ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0573.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: crowdsourcing; citizen science; agriculture; street-view; in-situ; LUCAS; Copernicus
Online: 28 September 2018 (16:30:41 CEST)
New approaches to collect in-situ data are needed to complement the high spatial (10~m) and temporal (5-day) resolution of Copernicus Sentinel satellite observations. Making sense of Sentinel observations requires high quality and timely in-situ data for training and validation. Classical ground truth collection is expensive, lacks scale, fails to exploit opportunities for automation, and is prone to sampling error. Here we evaluate the potential contribution of opportunistically exploiting crowd-sourced street-level imagery to collect massive high-quality in-situ data in the context of crop monitoring. This study assesses this potential by answering two questions: 1) what is the spatial availability of these images across the European Union (EU)? and 2) can these images be transformed to useful data? To answer the first question, we evaluated the EU availability of street-level images on Mapillary - the largest open-access platform for such images - against the Land Use and land Cover Area frame Survey (LUCAS) 2018, a systematic surveyed sampling of 337031 points. For 37.78% of the LUCAS points a crowd-sourced image is available within a 2-km buffer, with a mean distance of 816.11 m. We estimate that 9.44% of the EU territory has a crowd-sourced image within 300-m from a LUCAS point, illustrating the huge potential of crowd-sourcing as a complementary sampling tool. After artificial and built up (63.14%), and inland water (43.67%) land cover classes, arable land has the highest availability at 40.78%. To answer the second question, we focus on identifying crops at parcel level using all 13.6 million Mapillary images collected in the Netherlands. Only 1.9% of the contributors generated 75.15% of the images. A procedure was developed to select and harvest the pictures potentially best suited to identify crops using the geometries of 785710 Dutch parcels and the pictures' meta-data such as camera orientation and focal length. Availability of crowd-sourced imagery looking at parcels was assessed for 8 different crop groups with the 2017 parcel level declarations. Parcel revisits during the growing season allowed to track crop growth. Examples illustrate the capacity to recognize crops and their phenological development on crowd-sourced street-level imagery. Consecutive images taken during the same capture track allow selecting the image with the best unobstructed view. In the future, dedicated crop capture tasks can improve image quality and expand coverage in rural areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0064.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Computer vision; Google Street View; Built Environment; Walkability; Micro-scale; Deep learning
Online: 3 March 2022 (13:49:08 CET)
The study purpose was to train and validate a deep-learning approach to detect micro-scale streetscape features related to pedestrian physical activity. This work innovates by combining computer vision techniques with Google Street View (GSV) images to overcome impediments to conducting audits (e.g., time, safety, and expert labor cost). The EfficientNETB5 architecture was used to build deep-learning models for eight micro-scale features guided by the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes-Mini tool: sidewalks, sidewalk buffers, curb cuts, zebra and line crosswalks, walk signals, bike symbols, and streetlights. We used a train--correct loop, whereby images were trained on a training dataset, evaluated using a separate validation dataset, and trained further until acceptable performance metrics were achieved. Further, we used trained models to audit participant (N=512) neighborhoods in the WalkIT Arizona trial. Correlations were explored between micro-scale features and GIS-measured- and participant reported-macro-scale walkability. Classifier precision, recall, and overall accuracy were all >84%. Total micro-scale was associated with overall macro-scale walkability (r=0.300,p<.001). Positive associations were found between model-detected and self-reported sidewalks (r=0.41,p<.001) and sidewalk buffers (r=0.26,p<.001). Computer vision model results suggest an alternative to trained human raters, allowing for audits of hundreds or thousands of neighborhoods for population surveillance or hypothesis testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0506.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: street view image; subjective and objective perceptions; housing prices; machine learning; computer vision
Online: 22 March 2021 (10:16:03 CET)
The relationship between the street environment and the health, education, mobility, and criminal behaviors of its citizens has long been investigated by economists, sociologists and urban planners. Home buyers were found to pay a premium for better street appearance. Prior studies considering streetscapes mainly focus on objective measures such as the number of nearby trees, the tree canopy area, or the view index of physical features such as greenery, sky or building. However, subjective perceptions may have complex or subtle relationships to physical features, individual physical features or simply summing them up do not capture people’s comprehensive perception. In contrast, this study proposed a new approach for the urban-scale application to quantify both subjectively and objectively measured streetscape scores for six important perception qualities, namely Greenness, Walkability, Safety, Imageability, Enclosure, and Complexity. Built on prior quantitative studies in urban design quality and emerging applications in deep learning and open source street view imagery for urban perceptions, we integrated existing frameworks to (1) effectively collect and evaluate both subjectively and objectively- measured perceptions; (2) investigate the coherence and divergence in ML-predicted subjective scores and formula-derived objective scores; and (3) compare their effects in affecting house prices taking Shanghai as a case study using a large-scale dataset on home transactions. The results implied: first, the percentage increase