ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0153.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Masonry walls; Out-of-plane strengthening; FRP strips; Active strengthening techniques; Degree of Composite Action (DCA).
Online: 11 December 2019 (11:52:18 CET)
As is well known, the main contribution of the FRP strips to the strength of load-bearing walls is an improvement in the in-plane strength. This paper deals with the possibility of applying the FRP strips in way to modify the strengthening mechanism of the FRP reinforcing system, from an in-plane to an out-of-plane strengthening mechanism. In order to achieve this goal, a second reinforcement system – derived from the CAM system (Active Confinement of Masonry) – provides connections between the FRP strips placed on the opposite sides of the wall. This new strengthening technique – called the straps/strips technique – establishes a stiffness constraint that forces the opposing FRP strips to behave like two flanges of an FRP I-beam embedded in the wall. Consequently, the use of FRP strips also improves the flexural strength of the wall. The present paper briefly summarizes the results obtained in previous works with the straps/strips technique and proposes an improvement of this strengthening technique, based on some weak-points emerged in the early experimentations. The paper also shows the results of a further experimental test, performed with the improved straps/strips technique. Finally, the similarity between FRP strips with transversal connection and concrete wythes of a sandwich panel with flexible connectors leads to interpret the behavior of the ideal I-beam in terms of composite action established between the FRP strips. This paves the way for analytical modeling of the straps/strips technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0120.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: HiperFer; fatigue; creep; reactive strengthening; Laves phase
Online: 7 March 2020 (09:45:31 CET)
Future, flexible thermal energy conversion systems require new, demand-optimized high-performance materials. The High performance Ferritic (HiperFer) stainless steels, under development at the Institute of Microstructure and Properties of Materials (IEK-2) at Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH in Germany, provide a balanced combination of fatigue, creep and corrosion resistance at reasonable price. This paper outlines the scientific background of alloy performance development, which resulted in an age-hardening ferritic, stainless steel grade. Furthermore, technological properties are addressed and the potential concerning application is estimated by benchmarking versus conventional state of the art materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0105.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: concrete, textile reinforced mortar, strengthening, shear, bending
Online: 30 August 2017 (15:27:16 CEST)
Increasing traffic loads and changes in code provisions lead to deficits in shear and flexural capacity of many existing highway bridges. Therefore, a lot of structures in Europe and North America are expected to require refurbishment and strengthening in the future. This projection is based on the current condition of many older road bridges. Different strengthening methods for bridges exist to extent their service life, all having specific advantages and disadvantages. By applying a thin layer of carbon textile reinforced mortar (CTRM) to bridge deck slabs and the webs of prestressed concrete bridges, the fatigue and ultimate strength of these members can be increased significantly. The CTRM-layer is a combination of a corrosion resistant carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) fabric and an efficient mortar. In this paper, the strengthening method and the experimental results obtained at RWTH Aachen University are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0340.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: masonry buildings; hammering actions; out-of-plane strengthening; three-dimensional strengthening systems; CFRP strips; textile reinforced mortar (TRM)
Online: 26 August 2019 (09:03:00 CEST)
The present paper deals with an improvement of the strengthening technique consisting in the combined use of straps—made of stainless steel ribbons—and CFRP strips, to increase the out-of-plane strength of masonry walls. The straps of both the previous and the new combined technique pass from one face to the opposite face of the masonry wall through some holes made along the thickness, giving rise to a three-dimensional net of loop-shaped straps, closed on themselves. The new technique replaces the stainless steel ribbons with steel wire ropes, which form closed loops around the masonry units and the CFRP strips as in the previous technique. A turnbuckle for each steel wire rope allows the closure of the loops and provides the desired pre-tension to the straps. The mechanical coupling—given by the frictional forces—between the straps and the CFRP strips placed on the two faces of the masonry wall gives rise to an I-beam behavior of the facing CFRP strips, which begin to resist the load as if they were the two flanges of the same I-beam. Even the previous combined technique exploits the ideal I-beam mechanism, but the greater stiffness of the steel wire ropes compared to the stiffness of the steel ribbons makes the constraint between the facing CFRP strips stiffer. This gives the reinforced structural element greater stiffness and delamination load. In particular, the experimental results show that the maximum load achievable with the second combined technique is much greater than the maximum load provided by the CFRP strips. Even the ultimate displacement turns out to be increased, allowing us to state that the second combined technique improves both strength and ductility. Since the CFRP strips of the combined technique run along the vertical direction of the wall, the ideal I-beam mechanism is particularly useful to counteract the hammering actions provided by the floors on the perimeter walls, during an earthquake. Lastly, after the building went out of service, the box-type behavior offered by the three-dimensional net of straps prevents the building from collapsing, acting as a device for safeguarding life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Injury mechanism; Muscle strengthening; Neuromotor; Neurocognitive; Injury Prevention
