REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0295.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: stormwater drainage; urban flood; urban drainage management; food disaster management
Online: 15 October 2020 (12:05:44 CEST)
Stormwater drainage and urban flooding are the popular issues in policy agendas and academia. Although the research on these title increases steadily an integrated review on stormwater drainage and urban flood with a focus on pluvial flooding has yet to be produced. This paper presents a critical review on stormwater drainage and urban flood based on 78 selected journal papers published over the period of 1990 to 2018. The review focus on pluvial flooding to relate urban stormwater drainage management and urban flood disaster management and to show the links between the two. The methods taken to manage urban stormwater drainage and urban flooding as well as the complexity of achieving a comprehensive urban flood disaster management are evaluated and discussed. To better understand the concepts behind urban flood and improve the urban flood risk management strategies, recommendation of future research directions are also provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0013.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: green infrastructure; riparian restoration; green corridor; drainageway; urban valley; stormwater management; flooding; arid landscape; sustainability; urban ecosystem
Online: 3 September 2018 (07:57:32 CEST)
This paper describes the feasibility and probable benefits associated with greening the Tahliah Channel, a concrete drainage channel that was originally built to relieve urban flooding in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. It includes an estimation of irrigation needs for channel greening based on a standardized planting specification. The study also demonstrates alternative strategies for meeting the required irrigation demand, including water harvesting and graywater reuse on a residential scale. The study shows that greening Tahliah Channel is possible relying mainly on graywater reuse from the surrounding buildings. Also, the study shows that rainwater harvesting is not a reliable source for irrigation. Rather, it can cover only part of the irrigation needs (6%) and so can be used as a secondary supporting source. The positive results of this case study will be of interest to those in arid countries who are looking to upgrade and replace traditional, single function drainage infrastructure with more sustainable, green infrastructure systems. More specifically, the objectives of the study are consistent with the goals of the Saudi government’s ongoing initiative that advocates for more resilient and sustainable cities. (Vision 2030 year).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0549.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: domestic water demand; pond harvesting system; roof harvesting system; rainwater harvesting system; water scarcity; stormwater management
Online: 23 September 2020 (10:19:59 CEST)
This paper reviews the design and component of two types of RWHS, namely roof harvesting system (RHS) and pond harvesting system (PHS). The performance in terms of quantity and quality of collected rainwater and energy consumption for RWHS with different capacities were evaluated, as well as the benefits and challenges particularly in environmental, economic and social aspects. Presently, RHS is more commonly applied but its effectiveness is limited by its small scale. The PHS is of larger scale and has greater potentials and effectiveness as an alternative water supply system. Results also indicate the many advantages of PHS especially in terms of economics, environmental aspects and volume of water harvested. While RHS may be suited to individual or existing buildings, PHS has greater potentials and should be applied in newly developed urban areas with wet equatorial climate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0181.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: stormwater; biofilter; de-icing chemicals; nutrients; filtration performance
Online: 20 March 2018 (16:28:04 CET)
Biofilter application for treatment of stormwater containing de-icing chemicals commonly applied in airports, propylene glycol and potassium formate, was investigated. Lab-scale adsorption tests using filter media made of crushed clay (Filtralite) and granular activated carbon showed that adsorption was unsuitable for removal of propylene glycol and potassium formate. Column filtration experiment testing two different crushed clay size ranges was conducted. The results showed that DOC removal was dependent on a number of factors. This study investigated the impact of filter depth, nutrients addition, and filtration rate. DOC removal suggested that DOC degradation occurred on the top filter layer. It was shown that the most active separation occurred in the first ~20 cm of filter depth. This was confirmed by results from water quality analysis (i.e. DOC removal and ATP measurement) and calculations based on a filtration performance analysis (Iwasaki model) and filter hydraulic evaluation (Lindquist diagram). It was shown that for the highest C:N:P ratio tested (molar ratio of 24:7:1), 50-60% DOC removal was achieved. Addition of nutrients was found important and determining the biofilter performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0168.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: urban floods, stormwater pipe network, drainage density, flood risk