in sales price attributable to street scores is significant for both subjective and objective measurements. In general subjective scores explained more variance over structural attributes and objective scores in hedonic price model. Particularly, objective Greenness, subjective Safety and Imageability scores positively affected house prices. Second, for Greenness and Imageability scores, the subjective and objective measures exhibited opposite signs in affecting house prices, which implied that there might be mechanisms related to the psychological, social-demographical characteristics of street users that have not been fully incorporated by objective measures that taking view indices or recombination of them. In addition, certain objective measure might outperform subjective counterpart when the connotation of the perception is self-evident and not complicated, for example the Greenness. For those concepts were not familiar to the average person, subjective framework exhibits better performance. This is the first study comprehensively expanding hedonic price method with both subjectively and objectively measured streetscape qualities. It suggested that city authorities could levy a street environment tax to compensate the public budget invested in street environment where developers secured benefits from a price premium. This study enriches our understanding of the economic values of the subjective and objective measures street qualities. It sheds light on promising future study areas where the coherence and divergence of the two measurements should be further stressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0154.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: deep learning; multiple instance learning; weakly supervised learning; demography; socioeconomic analysis; google street view
Online: 24 October 2018 (08:53:26 CEST)
(1) Background: Evidence-based policymaking requires data about the local population's socioeconomic status (SES) at detailed geographical level, however, such information is often not available, or is too expensive to acquire. Researchers have proposed solutions to estimate SES indicators by analyzing Google Street View images, however, these methods are also resource-intensive, since they require large volumes of manually labeled training data. (2) Methods: We propose a methodology for automatically computing surrogate variables of SES indicators using street images of parked cars and deep multiple instance learning. Our approach does not require any manually created labels, apart from data already available by statistical authorities, while the entire pipeline for image acquisition, parked car detection, car classification, and surrogate variable computation is fully automated. The proposed surrogate variables are then used in linear regression models to estimate the target SES indicators. (3) Results: We implement and evaluate a model based on the proposed surrogate variable at 30 municipalities of varying SES in Greece. Our model has $R^2=0.76$ and a correlation coefficient of $0.874$ with the true unemployment rate, while it achieves a mean absolute percentage error of $0.089$ and mean absolute error of $1.87$ on a held-out test set. Similar results are also obtained for other socioeconomic indicators, related to education level and occupational prestige. (4) Conclusions: The proposed methodology can be used to estimate SES indicators at the local level automatically, using images of parked cars detected via Google Street View, without the need for any manual labeling effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0535.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: street conversion; urban traffic network; traffic simulation
Online: 30 August 2021 (10:14:22 CEST)
The once-held wisdom of the supreme efficiency of one-way streets has been gradually sup-planted by the perceived sustainability of two-way streets in the design of livable cities that prioritizes the safety of pedestrians and thriving of local businesses. However, it is rarely dis-cussed on whether one-way street conversions have truly improved the long-term traffic effi-ciencies on urban street networks, as conflating socioeconomic factors such as vehicular popula-tion growth and induced travel demand may render empirical analysis inconclusive. In this study, microscopic traffic simulations implemented on SUMO platform was performed to ana-lyze the effect of street conversion in Downtown Brickfields, Kuala Lumpur. This approach can control and standardize travel demand in both one-way and two-way street networks, and would therefore give a fairer evaluation by precluding all socioeconomic factors. It was found that one-way streets do not necessarily improve the traffic efficiency of the network, as it is very dependent on the traffic scenario evolution over time. One-way streets perform better at the on-set of traffic congestion due to its higher capacity, but on average, the 4-fold longer travel times that made it harder to clear traffic by getting vehicles to their destinations compared to two-way streets. As time progresses, congestion in one-way streets may become twice as worse compared to two-way streets. This study may contribute to a more holistic assessment of traffic circulation plan designed for smart and livable cities
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0018.v1
Online: 4 August 2017 (16:00:16 CEST)
Ventilation in cities is crucial for the well being of their inhabitants. Therefore, local governments require air ventilation assessments (AVAs) prior to the construction of new buildings. In a standard AVA, however, only neutral stratification is considered, although diabatic and particularly unstable conditions may be observed more frequently in nature. The results presented here indicate significant changes in ventilation within most of the area of Kowloon City, Hong Kong, included in the study. A new definition for calculating ventilation was introduced, and used to compare the influence of buildings on ventilation under conditions of neutral and unstable stratification. The overall ventilation increased due to enhanced vertical mixing. In the vicinity of exposed buildings, however, ventilation was weaker for unstable stratification than for neutral stratification. The influence on ventilation by building parameters, such as the plan area index, was altered when unstable stratification was considered. Consequently, differences in stratification were shown to have marked effects on ventilation estimates, which should be taken into consideration in future AVAs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0257.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: street vendors, consumers, food safety, knowledge, attitudes, practices
