BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1677.v1
Online: 25 July 2023 (10:21:09 CEST)
: In Chile, most tailings impoundments are in Northern and Central Chile, 20% of them are abandoned. Municipal budgets to manage these environmental liabilities are very limited and the use of native and endemic plant species to remove heavy metals from tailings is a low-cost alternative. Ex-situ phytoremediation experiments were conducted over seven months to evaluate the potential of Lycium chilense and Haplopappus foliosus to remove copper and lead from mine tailings. The results indicate that both species can concentrate high levels of both elements and they present removal efficiencies for Cu close to 50%. The best performance was presented by Haplopappus foliosus, accumulating higher concentrations of both metals than Lycium chilense. Also, it presents a bioconcentration over 1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0307.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: comfort; vibration; biomechanics; postural stabilization
Online: 23 May 2022 (12:14:30 CEST)
In future automated vehicles we will often engage in non-driving tasks and will not watch the road. This will affect postural stabilization and may elicit discomfort or even motion sickness in dynamic driving. Future vehicles shall accommodate this by properly designed seats and interiors whereas comfortable vehicle motion shall be achieved with smooth driving styles and well de-signed (active) suspensions. To support research and development in dynamic comfort, this paper presents validation of a multi-segment full body human model including visuo-vestibular and muscle spindle feedback for postural stabilization. Dynamic driving is evaluated using a “sicken-ing drive” including a 0.2 Hz 4 m/s2 slalom. Vibration transmission is evaluated with compliant automotive seats, applying 3D platform motion and evaluating 3D translation and rotation of pelvis, trunk and head. The model matches human motion in dynamic driving and reproduces fore-aft, lateral and vertical oscillations. Visuo-vestibular and muscle spindle feedback are shown to be essential in particular for head-neck stabilization. Active leg muscle control at the hips and knees is shown to be essential to stabilize the trunk in the high amplitude slalom condition but not in low amplitude horizontal vibrations. However, active leg muscle control can strongly affect 4-6 Hz vertical vibration transmission. Compared to the vibration tests, the dynamic driving tests show enlarged postural control gains to minimize trunk and head roll and pitch, and to align head yaw with the driving direction. Human modelling can create the required insights to achieve breakthrough comfort enhance-ments while enabling efficient development for a wide range of driving conditions, body sizes and other factors. Hence, modelling human postural control can accelerate innovation of seats and vehicle motion control strategies for (automated) vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0255.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: heavy metal; polysulfide; groundwater; stabilization; lead
Online: 11 August 2021 (11:18:13 CEST)
Heavy metals contamination in groundwater often occurs in various industrial processes. Stud-ies have confirmed that polysulfide could reduce hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium, achieving the effect of in-situ stabilization. For other heavy metals contamination in groundwa-ter, whether polysulfide also had a stabilizing ability to achieve in-situ remediation. This re-search focused on heavy metals except for chromium that often contaminated in groundwater, including lead, nickel, zinc, copper, and cadmium to explore the feasibility of using calcium polysulfide (CaSx) as an in-situ stabilization technology for these heavy metals contamination groundwater. Results showed that CaSx had a great removal efficiency for heavy metals lead, nickel, zinc, copper, and cadmium. However, for nickel, zinc, copper and cadmium, when CaSx was added excessively, complexes would be formed, causing the result of re-dissolve and this would also reduce the removal efficiency. Since it is difficult to accurately control the dosage of agents for in-situ groundwater remediation, the concentration of re-dissolved nickel, zinc, cop-per, and cadmium may not be able to meet the groundwater control standards. CaSx had high lead removal efficiency, and it would not cause re-dissolution due to excessive CaSx dosing. CaSx can be used as an in-situ stabilization technique for lead contaminated groundwater.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0419.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: polyacrylonitrile; stabilization; cyclization; kinetics; carbon fiber
Online: 26 May 2020 (05:30:13 CEST)
