ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0211.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: klotho; estrogen; hippocampus; chronic stress; sex difference; stress resilience
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:09:36 CET)
Klotho (KL) is a glycosyl hydrolase and aging-suppressor gene. Stress is a risk factor for depression and anxiety that are highly comorbid with each other. The aim of this study was to determine KL is regulated by estrogen and plays an important role in sex differences in stress resilience. Our results showed that KL was regulated by estrogen in rat hippocampal neurons in vivo and in vitro and was essential for estrogen-mediated increase in the number of presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (Vglut1) positive clusters on the dendrites of hippocampal neurons. The role of KL in sex differences in stress responses was examined in rats using three-week chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). CUMS produced a deficit in spatial learning and memory, anhedonic-like and anxiety-like behaviors in male but not female rats, which was accompanied by a reduction in KL protein levels in the hippocampus of male, but not female rats. This demonstrated the resilience of female rats to CUMS. Interestingly, knockdown of KL protein levels in the rat hippocampus of both sexes caused a decrease in stress resilience in both sexes, especially in female rats. These results suggest that regulation of KL by estrogen plays an important role in estrogen-mediated synapse formation, and KL plays a critical role in the sex differences in cognitive deficit, anhedonic-like and anxiety-like behaviors induced by chronic stress in rats, highlighting an important role of KL in sex differences in stress resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0026.v1
Subject: Public Health And Health Services, Public Health And Healthcare Keywords: proprioception; stress resilience; fine motor test; verbal stress test; onco-patients; sportsmen
Online: 1 December 2023 (04:08:30 CET)
The characteristics of response to stressful situations depend on a complex of factors such as personality traits, emotional regulation, health state, features of the nervous system, motor functions and proprioception. In cases of disruption of the brain's dopamine system due to disease or chemotherapy, hormone discharge due to stress, changes in emotions and proprioception may occur. The aim of our study was to find the relationship of stress resilence in verbal test and individual differences performed in proprioceptive test in onco-patients, sportsmen and group of control; as well as to observe the differences between these groups in the verbal stress resistance and individual differences proprioceptive tests. The results showed that onco-patients were less resistant as per verbal stress resistance outcomes for a major part of variables compared to other groups. The sportsmen were superior in verbal Risk and Control dimensions compared to other groups; but less in Positive Affectiveness. The proprioceptive test perfomance revealed the only statistically significant difference in performance in the dimension related to Mood, showing more Pessimism in the sportsmen group, but more Optimism in the oncopatients at temperamental (or intrisinc) level. The obtained results can be used by psychologists, therapists, coach and healthcare when needed to attend the specific needs of public, being pateints or sportsmen, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2211.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Dentist; stress; resilience; Covid 19; Pandemic
Online: 31 May 2023 (11:03:07 CEST)
The novel coronavirus has affected the mental state of the general public, more so among healthcare workers. During the pandemic when the infectivity had become intense, dental professionals were at stake as their work demanded more proximity with oral and nasal secretions. Many dentists had to close their clinics for fear of infection. This had a significant impact on their financial, social and emotional wellbeing. Stress is what arises when something we care about is at stake. Dentistry which is already a stressful discipline, the pandemic has multiplied the already existing pressures of isolation, the focus on perfectionism, compromise on treatment, and time pressures. Our study has attempted to assess the perceived stress among dentists and the various correlates impacting the same. Resilience is the capacity to bounce back productively during stressful situations. Resilience acts like a buffer to wither stress. Resilience is neither permanent nor global. In our study, we have attempted to assess resilience among dentists using a standard validated scale and various sociodemographic factors impacting resilience. Further, we have tried to assess the correlation between stress and resilience. We found that senior dentists with more years of experience had more resilience and their perceived stress was less. Though we found increased perceived stress among women dentists, resilience did not have any gender difference. It is essential to be pandemic prepared with the implementation of resilience-building strategies at various levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Adapted COVID-Stress Scales; Stress in Academic Professionals; Resilience to COVID stress in Academia
Online: 20 January 2021 (16:37:25 CET)
To mitigate the COVID-19 infection, many world governments endorsed the cessation of non-essential activities, such as the school attendance. Thereby, forcing the evolution of the teaching model to the virtual classroom. In the present work we show the application of a modified version of the adapted COVID-19 stress scales (ACSS) which also included teaching anxiety and preparedness, and resilience for academic professionals in Mexico, during the unprecedented transformation of the education system undergone in the COVID-19 quarantine. Most of the studied variables: gender, age, academic degree, household occupants, having a disease, teaching level, teaching mode, work hours, resilience, teaching anxiety and preparedness, and fear of being an asymptomatic patient (FOBAP), showed significant statistical correlation between each other (p<0.050) and to the 6 areas of the ACSS (danger, contamination, social economical, xenophobia, traumatic stress and compulsive checking). Our results further showed that the perceived stress and anxiety, fell into the category of absent to mild with only the danger section of the ACSS falling into the moderate category. Finally, resilience generated throughout the quarantine, seems to be a predictor of the adaptation the academic professional has undergone to cope with stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0610.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: mood disorders; major depression; inflammation; neuro-immune; oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; biomarkers
Online: 25 September 2020 (11:48:43 CEST)
Current diagnoses of mood disorders are not cross validated. The aim of the current paper is to explain how machine learning techniques can be used to a) construct a model which ensembles risk/resilience (R/R), adverse outcome pathways (AOPs), staging, and the phenome of mood disorders, and b) disclose new classes based on these feature sets. This study was conducted using data of 67 healthy controls and 105 mood disordered patients. The R/R ratio, assessed as a combination of the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene, PON1 enzymatic activity, and early life time trauma (ELT), predicted the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol – paraoxonase 1 complex (HDL-PON1), reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), nitro-oxidative stress toxicity (NOSTOX), staging (number of depression and hypomanic episodes and suicidal attempts), and phenome (the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety scores and the Clinical Global Impression; current suicidal ideation; quality of life and disability measurements) scores. Partial Least Squares pathway analysis showed that 44.2% of the variance in the phenome was explained by ELT, RONS/NOSTOX, and staging scores. Cluster analysis conducted on all those feature sets discovered two distinct patient clusters, namely 69.5% of the patients were allocated to a class with high R/R, RONS/NOSTOX, staging, and phenome scores, and 30.5% to a class with increased staging and phenome scores. This classification cut across the bipolar (BP1/BP2) and major depression disorder classification and was more distinctive than the latter classifications. We constructed a nomothetic network model which reunited all features of mood disorders into a mechanistically transdiagnostic model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0556.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Sports; Psychogenetics; Psychophysiology; Elite athletes; Stress-resistance; Machine learning; Extreme professions; Depression; Anxiety
Online: 8 November 2023 (13:55:11 CET)
Background: A personalized approach to occupational medicine allows specialists to 1 prevent professional hazards such as stress-related depression and anxiety in extreme work environments. Objective: we aim to detect genetic markers of low resilience to stress. Methods: The study cohort included 97 elite athletes and 167 special forces personnel. The research team collected buccal mucosa samples and examined psychological status with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We assessed 35 variants within selected genes that are most often associated with low resilience to stress, anxiety, and depression. Fisher’s Exact test was used to determine nonrandom associations between scores in the HADS scale and the genetic variants. We also trained machine learning models to predict score values from genotyping findings and ranked genetic biomarkers according to their predictive power. Results: High-risk depression profiles included C/T genotype of MTHFR C677T and A/C variant of MTHFR A1298C. Susceptibility to anxiety was associated with several polymorphisms regulating neuroactive substances, immune response, and coagulation. The ML models accurately detect depression or anxiety levels with MAE/ROV of 17.69±1.35 and 17.86±2.09% respectively. Conclusions: The study findings justify a polymorphic nature of anxiety and confirm the immune system's involvement in regulating stress response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1736.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Urban Garden; Perceived Restorativeness; Resillience; Sense of Community; Stress; Salivary cortisol
Online: 25 May 2023 (05:10:25 CEST)
This study aimed to investigate the influence of urban garden activities on participants' Perceived restorativeness, resilience, sense of community, and stress reduction. Ninety individuals who agreed to participate to the experiment were divided into experimental and control groups. To collect data 16 sessions of urban garden activities were conducted every two weeks from May to November of 2022. Perceived Restorativeness Scale, Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale, Sense of Community Index, and Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument were employed to measure participants’ psychological effects. To evaluate physiological effect salivary cortisol tests were performed. The results of the study revealed that urban gardening activities influenced on participants' physiological and psychological reactions in positive ways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Covid-19; SARs-CoV-2; burnout; stress; resilience; medical students
Online: 11 January 2022 (16:57:30 CET)
Following the WHO's declaration of a public health emergency due to the COVID-19 outbreak, the subsequent quarantine and confinement measures that were adopted, including distance learning measures, were shown to have caused a significant deterioration in the mental health of medical students. The goal of this study was to explore the mediating role of resilience and life satisfac-tion in the relationship between perceived stress and burnout among medical students in the con-text of COVID-19. A transversal assessment was performed using an online questionnaire, to which 462 students responded. The instruments applied were the Perceived Stress Scale-10, the Resilience Scale-25 items, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and the Burnout Scale (Olden-burg Inventory). A regression model was estimated for each dimension of burnout. The results revealed that resilience and life satisfaction play a mediating role in the association between stress and the dimensions of burnout. This suggests that measures of promoting mental health based on resilience and improving perceptions of life should be implemented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0179.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: parent’s wellbeing; technology interference; family resilience; parental stress; marital conflict; digital media; ICT; COVID-19; lockdown
Online: 12 October 2022 (11:58:11 CEST)
Research has provided substantial evidence on the role of parents’ well-being in the quality of parent-child relationship and children’s adjustment. Parents’ stress and parental couple conflict have been linked to children’s adverse developmental outcomes. However, little is known about the factors that affect parent’s wellbeing when coping with multiple with stressors such as those brought by the recent COVID-19 global pandemic. Our study intended to examine the predictors of parental well-being looking at the contextual factors of COVID-19 home confinement, i.e. the use of digital media and parents’ domestic workload, and family resilience. Also, age and number of children were controlled as potential variables impacting parents’ well-being. A three-step hierarchical regression analysis was applied. The results showed that family resilience was a very strong predictor of parents’ well-being after controlling for any other variable. Parental couple’s conflict over the use of technology predicted lower levels of family well-being, while notably parent child-conflict and domestic workload were not associated with parents’ well-being. Additionally, age of children did play a role: the higher the mean age of children in the family the better the parents’ well-being. The findings are discussed in the light of their implications for research and practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0421.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: deficit schizophrenia; cytokines; inflammation; neuro-immune; oxidative stress; leaky gut
Online: 20 August 2020 (03:24:47 CEST)
Current case definitions of schizophrenia (DSM-5, ICD), made through a consensus among experts, are not cross-validated and lack construct reliability validity. The aim of this paper is to explain how to use bottom-up pattern recognition approaches to construct a reliable and replicable nomothetic network reflecting the direct effects of risk resilience (RR) factors, and direct and mediated effects of both RR and adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) on the schizophrenia phenome. This study was conducted using data of 40 healthy controls and 80 patients with schizophrenia. Using partial least Squares (PLS) analysis, we found that 39.7% of the variance in the phenomenome (lowered self-reported quality of life) was explained by the unified effects of AOPs (IgA to tryptophan catabolites, LPS, and the paracellular pathway, cytokines, and oxidative stress biomarkers), the cognitome (memory and executive deficits), and symptomatome (negative symptoms, psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism, psychomotor retardation, formal thought disorders); 55.8% of the variance in the symptomatome was explained by a single trait extracted from AOPs and the cognitome; and 22.0% of the variance in the latter was explained by the RR (Q192R polymorphism and CMPAaase activity, natural IgM, and IgM levels to zonulin). There were significant total effects (direct + mediated) of RR and AOPs on the symptomatome and phenomenome. In the current study, we built a reliable nomothetic network that reflects the associations between RR, AOPs, and the phenome of schizophrenia and discovered new diagnostic subclasses of schizophrenia based on unified RR, AOPs, and phenome scores.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: psychiatry; major depression; mood disorders; schizophrenia; antioxidants; oxidative stress
Online: 13 October 2020 (14:07:26 CEST)
Psychiatry remains in a permanent state of crisis, which fragmented psychiatry from the field of medicine. The crisis in psychiatry is evidenced by the many different competing approaches to psychiatric illness including psychodynamic, biological, molecular, pan-omics, precision, cognitive and phenomenological psychiatry, folk psychology, mind-brain dualism, descriptive psychopathology, and postpsychiatry. The current “gold standard” DSM/ICD taxonomies of mood disorders and schizophrenia are unreliable and preclude to employ a deductive reasoning approach. Therefore, it is not surprising that mood disorders and schizophrenia research was unable to revise the conventional classifications and did not provide more adequate therapeutic approaches. The aim of this paper is to explain the new nomothetic network psychiatry (NNP) approach, which uses machine learning methods to build data-driven causal models of mental illness by ensembling risk-resilience, adverse outcome pathways (AOP), cognitome, brainome, symptomatome, and phenomenome latent scores in a causal model. The latter may be trained, tested and validated with Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis. This approach not only allows to compute pathway-phenotypes or biosignatures, but also to construct reliable and replicable nomothetic networks, which are, therefore, generalizable as disease models. After integrating the validated feature vectors into a well-fitting nomothetic network, clustering analysis may be applied on the latent variable scores of the R/R, AOP, cognitome, brainome, and phenome latent vectors. This pattern recognition method may expose new (transdiagnostic) classes of patients which if cross-validated in independent samples may constitute new (transdiagnostic) nosological categories.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0359.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Abiotic stress; Melatonin; Water stress; Drought; Waterlogging; Antioxidants; Stress signalling, phytohormones
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:19:52 CEST)
Water stress (drought and waterlogging) is drastic abiotic stress to plant growth and development. Melatonin, bioactive plant hormone, has been widely tested in drought situations in diverse plant species, while a few studies on the role of melatonin in waterlogging stress conditions have been published. In the current review, we analyze the bio-stimulatory functions of melatonin on plants under both drought and waterlogging stress. Melatonin controls the levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and positively changes the molecular defense to improve plant tolerance against drought and waterlogging stress. Moreover, the crosstalk of melatonin and other phytohormones is a key element on plant survival under drought stress, while this relationship needs further investigation under waterlogging stress. In this review, we draw the complete story of water stress on both sides: drought and waterlogging through discussing the previous critical studies under both conditions. Moreover, we suggest several research directions, especially for waterlogging, which remains a big vague piece of melatonin and water stress puzzle.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: drought stress; osmotic stress; rice; transcription factors; stress signaling; qtl; breeding
Online: 24 December 2019 (11:39:50 CET)
Many studies were done in the development of drought stress-tolerant transgenic plants, including crop plants. Rice is considered to be a vital crop target for improving drought stress tolerance. Much transgenic rice showed improved drought stress tolerance was reported to date. They are genetically engineered plants that are developed by using genes that encode proteins involved in drought stress regulatory networks. These proteins include protein kinases, transcription factors, enzymes related to osmoprotectant or plant hormone synthesis, receptor-like kinase. Of the drought stress-tolerant transgenic rice plants described in this review, most of them display retarded plant growth. In crop crops, plant health is a fundamental agronomic trait that can directly affect yield. By understanding the regulatory mechanisms of retarded plant growth under drought stress, conditions are necessary precursors to developing genetically modified plants that result in high yields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0280.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: cold stress; heat stress; stress recovery; mitochondria; proteomics; respiration; Brassica; angiosperms
Online: 30 January 2018 (10:31:07 CET)