Online: 21 May 2019 (10:08:50 CEST)
Street vended foods are ready-to-eat food and beverages prepared and/ or sold in the streets. This trade provides for 85-99% of total employment in most African countries and 50% or more is constituted by women. The preparation of street vended foods is normally under unsatisfactory conditions and these may lead to the contamination of food. This descriptive survey was conducted in Maseru around the taxi ranks amongst 141 participants (48 food handlers and 93 consumers) using a semi structured questionnaire, open ended questionnaire and observation checklist. Majority of the food handlers were females (n=35, 60%) and males constituted only (n=23, 40%). On average the vendor population that participated in this study was considered to have poor knowledge of food safety since they scored 49%±11. With regard to the consumers, 63% were males and 37% were females, and only 6% reported that they never buy street vended foods mainly due to the food safety issues and hygiene. Based on the results of this study, it is thus recommended that educational interventions be implemented. The observation study showed that they also operated under unhygienic conditions and 95% of food handlers had the incorrect knowledge that washing utensils with detergent leaves them free of contamination. Regarding the consumer perceptions, they highlighted that the trade has the potential to grow and be profitable on condition that hygiene is emphasized and infrastructure improved so as to provide safe quality food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: screen view time; children; risk factors; India
Online: 4 April 2022 (10:57:14 CEST)
Screen viewing time is the total time spent by a child on any digital/electronic device. The objective of the present study was to determine the incidence and predictors of excessive screen viewing time in children in Ujjain, India. This cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted through house-to-house survey by using the three-stage cluster sampling method in 36 urban wards and 36 villages of Ujjain district, India. Excessive screen viewing time was defined as screen viewing for > 2 h/day. The prevalence of excessive screen viewing time was 17.83%. Risk factors identified using the multivariate logistic regression model were: age (OR: 1.5, P < 0.001); mobile phone use before bedtime (OR: 3.17, P = 0.008); parents’ perception about the child habituated to screen (OR: 14.03, P < 0.001); television in bedroom (OR: 48.69, P < 0.001); morning mobile screen viewing time (OR: 9.27, P < 0.001); not reading books other than textbooks (OR: 9.71, P < 0.001); and lack of outdoor play for >2 h (OR: 4.20, P < 0.001). Presence of eye pain was a protective factor for excessive screen viewing time (OR: 0.12, P = 0.011). The study identified multiple modifiable risk factors for excessive screen viewing time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: synthesized view; quality enhancement; synthetic images; data augmentation
Online: 11 October 2022 (04:39:16 CEST)
Recently, deep learning-based image quality enhancement models have been proposed to improve the perceptual quality of distorted synthesized views impaired by compression and Depth Image Based Rendering (DIBR) process in multiview video systems. However, due to the lack of multi-view video plus depth data, the training data for quality enhancement models is small, which limits the performance and progress of these models. Augmenting the training data to enhance the Synthesized View Quality Enhancement (SVQE) models is a feasible solution. In this paper, we suggest a deep learning-based SVQE model using more synthetic Synthesized View Images (SVIs). To simulate the irregular geometric displacement of DIBR distortion, a random irregular polygon-based SVI synthesis method is proposed based on existing massive RGB/RGBD data, and a synthetic synthesized view database is constructed, which includes synthetic SVIs and DIBR distortion masks. Moreover, to further guide the SVQE models to focus more precisely on DIBR distortion, the DIBR distortion mask prediction network which could predict the position and variance of DIBR distortion is embedded into the SVQE models. The experimental results demonstrate that by pretraining on the synthetic SVI database, the performance of the existing SVQE models could be greatly promoted. In addition, by introducing the DIBR distortion mask prediction network, the SVI quality could be further enhanced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0129.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: 3D shapes; single-view reconstruction; gradient map; fine-grained
Online: 8 November 2022 (01:04:00 CET)
There has been considerable research on reconstructing 3D shapes from single-view images; however, preserving the detailed information of the input image remains difficult. In this paper, we propose the application of a gradient map to train a network, aimed at improving the visual quality of fine-grained details such as the thin and tiny components of generated shapes. Each gradient map was created from the original voxel data, and each value represented the amount of information per volume. Here, the gradient map was defined by several methods that mathematically quantify and represent the detailed structure of an object. By applying this map to the loss function in training, we could induce the network to intensively train partial details, such as thin and narrow parts. We demonstrated that the detailed information was well-recovered when a weight that is proportional to the gradient value was applied to the loss. Furthermore, it is expected that our method will contribute to the development of 3D technologies related to the construction of virtual space for simulation and new customer experience.