A methodology is proposed for designing the stabilization process of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers. In its core, this methodology is based on a model that describes the characteristic fiber length change during the treatment, through the de-convolution of the three main contributors (i.e. entropic shrinkage, creep, and chemical shrinkage). The model has the additional advantage of offering further insight into the physical and chemical phenomena taking place during the treatment. Validation of PAN-model prediction performance for different processing parameters was achieved as demonstrated by FTIR and DSC. Τensile testing revealed the effect of processing parameters on fiber quality, while model prediction demonstrated that ladder polymer formation is accelerated at temperatures over 200oC. Additionally, according the DSC and FTIR measurements predictions from the application of the model during stabilization seem to be more precise at high-temperature stabilization stages. It was shown that mechanical properties could be enhanced preferably by including a treatment step below 200oC, before the initiation of cyclization reactions. Further confirmation was provided via Raman spectroscopy, which demonstrated that graphitic like planes are formed upon stabilization above 200oC, and thus multistage stabilization is required to optimize synthesis of carbon fibers. Optical Microscopy proved that isothermal stabilization treatment did not severy alter the cross section geometry of PAN fiber monofilaments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0747.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: bronze relics; powder rust; high-permeability; stabilization
Online: 12 October 2023 (02:12:19 CEST)
Under the influence of various factors, the bronze ware unearthed by archaeology has various diseases of different degrees, and the mineralization problem is more prominent. The physical properties of mineralized bronzes have been destroyed, and the whole is loose and fragile, which is in urgent need of reinforcement and protection. Common reinforcement and protection materials mainly consider surface sealing, matrix bonding reinforcement and penetration reinforcement. Considering the low matrix strength and complex disease types of fragile bronzeware, it is difficult to achieve targeted protection with commonly used reinforcement and protection materials. In view of the problems such as poor permeability and easy discoloration of commonly used protection materials, this paper uses self-developed reinforcement and protection material AMC to compare its reinforcement and protection performance with B72, which has a high comprehensive evaluation on the performance of commonly used reinforcement and protection materials. The matrix strength was increased, and the appearance intervention degree was less than B72.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0250.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: soil stabilization; durability; expansive soils; compressibility; shrinkage
Online: 5 September 2023 (08:07:51 CEST)
This paper assesses the performance of an embankment constructed in 2010 with a stabilised expansive soil. Two types of treatment were employed at construction time: 4% lime and a mix of 2% lime and 3% cement. A sampling campaign was carried out in 2021 to evaluate the long-term performance of the stabilised soil properties. To assess the compressibility of the soil, oedometer tests were carried out on samples from different parts of the embankment. The results were compared to the compression curve of the untreated soil, also sampled in the same embankment. Complementary shrinkage tests were performed to investigate the effect of the treatment on swelling and shrinkage. The obtained results showed that the behaviour of the material from the outer part was similar to the mechanical performance of the untreated soil, demonstrating strong alteration in the effect of both treatments over time. This alteration was noticeable to a distance of approximately two metres from the external surface. Beyond this distance, the performance of the soil was comparable to the behaviour of recently treated soil. These observations, similar for each treatment dosage, raise questions as to the durability of the treatment on the outer part of the backfill.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0376.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Loess stabilization; Cement; Mechanical properties; Landslide; Microstructure
Online: 22 February 2023 (06:59:38 CET)
In this study, cement is used as the component that provides the stabilizing effect in order to evaluate the hardness and stability of loess soil. To assess the strength characteristics of loess soil reinforced with cement, samples were created with four different cement contents and three different curing times. The materials were put through a series of tests to determine their flexural strength, direct shear strength, indirect tensile strength, and unconfined compressive strength. An appropriate cement dosage was found, in addition to a durability index that could be used to quantify the effect of water absorption investigations on cement-stabilized loess. Both of these discoveries were made simultaneously. Analyses of investigations such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) examinations were carried out so that the