Complex proteomic and physiological approaches to study cold and heat stress responses in plant mitochondria are still limited. Variations in the mitochondrial proteome of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) curds after cold and heat and after stress recovery were assayed by 2D PAGE in relation to respiratory parameters. Quantitative analysis of the mitochondrial proteome revealed numerous stress-affected protein spots. In cold alternative oxidase isoforms were extensively upregulated; major downregulations in the level of photorespiratory enzymes, porine isoforms, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and some low-abundant proteins were observed. On the contrary, distinct proteins, including carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, heat-shock proteins, translation, protein import, and OXPHOS components were involved in heat response and recovery. Few metabolic regulations were suggested. Cauliflower plants appeared less susceptible to heat; closed stomata in heat stress resulted in moderate photosynthetic, but only minor respiratory impairments, however photosystem II performance was unaffected. Decreased photorespiration corresponded with proteomic alterations in cold. Our results show that cold and heat stress not only operate in diverse mode (exemplified by cold-specific accumulation of some heat shock proteins), but exert some associations on molecular and physiological levels. This implies more complex model of action of investigated stresses on plant mitochondria.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0384.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: flavonoids; cellular stress response; neurodegenerative disorders; ER stress proteotoxicity; oxidative stress; neuroinflammation
Online: 19 January 2021 (14:02:03 CET)
Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Amyloidal lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington disease (HD) are the most concerned disorders due to the lack of effective therapeutics and dramatic rise in affected cases. Although these disorders have diverse clinical manifestations, yet they all share a common cellular stress response. These cellular stress responses including neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, proteotoxicity, and ER-stress, which combats with stress conditions, but the overwhelming cellular stress response induces cell damage. Small molecules such as flavonoids could reduce cellular stress and have gained much attention in recent years. Evidence has shown the potential use of flavonoids in several ways such as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic, yet their mechanism is still elusive. This review provides an insight into the mechanistic ways of flavonoids against cellular stress response that prevent the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0116.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: sex ratio; prenatal stress; demography; ecological stress
Online: 6 April 2021 (14:57:54 CEST)
While sex ratios at birth (SRB) have been shown to vary within and across populations, after over a century of research, explanations have remained elusive. A variety of ecological, demographic, economic, and social variables have been evaluated, yet their association with SRB has been equivocal. Here, in an attempt to shed light on this unresolved topic within the literature, we approach the question of what drives variation in SRB using detailed longitudinal data spanning the frontier-era to the early 20th century in a US population. Using several measures of environmental harshness, we find that fewer boys are born during challenging times. However, these results hold only for the frontier-era and not into a period of rapid industrialization. We argue that the mixed state of the literature may result from the impact and frequency of exogenous stressors being dampened in post-industrial societies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0620.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: self-efficacy; stress-vulnerability; perceived stress; anxiety; hypertension
Online: 9 November 2023 (11:17:51 CET)
Abstract: Arterial hypertension is the main preventable risk factor for premature death and stroke worldwide and anxiety is a real public health problem. Stress is the common denominator for both cases. In the last 3 years, the aggressive exposure of the population to negative emotions (fear of disease in a pandemic, fear of war, financial instability) was the trigger factor. The psycho-neuro-endocrine mechanisms include the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and induce sympathetic-parasympathetic imbalance, hypercortisolemia, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, cytokine growth, and atherosclerosis. The individual’s vulnerability to stress depends on many factors, but the key role in the perception of stress belongs to immunogenic personality traits. Among them, self-efficacy is a protective factor against stress. Our research aimed to evaluate the connections between psycho-emotional factors and hypertension, using psychometric tests, to identify vulnerability to stress, perceived stress level, anxiety, self-efficacy, and psychobehavioral type, for 215 patients, 104 hypertensive and 111 non-hypertensive patients. The results of the study confirmed that there is a statistically significant difference, which requires psychological screening measures to identify patients vulnerable to stress, as well as medical education courses for doctors in the field of psychology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: drought stress; drought models; drought tolerance; oxidative stress; phytohormones; polyethylene glycol (PEG); stress markers
Online: 12 December 2018 (12:19:35 CET)
Drought is one of the major stress factors affecting growth and development of plants. In this context, drought-related losses of crop plant productivity impede sustainable agriculture all over the world. In general, plants responses to water deficit by multiple physiological and metabolic adaptations at the molecular, cellular and organism levels. To understand the underlying mechanisms of drought tolerance, adequate stress models and arrays of reliable stress markers are required. Therefore, in this review we comprehensively address currently available models of drought stress, based on culturing plants in soil, hydroponic or agar culture. These experimental setups give access to different aspects of plant response to drought, like decrease of tissue water potential, reduction of stomata conductance and photosynthesis efficiency, accumulation of low-molecular weight solutes (metabolic adjustment) and drought protective proteins. Till now, this pattern of markers was successfully extended to the methods of enzyme chemistry, molecular biology and omics techniques. Thus, conventional tests can be efficiently complemented by determination of phytohormone and reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents, activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as comprehensive profiling of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0054.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Microbiome; Abiotic stress; Biotic Stress; Sustainable Agriculture; Climate Change
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:39:40 CEST)
Plant-microbial interactions are very crucial for the terrestrial ecosystem. At the rhizospheric, phyllospheric and endospheric regions, these interactions occur through different signalling pathways and play a pivotal role as they strengthen the plant defence mechanism against pathogen attacks and other stresses. A better knowledge of these relationships will help to develop novel solutions for sustainable agriculture and safeguarding the global food supply in the context of climate change and mounting environmental concerns. This chapter emphasises the role of the microbiome in providing resistance to plants against various environmental stresses and aiding in their improved adaption. This chapter also underscores the impact of the microbiome in providing resilience to plants under changing climatic scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; immune response; inflammation; antioxidants; LPS
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:43:52 CEST)
An immune-inflammatory response is accompanied by increased nitro-oxidative stress. The aims of this mechanistic review are to review: a) the role of redox sensitive transcription factors and enzymes, ROS/RNS production and the activity of cellular antioxidants on the activation and performance of macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, T cells, B cells and natural killer cells; b) the involvement of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (Apo)A1, paraoxonase (PON)-1, and oxidized phospholipids in the regulation of the immune response; and c) the detrimental effects of hypernitrosylation and chronic nitro-oxidative stress on the immune response. The redox changes during immune-inflammatory responses are orchestrated by the actions of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, HIF1alpha, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTor), the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K) / protein kinase B (AKT) signalling pathway, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). The performance and survival of individual immune cells is under redox control and sensitive to intracellular and extracellular levels of ROS/RNS and is heavily influenced by cellular anti-oxidants including the glutathione and thioredoxin systems, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), and the HDL complex. Chronic nitro-oxidative stress and hypernitrosylation inhibit the activity of those antioxidant systems, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, mitochondrial functions, and the metabolism of immune cells. In conclusion, those redox-associated mechanisms modulate metabolic reprogramming of immune cells, macrophage and T helper cell polarization, phagocytosis, production of pro- versus anti-inflammatory cytokines, immune training and tolerance, chemotaxis, pathogen sensing, antiviral and antibacterial effects, Toll-like receptor activity, and endotoxin tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome; Obesity; inflammation; Oxidative Stress; nitrosative stress; biomarkers
Online: 23 June 2020 (11:35:38 CEST)
Purpose: To investigate the alterations in nitro-oxidative stress (OS) and antioxidant status in adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and whether these alterations occur independently from effects of overweight or obesity.Methods: Blood was collected in 47 adolescents with MetS and 94 adolescents without MetS as assessed with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria were used to classify the subjects into those with overweight or obesity. We measured nitro-oxidative biomarkers including nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant biomarkers, i.e. total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), paraoxonase (PON)-1 activity, thiol (SH-) groups, as well as tumor necrosis factor-α, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, uric acid and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that increased MDA and NOx and a lowered TRAP/uric acid ratio were associated with MetS. Machine learning including soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) showed that the top-3 most important features of MetS were increased glucose and MDA and lowered HDL-C. Support vector machine using MDA, glucose, insulin, HDL-C, triglycerides and body mass index as input variables yielded a 10-fold cross-validated accuracy of 89.8% when discriminating MetS from controls. The association between MetS and increased MDA was independent from the effects of overweight-obesity. glucose, insulin, triglycerides and HDL-C.Conclusion: In adolescents, increased MDA formation is a key component of MetS, indicating that increased production of reactive oxygen species with consequent lipid peroxidation and aldehyde formation participate in the development of MetS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: abiotic stress; biotic stress; biofortification; breeding; French bean; QTLs
Online: 3 June 2020 (09:43:01 CEST)
French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) a member of family Leguminosae is a useful source of protein (∼22%), minerals (folate), vitamins and fibre. Abiotic and biotic stresses are the constraints to high yield and production of French bean. Varieties reluctant to diseases as well as abiotic stresses is among the top breeding objectives for the French bean. Mendelian ratios could know the genetically reliable forms of resistance, whereas it's more robust to understand the intricate kinds, often referred to as quantitative trait loci (QTL). Here, we review and compile the information from the studies related to the identification of QTLs for critical biofortification traits, biotic and abiotic stresses in French bean. Successful map-based cloning requires QTLs represent single genes which could be isolated in near-isogenic lines, and also the genotypes could be unambiguously inferred by progeny testing. Overall, this information will be useful for directing the French bean breeders to select a suitable method for the inheritance evaluation of quantitative traits and determining the novel genes in germplasm resources to ensure that much more potential of genetic information may be uncovered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0358.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: abiotic stress; oxidative stress; salinity; nutrient deficiency; osmolytes; methylglyoxal
Online: 28 November 2019 (09:49:35 CET)
This study was undertaken to elucidate the role of trehalose (Tre) in mitigating oxidative stress under salinity and low P in maize. Eight-day-old maize seedlings of two maize varieties, BARI Hybrid Maize-7 and BARI Hybrid Maize-9 were subjected to salinity (150 mM NaCl), low P (5 µM KH2PO4) and their combined stress with or without 10 mM Tre for 15-d.Salinity and combined stress significantly inhibited the shoot length, root length, and root volume, whereas, low P increased the root length and volume in both genotypes. Exogenous Tre in the stress treatments increased all of the growth parameters as well as decreased the salinity, low P and combined stress-mediated Na+/K+, ROS, MDA, LOX activity and MG in both genotypes. Under salinity and low P stress, the SOD activity increased in both genotypes, but the activity decreased in combined stress. POD activity increased in all stress treatments. Interestingly, Tre application enhanced the SOD activity in all the stress treatments but inhibited the POD activity. Both CAT and GPX activity were increased by saline and low P stress while the activities inhibited in combined stress. Similar results were found for APX, GR, and DHAR activities in both genotypes. However, MDHAR activity was inhibited in all the stresses. Interestingly, Tre enhanced CAT APX, GPX, GR, MDHAR and DHAR activities suggesting the amelioration of ROS scavenging in maize under all the stresses. Increased GST activity in presence or absence of Tre might involve in detoxification of hydroperoxides as well as leaf senescence. On the other hand, increased glyoxalase activities in saline and low P stress in BHM-9 suggested better MG detoxification system because of down-regulation of Gly-I activity in BHM-7 in those stresses. Tre also increased the glyoxalase activities in both genotypes under all the stresses. Tre improved the growth in maize seedlings by decreasing Na+/K+, ROS, MDA, and MG through regulating antioxidant and glyoxalase systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: schizophrenia, inflammation, nitrosative stress, tryptophan catabolites, cytokines, oxidative stress
Online: 11 January 2019 (10:37:50 CET)
BACKGROUND: Stable-phase schizophrenia may comprise two distinct nosological entities namely Major Neuro-Cognitive Psychosis (MNP, largely overlapping with the deficit syndrome) and simple NP (SNP), which are defined by neuroimmune and neurocognitive abnormalities. Furthermore, cognitive impairments and PHEM (psychotic, hostility, excitation, mannerism) and negative symptoms load on the same dimension.METHODS: The current study aimed to investigate associations of psychomotor retardation (PMR) and clinical as well as biomarker characteristics of schizophrenia. We recruited 40 healthy controls and 79 schizophrenia patients and measured IgA responses to tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), IgM to malondialdehyde and nitroso (NO)-cysteinyl, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1), soluble interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA), IL-10, CCL-11 as well as PMR items of different rating scales and motor screening task (MOT). RESULTS: PMR differentiated schizophrenia from controls and MNP from SNP. In addition, PMR was strongly associated with executive functions, deficits in episodic and semantic memory, PHEM and negative (PHEMN) symptoms. Around 50% of the variance in PMR was predicted by the cumulative effects of immune activation, CCL-11, TRYCATs and NO-Cysteinyl levels, and lowered natural IgM. PRM may be reliably combined with PHEMN symptoms and memory and executive impairments into one latent vector reflecting overall psychopathology.CONCLUSIONS: Current findings indicate that PMR may be a key psychopathological feature of schizophrenia and mainly MNP. In addition, PMR and associated impairments in memory and executive functions, and PHEMN symptoms may be driven by deficits in the compensatory immune regulatory system (natural IgM) combined with increased production of neurotoxic immune products, namely TRYCATs and IgM to NO-cysteinyl, and an endogenous cognition deteriorating chemokine, namely CCL-11.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0474.v1
Online: 22 February 2021 (13:26:18 CET)
Transposable elements (TE) function as one of the major effectors to respond to biological or environmental stress. The mobility of TEs, which is heavily controlled under normal conditions, may be activated by stress. LncRNAs are emerging as a crucial tool in the regulation of TEs. This study focuses on the gene expression of THAP9, a domesticated transposon and lncRNA THAP9-AS1 (THAP9-antisense1), which form a sense and antisense gene pair with a promoter overlap of approximately 350bp. Under basal conditions, THAP9 is preferentially transcribed while THAP9-AS1 is heavily down-regulated. In the S-phase of the cell cycle, THAP9 expression exhibits stress-specific effects ranging from moderate enhancement to no change. On the other hand, THAP9-AS1, which has previously been reported to be upregulated in several cancers, always demonstrates enhanced expression under stress. Moreover, THAP9-AS1 is transcriptionally favoured during stress since the stress-induced fold-increase of THAP-AS1 expression is always higher than THAP9. Interestingly, the expression of both THAP9 and THAP9-AS1 exhibit a striking periodicity throughout the S-phase, reminiscent of cell cycle regulated genes. Thus, this study sets the stage to further explore the relationship between THAP9 and THAP9-AS1 and investigate THAP9-AS1’s potential regulatory role during stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0434.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: innovation; holism; stress
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:24:54 CEST)
This article shows the alternative learning methodology to stimulate the holistic side of students’ minds to achieve the increment of the innovation skill, managing the creative competencies and level of stress. The present research study is pre-experimental research designed with prior and posterior measurement, longitudinal, explanatory, and co-relational, with the main objective to demonstrate the effect of the holistic innovation coefficient of the beneficiaries of the program “Impulsa Peru”. Program Results: It has been concluded that the experimental group is significant over the control group. Therefore, the holistic innovation methodology had an impact on the experimental group. Conclusions: Hypothesis 1 is fulfilled in which it is affirmed that the holistic innovation methodology has a positive impact on the level of coefficient of holistic innovation of the student mentors of the women recyclers of the program Impulsa Peru with a significance level of 0.05%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0241.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: male infertility; idiopathic; oxidative stress; reductive stress; inflammation; biomarkers; antioxidants
Online: 4 July 2023 (13:51:39 CEST)