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: beauty; life; scaling law; adaptation; differentiation; organic world view
Online: 19 September 2019 (04:12:01 CEST)
As Christopher Alexander conceived and defined through his life’s work – The Nature of Order – wholeness is a recursive structure that recurs in space and matter and is reflected in human minds and cognition. Based on the definition of wholeness, a mathematical model of wholeness, together with its topological representation, has been developed, and it is able to address not only why a structure is beautiful, but also how much beauty the structure has. Given the circumstance, this paper is attempted to argue for the wholeness as the scientific foundation of sustainable urban design and planning, with the help of the mathematical model and topological representation. We start by introducing the wholeness as a mathematical structure of physical space that pervasively exists in our surroundings, along with two fundamental laws – scaling law and Tobler’s law – that underlie the 15 properties for characterizing and making living structures. We argue that urban design and planning can be considered to be wholeness-extending processes, guided by two design principles of differentiation and adaptation, to transform a space – in a piecemeal fashion – into a living or more living structure. We further discuss several other urban design theories and how they can be justified by and placed within the theory of wholeness. With the wholeness as the scientific foundation, urban design can turn into a rigorous science with creation of living structures as the primary aim.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0304.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: CGAN; Styles & Features Renovation; Street Façade; world heritage city; Wuyi area
Online: 16 November 2022 (09:55:23 CET)
With the development of society and the economy, the unified planning of architectural style has become a difficult problem in the competition between urban expansion and the protection of tra-ditional buildings in villages and towns. At the same time, it also allows people to re-examine the appearance and quality of life of traditional village buildings. In this paper, the Conditional Gen-erative Adversarial Network (CGAN) is used to construct a method of building facade generation in villages and towns, so as to gradually realize the governance of the style of villages and towns. At the same time, it has also reduced the restoration of the facades of villages and towns and the graphic design of rural tourism products, showing its application value and potential in the field of planning and design. In the research, taking villages and towns in the Wuyishan area of China as an example, the method is used to carry out model training, image generation, and comparison of the derivation results of different assumed building contours and product contours. The research shows that: (1) CGAN can be used to derive and design the facades of conventional civil buildings in villages and towns. (2) In terms of product graphic design, especially the common tourist cultural products fans and water cups, show significant potential. (3) The construction of this method is not only applicable to villages and towns under the World Heritage City, but can be further promoted and used in the future for cities and villages that have a demand for architectural style consistency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0654.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Thermal Comfort; Outdoor Space; Microclimate Simulation; Street Orientation; Physiological Equivalent Temperature
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:02:05 CEST)
Lack of due attention to the orientation of streets and establishment of urban blocks without regard for climatic characteristics and conditions of the environment have an adverse effect on thermal comfort in open urban spaces. Construction of new settlements without taking into account climatic requirements undermines thermal comfort for pedestrians and other users, especially in cold regions. Considering the coldness of the region under study and the significance of the orientation of streets in absorbing radiation and providing heat to outdoor urban spaces, this study investigates the effect of the orientation of streets on microclimatic comfort in one of the residential towns of Hamadan City in Iran. For this purpose, microclimate simulation was performed using ENVI-met software. A residential block with four different orientations (the most common orientations of its surrounding buildings) were simulated in the coldest day of winter and the hottest day of summer. The results suggest that streets have different thermal behavior in different orientations. Orientation affects mean radiant temperature (Tmrt), the duration of exposure to direct sunlight, wind speed, and physiological equivalent temperature (PET), which are all important factors in thermal comfort. Based on these findings, north-south streets in Hamedan receive more radiant temperature during winter compared to other simulated orientations and provide more desirable thermal comfort. The average PET value on a winter day at a point on the north-south passage was 4.5-8 °C warmer than other orientations. In summer, streets with intercardinal orientations (i.e., northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast) provided the lowest PET (about 2 °C cooler than other orientations) and better thermal comfort
Subject: Keywords: Business innovation; financing choices; Nigeria; Entrepreneur; resource based view; motivation
Online: 6 November 2020 (17:14:45 CET)
The paper is to examine the influence of business innovation, business expansion, product and service development, working capital, machinery and equipment on financing choices in the western part of Nigeria. To determine the effect on financing choices, a logistic regression analysis was used. The results in an impressive manner indicate that entrepreneur, essentially with working capital (WC), machinery and equipment (ME) requirement and business innovation (BI) used internal funding sources while business expansion (BE) and product and service development (PS) lean toward external funding sources and the more established and larger firm utilizes debt financing. The approach and the experiential findings offer an unprecedented degree of investigation from an academic point of view through the previous study on Nigeria entrepreneur. Similarly, the experimental results will strengthen the entrepreneur's knowledge, awareness and perception. Through the capabilities of the entrepreneurs, they can prepare and adapt in accordance with the business condition they conduct business and to help them in their choice procedure regarding the capital structure of their organization in the midst of an interval when the fuss of entrepreneur funding is gradually elicited in the Nigerian climate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0188.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Resource-based view, regional competitiveness, renewable energy, wind power, island