Online: 18 July 2018 (09:27:47 CEST)
In mega cities such as Seoul in South Korea, it is very important to protect the city from the flooding even for the short time of period due to the enormous amount of economic damage. In impervious area of the city, stormwater pipe network is commonly applied to discharge rainfall to the outside of catchment. Therefore, the stormwater pipe network in urban catchment should be carefully designed to discharge the runoff quickly and efficiently. In this study, different types of structures in stormwater pipe network were evaluated using the relationship between the peaks rainfall and runoff in urban catchments in South Korea. More than 400 historical rainfall events were applied in five urban catchments to estimate peak runoff from different type of network structures. Linear regression analysis was implemented to estimate peak runoffs. The coefficient of determination of the regressions were higher than 0.9 which means the regression model represent very well the relationship between the two peaks. However, the variation of the prediction becomes large as the peak rainfall increases and the variation become even larger when the network structure is branched. Therefore, it depends on the structure of stormwater pipe network. When the water paths in the pipe network is unique (branched network), the increased amount of rainfall is congested around the rainwater inlets and the uncertainty of peak runoff prediction is increased. If there are many possible water paths depending on the amount of discharge (looped network), the increased rainfall is discharged more quickly through the many water paths. This can be a way to represent the reliability of the stormwater pipe network. The structures of stormwater pipe network is evaluated using drainage density which is the length of pipes over the unit catchment area and 95% confidence interval. As a result, the 95% confidence interval is increased as the drainage density is increased because the accuracy of peak runoff prediction is decreased. As mentioned earlier, because the looped networks have many alternative water flowing paths, elimination time of rainfall from the catchments become short, the 95% confidence interval become narrow, and the reliability of peak runoff prediction become high. Therefore, it is beneficial to install looped stormwater pipe network within the affordable budget. It is important factor to determine the amount of complexity in stormwater pipe network to decrease the risk of urban flooding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0185.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: porous asphalt pavement system; stormwater; stormwater runoff; heavy metals removal; geotextile membrane
Online: 9 August 2018 (10:07:29 CEST)
Porous asphalt (PA) pavement systems with and without a geotextile layer were investigated in laboratory experiments to determine the impacts of the geotextile layer on processes leading to lead ion (Pb2+) removal from stormwater runoff. Two types of geotextile membranes placed separately at upper and lower levels within the PA systems were tested in an artificial rainfall experiment using synthetic rainwater. The effect of storage capacity within the system on Pb2+ removal was also investigated. Results indicated that the use of a geotextile layer resulted in a longer delay to the onset of effluent. The non-woven geotextile membrane placed below the reservoir course improved the Pb2+ removal rate by 20% over removal efficiency of the system using a woven geotextile placed just below the surface but before the choker course. Pb2+ ions were reduced by over 98% in the effluent after being held for 24 hours in reservoir storage. Results suggest that temporary storage of stormwater in the reservoir course of a PA system is essential to improving Pb2+ ion removal capability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0630.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: managed retreat; dynamic adaptive policy pathways; sea-level rise; water infrastructure; stormwater; wastewater; coastal flooding; climate change
Online: 26 July 2020 (02:38:50 CEST)
Frequent flooding from sea-level rise (SLR) is one of the immediate climate change impacts affecting low-lying and exposed coastal communities. These communities rely upon the delivery of three-waters services for wastewater, stormwater and water supply. Due to ongoing SLR, managing these networks will increasingly be a challenge. This raises the issue of how local government can reconcile maintaining levels of service as the impacts of climate change and their uncertainties worsen over the coming decades (and beyond). Can they be adapted over time to retain levels of service or will they eventually require retreat and if so at what adaptation threshold? This paper explores managed retreat of two-waters infrastructure (wastewater and stormwater) as an adaptation option using a Dynamic Adaptive Pathway Planning (DAPP) approach. In the study, we use DAPP to frame the retreat of two-water networks, developing a combination of an area specific retreat strategy, pathway portfolios, retreat phases, land use change signaling and identify pathway conflicts and synergies. Repurposing retreated areas by utilizing Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) options was found to extend retreat thresholds for adjacent areas. A systematic ’routine’ developed in this study provides a structured approach for managed retreat of two-water infrastructure with the aim to reduce future disruption from flooding, signal land use changes early and allow for gradual budget adjustments by the agencies to manage expenditure over time. This approach helps inform and improve the decision-making process for the agencies and the communities they serve, by providing a stepwise process that can be communicated spatially and visually, thereby making a retreat adaptation option more manageable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0075.