ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0092.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: livestock; stover; lucerne; maize; bull; animals; dry matter; protein; cottonseed
Online: 11 May 2017 (05:04:11 CEST)
The experiment was conducted at livestock research and development station surezai Peshawar during March 2012 to study the effect of cotton seed cake, Lucerne hay supplementation on intake of maize stover and weight gain by male sahiwal bull. Twelve (12) young Sahiwal bull breed, 280 kg average liveweight and 2 years of age were randomly put into 4 groups of 3 animals under intensive feeding system to determine the effect of different protein supplements on growth, and intake of chopped, dried maize stover. A control group was fed stover adlibitum only, and the other groups were fed daily 750 g cottonseed cake/head, 1 kg lucerne hay or 900 g of lucerne/cottonseed cake (66:34; w/w). Significant differences were observed on average daily live weight gains. Animals on lucerne and its mixture registered higher daily gains (243 g) and (330 g) respectively, followed by cottonseed cake (156 g); the control group lost weight (-8.0 g/d). Contrary to the live weight gains, animals fed on lucerne and its mixture had lower maize stover intakes, 3.35 kg DM/animal/day and 3.70 kg DM respectively, while those on cottonseed cake and the control group ingested respectively 4.72 kg DM and 4.16 kg DM maize Stover. It is concluded that during the critical period in the suburb of Peshawar, small-scale farmers can prevent loss in live weight by utilizing simple available rations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0402.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Corn Stover; Hydrothermal carbonization; Hydro-char characterization; Kinetics of major compounds; Structural evolution.
Online: 22 November 2022 (03:13:44 CET)
In this work, the effect of reaction time and biomass-to-H2O ratio on the structural evolution of hydro-char and kinetic of by hydrothermal processing of corn Stover with hot compressed H2O, have been systematically investigated. The experiments were carried out at 250 °C, heating rate of 2.0 °C/min, biomass-to-H2O ratio of 1:10, and reaction times of 60, 120, and 240 minutes, and at 250 °C, 240 minutes, heating rate of 2.0 °C/min, and biomass-to-H2O water ratio of 1:10, 1:15, and 1:20, using a pilot scale stirred tank reactor of 5 gallon. The characterization of solid phase products performed by thermo-gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and elemental analysis (C, N, H, S). The physical-chemistry properties of solid phase analyzed in terms of dry matter (DM), total organic content (TOC), and ash. The yields of solid and gas phases decrease linearly with decreasing biomass-to-H2O ratio, while that of liquid phases increases linearly. For constant biomass-to-H2O ratio, the yields of solid, liquid, and gaseous reaction products varied between 52.97 and 35.82% (wt.), 44.84 and 54.59% (wt.), and 2.19 and 9.58% (wt.), respectively. The yield of solids decreases exponentially by decreasing the reaction time, while the yields of liquid and gas phases increase exponentially. For constant biomass-to-H2O ratio, TG/DTG curves shows that reaction time of 60 minutes was not enough to carbonize corn Stover. For constant reaction time, TG/DTG curves shows that increasing the H2O-to-biomass ratio worse the carbonization of corn Stover. For constant biomass-to-H2O ratio, the SEM images show the main morphological structure of the corn Stover remains practically unchanged, while for constant reaction time, SEM images show that plant microstructure retains part of its original morphology, demonstrating that a decrease on biomass-to-H2O ratio worse the carbonization of corn Stover. For constant biomass-to-H2O ratio, the EDX analysis shows that the carbon content in hydro-char increases with reaction time, while for constant reaction time, the carbon content decreases with increasing biomass-to-H2O ratio. The kinetic of corn Stover degradation was correlated with a pseudo-first order exponential model, exhibiting a root-mean-square error (r2) of 1.000, demonstrating that degradation kinetics of corn Stover with hot compressed H2O, expressed as hydro-char formation, is well described by an exponential decay kinetics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0480.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Myrothecium verrucaria; lignocelluloses; Scanning electron microscope (SEM); Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); pretreatment; degradation; co-composting; corn stover; cow manure
Online: 18 June 2021 (13:06:31 CEST)
In China, the production of crop straw has been estimated to be approximately 800 Million tons yearly of which about 40% was burned. Corn stover is one of the main agricultural wastes in China. It has shown that lignin in corn stover could be effectively removed byMyrothecium verrucaria. The effects of the pretreatment of corn strover by Myrothecium verrucaria on compost were studied. The results showed that corn stover pretreatment by Myrothecium verrucaria, the Cellulose, Hemicellulose, and lignin were degraded and the results were 33.43%, 11.53% and 18.70% respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed that the surface structure of corn stover was changed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed that the degradation products of lignin were increased. The exposed area of cellulose and hemicellulose was increased. Compared with the control group, the pH value was stable and the temperature was higher. The content of nitrogen in the material decreased, while the contents of total phosphorus and total potassium increased.The C/N ratio of materials decreased after composting.The results showed that the pretreatment of Myrothecium verrucaria improve the degradation of lignocelluloses, a great contribution was made to reduce the causes loss of plant nutrient and to fight against environmental pollution.