fundamental mechanics of the materials could be comprehended. According to the findings, the cohesion of cement-stabilized loess is significantly more sensitive to structure than the friction angle of the material, and the cohesion is responsible for the increase in shear strength after remolding. To get the desired level of strength, it is necessary to adjust the cement's proportions. In addition, as the curing period progresses, we see an increase in the cement-stabilized loess's resistance and stiffness. This is because of the interactions that take place between the structure and the mineral composition. It is believed that this event was caused by the cementation that occurs naturally. As a consequence of this reaction, the production of new cementitious materials takes place. The cation exchange that causes the hydration and pozzolanic reaction that leads to the creation of aggregates and interparticle flocculation is responsible for their production. These findings suggest that cement may be utilized as a simple and effective method of loess stabilization, which will ultimately result in improved performance of the loess.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0290.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: premixed lattice burner; flame stabilization; analytical model
Online: 21 June 2022 (06:20:52 CEST)
Stabilization of planar premixed flame front on a lattice (porous) burner is considered. It is rigorously mathematically proved that there exist two different stabilization regimes: one with flame front located nearby the surface of the burner, and another with flame front located inside the lattice. These two regimes result in qualitatively different gas temperature profiles along the flow, that is monotonic and non-monotonic, respectively. Boundary between the two regimes is described in terms of dependence of the lattice solid material temperature on flow Peclet number. Likewise temperature profiles, such dependencies may be both monotonic and non-monotonic. Transition between the two types of dependencies is controlled by Arrhenius number. Conclusions of the study are supported by numerical analysis. They also compare favourably with available experimental data. Novelty of the present approach is fundamentally rigorous analytical analysis of the problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0258.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: point defect; crystal lattice; interstitial; austenitic; stabilization; superalloys
Online: 11 January 2023 (09:00:32 CET)
Bubble (point defect) – a precursor of fuzz or under dense nanostructure formation is crystal lattice defect. Suitable selection of crystal lattice which inhibit Frenkel pair generation and intrinsically promotes self- interstitial solid solution strengthening contributes effectively towards making plasma facing material. For this, interstitial sites, their size, amount / fraction, positions, tendency of occupation and diffusion parameters (e.g. activation energies (Q), activation volumes) are determined. Fcc iron carbon alloys (austenitic stainless steels AISI / SAE 321, fcc structure, Pearson code cF4, space group Fm3̅m) are proposed as suitable candidates. Along with their room temperature fcc structure having 12 interstitial positions (4 octahedral, 6 coordination sites and 8 tetrahedral, 4 coordination sites / unit cell) to allow insertion of self (iron) atoms, they have excellent corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity, and non- magnetic properties. After their melting, casting, and machining to required dimensions and geometry, stabilizing heat treatment is applied to precipitate all carbon as TiC and prevent formation of Cr23C6 (sensitization). This resist heat and surface degradation and yield excellent architecture which not onlyinhibit Frankel pair generation but will also allow bulk assimilation or surface annihilation (loop punching) of this lattice point defect. A superior thermal, fluid, and structural design augment above. A second choice is presented as Co base superalloys owing to same fcc crystal structure and excellent properties (such as strength, dimensional stability, oxidation resistance) at high temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1362.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: viscous compressible medium; multicomponent flows; stabilization of solution
Online: 19 June 2023 (13:15:21 CEST)
An initial-boundary value problem is considered for one-dimensional isothermal equations of the dynamics of viscous compressible multicomponent media, which are a generalization of the Navier--Stokes equations. We prove the stabilization of the solution to the initial-boundary value problem while the time tends to infinity, without simplifying assumptions for the structure of the viscosity matrix, except for the standard physical requirements of symmetry and positive definitenes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0536.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Stabilization; control constraints; evolutionary algorithms; switched linear system