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ANCOVA; Blockage; Clogging; Efficient; Green infrastructure; Infiltration bed; Orifice; Perforation; Performance; Philadelphia; Pipe; Stormwater
Online: 4 July 2018 (15:18:14 CEST)
Performance of flow through orifices on a perforated distribution pipe between periods with and without partial clogging (submersion of part of the distribution pipe) was compared. The distribution pipe directly receives runoff and delivers it to an underground infiltration bed. Partial clogging appeared in winter but reduced in summer. Performance was defined as flow rate divided by l_eff (h_(d,mean)^0.5) where h_(d,mean) is the mean pressure head that drives flow and l_eff is the effective pipe length (length of water column with pipe water volume and the pipe cross-sectional area). ANCOVA (ANalysis of COVAriance) was adopted to examine the clogging effects with flow rate plotted against l_eff (h_(d,mean)^0.5) . Partial clogging had a significant effect on pipe performance during periods of low or no rainfall. However, if only data during larger storms was considered, little evidence showed that partial clogging had effects on pipe delivery performance. Partial clogging might be caused by leaves accumulated in the lower section of the pipe in winter, and its effect was insignificant when water level rose in the pipe, utilizing significantly more orifices on the distribution pipe, thus the effect from the clogged portion had negligible impact on system performance. Larger storms might also provide the required flow rate to move the debris block thus exposing the orifices. Partial clogging did not increase the tendency of overflow; therefore, current maintenance schedule was sufficient to keep the distribution pipe at satisfactory performance even though partial clogging can exist.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0322.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: stormwater; monitoring; gross pollutant generation rates; suspended solids; nitrogen; phosphorus; heavy metals
Online: 18 July 2018 (09:07:46 CEST)
Urban stormwater runoff from a medium-density residential development in southeast Queensland has been monitored in the field since November 2013. A treatment train installed on the site includes rainwater tanks collecting roofwater, 200-micron mesh baskets installed in grated gully pits and two 850 mm high media filtration cartridges installed in an underground 4 m3 vault. A monitoring protocol developed by research partners, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), guided the monitoring process over a 4.5-year period. Heavy metals were included in the list of analytes during the monitoring period as the catchment is within 1 km of the environmentally-sensitive Moreton Bay, Queensland. Removal efficiencies observed at this site for the regulated pollutants; total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) for the pit baskets were 61%, 28% and 45% respectively. The cartridge filters removed 78% TSS, 59% TP, 42% TN, 40% total copper and 51% total zinc. As the measured influent concentrations to the cartridge filters were low when compared to industry guidelines, the dataset was merged with international field results for TSS (n=39) and TP (n=32) but truncated within anticipated guideline levels. The combined dataset for the media filter demonstrates performance at 89% TSS, 66% TP and 42% TN. The total gross pollutant generation rate from the medium-density residential catchment was observed to be 0.24 m3/Ha/year, with a corresponding air-dried mass of 142.5 kg/Ha/year. Less than 2% of the gross pollutant mass was anthropogenic. The findings of this research suggest that the treatment train, and in particular the media filter, holds promise for the removal of total copper and total zinc, in addition to TSS, TP and TN, from urban stormwater runoff. Based on a maximum, low risk trigger TN concentration of 1.5 mg/L, the field test data from 4.5 years of operation and standard maintenance, suggests a 5.5-year replacement interval for the media filters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0036.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: compost, nutrient leaching; pollutant removal; stormwater quality, system modeling
Online: 2 April 2019 (15:35:29 CEST)
