their own initiative. In the Spanish public educational system, mixed and heterogeneous, the gender and sport experience of students influence the teaching and motivation of invasion sports. This study investigated whether students' gender and sport experience, and method influence the psychological variables (basic psychological needs and sport adherence) when teaching school soccer and basketball. Furthermore, correlations were calculated between these psychological variables. The study involved 165 fifth and sixth grade students (age, 11.27 ± 0.68 years old) from several Spanish state schools in the same autonomous community. A non-random convenience sample was used. The needs for autonomy, perceived competence and social relationships were measured using the Basic Psychological Needs in Physical Exercise Scale. Sport adherence was measured using the Measure of Intentionality to be Physically Active. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Cronbach's alpha were used to analyze the psychometric properties of the scales. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed with the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. There were significant differences in the needs for autonomy and perceived competence according to the students’ gender (boys > girls). Attending to sport adherence, there were also significant differences according to the students’ gender (boys > girls) and sport experience (experienced students > inexperienced students). Likewise, a regression analysis (structural equation model) revealed that the autonomy need showed low association with sport adherence. Higher perceived competence (β = 0.52) and social relationships (β = 0.36) were associated with greater adherence to sport (R2 = 0.65). Increased sport adherence will have health benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Similarity; Scaling; Geometric distortion; Anisotropic elastic materials; Structural impact
Online: 3 March 2023 (09:52:19 CET)
Although the similarity laws were widely used in impact fields, the scaling relations of anisotropic elastic structures often were broken when the geometric distortion (not equal scaling in different spatial directions) and the material distortion (different materials used for scaled model and full-size prototype) were considered. To overcome the difficulty of geometric and material distortion, a directional framework of similarity laws, termed as oriented-density-length-velocity (ODLV) system, is proposed for the anisotropic elastic structure under impact loads. Different from previous similarity law systems using scalar dimensional analysis, the directional similarity law framework mainly considers spatial anisotropy for structural geometry and material parameters. Based on the oriented dimensional analysis and the orthotropic Hooke's law, directional dimensionless numbers and directional scaling relations with geometric power properties for the elastic modulus and the Poisson's ratio are presented systematically. By selecting the dominant material parameters controlling similarity, three important scaling techniques with correction of geometric width and thickness are proposed to compensate for the difficulty of distortion. A clamped square plate with different anisotropic and isotropic elastic materials subjected to dynamic pressure pulse is verified numerically and discussed in detail. The results show that the thin square plate prototype must be scaled to be the thinner/thicker rectangular plate, and the components of displacement, stress and strain between scaled model and full-scale prototype behave good consistency in both spatial and temporal fields.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0038.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: tick-borne encephalitis virus; vaccine; non-structural protein 1
Online: 3 June 2022 (09:48:01 CEST)
The presence of a non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccines and the possible induction of an NS1-specific immune response in vaccinated individuals remains a somewhat controversial topic. Previously, we detected the presence of NS1 in Encepur TBE vaccine by mass spectrometry and found the induction of NS1-specific IgG antibodies in mice vaccinated with FSME-Immun TBE vaccine. Here, in this follow-up study, we examined the dynamics and extent of the NS1-specific IgG response in mice vaccinated with these two vaccines in more detail and compared it with the IgG response to the whole virus (WV). Mice were vaccinated at two-week intervals with a total of six doses of each vaccine, and levels of IgG antibodies to TBE virus WV and NS1 were measured by ELISA after each dose. Both vaccines elicited a robust anti-WV IgG response after two doses. The Encepur vaccine did not elicit NS1-specific IgG even after all six doses. In contrast, FSME-Immun vaccine triggered production of NS1-specific IgG after four doses. The results indicate that FSME-Immun is the only vaccine that elicits an NS1-specific antibody response in mice. However, compared to WV-specific IgG, the NS1-specific response is weaker, and a higher number of doses is required to induce detectable levels of NS1-specific IgG antibodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0471.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: fluvial networks; Chilean’s watersheds; monofractal dimension; morphometry; structural control
Online: 29 December 2021 (15:57:16 CET)
Chilean geography is highly variable, not only from a climatic and hydrological point of view, but also a morphological one, showing unpredictable natural patterns with marked contrasts throughout the country, for which sometimes it is considered as a "crazy" geography. In this paper we have investigated this apparent disorganized character by exploring the fractal properties of fluvial networks extracted from basins distributed across the continental territory. Analytical and semi-empirical methods were applied, finding striking patterns of organization in the distributions of Horton parameters and the fractal dimension of the drainage networks. Fractal dimension reveals to be quite dependent on the drainage area of each unit, showing clear groupings by tectonic and climatological factors. Such dimension reveals to be an important geomorphic parameter, if not the only one able to capture the real morphology of a fluvial network. From our results and despite the diversity of landforms, hydrological, climatic and tectonic conditions, Chilean’s geography is perhaps not as crazy and disorganized as believed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0309.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Living structure; pattern language; life; wholeness; coherence; structural beauty