Online: 18 December 2020 (08:34:06 CET)
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tear is currently a main issue in all of sports communities. Although the number of ACL injuries in football remains low, it’s consequences on both professional and personal lives remain a major concern of rehabilitation. If practitioners often require more time to bring athletes in the best condition, the fact remains that this concept of time before return to sport is nowadays considered as obsolete. Indeed, the better understanding of the mechanisms of lesion and the strains placed on the graft after reconstruction, allow us to establish a personalized program based on clinical criteria and the patient's objectives. The current scientific literature allows us today to optimize the return to play and performance by the use of neuromotor and neurocognitive approaches, muscle strengthening methods and a preventive program necessary to cover the previous level of the players while taking into account physiological and psychological changes due to ACL reconstruction. Indeed, it is important to have a systemic approach centered on the patient, the sports movement, as close as possible to the field in order to find an optimal function of the knee in interaction with its environment.If there is a risk of reinjury of the ACL, it appears important to be able to identify the risk factors so that the player can return to play in optimal conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0519.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: CFRP strengthening; textile sensor; strain gauge errors compensation
Online: 26 September 2018 (14:56:29 CEST)
Monitoring of structures is one of the engineering challenges of the 21st century. At the same time, as a result of changes in the conditions of use, design errors, many building structures require strengthening. The article presents research on the development of the external strengthening carbon fiber textile with an option of self-sensing. The idea is based on the pattern of resistive strain gauge, where thread is provided in a zig-zag of parallel lines. Already the first laboratory tests showed the high efficiency of the system in the measurement of strains, but also revealed the sensitivity of measurement to environmental conditions. The article presents studies on the influence of temperature and humidity on the measurement. To separate those effects, resistance changes were tested on unloaded concrete and wooden samples. The models were placed in a climatic chamber and the daily cycle of temperature and humidity changes was simulated. The results of the research confirm preliminary observations. Resistivity growths with the temperature. This effect is more visible on concrete samples, presumably due to its greater natural humidity. The strain measurement with carbon fibers is very sensitive to temperature changes and application of this method in practice requires compensation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0537.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: gradual strengthening; existing masonry houses; earthquake disaster; ferrocement; bandaging
Online: 29 November 2021 (12:43:21 CET)
Approximately 85 million people's houses are scattered all over Indonesia, and almost all are in strong earthquake areas. In every earthquake, the houses are generally damaged or collapsed. Therefore, those houses must be strengthened to make them earthquake resistant. This paper discusses a gradual strengthening of existing houses using ferrocement bandaging. The gradual strengthening is introduced due to limited funding of the people. It also serves as an educational tool to educate people to be self-sufficient in building their earthquake-resistant houses. The first step, maybe the sleeping room shall be strengthened so that if there is an earthquake during night-time, people will be safe, and if there is an earthquake during the daytime, people can immediately run to that particular room. A global analysis is made of a sample house shaken by Palu, Central Sulawesi earthquake 2018, and West Sumatra earthquake 2009, with one room strengthened to show that the strengthened room can survive the earthquakes. Then the analysis is continued gradually to the other rooms until the masonry house is fully strengthened by ferrocement bandaging. The results show that the masonry house strengthened by ferrocement layers is earthquake resistant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0157.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Masonry arches bridges; Self-form segmental arches technique; CFRP; Strengthening
Online: 17 June 2019 (10:09:48 CEST)
This research aims to introduce a new technique, off-site and self-form segmental concrete masonry arches fabrication, without the need of construction formwork or centering. The innovative construction method in the current study encompasses two construction materials forms the self-form masonry arches, wedge-shape plain concrete voussoirs, and Carbon Fibers Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) composites. The employment of CFRP fabrics was for two main reasons; bond the voussoirs and forming the masonry arches. However, CFRP proved to be efficient for strengthening the extrados of the arch rings under service loadings. An experimental test conducted on four sophisticated masonry arch specimens. Research parameters were using thicker keystone as well as the partial strengthening of the self-form arch ring at the intrados. Major test finding was the use of thicker Keystone, alter the behavior of the self-form arch, considerably increased the load carrying capacity by 79%. Partial strengthening of the intrados with CFRP fabrics of typical arch ring Keystone resulted considerable increased the debonding load of fabrication CFRP sheets by 81%, increase the localized crushing load by 13%, and considerably increase voussoir sliding load by 107%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0295.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: high entropy alloys; selective laser melting; microstructure; mechanical properties; strengthening mechanism