Online: 20 November 2020 (11:07:03 CET)
In this paper, we address the problem of stabilization of switched linear systems. The idea is to look for a state feedback control law using evolutionary algorithms (EA) in order to assure the stability of the switched linear systems under control constraints. In some cases when states are not available and only outputs are measurable, the previous method is applied to design an output feedback controller which stabilizes the system. Both stabilizing controllers are developed using deferential evolution and genetic algorithm. Two numerical examples illustrate our proposed theory and point out the effectiveness of our proposed approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0421.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: strength; stiffness; clay; stabilization; microstructure; wood ash; waste
Online: 19 July 2020 (18:49:54 CEST)
The world’s population is growing at a rapid pace, thus increasing the need for shelter, which, because of increased carbon emissions, is making our planet less inhabitable. Thus, supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) are used to reduce the embodied carbon emissions in the building sector. Wood ash, as a replacement for cement in soil treatment, seems to be a promising material. In this study, we considered the strength, stiffness, and microstructural behavior of marine clay treated with cement and wood ash as a cement replacement. Since clay is abundant in nature, it could help stabilize waste to improve the mechanical behavior of produced composites. Portland cement (7%, 10%, and 13%) was replaced with various amount of wood ash (5% and 10%) with two different dry densities (1400 and 1600 kg/m3) and three distinct curing periods (7, 28, and 60 days). Unconfined compressive strength, direct shear, porosity, pulse velocity, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy tests were performed on selected specimens to evaluate the structural and microstructural effect of clay–wood ash–cement interaction. The results revealed that the replacement of cement with 5% of wood ash yielded superior performance. The microstructure investigation of wood ash–cement–clay blends further showed the formation of a densified matrix with stable bonds. Furthermore, the porosity and strength properties of blends developed unique relationships, which were further confirmed by other supplementary materials and soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0100.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Periwinkle Shell Powder, Geotechnical Property, Expansive soil, Stabilization.
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:19:58 CET)
This study used eco-friendly materials known as Periwinkle Shell Powder (PSP) in stabilizing the engineering properties of lateritic soil. Preliminary test was performed on the un-stabilized lateritic soil for the purposes of identification and classification (natural moisture content, liquid limits, plastic limits, and plasticity index). The engineering tests were conducted on the lateritic soil stabilized with additions of (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 %) PSP and OPC respectively. The result showed that cement gave a progressive increase in the Maximum Dry Density (MDD) of the lateritic soil from 1875 kg/m3 (2 %) to 2294 kg/m3 (10 %) respectively. This represents 22 % increase in the MDD from the un-stabilized state. For PSP, the Maximum MDD was attained at 6 % (1974 kg/m3), representing 5.3 % increase in MDD of the soil from the un-stabilized state. For both stabilizing agent, the Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) increases from 13.65 % to 13.83 % and from 11.72 % to 14.41 % for Cement and Periwinkle Shell Powder respectively. PSP recorded an increase of 5.6 % of CBR value compared with OPC that recorded an increase of 34 % CBR value. The study therefore concluded that Periwinkle Shell Powder (PSP) could be considered as good stabilizer for clayey or lateritic, and its uses as a stabilizer could also provide a big relief to the environmental pollution caused by its indiscriminate dumping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0302.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: stabilization; symbolic regression; synthesized control; evolutionary computations; quadcopter model
Online: 5 September 2023 (10:11:12 CEST)