Male infertility (MI) involves various endogenous and exogenous facts. These include oxidative stress (OS), which is known to alter several physiological pathways and it is estimated to be present at high levels in up to 80 % of infertile men. That is why since the late 20th Century, the relationship between OS and MI has been widely studied. New terms have emerged, such as Male Oxidative Stress Infertility (MOSI), which is proposed as a new category to define infertile men with high OS levels. Another important term is MOXI: Male, Antioxidants, and Infertility. Such term refers to the hypothesis that antioxidants could improve male fertility without the use of assisted reproductive technology. However, there is no evidence-based antioxidant treatments that directly improve seminal parameters or birth ratio. In this regard, there is controversy about their use. While certain scientists argue against their use due to the lack of results, others support this use because of their safety profile and low price. Some uncertainties related to the use of antioxidants for treating MI are their questionable efficacy or the difficulties to know their correct dosage. In addition, the lack of quality methods for OS detection can lead to an excessive antioxidant supplementation, resulting in “reductive stress”. Another important problem is that, although the inflammatory process is interdependent and closely linked to OS, it is usually ignored. To solve these uncertainties, new trends have recently emerged. These include the use of molecules with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential, and which are also able to specifically target the reproductive tissue; as well as the use of new methods that allow for reliable quantification of OS and a quality diagnosis. This review aims to elucidate the main uncertainties about MOXI and to outline the latest trends in research to achieve effective therapies with clinically relevant outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0361.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Transgenic rice; metacaspase; ER stress; salinity stress; programmed cell death
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:04:38 CET)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important organelle responsible as protein synthesis regulator in plant. High salinity can also lead to the activation of ER stress, caused by the accumulation of misfolded protein. This could lead to a stress response mechanism, unfolded protein response (UPR). Failure of UPR to reverse the effect of protein misfolding will activate Programmed Cell Death (PCD). Metacaspase genes regulate programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. The present study was focused on comprehensive gene analyses of the expression patterns of type II rice metacaspase (OsMC) genes in response to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and salinity stress in rice leaf and OsMC4 in callus. A strong evidence of unfolded protein response (UPR) during tolerance to both ER and salinity stress was found in the present study. Overexpression of OsMC4 in rice callus as a fusion protein with TagRFP and controlled by the CaMV35 promoter caused major changes in the expression of the stress ER-marker genes, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and Binding immunoglobulin Protein (BiP), and OsMC4 in overexpressing calli. These expression analyses of the OsMC family provide valuable information for further functional studies on the biological roles of OsMCs in PCD related to ER and salinity stress responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0059.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: chagas disease; cardiomyopathy; mitochondrial stress; endoplasmic reticulum stress; 2-aminopurine
Online: 3 August 2018 (04:36:58 CEST)
Trypanosoma cruzi infection results in debilitating cardiomyopathy, which is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the endemic regions of Chagas disease (CD). The pathogenesis of Chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCM) has been intensely studied as a chronic inflammatory disease until recent observations reporting the role of cardio-metabolic dysfunctions. In particular, we demonstrated accumulation of lipid droplets and impaired cardiac lipid metabolism in the hearts of cardiomyopathic mice and patients, and their association with impaired mitochondrial functions and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in CD mice. In the present study, we examined whether treating infected mice with an ER stress inhibitor can modify the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy during chronic stages of infection. T. cruzi infected mice were treated with an ER stress inhibitor 2-Aminopurine (2AP) during the indeterminate stage and evaluated for cardiac pathophysiology during the subsequent chronic stage. Our study demonstrates that inhibition of ER stress improves cardiac pathology caused by T. cruzi infection by reducing ER stress and downstream signaling of phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor (P-elF2α) in the hearts of chronically infected mice. Importantly, cardiac ultrasound imaging showed amelioration of ventricular enlargement, suggesting that inhibition of ER stress may be a valuable strategy to combat the progression of cardiomyopathy in Chagas patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: PGPR; salt stress; salinity; abiotic stress; ACC deaminase; seed priming; IAA
Online: 1 March 2021 (18:27:16 CET)
To date, soil salinity becomes a huge obstacle for food production worldwide since salt stress in plants is one of the major factors limiting agricultural productivity. It is estimated that a significant loss of crops (20%–50%) would be due to drought and salinity. To embark upon this harsh situation, numerous strategies such as plant breeding, plant genetic engineering, and a large variety of agricultural practices including the applications of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and seed biopriming technique have been developed to improve plant defense system against salt stress, resulting in higher crop yields to meet human’s increasing food demand in the future. In the present review, we update and discuss the advantageous roles of beneficial PGPR as green bioinoculants in mitigating the burden of high saline conditions on morphological parameters and on physio-biochemical attributes of plant crops via diverse mechanisms. In addition, the applications of PGPR as a useful tool in seed biopriming technique are also updated and discussed since this approach exhibits promising potentials in improving seed vigor, rapid seed germination, and seedling growth uniformity, Furthermore, the controversial findings regarding the fluctuation of antioxidants and osmolytes in PGPR-treated plants are also pointed out and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0362.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: combined stresses; drought stress; heat stress; maize; root morphology; root types
Online: 15 December 2020 (09:39:56 CET)
Plants are continually exposed to multiple stresses, which co-occur in nature and the net effects are frequently more non-additive (i.e., synergistic or antagonistic) suggesting ‘unique’ responses respect to that of the individual stress. Further, plant stress responses are not uniforms showing a high spatial and temporal variability among and along the different organs. In this respect, the present work investigated the morphological responses of different root types (seminal, seminal lateral, primary, primary lateral) of maize plants exposed to single (drought and heat) and combined stress (drought + heat). Data were evaluated by a specific root image analysis system (WinRHIZO) and analyzed by uni- and multi-variate statistical analysis. The results indicated that primary root and their laterals were the types more sensitive to the single and combined stresses while the seminal laterals specifically responded to the combined only. Further, antagonistic and synergistic effects were observed for the specific traits in the primary and their laterals and in the seminal lateral roots in response to the combined stress. These results suggested that maize root system modified specific root types and traits to face with different stressful environmental conditions highlighting that the adaptation strategy to the combined stress may be different from that of the individual ones. The knowledge of “unique or shared” responses of plant to multiple stress can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0251.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: heat stress; temperature humidity index; laying performance; egg quality; stress indicators
Online: 6 November 2020 (16:58:30 CET)
The present study investigated the effect of different ambient temperature and relative humidity (RH) but equal temperature-humidity index (THI) on laying performance, egg quality, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L ratio), corticosterone (CORT) concentration in blood, yolk and albumen, and plasma biochemical parameters in laying hens. One hundred and twenty commercial hens (Hy-Line Brown) aged 60 weeks were allocated into 2 environmental chambers. Laying hens were subjected to either one of two thermal treatments, i.e., 26ºC and 70% RH (LH75) and 30ºC and 30% RH (HL75) for 28 days. Both thermal treatments had equal THI being 75. Neither LH75 nor HL75 affected (P > 0.05) laying performance including egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. Plasma biochemical parameters such as total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus was not altered (P > 0.05) by thermal treatments. As to the stress indicators, both environment regimes failed (P > 0.05) to affect blood H/L ratio and CORT levels in plasma, yolk and albumen although albumen CORT levels were elevated (P < 0.05) in LH75 vs. HL75 at days 3, 7, and 28. In conclusion, our study suggests that laying hens performed and responded equally when they were exposed to equal THI environment conditioned from either 26ºC and 70% RH or 30ºC and 30% RH. The results of this study will be served as a scientific basis for management decisions and handling under thermally challenging conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0619.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19 Mexico; stress in healthcare professionals; COVID-19 stress scale
Online: 26 September 2020 (08:07:00 CEST)
The world is currently, subjected to the worst health crisis documented in modern history; an epidemic led by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). At the epicenter of this crisis, healthcare professionals continue working to safeguard our well-being. To the regular high levels of stress, COVID new heights even more to healthcare professionals so depending on the area, specialty, and type of work. Here we investigated what are the tendencies, or areas most affected. Through an adaptation of the original COVID-stress scale, we developed a remote, fast test designed for healthcare professionals of the Northeastern part of Mexico, an important part of the country with economic and cultural ties to the US. Our results showed 4 key correlations as highly dependent: Work area – Xenophobia (p < 0.045), Work with COVID patients - Traumatic stress (p < 0.001) and Total number of COVID patients per day – Traumatic stress (p < 0.027), and Total number of COVID patients - Compulsive checking and reassurance. Overall concluding that normal levels of stress have increased (mild – moderate). Additionally, we further determine that the fear of being an asymptomatic patient (potential to spread without knowing) continues being a concern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0268.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: residual stress prediction; maraging steel 350; experimental measurement of residual stress
Online: 23 January 2020 (16:12:51 CET)
Rapid and accurate prediction of residual stress in metal additive manufacturing processes is of great importance to guarantee the quality of the fabricated part to be used in a mission-critical application in the aerospace and automotive industries. Experimentation and numerical modeling are valuable tools for measuring and predicting the residual stress; however, to-date conducting experimentation and numerical modeling is expensive and time-consuming. Thus, herein, a physics-based thermomechanical analytical model is proposed to predict the residual stress of the additively manufactured part rapidly and accurately. A moving point heat source approach is used to predict the temperature field by considering the effects of scan strategies, heat loss, and energy needed for solid-state phase transformation. Due to the high temperature gradient in this process, part experiences a high amount of thermal stress following solidification which may exceed the yield strength of the material. The thermal stress is obtained using Green’s function of stresses due to the point body load. The Johnson-Cook flow stress model is used to predict the yield surface of the part under repeated heating and cooling. As a result of the cyclic heating and cooling and the fact that the material is yielded, the residual stress build-up is predicted based on incremental plasticity and kinematic hardening behavior of the metal according to the property of volume invariance in plastic deformation in coupling with the equilibrium and compatibility conditions. The computational methodology is realized with the laser powder fusion of maraging steel 350 as a material of example. The validation of the predictive models has been presented in terms of the comparison of predicted and measured scan-direction and build-direction residual stress distributions along depth of build under various process parameter combinations. Moreover, for the first time, the Jonson-Cook parameters of maraging steel 350 are predicted using analytical modeling of machining forces and non-linear optimization techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0185.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Abiotic stress; Antioxidant defense; Glyoxalase; Ion homeostasis; Organic acid; Osmotic stress
Online: 17 January 2020 (10:02:34 CET)
Salinity is a serious environmental hazard which limits world agricultural production by adversely affects plant physiology and biochemistry. Hence increase tolerance against salt stress is very important. In this study, we explored the function of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) in enhancing salt stress tolerance in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). After pretreatment with BABA, seedlings were exposed to NaCl (100 mM and 150 mM) for 2 days. Salt stress increased Na content and decreased K content in shoot and root. It disrupted the antioxidant defense system by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS; H2O2 and O2•−), methylglyoxal (MG) content and causing oxidative stress. It also reduced the growth and photosynthetic pigments of seedlings but increased proline (Pro) content. However, BABA pretreatment in salt-stressed seedlings increased ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) contents; GSH/GSSG ratio; and the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glyoxalase I (Gly I), and glyoxalase II (Gly II) as well as growth and photosynthetic pigments of plants. In addition, compared to salt stress alone BABA increased Pro content, reduced the H2O2, MDA and MG contents and decreased Na content in root and increased K content in shoot and root of rapeseed seedlings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0153.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: antioxidant system; chilling stress; mineral homeostasis; nitric oxide; oxidative stress; rice
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:32:41 CET)
Being a chilling-sensitive staple crop, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is vulnerable to climate change. The competence of rice to withstand chilling stress should, therefore, be enhanced through technological tools. The present study employed chemical intervention like application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as nitric oxide (NO) donor and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of NO-mediated chilling tolerance in rice. At germination stage, germination indicators were interrupted by chilling stress (5.0 ± 1.0°C for 8 h day‒1), while pretreatment with 100 μM SNP markedly improved the indicators. At seedling stage (14-day-old), chilling stress caused stunted growth with visible toxicity along with alteration of biochemical markers, for example, increase in oxidative stress markers (superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde) and osmolytes (total soluble sugar; proline and soluble protein content, SPC), and decrease in chlorophyll (Chl), relative water content (RWC), and antioxidants. However, NO application attenuated toxicity symptoms with improving growth performance which might be attributed to enhanced activities of antioxidants, mineral contents, Chl, RWC and SPC. Furthermore, principal component analysis indicated that water imbalance and increased oxidative damage were the main contributors to chilling injury, whereas NO-mediated mineral homeostasis and antioxidant defense were the critical determinants for chilling tolerance in rice. Collectively, our findings revealed that NO protects against chilling stress through valorizing cellular defense mechanisms, suggesting that exogenous application of NO could be a potential tool to evolve cold tolerance as well as climate resilience in rice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0307.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: antioxidant activity; cross-tolerance; glycine max; heat stress; proteomics; water stress
Online: 31 October 2019 (05:23:35 CET)
Water stress (WS) and heat stress (HS) have a negative effect on soybean plant growth and crop productivity. During WS, soybean plants opt for survival through ion homeostasis and the conformations of proteins are disconcerted as plant cells lose water while HS leads to difficulties in flowering and fruiting. Some of these changes include oxidative stress leading to the destruction of photosynthetic apparatus, macromolecules within cells and the onset of complex signaling cascades. Changes in the physiological characteristics, proteome, and certain metabolites investigated on molecular and cellular functions were studied in two soybean cultivars exposed to different heat and water stress conditions independently and in combination. Leaf protein composition was studied using 2-DE and complemented with MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. While two cultivars displayed genetic variation in response to water and heat stress, thirty-nine proteins were significantly altered in their relative abundance in response to WS, HS and combined WS+HS in both cultivars; a majority of them involved in metabolism, response to heat and photosynthesis showing significant cross-tolerance mechanisms. Functional analysis revealing a majority of heat responsive-proteins were more abundant during HS and combined stress (WS+HS) whereas these proteins were low to WS in cultivar PI 471938 and heat shock proteins were in low abundance to water, heat and combined stresses in cultivar R95-1705. Most protein abundances were not correlated with their expression at mRNA levels in PI cultivar, however, in cultivar R 95, the expression levels of transcript follow their relative abundance in proteins. Our systems bioinformatics analyses revealed that MED37C, a probable mediator of RNA polymerase transcription II protein showed potential interacting partners in Arabidopsis and our studies signifies the marked impact of this protein in PI cultivar. Elevated activities in antioxidant enzymes indicate that the PI-371938 cultivar has the ability to restore the oxidation levels and sustain the plant during the stress. Our study hypothesizes the plant’s development of cross-stress tolerance which will help foster the ongoing ventures in genetic modifications in stress tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0061.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Work-related stress; occupational stress; coping profile; garment workers; textile workers
Online: 7 February 2018 (10:26:49 CET)
Garment sector has crucial working field in Turkey.It has also very high risky occupational health conditions and safety.The objective of this study is to define level of job level, work-related stress’ symptoms, social support and coping mechanisms of garment workers and to determine any related factors.This study is descriptive and cross-sectional. The study population comprised garment workers in the 16-65 age range. The data was collected by Assessment Form, The Brief Stress Coping Profile and Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. The level of work-related stress was statistically higher among the workers who had chronic disease, low economic, education status and poor quality of sleep. Psychological and physical physiological reactions to stress were found higher among women workers and those with chronic disease.It also was seen that job stress scores had a meaningful relationship with “emotional expression involving others” (r =.20) and “Avoidance and suppression” coping profile (r =.16; p <.01).Psychological symptom scores were found to have a low level of meaningful relationship with “Seeking help for solution” (r =-.08), “changing point of view” (r=.13) and “emotional expression involving others” coping profiles (r=.21). Work-related stress causes many health and behavioral problems. Work related reasons and coping profiles have powerful effects on stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0289.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: hypotrochoidal profile shafts; DIN3689 H-profiles; bending stress; rotating bending loads; flexure; torsional stress in profiled shafts; stress factor
Online: 16 December 2022 (02:40:22 CET)