Online: 20 February 2019 (10:59:22 CET)
This paper aims to propose a new approach of territorial competitiveness assessment revisited from the resource-based view, as the combination of location-specific resources and capabilities can improve the territorial socio-economic development. A territorial competitiveness index is calculated in order to assess the potential of renewable energy sources to improve the sustainable development in islands. Different sources of information and methodologies have been employed to measure the variables included in the model, thus ensuring a rigorous process in the index calculation. In order to quantify the basic resources, for example, a methodology based on a multicriteria analysis (MCA) with geographic information system (GIS) is suggested, with the objective of obtaining an indicator called index of available territorial resources. This index synthesizes the map information through a numerical value that allows integrating the territorial resource with other indicators of the model. The results of the study show that capability development is a key factor to better exploit the territorial resource endowment in order to achieve a competitive advantage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0055.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: fair value; value-relevance; decision-making useful view; price model
Online: 11 December 2017 (05:25:13 CET)
Economic development and advancements in information technology contributed to the shift on accounting objective from commission responsibility view to decision-making useful view. The decision-making useful view claims that the accounting measurement methods should be changed to improve the usefulness of accounting information, to enable information users to make correct decisions. In addition, the development of financial instruments leads to the birth of fair value accounting. In recent years, fair value has been one of the most important measurement methods in the International Accounting Standard and US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. However, China has been quite cautious when it comes to applying fair value full time, especially after the global financial crisis happened in 2008, wherein fair value accounting was exposed to strong suspicion. Hence, studying the value relevance of fair value is of great significance to exploring the accounting profession and reforming accounting standards. This paper attempts to investigate the value-relevance of fair value based on the data of listed financial companies and manufacturing companies in China. The results indicate that the fair value information in the financial industry has a strong explanatory influence to corporate share price. In contrast, the fair value information shows limited relevance in the manufacturing industry. Finally, consulting with the results of normative analysis and empirical study, this paper suggests several rational advices for the application of fair value in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0042.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: infrared imaging; wide field of view; athermalization; two-piece lens
Online: 8 March 2017 (04:40:47 CET)
For a wide field of view (FoV) wavefront coding athermalized infrared imaging system with a single decoding kernel, the off-axis aberration tends to cause artefacts. In order to correct off-axis aberration, many pieces of lenses will reduce the transmission efficiency and increase the weight and cost. To meet requirements for wide FoV, wide operating temperature and low weight of infrared imaging systems, this paper reports a wide-FoV wavefront coding athermalized infrared imaging system with a two-piece lens. Its principle, design, manufacture, measurement and performance validation are successively discussed. This paper constructs an optimization problem which maximizes the weighted mean of PSF consistency for both the FoV and operating temperature range. The two-piece lens contains four surfaces, where three aspheric surfaces are introduced to reduce optical off-axis aberrations and a cubic surface is introduced to achieve athermalization. The optical phase mask containing an aspheric surface and a cubic surface is manufactured by nano-metric machining of ion implanted material(NiIM). Experimental results validate that our wide-FoV wavefront coding athermalized infrared imaging system has a full FoV of 26.10° and an operating temperature over -20°C to +70°C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0360.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: human health; light pollution; modeling; street light; Montréal; melatonin suppression; obtrusive light
Online: 14 June 2021 (12:20:47 CEST)
This paper describes the use of a new obtrusive light module of the Illumina v2 model to estimate the light that may enter bedroom windows. We used as input to the model, 1- the sources’ flux and spectrum derived from the color images taken by astronauts from the international space station, 2- an association between source spectrum and angular emission, and 3- a per zone inventory of obstacles properties and lamp height. The model calculate the spectral irradiance incident to buildings’ windows taking into account for the orientation of the street. By using the color information from an ISS image, we can classify pixels as a function of their spectra. With the same image, it is also possible to determine the upward photopic radiance for each pixel. Both serve as inputs to the model to calculate the spectral irradiance on any window. By having the spectral irradiance, it is possible to determine the Melatonin Suppression Index and the photopic irradiance on the window. Such information can later be used to perform epidemiological studies. The new methodology is applied to the case of Montréal in Canada for a set of houses’ locations. The computations are made for 2013 (pre-LED era).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: vancomycin; broad view; veterinary use at a glance; rational use; alternatives
Online: 12 November 2016 (11:09:37 CET)