The development of artificial intelligence systems assumes that a machine can independently generate an algorithm of actions or a control system to solve the tasks. To do this, the machine must have a formal description of the problem and possess computational methods for solving it. The article deals with the problem of optimal control, which is the main task in the development of control systems, insofar as all systems being developed must be optimal from the point of view of a certain criterion. However, there are certain difficulties in implementing the resulting optimal control modes. The paper considers an extended formulation of the optimal control problem, which implies the creation of such systems that would have the necessary properties for its practical implementation. To solve it, an adaptive synthesized optimal control approach based on the use of numerical methods of machine learning is proposed. The method moves the control object, optimally changing the position of the stable equilibrium point in the presence of some initial position uncertainty. As a result, from all possible synthesized controls, he chooses one that is less sensitive to changes in the initial states. As an example, the optimal control problem of quadcopter with complex phase constraints is considered. To solve this problem? according to the proposed approach, the control synthesis problem is firstly solved to obtain a stable equilibrium point in the state space by a machine learning method of symbolic regression. After that optimal positions of the stable equilibrium point are searched according to source functional from the optimal control problem by particle swarm optimization algorithm. It is shown that such approach allows generating the control system automatically by computer basing on the formal statement of the problem and then directly implementing it onboard as far as they have already had a stabilization system inserted.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0168.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: carboxymethyl cellulose; cerium oxide; nanocomposite; cerium nanoparticles; stabilization; microscopy
Online: 9 February 2023 (11:35:13 CET)
Nanocomposites consisting of cerium based nanoparticles stabilized by carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) macromolecules were obtained using one-pot reaction at room tempera-ture. The characterization of the nanocomposites was carried out with the use of combina-tion of microscopy, XRD and IT-spectroscopy analysis. The type of crystal structure of in-organic nanoparticles corresponding to CeO2 has been determined and the mechanism of the nanoparticles formation was suggested. It was demonstrated that the size and shape of nanoparticles in the resulting nanocomposites does not depend on the ratio of the ini-tial reagents. Spherical particles with mean diameter 3 nm were obtained in different reac-tion mixtures. The scheme of the dual stabilization of CeO2 nanoparticles with carboxylate and hydroxyl groups of CMC. These findings are promising for the development and ap-plication of Ce-based nanoparticles materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0040.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: jump header shooting; soccer, trunk muscle activity; stabilization exercise
Online: 5 May 2022 (12:38:08 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to clarify trunk muscle activity during jump header shooting and examine the immediate effects of trunk stabilization exercises on trunk muscle activity. Methods: Nineteen male college students who had played soccer in junior high and high school clubs and youth sports teams for over 5 years were assigned to either the trunk stabilization exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 9). Muscle activity during jump header shooting was measured before and after intervention. The intervention in the trunk stabilization exercise group was trunk muscle training, whereas that in the control group was sitting. The phases of jump header shooting and the effects of the interventions were compared. Results: The internal oblique activity during the push-off phase and early floating phase was significantly greater than that during the late floating phase. The muscle activity of the internal oblique increased from the push-off phase, prior to the increase in muscle activity of the rectus abdominis and external oblique, whereas the muscle activity of all abdominal muscles increased immediately after take-off. The trunk stabilization exercise intervention decreased the muscle activity of the erector spinae during jump header shooting. Conclusions: These results provide useful coaching-related insights for jump header shooting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0563.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Energreen; Biomass liquefaction; Pilot Scale; Bio-oils; Sugars extraction; Stabilization
Online: 8 August 2023 (03:41:08 CEST)
The reagents and raw materials used, as well as the products obtained (bio-oil, reaction condensates, polyols and sugar phases) were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The heating value of the bio-oils is higher than that of the original biomass (higher heating value of Eucalyptus sawdust bio-oil 29 MJ/kg versus 19.5 MJ/kg of the original Eucalyptus sawdust). The analyses of the bio-oils allowed to identify the presence of high added-value compounds, such as levulinic acid and furfural. Finally, a study of the accelerated aging of the liquefied biomass showed that the biofuel density increases with the storage time due to the occurrence of repolymerization reactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0406.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Electric tomography; three-dimensional; electrodes; seat control; foundations; stabilization methodology.