Hypotrochoidal profile contours have been produced in industrial applications in recent years using twin-spindle processes, and they are considered effective high-quality solutions for positive shaft–hub connections. This study mainly concerns analytical approaches to determine the bending stresses in hypotrochoidal profile shafts. The formulation was developed according to bending principles using the mathematical theory of elasticity and conformal mappings. The loading was further used to investigate the rotating bending behaviour. The stress factors for the classical calculation of maximum bending stresses were also determined for all those profiles presented and compiled in the German standard DIN3689-1 for practical applications. The results were also compared with the corresponding numerical and experimental results, and very good agreement was observed. Additionally, based on previous work, the stress factor was determined for the case of torsional loading to calculate the maximum torsional stresses in the standardised profiles, and the results are listed in a table. This study contributes to the further refinement of the current DIN3689 standard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0466.v1
Online: 27 February 2023 (09:34:46 CET)
Background: Pregnancy can be a period of increased psychological susceptibility for women living with HIV. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with depression and psychological stress among women living with HIV during their perinatal period in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: This study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey conducted in three HIV treatment centers. The study population consisted of women living with HIV 18 years and above who were pregnant or had given birth within the last two years. Data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 25. Results: A total of 402 participants were eligible for this study. About 69.0% and 78.0% of the participants were depressed and had perceived stress respectively. Women who had positive partners (OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.20-1.30) were found to be significantly associated with perceived depression. Women who reported having a gestational age between 29-40 weeks (OR=0.054 95% CI = 0.006, 0.500) were found to be significantly associated with perceived stress. Factors associated with the co-occurrence of symptoms of depression and perceived stress were partner status, income level, family support, gestational age, and years on ART. Conclusions: Given the high prevalence of major depression, perceived stress, and the co-occurrence of depression and perceived stress among women living with HIV, mental health care should be incorporated into the routine maternal healthcare for all women, especially those living with HIV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0249.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: stress; professional satisfaction; multigrade
Online: 13 October 2020 (16:13:08 CEST)
Teaching is considered a multifarious task. Teachers, in the pursuit of educational success, are burdened with numerous teaching workloads and dilemmas causing them stress. This study endeavored to determine the influence of stress on professional satisfaction of multigrade teachers. It employed correlation research design involving thirty (30) purposively selected multigrade teachers in the Schools Division of General Santos City (GSC), Southern Philippines. Employing the survey method, tailored questionnaires were utilized to gather the needed data. The statistical tools employed in the analysis were weighted mean and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. Moderate level of stress and high level of professional satisfaction are gained among the multigrade teachers surveyed. It was further found out that there is no significant relationship between stress and professional satisfaction, providing evidence that stress may not necessarily influence satisfaction. This result offers unique implications in theory, practice, and research which are discussed in the study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0147.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: MWCNTs; oxidative stress; mitochondria
Online: 18 February 2019 (08:57:01 CET)
Human exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can cause health issues due to their chemical–physical features and biological interactions. These nanostructures cause oxidative stress, also due to endogenous ROS production, which increases following mitochondrial impairment. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the health effects, due to mitochondrial dysfunction, caused by a sub-chronic exposure to a non-acutely toxic dose of multi walled CNTs (raw and functionalised). The A549 cells were exposed to MWCNTs (2 µg mL-1) for 36 days. Periodically, cellular dehydrogenases, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), cytochrome c release, permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, transmembrane potential (Δψ m), apoptotic cells, and intracellular ROS were measured. The results, compared to untreated cells and to positive control formed by cells treated with MWCNTs (20 µg mL-1), highlighted the efficiency of homeostasis to counteract ROS overproduction, but a restitutio ad integrum of mitochondrial functionality was not observed. Despite the tendency to restore, the mitochondrial impairment persisted. Overall, the results underlined the tissue damage that can arise following sub-chronic exposure to MWCNTs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0699.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: fatigue crack propagation; welding residual stress; plastic re-distribution; stress ratio effect
Online: 10 November 2023 (11:34:48 CET)
Keywords: Fatigue crack propagation; Welding residual stress; Plastic re-distribution; Stress ratio effect
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0502.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Iris laevigata; WRKY transcription factor; flowering time regulation; salt stress; drought stress
Online: 9 October 2023 (11:38:52 CEST)
Iris laevigata Fisch. is a perennial aquatic plant with strong cold resistance and showy flowers. However, the flowering period of a single flower is only two days, greatly limiting its potential use in landscaping and the cutting-flower industry. In addition, I. laevigata is often challenged with various abiotic stresses including high salinity and drought in its native habitat. Thus, breeding novel cultivars with prolonged flowering time and higher resistance to abiotic stress is of high importance. In this study, we first performed genome-wide identification of WRKYs, key transcription factors in modulating flowering time and abiotic stress responses. We overexpressed IlWRKY22 in Arabidopsis thaliana and found the flowering time was delayed in the transgenic plants. Molecular characterization further revealed that IlWRKY22 promotes the expression of CO and GA20OX genes in the photoperiod and gibberellin pathways, respectively, and inhibits the expression of SPL3 in the aging pathway. We also created transgenic Nicotiana tabacum overexpressing IlWRKY22, which showed significantly improved resistance to both salt and drought compared to control plants. Specifically, the photosynthetic rate, maximum potential quantum efficiency of Photosystem II (Fv/Fm), and chlorophyll content were higher in the transgenic plants, which was accompanied with higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower levels of reactive oxygen species. Thus, our study revealed a unique dual function of IlWRKY22, an excellent candidate gene for breeding novel I. laevigata cultivars of desirable traits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0882.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: testicular heat stress; NRF2; heme oxygenase; seasonal variantion; hyperthermia; scrotal heat stress
Online: 13 September 2023 (11:26:19 CEST)
Testicular heat stress is a well described phenomenon that occurs in mammals that possess a scrotum. Different models to induce testicular hyperthermia, such as surgical cryptorchidism, hot water bath, scrotal insulation or increased environmental temperature have all shown that spermatocytes and spermatids are unambiguously affected by high temperature, resulting in poor sperm production weeks later. Furthermore, a body of evidence suggest the involvement of oxidative stress is either a major or contributory pathway, which gives rise to the potential to overcome this condition. Whilst experimental models conclusively show the deleterious effect of testicular heat on sperm quality, the physiological relevance of the work is still debated. Herein we summarise a cohort of studies that report the effect of “season” on sperm quality. The data show season can affect sperm production, motility and morphology depending on where the work was performed. In countries where temperatures drop below zero, there is evidence showing summer conditions tend to improve semen quality. However, in sub-tropical countries, some studies show a decrease in summer, whilst others show no change. Herein we offer a reasonable explanation for this apparent controversy and present a range of antioxidant supplements that may offer some protection against testicular hyperthermia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1202.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Amorpha fruticose, WRKY transcription factor, drought stress, tobacco genetic transformation, stress resistance
Online: 18 July 2023 (11:06:04 CEST)
The WRKY gene family in plants regulates the plant's response to drought through regulatory networks and hormone signaling. AfWRKY20 (MT859405) was cloned from A. fruticosa (Amorpha fruticosa,A. fruticosa) seedlings using RT-PCR. The binding properties of the AfWRKY20 protein and the W-box (a DNA cis-acting element) were verified both in vivo and in vitro using EMSA and Dual-Luciferase activity assays. RT-qPCR detected that the total expression level of AfWRKY20 in leaves and roots was 22 times higher in the 30% PEG6000 simulated drought treatment compared to the untreated group. Under the simulated drought stress treatments of sorbitol and ABA (abscisic acid,ABA), the transgenic tobacco with the AfWRKY20 gene showed enhanced drought resistance at the germination stage, with significantly increased germination rate, green leaf rate, fresh weight, and root length compared to the WT (wild type,WT) tobacco. In addition, the SOD (superoxide dismutase,SOD)activity, chlorophyll content, and Fv/Fm ratio of AfWRKY20 transgenic tobacco were significantly higher than those of the WT tobacco under natural drought stress, while the MDA (malondialdehyde,MDA) content and DAB (3,3'-diaminobenzidine,DAB) and NBT (nitroblue tetrazolium,NBT) staining levels were lower. The expression levels of oxidation kinase genes (NbSOD, NbPOD, and NbCAT) in transgenic tobacco under drought stress were significantly higher than those in WT tobacco. This enhancement in gene expression improved the ability of transgenic tobacco to detoxify ROS (reactive oxygen species,ROS). The survival rate of transgenic tobacco after natural drought rehydration was four times higher than that of WT tobacco. In summary, this study revealed the regulatory mechanism of AfWRKY20 in response to drought stress-induced ABA signaling, particularly in relation to the ROS. This finding provides a theoretical basis for understanding the pathways of WRKY20 involved in drought stress, and offers genetic resources for molecular plant breeding aimed at enhancing drought resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0700.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: residual stress; thermal-vibration stress relief; 2219 aluminum alloy ring; numerical simulation
Online: 9 June 2023 (10:28:55 CEST)
Large aluminum alloy ring forgings are the core components of heavy-duty rocket fuel storage tanks, and the large residual stress inside the rings leads to poor shape accuracy of large thin-walled parts. The initial stress of the 2219 aluminum alloy ring blank was tested using the drilling method, and the creep constitutive coefficient of the 2219 aluminum alloy was determined through stress relaxation tests. The numerical simulation processes of thermal stress relief (TSR), vibration stress relief (VSR), and thermal-vibration stress relief (TVSR) were compared and established. Through the correlation analysis between the actual measurement results of residual stress and the simulation results, it can be seen that the strong correlation in three directions at each measurement point accounts for over 37.5%, and the moderate correlation accounts for over 62.5%. This indicates that the numerical simulation model of 2219 aluminum alloy ring containing initial residual stress can accurately reflect the size and distribution of residual stress inside the actual ring. The simulation results show that the derived constitutive model can describe the stress relaxation process of TVSR by combining a single thermal time effect stress relaxation constitutive theory with a VSR plastic deformation material model. The simulation models established above were used to calculate the residual stress homogenization ability of three types of aging. The results showed that VSR, TSR, and TVSR can homogenize and reduce the residual stress field inside the ring, improve the distribution of residual stress inside the ring, and have a better overall homogenization ability of TVSR. The VSR control has a certain effect on reducing and homogenizing residual stress, but compared with TSR and TVSR, the reduction and homogenization ability of residual stress control is limited. The homogenization control effect TVSR>TSR>VSR, and the maximum equivalent stress homogenization rates of VSR, TSR, and TVSR are 52.8%, 80.6%, and 82.2%, respectively. Then, numerical simulation technology is used to study how the initial residual stress in the blank will cause the deformation of the ring during the thin-walled machining process. The roundness error theory of the minimum containment area method is applied to evaluate the deformation degree during the thin-walled numerical machining process, and the TVSR method is used for stress regulation. The deformation law of the thin-walled machining of the ring under different aging parameters is studied.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0404.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Abiotic stress; biotic stress; biotechnology; climate change; CRISPR; crop improvement; genome editing
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:44:22 CEST)
Climate change poses a serious threat to global agricultural activity and food production. To address this issue, plant genome editing technologies have been developed to provide an alternative solution for crop improvement. Unlike conventional breeding techniques (e.g., selective breeding and mutation breeding), modern genome editing tools offer more targeted and specific alterations of the plant genome to produce crops with desired traits, such as higher yield and/or stronger resilience to the changing environment. In this review, we discuss the current development and future applications of genome editing technologies in mitigating the impacts of biotic and abiotic stresses on agriculture. We focus specifically on the CRISPR/Cas system, which has been the center of attention in the last few years as a revolutionary genome-editing tool in various species. We also conducted a bibliographic analysis on CRISPR-related papers published from 2012 to 2021 (10 years) to identify trends and possible gaps in the CRISPR/Cas-related plant research. In addition, this review article outlines the current shortcomings and challenges of employing genome editing technologies in agriculture with notes on future prospective. We believe combining conventional and more innovative technologies in agriculture would be the key to optimizing crop improvement beyond the limitations of traditional agricultural practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0287.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Excretory-secretory products; Angiostrongylus cantonensis; Astrocytes; Benzaldehydes; endoplasmic reticulum stress; oxidative stress
Online: 16 November 2021 (11:34:13 CET)
Excretory-secretory products (ESPs) are the main research targets for investigating the hosts and helminths interaction. Parasitic worms can migrate to parasitic sites and avoid the host immune response by secreting this product. Angiostrongylus cantonensisis an important food-borne zoonotic parasite that causes severe neuropathological damage and symptoms, including eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis in humans. Benzaldehydes are organic compounds composed of a benzene ring and formyl substituents. This compound has anti-inflammatory and antioxidation properties. Previous studies showed that 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3-HBA) and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4-HBA) can reduce apoptosis in A. cantonensis ESPs treated astrocytes. These results on the protective effect underlying benzaldehyde have primarily focused on cell survival. The study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and oxidative stress in astrocytes in A. cantonensis ESPs treated astrocytes and to evaluate the therapeutic consequent of 3-HBA and 4-HBA. First, we initially established the RNA-seq dataset in each group, including Normal, ESPs, ESPs+3-HBA, and ESPs+4-HBA. We also found that benzaldehyde (3-HBA and 4-HBA) can stimulate astrocytes to express ER stress-related molecules after ESP treatment. The level of oxidative stress could also be decreased in astrocytes by elevating antioxidant activity and reducing ROS generation. These results suggested that benzaldehyde may be a potential therapeutic compound for human angiostrongyliasis to support brain cell survival by inducing the expression levels of ER stress- and oxidative stress-related pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0311.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: perceived stress; life satisfaction; academic performance; university students; stress management; COVID-19
Online: 21 October 2021 (13:59:07 CEST)
The circumstances arising from the exceptional situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have affected all socioeconomic areas in the last two years. The field of Education has not been an exception and the management of the situation seems to have caused an increase in the level of perceived stress of university students. On this basis, this research that aims, first, to analyze the student’s level of perceived stress during the de-escalation and return to normality period, secondly, to evaluate its relationship with life satisfaction and, finally, to detect the students' needs in stress management, has been developed. An exploratory-descriptive study of quantitative and cross-sectional nature has been carried out. 222 university students of the Childhood and Primary Education Degrees of the University of Jaén (Spain) have participated. The instruments, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) have been used. The results show a moderate and partial relationship among the dimensions of the used instruments. The obtained coefficients of determination are, Academic Performance (r² = .019) and Life Satisfaction (r² = .402), with a mean square error (SRMR) of .079. These findings show the need to develop actions within the university training program in effective stress management strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0364.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: stress tolerance; biological mechanisms; biotic/Abiotic stress; hybrid priming; high-quality seeds
Online: 21 September 2021 (14:02:07 CEST)
Farmers and seed companies constantly require high-quality seeds with excellent agronomic performance. However, faced with environmental adversity, limited natural resources and increasing food demand around the globe, more attention has turned to improving crop plant production by implementing efficient strategies. Seed priming technology has shown promising biological improvements leading to suitable agronomic performance in crop plants under adverse environmental conditions. Seeds are subjected to controlled conditions that are conducive to complex physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes, conferring specific stress tolerance to subsequent germination and growth conditions. In this review paper, we aimed to study the recent approaches in the efficiency of hydropriming, osmopriming, chemopriming, hormopriming, nanopriming, matrix priming, biopriming, physical priming and hybrid priming procedures in the production of crop plants under environmental adversity, as well as their biological mechanism changes. All priming methods demonstrated relevant changes in the biological mechanism related to crop plant production by mitigating salinity effects, heavy metals, and flooding stress and enhancing chilling, heat, drought and phytopathogen tolerance. We strongly recommend that researchers combine multiple priming methods, known as hybrid priming, in their investigations to provide novel technologies and additional biological approaches to enhance the knowledge of crop plant science. Thus, the findings shed light on the use of seed priming technology as a key strategy to increase crop plant production under environmental adversity by acquiring stress tolerance and enhancing agronomic traits to meet the global food demand.