Vancomycin is one of the ‘last-line’ classes of antibiotics used in the treatment of life-threatening infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Even though vancomycin was discovered in 1950s it was widely used after 1980s for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococci as prevalence of such strains were increased. However, currently it is evident that vancomycin resistant Staphylococcusaureusandvancomycin-resistant Enterococci have been developed as a result of various reasons including use of avaparcin, which is an analog of vancomycin, as feed additive in livestock. In present day context, more attention should be paid on prevention of emergence of resistance for the antibiotics in order to keep antibiotics effective. In order to prevent emergence of resistance, proper guidance for the responsible use of antimicrobials is indispensable. Therefore, almost all stakeholders who use antibiotics should have in depth understanding on the antibiotic they use. As such, it is imperative to be aware of the important aspects of vancomycin. In the present review, efforts have been made to discussthe pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, indications, emergence of resistance, control of resistance, adverse effects and alternative therapy for vancomycin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0105.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: symmetric nonnegative matrix factorization; similarity network fusion; human microbiome; multi-view clustering
Online: 18 April 2017 (03:31:04 CEST)
Integration of multi-view datasets which are comprised of heterogeneous sources or different representations is challenging to understand the subtle and complex relationship in data. Such data integration methods attempt to combine efficiently the complementary information of multiple data types to construct a comprehensive view of underlying data. Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), an approach that can be used for signal compression and noise reduction, has aroused widespread attention in the last two decades. The Kullback–Leibler divergence (or relative entropy) information distance can be used to measure the loss function of NMF. In this article, we propose a fast and robust framework (RSNMF) based on symmetric nonnegative matrix factorization (SNMF) and similarity network fusion (SNF) for clustering human microbiome data including functional, metabolic and phylogenetic profiles. Many existing methods typically utilize all the information provided by each view to create a consensus representation, which often suffers a lot from noise in data and cannot provide a precise representation of the latent data structures. In contrast, RSNMF combines the strength of SNMF and the advantage of SNF to form a robust clustering indicator matrix thus can reduce the noise influence. We conduct experiments on one synthetic and two real dataset (microbiome data, text data) and the results show that the proposed RSNMF has better performance over the baseline and the state-of-art methods, which demonstrates the potential application of RSNMF for microbiome data analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0275.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: ultrafine particles; aerosol; urban street canyon; outdoor pollution; indoor air quality; respiratory doses; mppd
Online: 24 September 2019 (12:25:44 CEST)
The amount of outdoor particles that indoor environments receive depends on the particle infiltration factors (Fin), peculiar of each environment, and on the outdoor aerosol concentrations and size distributions. The respiratory doses received, while residing indoor, will change accordingly. This study aims to ascertain to what extent such doses are affected by the vertical distance from the traffic sources. Particle number size distributions have been simultaneously measured at street level and at about 20 m height in a street canyon in downtown Rome. The same Fin have been adopted to estimate indoor aerosol concentrations, due to the infiltration of outdoor particles and then the relevant daily respiratory doses. Aerosol concentrations at ground floor were more than double than at 20 m height and richer in ultrafine particles. Thus, although aerosol infiltration efficiency was on average higher at 20 m height than at ground floor, particles more abundantly infiltrated at ground level. On a daily basis, this involved a 2.5-fold higher dose at ground level than at 20 m height. At both levels, such doses were greater than those estimated over the period of activity of some indoor aerosol sources, therefore they represent an important contribution to the total daily dose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0215.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: street dust; PAHs; source evaluation; incremental lifetime cancer risk; cancer risk assessment; coastal city
Online: 10 October 2018 (10:49:21 CEST)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust pose a serious problem threatening both environment and human health. Street dust were collected from five different land use patterns (traffic areas TRA, urban area URA, residential areas REA, mixed residential commercial areas MCRA and suburban areas SUA) in a Saudi coastal city, Jeddah, and one in rural area (RUA) in Hada Al Sham. This study aimed to investigate the status, profile, sources of PAHs and estimate their human health risk. The results revealed an average concentration of total PAHs of 3320 ng/g in street dust of Jeddah and 223 ng/g in RUA dust. PAHs with high molecular weight represented 83.38% of total PAHs in street dust of Jeddah, while the carcinogenic PAH compounds accounted 57.84%. The highest average concentration of total PAHs in street dust of Jeddah was found in TRA (4980 ng/g) and the lowest in REA (1660 ng/g). PAHs ratios indicated that the principal source of PAHs in street dust of Jeddah is pyrogenic, mainly traffic emission. Benzo(a)anthracene/ chrysene (BaA/CHR) ratio suggests that PAHs in street dusts of Jeddah come mainly from emission of local sources, while PAHs in RUA might be transported from the surrounding urban areas. The estimated Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) associated with exposure to PAHs in street dusts indicated that both dermal contact and ingestion pathways are major contributed to cancer risk for both children and adults. Based on BaPequivalence concentrations of total PAHs, ILCRIngestion, ILCRdermal and cancer risk values for children and adults exposed to PAHs in street dust of different areas in Jeddah were found between 10−6 and 10−4, indicating potential risk. The sequence of cancer risk was TRA > URA > MCRA > SUA > REA. Only exposure to BaP and DBA compounds had potential risk for both children and adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0315.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Transformer; mammogram; multi-view; self-attention; computer-aided diagnosis; breast cancer; classification; deep learning