Online: 15 April 2021 (10:50:51 CEST)
The paper proposes a novel methodology for the stabilization of shallow foundations, with a simplified model combined with 3D Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT-3D) and conso- lidation injections. To determine its usefulness, the method has been applied in a case located in Estepona (southern Spain). The chosen tomography model is the dipole-dipole configuration, with an optimized distance between electrodes of 0.80 m for a better visualization of the foundation subsoil; with this parameterization, a total of 72 electrodes were installed in the analyzed case. In this work, the depth of the anomaly in the building's supporting subsoil was detected ranging from 2.00 m to 3.90 m deep. The study also delineates areas of high resistivity variations (50-1,000 Ω m) in the middle and eastern end of the field. These data have been validated and corroborated with a field campaign. The results of the ERT-3D monitoring are presented, once the investment data has been processed with the RES3DINV software, from the beginning to the end of the stabilization intervention. The novelty occurs with the interaction between the tomography and the foundation consolidation injections, until the final stabilization; very useful methodology in case of emergency consolidation, where there is a need to minimize damage to the building. Thus, people using this combined system; will be able to practically solve the initial anomalies of the subsoil that caused the damages, in a non-invasive way, considerably lowering the value of the resistivities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0172.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Fixed-time stabilization; Sliding mode control; Adaptive control; Neural network
Online: 16 September 2019 (16:47:55 CEST)
In this paper, the fixed-time stabilization problem for a class of uncertain chained system is addressed by using a novel nonsingular recursive terminal sliding mode control approach. A fixed-time controller and an adaptive law are designed to guarantee the uncertain chained form system both Lyapunov stable and fixed-time convergent within the settling time. The advantage of the controller based on the sliding mode is that the settling time does not depend on the system initial state. Furthermore, we use RBF neural network to estimate the uncertainty of the system. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the performance of the control laws.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0627.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Bio-cementation; Sustainable Construction Materials; Building Construction; Soil Stabilization; Sporosarcina Pasteurii
Online: 11 September 2023 (09:54:56 CEST)
With the development of bioinspired green solutions for sustainable construction over the past two decades, bio-cementation, which exploits the naturally occurring phenomenon of calcium carbonate precipitation in different environments, has drawn a lot of attention in both building construction and soil stabilization. Various types of microorganisms, along with specific enzymes derived from these microorganisms, have been utilized to harness the benefits of bio-cementation. Different application methods for incorporating this mechanism into the production process of the construction material, as well as a variety of experimental techniques for characterizing the outcomes of bio-cementation, have been developed and tested. Despite the success of bio-cementation as a sustainable method to construction has been demonstrated in a significant body of literature at the laboratory scale, the expansion of this strategy to construction sites and field application remains a pending subject. The issue may be attributed to two primary challenges. Firstly, the complexity of the bio-cementation phenomenon is influenced by a variety of factors. Secondly, the extensive body of literature examines various types of microorganisms under different conditions, leading to a wide range of outcomes. Hence, this study aims to examine the recent advancements in utilizing the most commonly employed microorganism, Sporosarcina Pasteurii, to emphasize the significance of influential factors identified in the literature, discuss the findings that have been brought to light, and outline future research directions toward scaling up the process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0197.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Alum sludge; Soil stabilization; Artificial intelligence; California bearing ratio; Genetic programming
Online: 10 March 2023 (13:25:54 CET)
Alum sludge is a byproduct of water treatment plants and its use as a soil stabilizer has gained increasing attention due to its economic and environmental benefits. Its application has been shown to improve the strength and stability of soil, making it suitable for various engineering applications. However, to go beyond just measuring the effects of alum sludge as a soil stabilizer, this paper explores the use of artificial intelligence (AI) methods to predict the California bearing ratio (CBR) of soils stabilized with alum sludge. Three AI methods, including two black box methods (artificial neural network and support vector machines) and one grey box method (genetic programming), were used to predict CBR based on a database with nine input parameters. The results showed that all three AI models were able to predict CBR with good accuracy, with coefficient of determination (R2) values ranging from 0.94 to 0.99 and mean absolute error (MAE) values ranging from 0.30 to 0.51. In a novel approach, the genetic programming method was used to produce an equation to estimate CBR, which included seven inputs and accurately predicted CBR. The analysis of sensitivity and importance of parameters showed that the number of hammer blows for compaction was the most important parameter, while the parameters for maximum dry density of soil and mixture were the least important. This study suggests that AI methods can effectively predict the performance of alum sludge as a soil stabilizer, and the proposed equation using genetic programming can be a useful tool for predicting CBR.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: muscle-skeletal traumas (MST); injury; fracture stabilization; local flaps; skin-grafting