Online: 21 June 2022 (10:52:27 CEST)
The high entropy alloy (HEA) of equiatomic composition CrNiFeCoMn and with FCC crystal structure was additively manufactured with a selective laser melting (SLM) process starting from mechanically alloyed powders. The as produced alloy shows finenitride and phase pre-cipitates, which are Cr-rich and stable up to about 900 K. The precipitates increase in number and dimensions after long-period annealing at 900-1300 K, with a change in the HEA mechanical properties. Higher aging temperatures in furnace, above 1300 K, turn the alloy in a single FCC structure, with disappearance of the nitrate and phase precipitates inside the grains and at the grain boundaries, but with still a presence of a finer Cr-rich nitride precipitation phase. These re-sults suggest that the as-produced HEA is a supersatured solid solution at low and intermediate temperature with nitrides and nanostructures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0168.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Al-Zn-Cr Alloys; powder metallurgy; strengthening; extrusion; dry sliding wear
Online: 21 March 2017 (04:26:13 CET)
Aluminum base alloys containing chromium (Cr) and zinc (Zn) were produced using extrusion and heat treated powder metallurgy. Cr addition ranged between 5 to 10 wt. % while Zn was added in an amount between 0 to 20 wt. %. Heat treatment processes were performed during powder metallurgy process at different temperatures followed by water quenching. Similar alloys were extruded, with an extrusion ratio of 4.6 to get proper densification. Optical microscopy was used for microstructure investigations of the produced alloys. The element distribution microstructure study was carried out using the Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis method. Hardness and tensile properties of the investigated alloys have been examined. Wear resistance tests were carried out and the results were compared with these of the Al-based bulk alloys. Results showed that the aluminum base alloys containing 10wt. % Chromium and heat treated at 500°C for one hour followed by water quenching exhibited the highest wear resistance and better mechanical properties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: supportive supervision; health systems strengthening; document analysis; LMIC; maternal and child health
Online: 24 November 2021 (12:45:25 CET)
Background: Supportive supervision has lately been gaining traction in various national health systems as an effective way of boosting the performance of community health workers in a constructive and sustainable way. However, not much is known about the basis/mandate of supportive supervision and its approach in maternal and child health programs in India. The current analysis contributes to a clearer understanding of the paradigms within which supportive supervision is envisioned to operate within India and identifies potential strengths and areas requiring attention. Method: Document analysis of implementation documents such as guidelines/ operational manuals/operationalization modules/ training modules of nationally implemented maternal and child health programs, with data extraction according to a pre-determined domain-based template. Results: Many of the documents reviewed do not mention supportive supervision at all. In the few documents where supportive supervision is mentioned, the paradigms within which it is supposed to operate (who will do it, when will it be done, how to do it, training and logistic support, reporting formats, etc.) have not been clearly identified in most programs. Conclusion: Even though supportive supervision is being increasingly identified as an effective way of performative improvement in national health programs in India, more effort needs to be put into identifying and enforcing the tenets of supportive supervision in practice, in order to bring about the desired change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0526.v2
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: calcium carbonate cement; setting reaction; (re)crystallization kinetics; cement strengthening; crystal bridging
Online: 6 May 2020 (14:50:13 CEST)
Calcium carbonate cements have been synthesized by mixing amorphous calcium carbonate and vaterite powders with water to form a cement paste and study how mechanical strength is created during the setting reaction. In-situ XRD was used to monitor the transformation of ACC and vaterite phases into calcite and a rotational rheometer was used to monitor the strength evolution. There are two characteristic time scales of the strengthening of the cement paste. The short timescale of the order 1 hour is controlled by smoothening of the vaterite grains, allowing closer and therefore adhesive contacts between the grains. The long timescale of the order 10-50 hours is controlled by the phase transformation of vaterite into calcite. This transformation is, unlike in previous studies using stirred reactors, found to be mainly controlled by diffusion in the liquid phase. The evolution of shear strength with solid volume fraction is best explained by a fractal model of the paste structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0660.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Debonding load; CFRP plate; RC beams; flexural strengthening; simple statistical analysis; fiber element method
Online: 29 July 2021 (13:57:58 CEST)