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Laser shock peening; FE simulation; Residual stress; Minimum principal stress; Static damping
Online: 18 August 2021 (10:51:34 CEST)
Laser shock peening is a process which can reduce stress corrosion cracking and improve fatigue life by forming compressive residual stress on the surface of the material. In a computational FE simulation of laser shock peening, during applying the pressure load generated by the laser pulse to the surface of simulation geometry, the peening is simulated by explicit analysis and then convert to implicit analysis to dissipate the dynamic energy remaining in the geometry. In this study, static damping is applied to dissipate residual dynamic energy without converting it into an implicit analysis. The compressive residual stress distribution is compared between the simulation results for the stainless steel 304 material and the same material subjected to actual laser shock peening. The laser shock peening parameters were 4.2J laser pulse energy, 50% overlap of 3mm diameter of the laser beam and water as a confinement layer. As a result, the compressive residual stress from the surface to the depth direction is similar to both the simulation and the experimental result measured by the hole drilling method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: depression; mood disorders; inflammation; oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; neuro-immune; antioxidants; psychoneuroimmunology
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:36:47 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is frequently accompanied by affective disorders with a prevalence of comorbid depression of around 25%. Nevertheless, the biomarkers of affective symptoms including depression and anxiety due to T2DM are not well established.Aims: This study was conducted to delineate the serum biomarkers predicting affective symptoms due to T2DM above and beyond the effects of insulin resistance and atherogenicity. Methods: The present study delineated the effects of serum levels of copper, zinc, β-arrestin-1, FBXW7, lactosylceramide (LacCer), serotonin, albumin, calcium, magnesium, IR and atherogenicity on severity of depression and anxiety in 58 men with T2DM and 30 healthy male controls. Severity of affective symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety rating scales.Results: We found that 61.7% of the variance in affective symptoms was explained by the multivariate regression on copper, β-arrestin-1, calcium, and insulin resistance coupled with atherogenicity, while 44.4% of the variance in the latter was explained by copper, β-arrestin-1, LacCer (all positively) and calcium and FBXW7 (both negatively). Copper and LacCer (positive) and calcium and BXW7 (inverse) had significant specific indirect effects on affective symptoms which were mediated by insulin resistance and atherogenicity. Copper, β-arrestin-1, and calcium were associated with affective symptoms above and beyond the effects of insulin resistance and atherogenicity.Discussion: T2DM and affective symptoms share common pathways namely increased atherogenicity, insulin resistance, copper, and β-arrestin-1, and lowered calcium, whereas copper, β-arrestin-1, calcium, LacCer, and FBXW7 may modulate depression and anxiety symptoms by affecting T2DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0642.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: copper; mercury; cadmium; oxidative stress; protein carbonylation; translation factors; oxidative stress biomarkers
Online: 26 September 2020 (14:46:39 CEST)
The impact of metals bioaccumulation on marine organisms is under investigation. This study was designed to determine the association of oxidative stress in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis induced by seawater enriched with trace metals with protein synthesis. Mussels were exposed to 40 μg/L Cu, 30 μg/L Hg, or 100 μg/L Cd for 5 and 15 days, and the pollution effect was evaluated by measuring established oxidative biomarkers. The results showed damage on the protein synthesis machine integrity and specifically, on translation factors and ribosomal proteins expression and modifications. Exposure of mussels to all metals caused oxidative damage that was milder in the cases of Cu and Hg, and more pronounced for Cd. However, after prolonged exposure of mussels to Cd (15 days), the effects receded. These changes that perturb protein biosynthesis can serve as a great tool for elucidating the mechanisms of toxicity and could be integrated in biomonitoring programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0052.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Plant stress, abiotic stress, biotic stress, metabolomics, phytometabolomics, sensomics, phytohormonics, LC-MS/MS, NMR, targeted metabolomics, untargeted metabolomics, functional food.
Online: 3 July 2018 (14:18:19 CEST)
The breeding of stress-tolerant cultivated plants that would allow for a reduction in harvest losses and undesirable decrease in quality attributes requires a new quality of knowledge on molecular markers associated with relevant agronomic traits, on quantitative metabolic responses of plants on stress challenges, and on the mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of these molecules. By combining metabolomics with genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics datasets a more comprehensive knowledge of the composition of crop plants used for food or animal feed is possible. In order to optimize crop trait developments, to enhance crop yields and quality, as well as to guarantee nutritional and health factors, that provides the possibility to create functional food or feedstuffs, the knowledge about the plants’ metabolome is crucial. Next to classical metabolomics studies, this review focusses on several metabolomics based working techniques, such as sensomics, lipidomics, hormonomics and phytometabolomics, which were used to characterize metabolome alterations during abiotic and biotic stress, to find resistant food crops with a preferred quality or at least to produce functional food crops are highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0393.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species; oxidation–reduction potential
Online: 6 July 2023 (08:37:32 CEST)
Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in semen are both essential for fertilization process; however, they become harmful at excessive levels, causing oxidative stress and nitrosative stress, respectively. Recently, oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) has been used as a marker for measuring oxidative stress, and this study investigated the possibility of comprehensively evaluating nitrosative stress. The correlation between standardized ORP (sORP) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and NOx per unit sperm was tested. Based on the previously reported cutoff value, samples were classified into oxidative stress-positive and negative groups. Thereafter, a receiver operating characteristic curve was drawn on 8-OHdG and NOx, and each optimal cutoff value was determined. Both standardized 8-OHdG and NOx significantly correlated with sORP. Although both correlated significantly with sORP in the oxidative stress group, no correlation was found in the nonoxidative stress group. The optimal standardized 8-OHdG level to determine oxidative stress status was 0.52 ng/106 spermatozoa, and the standardized NOx was 0.17 µM/106 spermatozoa/mL. The ORP is a simpler and quicker assay that can comprehensively assess oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Optimal cutoff values for both stresses were established in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0303.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: stress response; poplar; lignin; bioethanol; cell wall; cell death; biofuels; stress response proteins
Online: 6 July 2023 (03:28:59 CEST)
Production of biofuel from lignocellulosic biomass is relatively low due to the limited knowledge about natural cell wall loosening and cellulolytic processes in plants. Industrial separation of cellulose fiber mass from lignin, its saccharification and alcoholic fermentation is still cost-ineffective and environmental unfriendly. Assuming that the green transformation is inevitable and that the new sources of raw materials for biofuels are needed, we decided to study cell death - a natural process occurring in plants in a context of reducing the recalcitrance of lignocellulose for production of second generation bioethanol. “members of the enzyme families responsible for lysigenous aerenchyma formation were identified during the root hypoxia stress in Arabidopsis thaliana cell death mutants. The cell death regulatory genes, LESION SIMULATING DISEASE 1 (LSD1), PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4 (PAD4) and ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 (EDS1) conditionally regulate the cell wall when suppressed in transgenic aspen. During four years of growth in the field the following effects were observed: lignin content was reduced, the cellulose fiber polymerization degree increased and the growth itself was unaffected. The wood of transgenic trees was more efficient as a substrate for saccharification, alcoholic fermentation and bioethanol production. The presented results may trigger the development of novel biotechnologies in the biofuel industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0425.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: cross-cultural mobility; cultural mobility adaptation process; cross-cultural stress; acculturative stress; acculturation
Online: 8 May 2023 (02:23:07 CEST)
Cross-cultural mobility is a phenomenon that is increasingly growing, and the resulting stress has become a severe health issue. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of articles reporting research on stress measures of cross-cultural mobility or acculturative stress, emphasizing its internal structure. We adopted the PRISMA procedures for scoping reviews (e.g., searching articles in databases), resulting in the inclusion 20 articles in the final analysis that present evidence of validity based on the internal structure of 16 measures. The most common factors identified were related to cultural stressors, language stressors, and discrimination stressors. After analyzing a cross-cultural mobility stress concept implicit in the definitions used in the articles, we found that most measures of acculturative stress did not evaluate it according to the Stress and Coping Model of Lazarus and Folkman. Most measures only focused on part of the phenomena (some estimated the stressors, others the coping strategies). Few took into account the physiological and psychological responses to internal or external stressors, and even fewer considered its positive aspects (eustress). Consequently, it is pivotal to develop measures that take into account the multiple dimensions of the cross-cultural mobility stress. Other results (e.g., validity evidence of the measures) and limitations of this systematic scoping review are presented and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0469.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: extreme high-speed laser cladding; numerical simulation; temperature field; stress field; residual stress
Online: 18 April 2023 (03:33:55 CEST)
With the aim to improve cladding coating quality and prevent cracking, this paper established an extreme high-speed laser cladding thermo-mechanical coupling simulation model to study the evolution of the temperature field and residual stress distribution. Process parameters that impacted the macroscopic morphology of single-pass coatings were investigated. Numerical calculations and temperature field simulations were performed based on the process parameter data to validate the effect of the temperature gradient and cooling rate on the coating structure and the residual stress distribution. The results showed that a good coating quality could be achieved using a laser power of 2400 W, a cladding rate of 20 m/min, and a powder feeding rate of 20.32 g/min. The coatings’ cross-sectional morphology corresponded well with the temperature distribution predicted by numerical modeling of the melt pool. The microstructure of the molten coatings is affected by the temperature gradient and cooling rate, which vary greatly from the bottom to the middle to the top. Maximum residual stress appears between the bonding region of the coatings and the substrate, and the coatings themselves have significant residual stress in the form of tensile strains that are mostly distributed in the direction of the laser cladding speed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0225.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: LMO7, secretome, FAK. hypertonicity, osmotic stress, epithelial integrity, epithelial barrier, cortical stress fiber
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:16:06 CET)
In kidney, epithelial barrier has diverse functions in body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and urine production. Maintaining epithelial integrity fundamentally builds up physiological functionality of the renal epithelial barrier (REB). Specially, the REB) states regularly in osmotic dynamics. The osmotic dynamics gives rise of osmotic pressure that is a physical force. Overloading of osmotic pressure can crack epithelial integrity and damage REB. How REB endures the osmotic pressure force yet remains enigmatic. LMO7 (LIM domain only 7) is a protein associated with cell-cell junctional complex and cortical F-actin. LMO7 upregulation was observed in cells cultured in hypertonic condition. In kidney, LMO7 predominantly distributes in epithelial cells in renal tubules. Hypertonic stimulation leads to assembly of LMO7 and F-actin in cortical stress fibers in renal epithelial cells. Hypertonic-isotonic alternation as pressure force pushing plasma membrane inward/outward was set as osmotic disturbance and was applied to test FAK signaling and LMO7 functioning in maintaining junctional integrity. Along with junctional integrity, LMO7 depleted cells resulted in loss of junctional integrity in the epithelial sheet cultured hypertonic medium or hypertonic-isotonic alternation. On the other hand, FAK inhibited by PF-573228 leads to failure in robust cortical F-actin assembly and association of LMO7 with cortical F-actin in epithelial cells responding upon hypertonic stress. Epithelial integrity in context of osmotic stress, LMO7 and FAK signaling both involves in assembling robust cortical F-actin and maintaining junctional integrity. The LMO7 elaborately manages FAK activation in renal epithelial cells, which was evidently demonstrated in NRK-52E cells who have excessive FAK activation and lost epithelial integrity when cells with LMO7 depletion exposed to hypertonic environment. Our data suggests that LOM7 manages FAK activation and is responsible for maintaining REB under osmotic disturbance.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0144.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Protein Kinase C; PKCeta; autophagy; senescence; chemoresistance; oxidative stress; ER stress; 3MA; chloroquine
Online: 10 July 2022 (06:42:23 CEST)
The emergence of chemoresistance in neoplastic cells is one of the major obstacles in cancer therapy. Autophagy was recently reported as one of the mechanisms that promote chemoresistance in cancer cells by protecting from apoptosis and driving senescence. Thus, understanding the role of autophagy and its underlying signaling pathways is crucial for the development of new therapeutic strategies to overcome chemoresistance. We have previously reported that PKCη is a stress-induced kinase that confers resistance in breast cancer cells against chemotherapy by inducing senescence. Here we show that PKCη promotes autophagy induced by ER and oxidative stress and facilitates the transition from autophagy to senescence. We demonstrate that PKCη knockdown reduces both the autophagic flux and markers of senescence. Additionally, using autophagy inhibitors, such as chloroquine and 3-methyladenine, we show that PKCη and autophagy are required for establishing senescence in MCF-7 in response to oxidative stress. Different drugs used in the clinic are known to induce autophagy and senescence in breast cancer cells. Our study proposes PKCη as a target for therapeutic intervention, acting in synergy with autophagy-inducing drugs, to overcome resistance and enhance cell death in breast cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Keywords: mitochondria; stress resilience; plasticity; stress; kynurenine; Alzheimer’s disease; neurodegenerative; depression; anxiety; psychiatric
Online: 8 July 2022 (03:56:36 CEST)
Nearly half a century has passed since the discovery of cytoplasmic inheritance of human chloramphenicol resistance. The inheritance was then revealed to take place maternally by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Later, a number of mutations in mtDNA were identified as a cause of severe inheritable metabolic diseases with neurological manifestation, and the impairment of mitochondrial functions has been probed in the pathogenesis of a wide range of illnesses including neurodegenerative diseases. Recently growing number of preclinical studies has revealed that animal behaviors are influenced by the impairment of mitochondrial functions and possibly by the loss of mitochondrial stress resilience. Indeed, as high as 54% of patients with one of the most common primary mitochondrial diseases, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, present psychiatric symptoms including cognitive impairment, mood disorder, anxiety, and psychosis. Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles which produce cellular energy and play a major role in other cellular functions including homeostasis, cellular signaling, and gene expression, among other. Mitochondrial functions are observed to be compromised and to become less resilient under continuous stress. Meanwhile, stress and inflammation have been linked to the activation of the tryptophan (Trp)-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic system, which observably contributes to development of pathological conditions including neurological and psychiatric disorders. This narrative review discusses the functions of mitochondria and the Trp-KYN system, the interaction of the Trp-KYN system with mitochondria, and the current understanding of the involvement of mitochondria and the Trp-KYN system in preclinical and clinical studies of major neurological and psychiatric diseases.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: gut microbiota; Entamoeba histolytica; resistance to oxidative stress; resistance to nitrosative stress; virulence
Online: 24 February 2021 (16:26:55 CET)
Amebiasis is a disease caused by the unicellular parasite Entamoeba histolytica. In most cases, the infection is asymptomatic but when symptomatic, the infection can cause dysentery and invasive extraintestinal complications. In the gut, E.histolytica feeds on bacteria. Increasing evidences support the role of the gut microbiota in the development of the disease. In this review we will discuss the consequences of E.histolytica infection on the gut microbiota. We will also discuss new evidences about the role of the gut microbiota in regulating the resistance of the parasite to oxi-dative stress and its virulence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0532.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Biotic stress; Abiotic stress; climate change; Plant Transcription Factors; Food Security; Crop Improvement
Online: 26 October 2020 (14:26:31 CET)
Crop plants should be resilient to climatic factors in order to feed ever-increasing populations. Plants have developed stress-responsive mechanisms by changing their metabolic pathways and switching the stress-responsive genes. The discovery of plant transcriptional factors (TFs) as key regulators of different biotic and abiotic stresses have opened up new horizons for plant scientists. TFs perceive the signal and switch certain stress-responsive genes on and off by binding to different cis-regulatory elements. The above 50 species of plant TFs have been reported in nature. DREB, bZIP, MYB, NAC, Zinc-finger, HSF, Dof, WRKY, and NF-Y are important with respect to biotic and abiotic stresses whereas the role of many TFs is yet to explore. In this review, we summarize the role of different stress-responsive TFs with respect to biotic and abiotic stresses. Further, challenges and future opportunities linked with TFs for developing climate-resilient crops are also elaborated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0136.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: thioredoxin reductase; oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; theta burst stimulation; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; rats