Online: 20 December 2021 (11:51:12 CET)
As Christopher Alexander discovered, all space or matter – either organic or inorganic – has some degree of order in it according to its structure and arrangement. The order refers to a kind of structural character, called living structure, which is defined as a mathematical structure that consists of numerous substructures with an inherent hierarchy. Across the hierarchy, there are far more small substructures than large ones, while on each level of the hierarchy the substructures are more or less similar in size. In this paper we develop a new approach to representing geographic space as a hierarchy of recursively defined subspaces for computing the degree of order. A geographic space is first represented as a hierarchy of recursively defined subspaces, and all the subspaces are then topologically represented as a network for computing the degree of order of the geographic space, as well as that of its subspaces. Unlike conventional geographic representations, which are mechanical in nature, this new geographic representation is organic, conceived, and developed under the third view of space; that is, space is neither lifeless nor neutral, but a living structure capable of being more living or less living. Thus, the order can also be referred to as life, beauty, coherence, or harmony. We applied the new representation to three urban environments, 253 patterns, and 35 black-white strips to verify it and to demonstrate advantages of the new approach and the new kind of order. We further discuss the implications of the approach and the order on geographic information science and sustainable urban planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: hardened steel; cubic boron nitride; rolling body; structural equations
Online: 6 December 2021 (11:55:19 CET)
This article deals primarily with the problem of determining the cutting force when machining hardened steels. Secondary issues are focused on the evaluation of surface quality on machined samples and the recommendation of cutting conditions. A wide variety of components are used in engineering, the final heat treatment of which is hardening. These components are usually critical in a particular product. The quality of these components determines the correct functioning of the entire technical equipment and ultimately its service life. In our case, these are the core parts of thrust bearings, specifically the rolling elements. The subject of the experiment is machining these components in the hardened state with cubic boron nitride tools and continuous measurement of the cutting force using a dynamometer. The following evaluation assesses the surface quality by both touch and non-touch methods. A structural equation with appropriate constant and exponents was then constructed from the data obtained using the dynamometer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0173.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Value creation; Thai herbs; Industry; Patent; Structural equation model
Online: 6 August 2021 (18:10:24 CEST)
The main obstacle affecting the natural and herbal products industry is the infringement of trade patents. This resulted in losing the opportunity to compete with others in this business. Creating additional value to this business is, therefore, a way of leading to patenting for trade protection for entrepreneurs. This study was conducted to develop the structural equation modeling of guidelines for creating additional value for Thai herbs to support trade patent. The study comprises a mixed method with three parts. In the first part, data comes from interviews with selected 9 specialists. The second part was supported by interviews to create the questionnaire and distributed it to 500 entrepreneurs, the next step was the data analysis using structural equation modeling (SEM). The third part used data from the SEM model to discussion focused on developing the conceptual model by 7 experts. The analysis of the developed model passed the criteria for evaluating consistency and empirical data. All hypotheses proposed in this study were supported, the findings revealed that all factors had a direct effect at a statistically significant level of 0.001. Furthermore, this investigation allows knowing the Brand Identity factor were practically important for creating value of Thai herbs leading to patent protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0556.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction; OpenFOAM; One-way approach; Structural Analysis
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:10:19 CET)
This study addressed a Fluid-Structure Interaction of an open Water test for vp1304 propeller to predict pressure and stress distributions with a low cost and high precision method. The most striking aspect of such a method(one-way coupling) is to use one hydrodynamic solution for the number of different structural sets involved in other materials or different layup methods and combinations of layers. An open-access software(OpenFOAM) with an open-source code solver is used to simulate the fluid domain. Abaqus is used To evaluate and predict the deformation and strength of the blade with the Finite Element Method(FEM). The coupling approach is based on dry condition, which means the added mass effects due to propeller blades vibration is neglected. The pressures imposed on the blades are extracted from the fluid solver for each time step. Then, These pressures role as a load condition for the structure solver. This approach was verified in the last paper(wedge impact); a key factor for the present solution is the rotational rate interrelated between two solution domains, which is explained in this paper. Finally, the blades' stress and strain are calculated and compared in each advance coefficient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0340.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: functional connectivity; structural connectivity; multihabitat; barrier; nursery; life stage