In this study, experimental work was carried out on reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) plates. This study aims to examine the effect of the reinforcement ratio on the flexural behavior of these beams and propose a new model for predicting the debonding moment. Six RC beams consisting of three control beams and three beams strengthened with CFRP plates were tested. The beams were simply supported and loaded with four-point bending. The test variable was the tensile reinforcement ratio (1%, 1.5%, and 2.5%). Analytical prediction using the fiber element method was also carried out to obtain the complete theoretical response of the beam due to flexural loads. The test results show that the reinforcement ratio affected the bending performance of RC beams with CFRP plates. Following this, the experimental data from 60 beam test results from published literature and this study were analyzed. From these data, it was found that the ratio of tensile reinforcement, the ratio of modulus of elasticity of concrete, the modulus of elasticity of the plate, and plate thickness all affect the value of debonding moment. A parametric study using fiber element and two-dimensional finite element method was also carried out to confirm the effect of these parameters on debonding failure. These parameters were then used to develop an equation to predict the debonding moment of RC beams strengthened with CFRP plates using simple statistical analysis. This analysis resulted in a simple model for predicting the debonding moment. Then the model is entered into a computer program, and the complete response of the cross-section due to debonding failure can be obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0056.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Mo-Si-B alloys; laser additive manufacturing; high-temperature mechanical properties; oxide dispersion strengthening
Online: 1 February 2021 (15:38:52 CET)
Intermetallic alloys like e.g. Iron-Aluminides, Titanium-Aluminides or Molybdenum- Silizides are prospective materials for high-temperature applications. For additive manufacturing (AM) intermetallic structural materials are particularly challenging due to their high melting points, oxygen susceptibility and low temperature brittleness. The feasibility of manufacturing intermetallic Mo-Si-B alloys with the laser additive manufacturing process of direct energy deposition (DED) is demonstrated and recent results in characterizing rapidly solidified material with respect to correlations between process, composition and microstructures are presented. The possibility to dope the material with Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) for dispersion is successfully demonstrated. Current challenges, e.g. homogenous distribution of alloying elements and applicability are addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0431.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: masonry; composite; short fibers; natural hydraulic lime; sisal; three-point bending test; fracture energy; strengthening; preservation; sustainability; carbon foot print
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:31:59 CEST)
The present work aims to characterize the mechanical behavior of a new composite material for the conservation and development of the vast historical and architectural heritage that is particularly vulnerable to environmental and seismic actions. The new composite consists of natural hydraulic lime (NHL) -based mortar, reinforced by sisal short fibers randomly oriented in the mortar matrix. The NHL-based mortar ensures the chemical-physical compatibility with the original feature of the historical masonry structures (mostly in stone and clay) aiming to pursue both the effectiveness and durability of the intervention. The use of vegetable fibers (i.e. the sisal one) is an exciting challenge for the construction industry since they require a lower degree of industrialization for their processing, and therefore, their costs are also low, as compared to the most common synthetic/metal fibers. Beams of sisal-composite sizing 160x40x40 mm3 with a central notch are tested in three-point bending, aiming to evaluate both their bending strength and fracture energy. Also, tensile tests and compressive tests were performed on the composite samples, while water retention test and slump test were performed on the fresh mix. Finally, the tensile tests on the Sisal strand were carried out to evaluate the tensile strength of both strand and wire. A final comparison with unreinforced mortar specimens shows that the proposed composite ensures great workability and good performances in term of ductility and strength and it can be considered a promising alternative to the classic fiber-reinforcing systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0237.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Game-based therapy; robot-mediated therapy; neuromotor disability; cerebral palsy; subjective assessment; patient-centered assessment; caregiver burden; ankle range of motion; ankle strengthening; home exercise program
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:09:19 CEST)
Technological advances in game-mediated robotics provide an opportunity to engage children with cerebral palsy (CP) and other neuromotor disabilities in more frequent and intensive therapy by making personalized, programmed interventions available 24/7 in children’s homes. Though shown to be clinically effective and feasible to produce, little is known of the subjective factors impacting acceptance of what we term assistive/rehabilitative (A/R) gamebots by their target populations. This research describes the conceptualization phase of an effort to develop a valid and reliable instrument to guide the design of A/R gamebots. We conducted in-depth interviews with 8 children with CP and their families who had trialed an exemplar A/R gamebot, PedBotHome, for 28 days in their homes. The goal was to understand how existing theories and instruments were either appropriate or inappropriate for measuring the subjective experience of A/R gamebots. Key findings were the importance of differentiating the use case of therapy from that of assistance in rehabilitative technology assessment, the need to incorporate the differing perspectives of children with CP and those of their parents into A/R gamebot evaluation, and the potential conflict between the goals of preserving the quality of the experience of game play for the child while also optimizing the intensity and duration of therapy provided during play.