Online: 22 June 2022 (10:11:58 CEST)
Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been widely used in various medical imaging tasks. However, due to the intrinsic locality of convolution operation, CNNs generally cannot model long-range dependencies well, which are important for accurately identifying breast cancer from unregistered multi-view mammograms. This motivates us to leverage the architecture of Vision Transformers to capture long-range relationships of multiple mammograms from the same patient. For this purpose, we employ local Transformer blocks to separately learn patch relationships within a specific view (CC/MLO) of one side (right/left) of mammogram. The outputs from different views and sides are concatenated and fed into global Transformer blocks, to jointly learn patch relationships between two different views of the left and right breasts. To evaluate the proposed model, we retrospectively assembled a dataset involving 949 sets of CC and MLO view mammograms, which include 470 malignant cases and 479 normal or benign cases. We trained and evaluated the model using a five-fold cross-validation method. Without any arduous preprocessing steps (e.g., optimal window cropping, chest wall or pectoral muscle removal, two-view image registration, etc.), our two-view Transformer-based model achieves lesion classification accuracy of 77.0% and area under ROC curve (AUC = 0.814), outperforming state-of-the-art multi-view CNNs by 3.1% and 3%, respectively. Meanwhile, the new two-view model improves mammographic case classification accuracies of two single-view models by 7.4% (CC) and 4.5% (MLO), respectively. The promising results unveil the great potential of using Transformers to develop high-performing computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) schemes of mammography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2020045
Subject: Keywords: adverse drug reactions; antimalarial; Ghana; herbal remedies; malaria; questionnaire; street sale; orthodox; unnatural medicines; patient preference
Online: 12 June 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Malaria is a serious infection affecting millions of people in Africa. Our study investigated the personal preferences and applications of antimalarial medicines in Ghana. Based on over 1000 questionnaires distributed in Ghana from January to May 2019, we noticed that although Western medications to fight this disease are widely available, most patients in Ghana prefer treatment with locally produced herbal remedies. This preference appears to be due to a combination of traditional venues for obtaining medicines “on the street” rather than in licensed pharmacies, trust in local and “green” products, extensive advertisement of such local products, and an inherent distrust of imported and synthetic or unnatural medicines. Going local and natural is a trend also observed in other countries across the globe, and adds to the acceptance or rejection of drugs regardless of their activity or toxicity. In fact, adverse side effects associated with herbal remedies, such as general weakness and swollen, sore mouth, do not seem to deter the respondents of this study in Ghana. We propose a combination of (a) increasing public awareness of the benefits of modern medicine and (b) an improvement and control of the quality of herbal remedies to raise the standard of malaria treatment in countries such as Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0341.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: sustainable transformative business model; shared-value, digitization; innovation management; dynamic capabilities; transformation management; resource based view
Online: 16 October 2018 (08:23:41 CEST)
We examine how external triggers, including the digital imperative and the need for more sustainable resource and stakeholder employment, spark the development of transformative sustainable business models. Drawing on the resource-based view and the shared value approach we conceptualize a multifaceted framework that helps to identify key determinants and coherent layers of transformative sustainable businesses models. Our theoretical arguments integrate recent research findings on external dynamics, such as digital technological advances and rising global competitive dynamics, with internal capabilities on both the organizational and the individual level, allowing for a more complete understanding of transformative potentials on the firm level. We propose that key determinants of sustainable transformative business models adhere to both, innovative value-creating reconstructionist and sustainable shared-value logic, and include elements such as co-creation with customers, usage-based pricing, agile and adaptive behavior, closed-loop resource employment, asset-sharing, and collaborative business ecosystems. At the same time, organizational, economic, and environmental layers encompassing sustainable business models need to be both horizontally and vertically coherent to unfold their full potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0310.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Ancient villages; historical locations; node space; convex space method, field of view analysis method, Baidu time machine; parameters
Online: 13 July 2021 (14:16:30 CEST)
This research takes Cuiwei Village in Qianshan District of Zhuhai City as an example. Through field research, the village is investigated and analyzed, and the street scale, spatial structure, functional characteristic streets, internal commercial distribution forms, and functions of Cuiwei Historic District are studied. analysis. On this basis, based on the convex space method and the line-of-sight analysis method in the space syntax theory, with the help of Depthmap software, the complex street node, that is, the space of the two nodes A and B, is established through the establishment of a visual field model. It includes the analysis of the integration degree of the horizon, the concentration of the horizon, the connection value of the horizon and the spatial characteristics of the historical area, as well as the traditional buildings that are the most representative of the village, namely the Three Kings Temple and the Webster's Mansion. When R=N and radius R=3, observe the changes in the two parameters of the visual integration and visual depth of the two historical buildings. And with the help of Baidu Time Machine photos in different periods to observe and record the changes in the store and the characteristics of people's behavior, and draw conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0498.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Cattle farming; COVID-19 pandemic; economic point of view; food safety; HOMER; hybrid system; smallholder; thin-film coating