Online: 7 July 2020 (17:30:22 CEST)
Cortical theta burst stimulation (TBS) structured as intermittent (iTBS) and continuous (cTBS) could prevent the progression of the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The interplay of brain antioxidant defense systems against overproduction of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and thiol species induced by EAE has not been entirely investigated, just as the effect of iTBS or cTBS on oxidative-nitrogen stress (ONS) in EAE rats. Dark Agouti strain female rats were tested for the effects of EAE and TBS. The rats were randomly divided into the following groups: C - control, EAE - rats immunized for EAE, CFA - rats immunized with Complete Freund's adjuvant; iTBS and cTBS groups, and EAE+iTBS and EAE+cTBS - health and EAE rats exposed to iTBS and cTBS, respectively; EAE+iTBSsh and EAE+cTBSsh - sham stimulated EAE rats with the same noise artifacts of iTBS and cTBS, respectively. Superoxide dismutase activity, levels of superoxide anion (O2•-), lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity were analyzed in rat spinal cords homogenates. The severity of EAE clinical coincided with the climax of ONS, based on the increase of superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation; depletion of total thiols, GSH and NADPH; and decrease of SOD activity. The TrxR imposed the most sensitive response against the applied central nervous system (CNS) stressors to rats. We concluded that the TrxR upregulation meritoriously compensates decreased ROS sequestrating and GSH systems in EAE. Both iTBS and cTBS modulate the biochemical environment at a distance from the area of stimulation against ONS, accomplish a similar effect on TrxR activity to EAE and healthy rats, and alleviate symptoms of EAE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1012.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: LGR5+; radiosensitivity; oxidative-stress; ISCs
Online: 15 November 2023 (13:57:04 CET)
Radiosensitivity, the susceptibility of cells to ionizing radiation, plays a critical role in understanding the effects of radiation therapy and exposure on tissue health and regeneration. Identifying characteristics that predict how a patient may respond to radiotherapy enables clinicians to maximize the therapeutic window. Limited clinical data suggested a difference in male and female radiotherapy outcomes. Radiotherapy for gastrointestinal malignancy is still a challenge due to intestinal sensitivity to radiation toxicity. In this manuscript we demonstrated sex specific differences in intestinal epithelial radiosensitivity. In mice model of abdominal irradiation, we observed significant increase in oxidative stress and injury in male compared to female. Lgr5+ve intestinal stem cells from male mice showed higher sensitivity to radiation induced toxicity. However, sex specific differences in intestinal radiosensitivity are not dependent on sex hormone as we demonstrated similar sex specific radiosensitivity differences in pediatric mice. In ex-vivo study we found that human patient derived intestinal organoid (PID) derived from male showed higher sensitivity to irradiation compared to female as evident from loss of budding crypt, organoid size, and membrane integrity. Transcriptomic analysis of human Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells suggested radiation induced upregulation of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in male compared to female possible mechanism for radiosensitivity differences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1578.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: oxidative stress; pregnancy; trace elements
Online: 25 October 2023 (07:30:39 CEST)
Recent years have seen an increased interest in the role of oxidative stress (OS) in pregnancy. Pregnancy inherently heightens susceptibility to OS, a condition fueled by a systemic inflam-matory response which culminates in an elevated presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the circulatory system. The amplified OS in pregnancy can trigger a series of detrimental outcomes such as underdevelopment, abnormal placental function, and a host of pregnancy complications, including pre-eclampsia, embryonic resorp-tion, recurrent pregnancy loss, fetal developmental anomalies, intrauterine growth restriction, and in extreme instances, fetal death. The body’s response to mitigate the uncontrolled increase in RNS/ROS levels involves trace elements that take part in non-enzymatic and enzymatic defense mechanisms, namely, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), and selenium (Se). Determination of ROS concentrations poses a challenge due to their short lifespan, prompting the use of marker proteins, including malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dis-mutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH). These markers, indicative of redox stress intensity, can offer indirect assessments of pregnancy complications. Given the limitations in conducting experimental studies on pregnant women, animal models serve as valuable substitutes for in-depth research. This review delves into the mechanism of OS in pregnancy and underscores the pivotal role of markers in its evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1241.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: stress; cortisol; corticotropin-releasing hormone
Online: 19 September 2023 (11:52:11 CEST)
(1) Background: Fire department cadets preparing to become firefighters and paramedics experience high levels of stress when participating in incidents like traffic accidents and fires. Stress adversely affects health and coping with it proves difficult. Unfortunately, there is no single method that reduces stress completely in humans. One non-invasive method for lowering stress hormone levels is craniosacral therapy. (2) Methods: Fifty-seven firefighting cadets aged 18-24 years (21.63 ± 1.41) participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either a test group or a control group. Participants’ blood levels of cortisol and CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) were assessed before and after the study. The study group underwent 5-week craniosacral therapy (1x per week). (3) Results: The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the therapy group’s result was statistically significant for CRH values (p-value=0.00067) and for cortisol values (p-value=<0.0001). Wilxocon and Dunn tests showed that statistical significance for cortisol after CS therapy between the control and study groups (p=0.0377), and for CRH between the control and study groups before (p=0.00634) and after the study (p=0.000887), and in the study group before and after the study (p=0.0101). (4) Conclusions: Five weeks of craniosacral therapy lowered stress hormone levels. This therapy is a non-invasive tool for reducing stress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2241.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: glucocorticoid receptor; reproduction; pregnancy; stress
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:29:11 CEST)
Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and associated changes in circulating levels of glucocorticoids are integral to an organism's response to stressful stimuli. Glucocorticoids acting via glucocorticoid receptors (GR) play a role in fertility, reproduction, placental function, and fetal development. GRs are ubiquitously expressed throughout the female reproductive system and regulate normal reproductive function. Stress induced glucocorticoids have been shown to inhibit reproduction and affect female gonadal function by supressing the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at each level. Furthermore, during pregnancy, a mother's exposure to prenatal stress or external glucocorticoids can result in long-lasting alterations to the fetal HPA and neuroendocrine function. Several GR isoforms generated via alternative splicing or translation initiation from the GR gene have been identified in the mammalian ovary and uterus. The GR isoforms identified include the splice variants, GRα and GRβ, GRγ and GR-P. Glucocorticoids can exert both stimulatory and inhibitory effects and both pro- and anti-inflammatory functions in the ovary, in vitro. In the placenta, thirteen GR isoforms have been identified in human, guinea pig, sheep, rat and mouse indicating it is conserved across species and may be important in mediating a differential response to stress. Distinctive responses to glucocorticoids, differential birth outcomes in pregnancy complications, and sex-based variations in the response to stress could all potentially be dependent on a particular GR expression pattern. This review provides an overview of the structure and function of the GR in relation to female fertility and reproduction and discusses the changes in GR and glucocorticoid signalling during pregnancy. This review will delve into the existing understanding of GR isoforms and explore the possible roles that these distinct isoforms may have in regulating glucocorticoid signalling, along with their impact on gonadal activity, placental function, and fetal growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0574.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Drought; Melatonin; Peroxidase; Photosynthesis; Stress
Online: 31 January 2023 (06:21:55 CET)
Melatonin (MT) controls various physiological functions and enhances plant drought tolerance in response to environmental stressors, including water deficit. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of exogenous MT on the morphophysiological attributes of Ranunculus asiaticus under normal and drought conditions. R. asiaticus seedlings were divided into drought-stress and control groups and subjected to foliar application of MT at various concentrations (0, 50, 100, and 200 μM) four times during the study. The drought-stress group exhibited considerably decreased shoot length, leaf number, leaf area, fresh and dry vegetative weights, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, and relative water content; delayed emergence of flower stalks; and increased relative electrolyte leakage compared with well-watered plants. Conversely, foliar application of MT notably increased growth parameters compared with their no-treatment counterparts. Foliar treatment with 200 µM MT resulted in the most significant growth response in R. asiaticus under normal or drought-stress conditions. Moreover, compared with no treatment, exogenously applied MT induced the appearance of flower buds and increased relative water and proline contents as well as peroxidase activity while reducing electrolyte leakage. Regarding tolerance index percentages, higher peroxidase and proline contents indicated their suitability for use as markers for drought tolerance, supporting the effective role of exogenous MT in enhancing the adaptability of Ranunculus to drought stress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0310.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: endophyte; epichloe; grass; mechanisms; stress
Online: 17 September 2021 (12:08:15 CEST)
Cool-season grasses are the most common forage types in livestock operations and amenities. Several of the cool-season grasses establish mutualistic associations with an endophytic fungus of the Epichloe genus. The grasses and endophytic fungi have evolved over a long period of time to form host-fungus specific relationships that confer protection for the grass against various stressors in exchange for housing and nutrients to the fungus. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms by which Epichloe endophytes and grasses interact, including molecular pathways for secondary metabolite production. It also outlines specific mechanisms by which the endophyte helps protect the plant from various abiotic and biotic stressors. Finally, the review provides information on how Epichloe infection of grass and stress affect the rhizosphere environment of the plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0497.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: manganese stress; selenium; wheat seedlings
Online: 19 April 2021 (14:30:34 CEST)
In recent years cultivated soils have been increasingly supplemented with nutrients that at low doses are necessary for proper plant functioning but become toxic at high doses. New methods are needed to prevent these destructive actions, and for this reason we studied the effects of two elements – Mn treated as a stressor and Se treated as a potential defense in two wheat cultivars. The intensity of stress was manifested in tissue browning and weight reduction and was determined by an increase in lipid peroxidation and quantitative analysis of hydrogen peroxide levels. It was found that the excess of Mn in the substrate caused more intense changes in these indicators in the root system than in the leaves, and that Se presence partly eliminated the stress evoked effects. Moreover, Mn-treatment was accompanied by a greater absorption of this element by the roots, and a reduced uptake of other elements (K, Fe, S, P), with the exception of Ca, an increase in which was observed especially in the additional presence of Se. It was suggested that the rise in Ca level can lead to modification of cell differentiations and may be one of the steps in defense mechanisms. The change in the direction of cell differentiation in the apical part of the root was observed microscopically under Mn stress and was accompanied by a quantitative increase in 5-met C. Based on DNA methylation profiles detected by MSAP we concluded that various types of methylation sites may be activated under Mn treatment in roots.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0446.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: sleep; allometric scaling; oxidative stress
Online: 27 May 2020 (08:29:53 CEST)
Why animals sleep is an outstanding open question. Information about the toxic byproducts of aerobic cellular respiration along with the analysis of patterns in animal size, sleep needs, dietary-type, metabolism, number of heart beats, transportation-network design, and transportation energetics/dynamics suggest that the function of sleep is to maximize the time an animal has to perform its life functions given the finite and constant number of lifetime heart beats it has. Sleep slows down metabolism, and the heart rate, thereby decreasing the load of toxic reactive oxygen species in the cell and extending the cell’s lifetime/proper-functioning. I argue that this is used to maximize the time an animal spends in its ‘effective environment’, which is defined as the period in the light cycle (day or night) where the essential life-functions of that animal (like finding resources, finding sex, hunting) are better achieved. Larger, slow-metabolizing animals need less sleep because their large-bodily-networks and slow metabolisms keep their heart rates relatively low, resulting in a lower rate of oxidative damage, and more relative time in the ‘effective environment’ to get their essential life-functions accomplished.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0132.v1
Online: 8 March 2020 (04:40:36 CET)
Body temperature responses were recorded during phases of work (waiting to work in close proximity to search site, active work in a search site, and post-work recovery crated in vehicle) in human remains detection dogs during search training. State or federally certified human remains detection dogs (n = 8) completed eight iterations of searching, rotating through six different types of search environments to detect numerous scent sources including partial and complete, buried, hidden, or fully visible human remains. Internal temperature (Tgi) of the body was measured continuously using an ingestible thermistor in the gastrointestinal tract. Mean total phase times were: waiting to work: 9.17 minutes (± 2.27); active work: 8:58 minutes (± 2:49); and post work recovery: 24:04 minutes (± 10.59). Tgi was impacted by phase of work (P < 0.001) with a small increase during active work, with mean peak temperature 39.4 °C (± 0.34 ºC) during that period. Tgi continued to increase for a mean of 7:37 (± 6:04) minutes into the post-work recovery phase in the handler’s vehicle with a mean peak Tgi of 39.66 °C (± 0.41 ºC). No significant increase in temperature was measured during the waiting to work phase, suggesting anticipation of work did not appear to contribute to overall body temperature increase during the waiting to work recovery cycle. Continued increase of gastrointestinal body temperature several minutes after cessation of exercise indicates that risk of heat injury does not immediately stop when the dog stops exercising, although none of the dogs in this study reached clinically concerning body temperatures or displayed any behavioral signs suggestive of pending heat injury. More work is needed to better understand the impact of vehicle crating on post-work recovery temperatures in dogs.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: femtosecond laser; birefringence; stress; sapphire
Online: 23 August 2019 (09:49:21 CEST)
Birefringence of 3 × 10-3 is demonstrated inside cross-sectional regions of 100 µm, inscribed by axially stretched Bessel-beam-like fs-laser pulses along the c-axis inside sapphire. A high birefringence and retardance of λ/4 at mid-visible spectral range (green) can be achieved utilizing stretched beams with an axial extension of 30-40 µm. Conditions of laser writing chosen ensure that there are no formations of self-organised nano-gratings. This method can be adopted for the creation of polarisation optical elements and fabrication of spatially varying birefringent patterns for optical vortex generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0107.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: evolution; eyes; stress; UV; plasticity
Online: 15 May 2019 (07:47:16 CEST)
Eyes are quintessential complex traits and our understanding of their evolution guides models of trait evolution in general. A long-standing account of eye evolution argues natural selection favors morphological variations that allow increased functionality for sensing light (Darwin 1859; v. Salvini-Plawen and Mayr 1977; Nilsson and Pelger 1994; Nilsson 2013). While certainly true in part, this focus on visual performance does not entirely explain why diffuse photosensitivity persists even after eyes evolve, or why eyes evolved many times, each time using similar building blocks. Here we briefly review a vast literature indicating most genetic components of eyes historically responded to stress caused directly by light, including UV damage of DNA, oxidative stress, and production of aldehydes. We propose light-induced stress had a direct and prominent role in the evolution of eyes by bringing together genes to repair and prevent damage from light-stress, both before and during the evolution of eyes themselves. Stress-repair and stress-prevention genes were perhaps originally deployed as plastic responses to light and/or as beneficial mutations genetically driving expression where light was prominent. These stress-response genes sense, shield, and refract light but only as reactions to ongoing light stress. Once under regulatory-genetic control, they could be expressed before light stress appeared, evolve as a module, and be influenced by natural selection to increase functionality for sensing light, ultimately leading to complex eyes and behaviors. Recognizing the potentially prominent role of stress in eye evolution invites discussions of plasticity and assimilation and provides a hypothesis for why similar genes are repeatedly used in convergent eyes. Broadening the drivers of eye evolution encourages consideration of multi-faceted mechanisms of plasticity/assimilation and mutation/selection for complex novelties and innovations in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0022.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: heat stress; cruciferae; ONSEN; retrotransposon
Online: 2 May 2017 (04:58:58 CEST)
Transposable elements (TEs) are highly abundant in plant genomes. Environmental stress is one of the critical stimuli that activate TEs. We analyzed a heat-activated retrotransposon named ONSEN in cruciferous vegetables. The multiple copies of ONSEN-like elements (OLEs) were found in all the cruciferous vegetables that were analyzed. The copy number of OLE was abundant in Brassica oleracea, which includes cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprout, and kale. Phylogenic analysis demonstrated that some OLEs transposed after the allopolyploidization of parental Brassica species. Furthermore, we found that the increasing number of OLEs in B. oleracea appeared to be induced transpositional silencing by epigenetic regulation, including DNA methylation. The results of this study would be relevant to the understanding of evolutionary adaptations to thermal environmental stress in different species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0087.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: bacillithiol; Bacillus; oxidative stress; tRNA