Online: 18 January 2021 (13:49:20 CET)
Many marine species use different habitats at different stages of their life cycle. Functional connectivity, the degree to which the seascape facilitates or impedes movement between habitat patches, is poorly studied in marine systems. We reviewed the scientific literature to explore the various barriers preventing functional connectivity between marine habitats and how the removal of these barriers may restore connectivity. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review to investigate functional connectivity between life cycle habitats for a range of marine species. A total of 4,499 records were identified and screened, leaving 69 publications eligible for review. The results highlighted a range of distances between nursery and adult habitats that limited functional connectivity for a number of species, predominantly reef fishes. For some species, adults were absent on reefs >9km from the closest nursery habitat, suggesting a threshold for connectivity. Similarly, increased distance between spawning and settlement habitats decreased settling success of larvae of various taxa. Pelagic larval duration, seascape topography and climate change were also shown to impact functional connectivity during the larval phase. The removal and mitigation of barriers preventing functional connectivity, including dams and habitat fragmentation, restored connectivity between disconnected life cycle habitats, but the efficacy of these approaches differed between species and studies. The results of this review deepen our understanding of marine functional connectivity between life cycle habitats via larval, juvenile, and adult dispersal. These findings have implications for the design and management of marine reserve networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0552.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Insulin lispro; BPro28-BLys29 Exchange; Interfacial biophysics; Structural analysis;
Online: 23 July 2020 (11:45:01 CEST)
Insulin lispro was the first fast acting insulin analogue to obtain regulatory approval for therapeutic use. This article puts forward a novel biophysical mechanism where the net impact of the simple B28Pro-B29Lys exchange from regular insulin to insulin lispro is the establishment of a novel set of interfacial electrostatic interactions between Lys28 of insulin lispro and Asp12 of insulin receptor (IR). In addition, a set of structural analysis was presented in this article to further strengthen the binding of insulin lispro to IR, where two polar amino acid residues (Gln51 and Asn74 of insulin lispro) were put forward as two potential targets for site-directed mutagenesis of insulin lispro at its binding interface with IR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0248.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: long memory; persistence; structural change; pandemics; growth; and unemployment
Online: 12 July 2020 (08:26:52 CEST)
This paper studies long economic series to assess the long-lasting effects of pandemics. We analyze if periods of time that cover pandemics have a change in trend and persistence in growth, and in level and persistence in unemployment. We find that there is an upward trend in the persistence level of growth across the centuries. In particular, shocks originated by pandemics in recent times seem to have permanent effect in growth. Moreover, our results show that the unemployment rate increases and it becomes more persistent after a pandemic. In this regard, our findings support the design and implementation of counter-cyclical policies to soften the shock of the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: COVID-19; electrostatic feature; salt bridging network; structural update
Online: 5 March 2020 (03:37:44 CET)
Since the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak at the end of 2019, the past two month has seen an acceleration both in and outside China in the R&D of the diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutics for this novel coronavirus. As one of the molecular forces that determine protein structure, electrostatic effects dominate many aspects of protein behaviour and biological function. Thus, incorporating currently available experimental structures related to COVID-19, this article reports a simple python-based analysis tool and a LaTeX-based editing tool to extract and summarize the electrostatic features from experimentally determined structures, to strengthen our understanding of COVID-19's structure and function and to facilitate machine-learning and structure-based computational design of its neutralizing antibodies and/or small molecule(s) as potential therapeutic candidates. Finally, this article puts forward a brief update of the structurally observed electrostatic features of the COVID-19 coronavirus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0317.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Cavitation jet; Finite volume method; Structural parameters; Numerical Simulation
Online: 24 December 2019 (11:12:20 CET)
In order to reveal the mechanism and influencing factors of high pressure jet cavitation of nozzle in submerged environment, this study focused on the evolutionary process of cavitation bubbles and combined finite volume method and mixed multi-phase flow model to analyze the cavitation, velocity distribution and experimental cavitation intensity of fishing net cleaning equipment. Results show that the cavitation inception, growth and collapse mainly occurred in the peripheral region of the flow field. Ring-shaped cavitation erosion zone appeared on the test sample target. A lot of small dense erosion pits were densely distributed in the ring-shaped erosion zone, erosion marks were observed in the center. The cavitation erosion intensity was greatly affected by the nozzle structure. As the diameter of nozzle increased from 0.6 mm to 1 mm, the maximum gas volume fraction increased by 8.53%. The nozzle outlet enlargement angle greatly increased the cavitation intensity. The nozzle with an outlet angle of 30° exhibited the optimal cavitation erosion performance . The cavitation volume fraction of the nozzle with short necking structure was slightly larger than that of the nozzle with long necking structure at the same level in the necking length rang of 3mm to 7mm. In terms of the influence of nozzle structure on the cavitation erosion effect, the nozzle diameter D ranked the first, followed by the outlet angle α, and the necking length L was at the last.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0178.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: strategies; design; footwear industry; structural equation model; competitive edge