Filter Media (FM) sourced from recycled organic and mineral material offers a low cost and effective means of treating urban stormwater. Using recycled materials rather than from an increasingly scarce source of virgin materials (typically sandy loam soil) can ensure a sustainable long-term economy and environment. This paper presents results from the laboratory analysis and mathematical modeling to highlight the performance of recycled organic and mineral material in removing nutrients and metals from stormwater. Analysis included physical and chemical characterisation such as particle size distribution, saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), bulk density, effective cation exchange capacity, and pollutant removal performance. Design mixes (DM), comprising a combination of organic and mineral materials, were characterised and used to develop/derive modelling design within the Model for Urban Stormwater Improvement Conceptualisation (MUSIC v6) . Comparison is made to the Adoption Guidelines for Stormwater Biofiltration Systems - Summary Report  which were based on the Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration (FAWB) guidelines to assist in the development of biofiltration systems, including the planning, design, construction and operation of those systems. An observed outcome from over two decades of biofiltration guideline development has been the exclusion of alternative biofilter materials due to claims of excessive leaching. Results from this study indicate that high nutrient and metal removal rates can be achieved over a range of hydraulic conductivities using design mixes of recycled organic and mineral materials that have a demonstrated equivalence to existing guideline specifications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0083.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: evapotranspiration; green infrastructure; HYDRUS; leaf water potential; low impact development; optimization; overdesign; stomatal conductance; simulated runoff test; static sizing; stormwater control measure; tree trench
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:28:40 CET)
Green infrastructure systems are often overdesigned. This may be a byproduct of static sizing (e.g., accounting for a design storm’s runoff volume but not exfiltration rates) or may be deliberate (e.g., buffering against performance loss through time). Regardless, overdesign may compromise plants’ access to water in systems where soil pits are embedded in infiltration beds. It could raise the storm size required for water to reach soil pits, reducing water availability between storms, which could ultimately induce plant physiological stress. This study investigated the hydrological dynamics and water relations of a tree trench system suspected to have been overbuilt and identified factors contributing to, compounding, and mitigating the risk of plant stress. Results provided strong evidence that the abovementioned processes played out. Water in the infiltration bed reached soil pits only once in three years, with that event occurring during a hydrant release. Moreover, minimal water was retained in the soil pit during the event due to the hydraulic properties of the soil media. Through a growing season, one of the two tree types frequently experienced water stress, while the other did so only rarely. These contrasting responses can likely be attributed to roots either being largely confined to the soil pits or reaching a deeper water source. Implications of these results for green infrastructure design are considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: benzotriazole; biofilter; bioretention; green infrastructure; phytoremediation; sorption; stormwater
Online: 1 October 2018 (11:55:42 CEST)
Urban stormwater runoff is a significant source of pollutants into surface water bodies. One such pollutant, 1H-benzotriazole, is a persistent, recalcitrant trace organic contaminant commonly used as a corrosion inhibitor in airplane deicing processes, automobile liquids, and engine coolants. This study explored the removal of 1H-benzotriazole from stormwater using bench-scale biofilter mesocosms planted with California native sedge, Carex praegracilis, over a series of three storm events and monitoring period. Benzotriazole metabolites glycosylated benzotriazole and benzotriazole alanine were detected and benzotriazole and glycosylated benzotriazole partitioning in the system were quantified. With a treatment length of seven days, 97.1% of benzotriazole was removed from stormwater effluent from vegetated biofilter mesocosms. Significant concentrations of benzotriazole and glycosylated benzotriazole were observed in the C. praegracilis leaf and root tissue. Additionally, a significant missing sink of benzotriazole developed in the vegetated biofilter mesocosms. This study suggests that vegetation may increase the operating lifespan of bioretention basins by enhancing degradation of dissolved trace organic contaminants, thus increasing the sorption capacity of the geomedia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0413.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Real-time Control; Reinforcement Learning; Smart Stormwater Systems; Urban Flooding
Online: 20 October 2020 (15:03:45 CEST)