Online: 17 November 2016 (10:40:58 CET)
Oxidative stress occurs when cells are exposed to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species that could damage biological molecules. One bacterial response to oxidative stress involves disulfide bond formation either between protein thiols or between protein thiols and low-molecular-weight thiols. Bacillithiol was recently identified as a major low-molecular-weight thiol in Bacillus subtilis and related Firmicutes. Four genes (bshA, bshB1, bshB2 and bshC) are involved in bacillithiol biosynthesis. The bshA and bshB1 genes are part of a seven-gene operon (ypjD), which includes the essential gene cca, encoding CCA-tRNA nucleotidyltransferase. The inclusion of cca in the operon containing bacillithiol biosynthetic genes suggests that the integrity of the 3’ terminus of tRNAs may also be important in oxidative stress. Addition of the 3´ terminal CCA sequence by CCA-tRNA nucleotidyltransferase to give a mature tRNA and functional molecules ready for aminoacylation plays an essential role during translation and expression of the genetic code. Any defects in these processes, for example, the accumulation of shorter and defective tRNAs under oxidative stress, could exert a deleterious effect on cells. This review summarizes the physiological link between tRNACys regulation and oxidative stress in Bacillus.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: selenium; oxidative stress; serotonin; glutamate; anxiety disorders; obsessive-compulsive disorders; post-traumatic stress disorder
Online: 3 October 2022 (15:17:24 CEST)
Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders worldwide, and often respond incompletely to existing treatments. Selenium, a micronutrient that is a component of several biologically active selenoproteins, is also involved in several aspects of brain functioning, and may exert antidepressant and anxiolytic effects through multiple pathways. The current paper is a scoping review of translational, observational and interventional evidence on the potential role of selenium and its compounds in the management of anxiety and related disorders. Evidence from animal models suggests that this approach may be promising. Though evidence from observational studies in humans is inconsistent and affected by several confounding factors, the available evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that selenium supplementation may be beneficial in the management of certain anxiety-related conditions, such as anxiety in medically ill patients, prevention of anxiety following exposure to traumatic stress, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This paper provides a critical evaluation of the existing evidence base, including unanswered questions that could serve as the focus of further research, and outlines the potential benefits and risks associated with the use of selenium in anxiety disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0211.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: lipoprotein; extracellular vesicles; exosome; ectosome; stress response; resistant cancer; metastatic cancer; heat shock stress
Online: 10 October 2018 (09:44:17 CEST)
Resistant cancer often shows a particular secretory trait such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and oncosomes surrounded by lipid bilayers. Lipoproteins are biochemical assemblies that transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in body fluid and are composed of a single-layer phospholipid and cholesterol outer shell, lipids molecules within the particles, and apolipoproteins embedded in the membrane. However, lipoprotein storage and secretion by cancer cells have not well-investigated yet. We found lipoproteins were stored and abundantly secreted by neuroendocrine, castration-resistant prostate cancer (NEPC / CRPC) cells but barely secreted by colon cancer cells and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In addition, large EVs (approx. 300 nm diameter) and potential oncosomes were released by CRPC and OSCC cells. Proteomics revealed that CRPC cells secreted EVs enriched with tetraspanins and extracellular matrices which were reduced upon heat shock stress and alternatively lipoproteins and HSPs were secreted upon stress. Heat shock stress triggered secretion of lipoprotein-EV complexes that contained apolipoprotein A, B, C and E. These data suggested that vesicular assembly composed of EVs and lipoproteins enriched with cholesterols and phospholipids may be stored in resistant cancer cells but released upon cell stress that is increased in cancer therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0322.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Parentalstress; Maternal stress; Heart rate variability as an index of parental stress; Socio-economic; demographic; environmental and gender factors associated with maternal stress
Online: 28 October 2019 (12:06:26 CET)
Parental stresses are normal responses to raising children. They are affected by stresses parents and children accumulate and bring to their interrelations. Background factors like economic difficulties or the relations between the parents may affect parental stresses as well as demographic and environmental factors like noise and access to urban parks. Most studies on parental stress are based on a verified psychological questionnaire. We suggest using frequency domain heart rate variability index (HRV) to measure parental stress enabling, by thus, the measurement of physiological aspects of stress and risk to health. Parental stress is measured as the difference between HRV accumulated at home while staying with the children and without the husband and HRV measured in the neighborhood while staying without the children and the husband. We use the index to compare differences among Muslim and Jewish mothers in exposure to maternal stress at their homes and to expose the factors that predict differences in maternal stress. We found that Muslim mothers suffer from home-related maternal stress while Jewish mother do not. Number of children and ethnically related environmental aspects predict differences in maternal stress between Muslim and Jewish mothers. Muslims' lower access to parks stems from lack of home garden and parks in their neighborhoods in the Arab towns but mainly by restrictions on Muslim women's' freedom of movement to parks. Despite differences in levels of noise at home and in the status of the mother in the household, these factors did not predict differences in parental stress. Instead, the study highlights the crucial role of greenery and freedom of movement to parks in moderating home-related maternal stress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: corticotropin releasing factor; irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); maternal separation (MS); neurotransmitters; pain; psychosocial stress; visceral hyperalgesia; water avoidance stress (WAS); wrap restrain stress (WRS)
Online: 7 December 2017 (07:39:49 CET)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases in humans. It is characterized by visceral pain and/or discomfort, hypersensitivity and abnormal motor responses along with change in gut habits. Although the etio-pathogenesis of IBS is only partially understood, a main role has been attributed to psychosocial stress of different origin. Animals models such as neonatal maternal separation, water avoidance stress and wrap restraint stress have been developed as psychosocial stressors in the attempt to reproduce the IBS symptomatology and identify the cellular mechanisms responsible for the disease. The study of these models has led to the production of drugs potentially useful for IBS treatment. This review intends to give an overview on the results obtained with the animal models; to emphasize the role of the enteric nervous system in IBS appearance and evolution and as a possible target of drug therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0788.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: stress concentration factors; fatigue life; finite element analyse (FEA); stress analysis; fatigue notch factor; solidworks
Online: 9 August 2023 (14:34:55 CEST)
Fatigue failure remains a critical concern in structural engineering and material science, prompting extensive research to understand and predict the behaviour of materials under cyclic loading conditions. The present study aims to investigate the fatigue life of carbon steel specimens containing opposite semicircular edge notches through a comprehensive experimental and numerical analysis. In this study, stress concentration factors (SCF, Kt) of rectangular plate with opposite semicircular notches are considered under uniform tensile stress to analyse the notch deformation because of stretching of plate. Furthermore, the research focuses on quantifying stress concentration factors (SCFs) for these notches based on S-N curves of carbon steel. The study employs a combination of experimental and numerical techniques to understand the influence of these notches on the fatigue performance of carbon steel structures. A plate with opposite semicircular edge single notches under the axial load creates stress concentration near the notch and it is much larger than the average stress on the plate. Both analytical and finite element methods are used to calculate the maximum stress around the notch. SOLIDWORKS Premium Student Edition 2023 has been employed for modelling and SOLIDWORKS Simulation Premium Student Edition 2023 has been used for stress analysis and fatigue notch factor of rectangular plate of size 31 mm x 25.4 mm x 6.35 mm. The uniform tensile load with a magnitude of 20195 N is applied on one sides of rectangular plate normal to the sides of notches with ratio h/r = 1, for the semicircular notch. The result obtained on both analytical and finite element methods are compared and the percentage of error has been evaluated. Subsequently, these specimens undergo fatigue testing under varying loading conditions to capture their fatigue behaviour. The acquired fatigue data is then plotted against stress amplitude to construct S-N curves, forming the foundation for assessing the fatigue life of the notched specimens. To complement the experimental findings and to gain a deeper understanding of the stress concentration phenomenon, numerical simulations are conducted using advanced finite element analysis (FEA) techniques. The finite element models are carefully calibrated against the experimental results to ensure their accuracy and reliability. The FEA simulations enable the determination of stress concentration factors at critical locations within the notched specimens, further validating the experimental observations. The investigation reveals crucial insights into the effect of opposite semicircular edge notches on the fatigue life of carbon steel structures. The obtained S-N curves allow engineers and designers to predict the fatigue life of components with similar notches, aiding in the development of reliable and durable structures in practical applications. Moreover, the stress concentration factors determined from the numerical simulations provide valuable data to assess the potential failure modes and to optimise designs, effectively mitigating fatigue-related failures. The combination of experimental and numerical approaches ensures a comprehensive and rigorous analysis of the fatigue behaviour in notched specimens, offering a reliable basis for making informed engineering decisions. The comparison between the analytical method and the Finite Element Method (FEM) demonstrated good agreement, with an error percentage of 4.272%. The analysis revealed that the specimen would experience failure after approximately 2882 cycles, with a maximum stress of 395.914 MPa. This research study enhances the understanding of fatigue life in carbon steel structures containing opposite semicircular edge notches and contributes valuable data to the field of fatigue mechanics. The outcomes serve as a valuable resource for professionals engaged in structural engineering, material science, and design optimisation, ultimately leading to safer and more durable industrial components in critical applications. The findings of this research contribute to the understanding of fatigue behaviour in carbon steel components with stress concentration effects caused by semicircular notches. Moreover, the validated numerical simulations and data curves facilitate the prediction of fatigue life and aid in determining the critical conditions leading to fatigue failure. In conclusion, this research highlights the significance of combining experimental testing with numerical simulations to comprehensively analyse the fatigue life of carbon steel specimens with opposite semicircular edge notches. The obtained stress concentration factors provide crucial information for structural integrity assessment and offer potential for further optimising design criteria to mitigate fatigue-related failures. The findings of this study could play a vital role in enhancing the reliability and safety of carbon steel structures subjected to cyclic loading conditions. The comprehensive experimental and numerical analyses establish a foundation for future studies exploring other materials and geometries with notches, fostering advancements in fatigue life prediction and structural integrity assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0357.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: granulosa cells; heat stress; apoptosis; oxidative stress; RNA-seq; transcriptomics; differentially expressed genes; signaling pathways
Online: 28 February 2022 (11:08:42 CET)
Heat stress affects the granulosa cells (GCs) and ovarian follicular microenvironment, causing poor oocyte developmental competence and fertility. This study aimed to investigate the physical responses and global transcriptomic changes in bovine GCs to acute heat stress (43 ℃ for 2 h) in-vitro and gave essential insights into the general interaction at cell–stress nexus. Heat-stressed GCs exhibited transient proliferation senescence, resumed proliferation at 48 h post-stress. While post-stress immediate culture-media change had a relatively positive effect on proliferation resumption. Increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis was observed in heat stress group. In spite of the upregulation of pro-apoptotic and caspase executioner genes, antioxidants and anti-apoptotic genes were also upregulated in heat-stressed GCs. Progesterone and Estrogen hormones along with steroidogenic genes expression, declined significantly, in spite of the upregulation of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis. Out of 12385 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 330 significant DEGs (75 upregulated, 225 downregulated) were subjected to KEGG functional pathway annotation, gene ontology enrichment, and STRING network analyses. Based on the manual query of DEGs, pathway and enrichment analyses, a vast interplay observed among all major signaling pathways strongly evidence the repression of cellular transcriptional and proliferation activity, averting the effects of heat stress through remodeling of cellular structural proteins and energetic-homeostasis. This study presents detailed responses of acute heat-stressed GCs at physical, transcriptional, and pathway levels and presents interesting insights into future studies regarding GCs adaptation and their interaction with oocyte and reproductive system at ovarian level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0333.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Abiotic stress; Biotic stress; Adaptation; Climate change; Diaseases; Diversity; Genetic Resources; Gene bank; Wild relatives
Online: 15 July 2020 (11:21:07 CEST)
Abstract: A large number of collecting expeditions were launched in regions of ‘centers of diversity’ and hundreds of thousands of sample have been collected and stored in gene banks as ‘genetic resources’. So far, only a small number of the samples have been evaluated for their biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Now, their time to become useful has come. A new global phenomenon has arisen – climate change. The crop genetic resources and their wild progenitors that have survived countless years of changing environment during the last 11,000 years could harbor genes that may be useful under the new growing conditions and environmental factors thrown up by climate change and global warming. With the deployment of modern bio-engineering techniques selected genes or gene fragments can be transferred from genetic resources to modern varieties of crop plants to make them well-prepared to mitigate the effects of global warming and climate change. The latter is the most serious issue facing plant breeders today. New pests and diseases could affect crop production. These review paper discusses various impacts and issues as a result of this phenomenon and suggest ways to safeguard our most important crops through better management of crop plant genetic resources in the near future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0223.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: abiotic stress; antioxidant defense; enzyme regulations; oxidative stress; plant nutrients; reactive oxygen species; soil fertility
Online: 24 January 2018 (07:01:05 CET)
Among the plant nutrients potassium (K) is one of the vital elements required for plant growth and physiology. Potassium is not only a constituent of plant structure but also plays regulatory function in several biochemical processes related to protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, enzyme activation. There are several physiological processes like stomatal regulation and photosynthesis are dependent on K. In the recent decades K was found to provide abiotic stress tolerance. Under salt stress, K helps in maintaining ion homeostasis and regulation of osmotic balance. Under drought stress condition K regulates the stomatal opening and makes the plants adaptive to water deficit. Many reports provided the notion that K enhances the antioxidant defense in plants and therefore, protects the plants from oxidative stress under various environmental adversities. Also, it provides some cellular signaling alone or in association with other signaling molecules and phytohormones. Although a considerable progress in understanding K-induced abiotic stress tolerance in plants has been achieved the exact molecular mechanisms of such protections are still under research. In this review, we summarized the recent literature on the biological functions of K, its uptake, and translocation and its role in plant abiotic stress tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0875.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: quinoa, stress, fatty acids, hippocampus, memory
Online: 14 November 2023 (10:27:27 CET)
Brain physiology and morphology are vulnerable to chronic stress, affecting cognitive performance and behavior. However, functional compounds found in food may alleviate these alterations. White quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Wild) seeds have high content of n-3 fatty acids, including alpha-linolenic acid. This work aimed to evaluate the possible neuroprotective role of a quinoa-based functional food (QFF) in rats. Prepubertal male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with rat chow or QFF (50% rat chow + 50% dehydrated quinoa seeds) and exposed or not to restraint stress protocol (2 hours/day; 15 days). Four experimental groups were used: Non-stressed (rat chow), Non-stressed + QFF, Stressed (rat chow) and Stressed + QFF. Weight gain, locomotor activity (open field), anxiety (elevated plus maze, light-dark box), spatial memory (Y-maze), and dendritic length in the hippocampus were measured in all animals. QFF intake did not affect anxiety-like behaviors, while the memory of stressed rats fed with QFF improved compared to those fed with rat chow. In addition, QFF intake countered the stress-induced dendritic atrophy in pyramidal neurons located in CA3 area of the hippocampus. The results suggest that a quinoa-supplemented diet could have a protective role on the memory of chronically stressed rats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1538.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fatigue; alternating stress; safety factor; wheels
Online: 24 October 2023 (11:41:19 CEST)