Online: 21 September 2020 (07:32:51 CEST)
This paper reports on the optimization of thin-film coating assisted self-sustainable off-grid hybrid power generation systems for cattle farming in rural areas of Bangladesh. Bangladesh is a lower middle-income country with declining rates of poverty among its 160 million people due to persistent economic growth in conjunction with balanced agricultural improvements. Most of the rural households adopt a mixed farming system by cultivating crops and simultaneously rearing livestock. Among the animals raised, cattle are considered as the most valuable asset for the small/medium-scale farmers in terms of their meat and milk production. Currently, along with the major health issue, the COVID-19 pandemic is hindering the world’s economic growth and has thrust millions into unemployment; Bangladesh is also in this loop. However, natural disasters such as COVID-19 pandemic and floods, largely constrain rural smallholder cattle farmers from climbing out of their poverty. In particular, small and medium-scale cattle farmers face many issues that obstruct them from taking advantage of market opportunities and imposing a greater burden on their families and incomes. An appropriate measure can give a way to make those cattle farmers’ businesses both profitable and sustainable. Optimization of thin-film coating assisted self-sustainable off-grid hybrid power generation system for cattle farming is a new and forward-looking approach for sustainable development of the livestock sector. In this study, we design and optimize a thin-film coating assisted hybrid (photovoltaic-battery-generator) power system by using the Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER, Version 3.14.0) simulation tool. An analysis of the results has suggested that the off-grid hybrid system is more feasible for small and medium-scale cattle farming systems with long-term sustainability to overcome the significant challenges faced by smallholder cattle farmers in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0030.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: digital elevation model; DEM; digital surface model; DSM; great barrier reef; gully erosion; multi-view stereo; point cloud; unmanned aerial vehicle
Online: 13 July 2017 (02:55:02 CEST)
Structure from Motion with Multi-View Stereo photogrammetry (SfM) is increasingly utilised in geoscience investigations as a cost-effective method of acquiring high resolution (sub-meter) topographic data, but has not been thoroughly tested in gullied savanna systems. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of topographic models derived from aerial (via an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, ‘UAV’) and ground-based (via a handheld digital camera, ‘Ground’) SfM in modelling a hillslope gully system in dry-tropical savanna, and to assess the strengths and limitations of the approach at different scales. A UAV survey covered an entire hillslope gully system (0.715 km2), whereas a Ground survey covered a single gully within the broader system (650 m2). SfM topographic models, including Digital Surface Models (DSM) and dense point clouds, were compared against RTK-GPS point data and a pre-existing airborne LiDAR Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Results indicate UAV SfM can deliver topographic models with a resolution and accuracy suitable to define gully systems at a hillslope scale (e.g., 0.1 m resolution with ~ 0.5 – 1.3 m elevation error), while ground-based SfM is more capable of quantifying gully morphology (e.g., 0.01 m resolution with ~ 0.1 m elevation error). Key strengths of SfM for these applications include: the production of high resolution 3D topographic models and ortho-photo mosaics, low survey instrument costs (< $AUD 3,000); and rapid survey time (4 and 2 hours for UAV and Ground survey respectively). Current limitations of SfM include: difficulties in reconstructing vegetated surfaces; uncertainty as to optimal survey and processing designs; and high computational demands. Overall, this study has demonstrated great potential for SfM to be used as a cost-effective tool to aid in the mapping, modelling and management of hillslope gully systems at different scales, in tropical savanna landscapes and elsewhere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0289.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Measurement problem; Convivial Solipsism; Everett’s interpretation; QBism; Perspectival interpretation; Realism; Entanglement; Non-locality; EPR experiment; First person point of view; Wigner’s friend
Online: 17 January 2023 (01:32:40 CET)
I show how the quantum paradoxes occurring when we adopt a standard realist framework (or a framework in which the collapse implies a physical change of the state of the system) vanish if we abandon the idea that a measurement is related (directly or indirectly) to a physical change of state. In Convivial Solipsism, similarly to Everett’s interpretation, there is no collapse of the wave function. But contrary to Everett’s interpretation, there is only one world. This allows also to get rid of any non-locality and to provide a solution to the Wigner’s friend problem and its more recent versions.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Model-Based Systems Engineering; Category Theory; Object-Process Methodology; Model Analytics; Concept-Model-Graph-View-Concept; Graph Data Structures; Graph Query; Decision Support Matrix; Matrix-Based Analysis
Online: 18 February 2021 (12:27:50 CET)
We introduce the Concept-Model-Graph-View Cycle (CMGVC). The CMGVC facilitates coherent architecture analysis, reasoning, insight, and decision-making based on conceptual models that are transformed into a generic, robust graph data structure (GDS). The GDS is then transformed into multiple views of the model, which inform stakeholders in various ways. This GDS-based approach decouples the view from the model and constitutes a powerful enhancement of model-based systems engineering (MBSE). The CMGVC applies the rigorous foundations of Category Theory, a mathematical framework of representations and transformations. We show that modeling languages are categories, drawing an analogy to programming languages. The CMGVC architecture is superior to direct transformations and language-coupled common representations. We demonstrate the CMGVC to transform a conceptual system architecture model built with the Object Process Modeling Language (OPM) into dual graphs and a stakeholder-informing matrix that stimulates system architecture insight.