Climate change and development have increased urban flooding, requiring modernization of stormwater infrastructure. Retrofitting standard passive systems with controllable valves/pumps is promising, but requires real-time control (RTC). One method of automating RTC is reinforcement learning (RL), a general technique for sequential optimization and control in uncertain environments. The notion is that an RL algorithm can use inputs of real-time flood data and rainfall forecasts to learn a policy for controlling the stormwater infrastructure to minimize measures of flooding. In real-world conditions, rainfall forecasts and other state information, are subject to noise and uncertainty. To account for these characteristics of the problem data, we implemented Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG), an RL algorithm that is distinguished by its capability to handle noise in the input data. DDPG implementations were trained and tested against a passive flood control policy. Three primary cases were studied: (i) perfect data, (ii) imperfect rainfall forecasts, and (iii) imperfect water level and forecast data. Rainfall episodes (100) that caused flooding in the passive system were selected from 10 years of observations in Norfolk, Virginia, USA; 85 randomly selected episodes were used for training and the remaining 15 unseen episodes served as test cases. Compared to the passive system, all RL implementations reduced flooding volume by 70.5% on average, and performed within a range of 5%. This suggests that DDPG is robust to noisy input data, which is essential knowledge to advance the real-world applicability of RL for stormwater RTC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0704.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Green Infrastructure; urban flooding; SWMM; stormwater; neighborhood level; high resolution; Costa Rica
Online: 31 August 2020 (05:07:43 CEST)
Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI), a sustainable engineering design approach for managing urban stormwater runoff, has long been recommended as an alternative to conventional conveyance-based stormwater management strategies to mitigate the adverse impact of sprawling urbanization. Hydrological and hydraulic simulations of small-scale GSI measures in densely urbanized micro watersheds require high-resolution spatial databases of urban land use, stormwater structures, and topography. This study presents a highly resolved Storm Water Management Model developed under considerable spatial data constraints. It evaluates the cumulative effect of the implementation of dispersed, retrofitted, small-scale GSI measures in a heavily urbanized micro watershed of Costa Rica. Our methodology includes a high-resolution digital elevation model based on Google Earth information, whose accuracy was sufficient to determine flow patterns and slopes, as well as to approximate the subsurface stormwater structures. The model produced satisfactory results in event-based calibration and validation, which ensured the reliability of the data collection procedure. Simulating the implementation of GSI shows that dispersed, retrofitted, small-scale measures could significantly reduce impermeable surface runoff (peak runoff reduction up to 40%) during frequent, less intense storm events and delay peak surface runoff 5-10 minutes. The presented approach can benefit stormwater practitioners and modelers conducting small scale hydrological simulation under spatial data constraint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0275.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: flood; Geodesign; urban growth; development; land use/land cover; green infrastructure; drainage; stormwater; runoff; underground storage
Online: 28 April 2019 (10:35:14 CEST)
The consequences of growing urbanization can be perceived in multiple levels around the globe: overpopulated living conditions, water and air pollution, loss of open space, costly transportation infrastructure, food shortages, fires and floods. The Houston metropolitan area is an example of fast urban growth, with a population increase of more than sixteen percent in seven years, going from 5.8 million people in 2010 to 6.9 million in 2017 . By 2045, the robust growth of the region is projected to lead to the addition of approximately five hundred square miles of developed area, including an estimated six million parking spaces, seven hundred eighty million square feet of non-residential uses, and three and a half billion square feet of residential use . The accelerated development, in addition to physical features, geomorphic processes and human activities in the region are believed to have caused Houston to suffer through over fifty devastating floods since its settlement, despite some successful flood damage reduction projects. The present study focused on the potential outcomes of an increased use of green infrastructure in comparable urban areas, and its effects on flooding volume. Results from the research revealed that not only these measures would likely improve the performance of existing urban drainage systems and attenuate flood incidence in the area, but would also promote connectivity between areas otherwise detached or only accessible by car, improving walkability and incentivizing engagement in outdoor activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0680.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Urban Drainage Systems; Sustainable Stormwater Management; Costa Rica; Place-based research; Transition Stages
Online: 27 November 2020 (09:02:24 CET)