Most of the damage to Vleg cars was caused by material fatigue. The objectives of the fatigue analysis on Xenia 2011 car wheels with the Finite Element Method using Solidworks are: 1) Knowing the fatigue analysis process on car wheels, 2) Knowing the results of the fatigue analysis on car wheels. The research method used is the Finite Element Method (FEM) method; the re-search steps include model data retrieval from the Wheel code, 3D model creation process, static simulation process according to SAE J 328 standard, mesh variations, fatigue simulation, and finally, standardization of results fatigue simulation regarding the SAE J 328 standard. The re-sults of the fatigue analysis on the Xenia 2011 car wheels obtained an age of 1000,000 cycles when compared with the minimum average of SAE J 328 of 600,000 cycles, this product design is clas-sified as a high cycle, which means it will experience a prolonged failure, and this design has a maximum alternating stress value of 627.4702 MPa, a strain of 0.007105, a displacement of 7.148 mm and a SOF of 0.087890 with a load factor used of 2.5, so overall this Xenia car can be loaded with a load of 1775 kg, if it is more than that, then Wheels will experience cracking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1870.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: stress; gonad; sex; methylation; masculinization; rearing
Online: 27 September 2023 (10:46:16 CEST)
Rearing density directly impacts fish welfare, which, in turn, affects productivity in aquaculture. Previous studies have indicated that high-density rearing during sexual development in fish can induce stress, resulting in a tendency towards male-biased sex ratios in the populations. In recent years, research has defined the relevance of the interactions between the environment and epigenetics playing a key role in the final phenotype. However, the underlying epigenetic mechanisms of individuals exposed to confinement remain elucidated. By using zebrafish (Danio rerio) the DNA methylation promotor region and the gene expression patterns of six genes: dnmt1, cyp19a1a, dmrt1, cyp11c1, hsd17b1, and hsd11b2 involved in the DNA maintenance methylation, reproduction, and stress were assessed. Zebrafish larvae were subjected to two high-density conditions (9 and 66 fish/L) during two periods of overlapping sex differentiation of this species (7 to 18 and 18 to 45 days post-fertilization, dpf). Results showed a significant masculinization in the populations of fish subjected to high densities from 18 to 45 dpf. In adulthood the dnmt1 gene was differentially hypomethylated in ovaries and its expression was significantly downregulated in the testes of fish exposed to high-density. Further, the cyp19a1a gene showed downregulation of gene expression in the ovaries of fish subjected to elevated density, as previously observed in other studies. We proposed dnmt1 as a potential testicular epimarker, and the expression of ovarian cyp19a1a as a potential biomarker for predicting stress originated from high densities during the early stages of development. These findings highlight the importance of rearing densities by long-lasting effects in adulthood conveying cautions for stocking protocols in fish hatcheries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: down syndrome; oxidative stress; liver; aging
Online: 4 September 2023 (03:50:26 CEST)
Abstract: Down Syndrome (DS) is a common genetic disorder characterized by an extra copy of chromosome 21, leading to dysregulation of various metabolic pathways. Oxidative stress in DS is associated with neurodevelopmental defects, neuronal dysfunction, and the onset of dementia re-sembling Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, chronic oxidative stress contributes to cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers prevalent in DS individuals. This study investigates the impact of ageing on oxidative stress and liver fibrosis using a DS murine model (Ts2Cje mice). The liver in DS mice shows increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defenses, as evidenced by reduced glutathione levels and increased lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, DS liver exhibits an altered in-flammatory response as measured by the expression of cytokines and heat shock proteins. DS liver also displays dysregulated lipid metabolism, indicated by altered expression of peroxisome prolif-erator-activated receptors and fatty acid transport proteins. Consistently, these changes might contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development, a condition characterized by liver fat accumulation. Finally, histological analysis of DS liver reveals increased fibrosis and steatosis, in-dicative of potential progression to liver cirrhosis. This finding highlights the increased risk of liver pathologies in DS individuals, particularly when combined with the higher prevalence of obesity and metabolic dysfunctions in DS patients. These results shed light on the liver's role in DS-associated pathologies and suggest potential therapeutic strategies targeting oxidative stress and lipid metabolism to prevent or mitigate liver-related complications in DS individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1913.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: abiotic stress; pitomba; photosynthetic metabolism; proline
Online: 27 June 2023 (13:00:40 CEST)
Water deficit is one of the factors that most influence plant growth and yield. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of silicon and salicylic acid application and water deficit on the growth and photosynthetic and osmoregulatory metabolism of Talisia esculenta Radlk seedlings and their recovery potential after the resumption of irrigation. Six treatments were performed: irrigation, irrigation suspension, irrigation suspension + silicon at 0.5 g L−1, irrigation suspension + silicon at 1.0 g L−1, irrigation suspension + salicylic acid at 50 mg L−1, and irrigation suspension + salicylic acid at 100 mg L−1. The evaluations were carried out at the beginning of the experiment (T0), at 10 and 15 (DIS) days after irrigation suspension, when the seedlings showed a photosynthetic rate close to zero, and at recovery (REC). The plants were submitted to water restriction for up to 15 days, being then re-irrigated until the recovery point, which was monitored based on the photosynthetic rate. Silicon application attenuated the harmful effects of water deficit on gas exchange, initial fluorescence, promoted proline accumulation in the leaf and root, and provided higher seedling quality. Salicylic acid application contributed to the maintenance of the relative water content of leaves during the water deficit period. Silicon and salicylic acid applications can attenuate the harmful effects of water stress, with silicon being the most effective agent in maintaining its growth and metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1897.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: GmCAMTA; circadian rhythm; development; drought stress
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:14:59 CEST)
The calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTAs) mediate transcriptional regulation of development, growth, and responses to various environmental stresses in plants. To characterize the biological processes of soybean CAMTA (GmCAMTA) family members in response to abiotic stress, we identified 15 GmCAMTA genes from soybean (Glycine max L.) and investigated their roles in the abiotic stress response. The transcriptions of GmCAMTAs exhibited distinct circadian regulation patterns and were expressed differently in response to salt, drought, and cold stresses, except ABA. Interestingly, the expression levels of GmCAMTA2, GmCAMTA8, and GmCAMTA12 were higher in stem tissue than in other soybean tissues. To determine the roles of GmCAMTAs in the regulation of developmental processes and stress responses, we isolated GmCAMTA2 and GmCAMTA8 cDNAs from soybean and generated Arabidopsis overexpressing transgenic plants. The GmCAMTA2-OX and GmCAMTA8-OX plants showed hypersensitivity to drought stress. The water in the leaves of GmCAMTA2-OX and GmCAMTA8-OX plants was lost faster than that in WT plants under drought stress conditions. In addition, stress-responsive genes in the GmCAMTA2-OX and GmCAMTA8-OX plants were down-regulated under drought stress conditions. Our results suggest that GmCAMTA2 and GmCAMTA8 genes are regulated by circadian rhythms and function as negative regulators in development and drought stress responses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1405.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: mitochondrial stress; insulin resistance; natural drugs
Online: 19 May 2023 (08:08:53 CEST)
Insulin resistance, as a common pathological process of many metabolic diseases, including diabetes and obesity, has attracted much attention due to its relevant influencing factors. To date, studies have mainly focused on the mechanisms between mitochondrial stress and insulin resistance, and they are now pursued as a very attractive therapeutic target due to their extensive involvement in many human clinical settings. In view of the complex pathogenesis of diabetes, natural drugs have become new players in diabetes prevention and treatment because of their wide targets and few side effects. In particular, plant phenolics have been paid more attention because of their close relationship with oxidative stress. In this review, we briefly review the mechanisms by which mitochondrial stress leads to insulin resistance. Moreover, we list some cytokines and genes that have recently been found to play roles in mitochondrial stress and insulin resistance. Furthermore, we describe several natural drugs that are currently widely used and give a brief overview of their therapeutic mechanisms. Finally, we suggest possible ideas for future research related to the unique role that natural drugs play in the treatment of insulin resistance through the above targets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0321.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Anti-inflamotry; antioxidant; oxidative stress; zebrafish
Online: 18 January 2023 (07:06:34 CET)
This work is based on identifying the analysis techniques used to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects using the zebrafish model. In this context, a literature review was performed with the Web of Science database. We used the terms zebra fish, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, model, and Danio rerio. Fifty articles were reviewed, of which thirty-three were chosen to perform this review and were classified according to the source of plant extracts, compounds extracted from plants, chemical compounds, and other sources. This paper is an effort to provide a literature review on zebrafish models and elucidate their pros and cons to evaluate anti-inflamatory and antioxidant activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0526.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: hyperglycemia; dyslipidemia; oxidative stress; Gymnema Sylvestre
Online: 28 December 2022 (03:31:07 CET)
The effect of Gymnema Sylvestre supplementation on beta cell and hepatic activity was explored in an alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rat model. Adult rats were made hyperglycemic via a single inj. (i.p) of Alloxan (120mg/kg b.w). Gymnema Sylvestre was supplemented @250mg/kg and 500mg/kg b.w. Blood glucose levels were constantly monitored. After 21 days, rats were euthanized, and blood and tissues (pancreas and liver) were collected for biochemical, expression, and histological analysis. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the means of different treatment groups. Gymnema Sylvestre significantly reduced blood glucose levels with a subsequent increase in plasma insulin levels in a dosage-dependent manner. Total oxidant status (TOS), malondialdehyde, LDL, VLDL, ALT, AST, triglyceride, total cholesterol, total protein, C-reactive protein, and cortisol levels were reduced significantly in alloxan-treated hyperglycemic rats supplemented with Gymnema Sylvestre as compared to control. Significantly raised paraoxonase, arylesterase, albumin, and HDL levels were also observed in Gymnema Sylvestre supplemented hyperglycemic rats. Increased mRNA expression of Ins-1, Ins-2, Gck, Pdx1, Mafa, and Pax6 were observed, while decreased expression of Cat, Sod1, Nrf2, and NF-kB was observed in the pancreas. Whereas increased mRNA expression of Gck, Irs1, SREBP1c, and Foxk1 and decreased expression of Irs2, ChREBP, Foxo1, and FoxA2 were observed in the liver. The current study indicates the potent effect of Gymnema Sylvestre on the transcription modulation of the insulin gene in the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rat model. Enhanced plasma insulin levels further help to improve hyperglycemia-induced dyslipidemia through transcriptional modulation of hepatocytes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0251.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ER stress; XAF1; GRP78; ZNF313; CHIP
Online: 17 March 2022 (10:59:09 CET)
Despite accumulating evidence for the pro-apoptotic role for X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis-associated factor 1 (XAF1), its involvement in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response remains undefined. Here, we report that XAF1 enhances cell sensitivity to ER stress and acts as a switch in unfolded protein response (UPR)-mediated cell-fate decisions favoring apoptosis over adaptive autophagy. XAF1 interacts with and destabilizes ER stress sensor GRP78 through the assembly of zinc finger protein 313-mediated destruction complex. Moreover, XAF1 gene transcription is activated by ER stress through PERK-Nrf2 signaling to direct an adaptive to apoptotic switch of stress response by blocking C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP)-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination and subsequent phosphorylation of inositol-required enzyme-1α (IRE1α). In tumor xenograft assays, XAF1-/- tumors display substantially lower regression compared to XAF1+/+ tumors in response to cytotoxic dose of ER stress inducer. XAF1 and GRP78 expression show an inverse correlation in human cancer cell lines and primary breast carcinomas. Collectively this study uncovers an important role for XAF1 as a linchpin to govern the sensitivity to ER stress and the outcomes of UPR signaling, illuminating the mechanistic consequence of XAF1 inactivation in tumorigenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0515.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: inositol; inositol transporters; vacuole; stress tolerance
Online: 21 June 2021 (14:12:29 CEST)
Inositol transporter (INT) is reputed as the pivotal transporter for vital metabolites like lipids, minerals, and sugars particularly. These transporters play important role in transitional metabolism and various signaling pathways in plants through regulating the transduction of messages from hormones, neurotransmitters, and immunologic and growth factors. Extensive studies have been conducted on animal INT with promising outcomes. However, few recent studies have highlighted the importance and the complexity of INT genes in the regulation of plant physiology stages including growth and tolerance to stress conditions. The present review sum-up the most recent findings on the role of INT or inositol genes in plant metabolisms and the responsive mechanisms that cope with external stressors. Moreover, we highlighted the emerging role of vacuoles and vacuolar inositol transporters in plant molecular transition and their related roles in plant growth and development. Inositol transporters are the essential mediator for the inositol uptake and its intracellular broadcasting for various metabolic pathways where they play crucial roles. Also, so far characterized only in animals, we reported evidence on Na+/inositol transporters H+/inositol symporters and suggested their roles and operating mode in plants. Thus, understanding the INT functioning system, the coordinated movement of inositol, and the relation between inositol generation and other important plant signaling pathways would be an excellent asset for advancement in researches on plant stress adaptation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0464.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Antioxidants; Free radicals; Fructose; Oxidative stress
Online: 17 June 2021 (14:40:02 CEST)
An imbalance in any metabolic system can be traced to its homeostasis. When homeostatic environment is not attainable then there will be a response from the body. A new shift has emerged, “the negative feedback effect of high fructose consumption;” more pain than gain. The human metabolic system daily combat fructose sugar metabolism which emanates from high consumption. This inadvently lead to a chronological series of complications arising from the feedback. These feedbacks play pivotal roles in skeletal muscle damage and other body frameworks, it also fosters toxic advanced glycation end products (AGEs), factors that impose and inflict damaging effects to the body`s energy currency and serious threat to health. These damages are missed or overlooked because of early nonspecific physiological symptoms. High level of fructose has both long- and short-term effects on human metabolic processes. These effects which are majorly through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other free radicals, are felt in the disruption of biomolecules such as causing DNA mutation, lipid peroxidation etc. these effects in turn lead to various diseases such as cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and other health issues. In this review, we will focus on the damaging effects this sugar has on human health and the present solutions being applied. We will also look at the next step in combatting and controlling these negative feedbacks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0694.v1
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:51:27 CEST)
Abstract Objectives To assess the causes and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult asylum seekers and refugees. To explore whether the causes and risk factors of PTSD, between male and female adult refugees/ asylum seekers is different. Study design Systematic review of current literature. Data Sources PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar up until February 2019 Method A structured systematic search was conducted in the relevant databases. Papers were excluded, if they failed to meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Afterwards, a qualitative assessment was performed on the selected papers. Results 12 Studies were included for the final analysis. All papers were either case studies/report or cross sectional studies. The number of traumatic events experienced by refugees/asylum seekers, is the most frequently reported pre-migration causes for PTSD development. Whilst acculturative stress, is the most common post migration stressor. There were mixed reports, regarding the causes of PTSD between both genders of refugees/asylum seekers. Conclusion This reviews’ findings, have potential clinical application into helping clinicians, to risk stratify refugees/asylum seekers for PTSD development and thus aid in embarking on earlier intervention measures. However, more rigorous research similar to this one, is needed for it to be implemented into clinical practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0343.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Chronic stress; Recovery; Burnout; Exhaustion; Maintenance
Online: 17 February 2021 (07:45:19 CET)
Burnout is common in many countries and is associated with several other problems, such as depression, anxiety, insomnia and memory deficits, and prospectively it predicts long-term sick-leave, cardiovascular disease and death. Clinical burnout or its residual symptoms often last several years and a common assumption is that recovery takes a long time by nature despite full time sick-leave and absence of work stress. Literature suggests models that hypothetically explain the development, but not maintenance, of the syndrome. Based on cognitive and behavioral principles and stress theory this paper describes a theoretical model explaining how clinical burnout can develop and be maintained. While the development of clinical burnout is mainly explained by prolonged stress reactions and disturbed recovery processes due to work related stressors, maintenance of the syndrome is particularly explained by prolonged stress reactions and disturbed recovery processes due to the new context of experiencing burnout and being on sick-leave. Worry about acquired memory deficits, passivity and excessive sleep, shame, fear of stress reactions, and the perception of not being safe are examples of responses that can contribute to the maintenance. The model has important implications for research and how to intervene clinical burnout.