Online: 13 December 2019 (05:27:06 CET)
The potential of Thai industrial product design is still inferior to those of leading competitors in world market that give more importance on the design during their product development to increase their competitive edges on commercial scale. The product design is very important part for sustainable growth in this industry. Thus, this research aims at investigating footwear design strategies for Thai footwear industry to be excellence in world market. The research has been designed with the mixed method of both qualitative and quantitative study. The quantitative data were collected through semi-structure interview from 500 designers who presented their designs to join the award competition. The results revealed that the footwear design strategies consisted of 4 factors, i.e. 1) design, 2) market analysis, 3) innovation, and 4) information technology. This paper utilizes the method of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to establish a strategies model for competitive advantage in Thai footwear industry. The analysis results indicated that the footwear design strategies model could help make more effective policies and organization strategies for enterprises and designers to develop themselves to be excellence in world market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0078.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ZIKV; protein-protein interaction; non-structural viral proteins; network
Online: 7 September 2019 (00:18:39 CEST)
The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus and can be transmitted through an infected mosquito bite or through human-to-human interaction by sexual activity, blood transfusion, breastfeeding or perinatal exposure. After the 2015-2016 outbreak in Brazil, a strong link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly emerged. ZIKV specifically targets human neural progenitor cells, suggesting that proteins encoded by ZIKV bind and inactivate host cell proteins leading to microcephaly. Here, we present a systematic annotation of interactions between human proteins and the seven non-structural ZIKV proteins corresponding to a Brazilian isolate. The interaction network was generated by combining tandem-affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry with yeast two-hybrid screens. We identified 150 human proteins, involved in distinct biological processes, as interactors to ZIKV non-structural proteins. Our interacting network is composed of proteins that have been previously associated with microcephaly in human genetic disorders and/or animal models. This study builds on previously published interacting networks of ZIKV and genes related to autosomal recessive primary microcephaly to generate a catalog of human cellular targets of ZIKV proteins implicated in processes related to microcephaly in humans. Collectively, this data can be used as a resource for future characterization of ZIKV infection biology and help create a basis for the discovery of drugs which may disrupt the interaction and reduce the health damage to the fetus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: project cost; project complexity; structural equation modeling; New Zealand
Online: 13 June 2019 (08:16:40 CEST)
Project complexity is usually considered as one of main causes of cost overruns, resulting in poor performance and thus project failure. However, empirical studies focused on evaluating its effects on project cost remain lacking. Given this circumstance, this study attempts to develop the relationships between project cost and the multidimensional project complexity elements. We establish complexity as a multidimensional factor including the task, organization, market, legal, and environment complexities. This study uses an empirical evidence-based structural model to account for the relationships between project cost and project complexity. By doing so, a quantitative assessment of multi-dimensional project complexity has been developed. The findings suggest that task and organization complexities have direct effects on project cost, while market, legal and external environment complexities have indirect effects on project cost. The practical contribution is that the findings can improve the understanding of which dimension of complexity significantly influence project cost, and the need to focus efforts on strategically addressing that complexities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: high-rise buildings; architecture; structural solutions; interaction; SWOT analysis
Online: 26 November 2017 (12:45:01 CET)
The article reveals distinctive features of the interaction between architectural and structural solutions for the design of tall buildings as well as spotlights the most distinctive cases of expression. In the contemporary world, interaction is turning into the antithesis of the formerly dominant utilitarian attitude and standardization of tall buildings architectural solutions. Meanwhile, the search for rational structural solutions leads to new possibilities of architectural expression. This necessitates the transformation of a structural solution and its adaptation to the need of a modern architect to be exceptional and noticed. Interaction covers the current as well as retrospective and perspective periods. SWOT analysis was used by the authors of the article to assess the interaction between architectural and structural solutions in tall buildings design, select the most important criteria that could be used searching for rational architectural and structural solutions in future by applying multi-criteria decision making methods.