Green Infrastructure promotes the use of natural functions and processes as potential solutions to reduce negative effects derived from anthropocentric interventions such as urbanization. In cities of Latin America, for example, the need for more nature-sound infrastructure is evident due to its degree of urbanization and degradation of ecosystems, as well as the alteration of the local water cycle. In this study, an experimental approach for implementation of a prototype is presented. The experiment took place in a highly urbanized watershed located in the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica. Initially, understanding the characteristics of the study area at different scales was achieved by applying the Urban Water System Transition Framework to identify the existing level of development of the urban water infrastructure, and potential future stages. Subsequently, preferences related to spatial locations and technologies were identified from different local decision-makers. Those insights were adopted to identify a potential area for implementation of the prototype. The experiment consisted on an adaptation of the local sewer to act as a temporal reservoir to reduce the effects derived from rapid generation of stormwater runoff. Unexpected events, not considered initially in the design, are reported in this study as a means to identify necessary adaptations of the methodology. Our study shows from an experimental learning-experience that the relation between different actors advocating for such technologies influences the implementation and operation of non-conventional technologies. Furthermore, the perception of security associated to green spaces was found as a key driver to increase the willingness of residents to modify their urban environments. In consequence, those aspects should be carefully considered as factors of designs of engineering elements when they are related to complex socio-ecological urban systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0576.v1
Subject: Keywords: Permeable pavements; potable water savings; universities; public buildings; stormwater harvesting; sustainability
Online: 31 August 2021 (15:54:45 CEST)
Permeable pavements have been the subject of numerous studies in recent decades. The possibility of dissipating stormwater more smoothly and generating numerous benefits to the environment and users makes the use of permeable pavements an excellent possibility of integration into sustainable and resilient water management systems in cities. In Brazil, numerous studies on the quantity and quality of infiltrated water, permeability of the coating, clogging, environmental burden, feasibility, among other characteristics, have been researched. Within this theme, the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC) has contributed with ten papers in the research of permeable pavements in the last six years, which address various topics about the effectiveness and applicability of permeable pavements. This paper reviews the studies conducted at UFSC on permeable pavements and discusses the different results within the main issues found. In general, the selected documents addressed seven themes in the studies: potential for potable water savings, clogging, quantity and quality of the water infiltrated into the pavement, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its variants, and hydraulic and structural design details. More specifically, many selected papers assess the potential use of stormwater harvested through permeable pavements in non-potable uses of buildings. The possibility of aligning the benefits of green infrastructure with the rational use of water expands the advantages of the system and can help prevent future water scarcity, as well as reduce the environmental impacts of paving.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0519.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Real-Time; Stormwater; Control Measure; Low-Cost; Machine Learning; Time-series; LSTM
Online: 16 December 2022 (05:21:32 CET)
The alteration of natural land cover to impervious surfaces during development increases stormwater runoff. Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) are used to manage water quantity and enhance water quality by restoring the hydrologic cycle altered by development. Often, SCMs have an outflow pipe to handle overflows or to manage the release of water detained when infiltration is not possible. Traditionally, these are static controls (e.g. a small orifice is used to restrict the volume of outflow), however, these systems can be improved by instituting real-time controls (RTC). RTC improve the functionality of SCMs by dynamically controlling outflows to adjust to environmental conditions. A major impediment to the widespread implementation of RTC is the high cost of installation and operation. This study utilized machine learning methods to develop a forecasting approach for the implementation of low-cost RTC that were implemented on a programmable gate of the outlet structure of a multi-stage basin in southeastern Pennsylvania. The goals were to decrease the peak flow exiting the basin during rain events, increase the volume of water detained, decrease the number of overtopping events, maintain healthy vegetation in the basin, and protect the downstream vegetation from erosion. Multiple popular data science algorithms were evaluated including multiple linear regression and long short-term memory. These algorithms were used with a dataset, which consisted of four years of historical sensor data, collected in 5-minute intervals, to train models to predict water levels to optimize operations. The accuracy of 30 models with three different methods of handling missing values were compared. A long short-term memory model configured with a 30-minute lead time produced the best results. Having an approximate same lag time of 30 minutes for the contributing drainage area of the SCM provided a sufficient RTC functioning period to improve the performance of the outlet structure.