Online: 9 December 2022 (07:13:55 CET)
The combined muscle-skeletal traumas (MST) are very frequent over the last few years. The emergency care try to save the life of the patient and to receive resuscitation treatment. The role of Trauma surgeon is to choose the right moment for surgery. Aim: To present the management of patient with combined height injury, fracture stabilization, partial foot amputation, local flaps, skin grafting and HIFU – thermotherapy as scar treatment. Materials and methods: 40 years old mail patient, injured after a fall from 8 meters in an elevator shaft. After resuscitation treatment to control the shock the Imaging results are: burst fracture of L3 with spinal canal stenosis, fracture of the sacral bone Denis I, fracture of the right humerus in the proximal third, Monteggia fracture of the left arm, fracture of the proximal third of the right tibia as well as comminuted fractures of both calves and of both heel bones. Results: After a few operations his final result was well healed bone fractures and a good quality soft tissue coverage allowing the patient a satisfactory quality of life. Conclusions: Combined traumas of the muscle- skeletal system are severe, serious and difficult to manage. The good outcome in their treatment requires a team approach between the different medical specialists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0597.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Terahertz wave; phase stabilization; photomixing; optical frequency comb; phase modulator; phase modulation
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:03:28 CEST)
As a high-frequency carrier, the Terahertz (THz) wave is essential for achieving high-data-rate wireless transmission due to its ultra-wide bandwidth. Phase stabilization becomes crucial to enable phase-shift-based multilevel modulation for high-speed data transmission. We developed a Mach-Zehnder interferometric phase stabilization technique for photomixing, which has proved a promising method for phase-stable continuous THz-wave generation. However, this method faces inefficiencies in generating phase-modulated THz waves due to the impact of the phase modulator on the phase stabilization system. By photomixing, which is one of the promising methods for generating THz waves, the phase of the generated THz waves can be controlled in the optical domain so that the stability of the generated THz wave can be controlled by photonics technologies. Thus, we have devised a new phase stabilization approach using backward-directional lightwave, which is overlapped with the THz wave generation system. This study presents a conceptual and experimental framework for stabilizing the phase differences of optical carrier signals. We compare the optical domain and transmission performances between forward-directional and backward-directional phase stabilization methods. Remarkably, our results demonstrate error-free transmission at a modulation frequency of 3 Gbit/s and higher.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1231.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aneurysms; polyphenols; diffusion; stabilization; docking simulations; elastin; collagen; elastin-associated microfibrillar proteins
Online: 16 June 2023 (11:04:39 CEST)
Pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) is currently being investigated as a non-surgical treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA); however molecular mechanisms of action of PGG on the AAA matrix components and the intra-luminal thrombus (ILT) still need to be better understood. To assess these interactions, we utilized peptide fingerprinting and molecular docking simulations to predict the binding of PGG to vascular proteins in normal and aneurysmal aorta, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), cytokines and fibrin. We performed PGG diffusion studies in pure fibrin gels and human ILT samples. PGG was predicted to bind with high affinity to most vascular proteins, the active sites of MMPs, and several cytokines known to be present in AAA. Finally, despite potential binding to fibrin, PGG was shown to diffuse readily through thrombus at physiologic pressures. In conclusion, PGG can bind to all the normal and aneurysmal aorta protein components with high affinity, potentially protecting the tissue from degradation and exerting anti-inflammatory activities. Diffusion studies showed that thrombus presence in AAA is not a barrier to endovascular treatment. Together, these results provide a deeper understanding of the clinical potential of PGG as a non-surgical treatment of AAA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1114.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: C,N-chelate ligand; o-carborane; organoaluminum complexes; X-ray crystallography; intramolecular stabilization
Online: 28 April 2023 (04:50:36 CEST)
The chelating aluminum complex [2-(Me2NCH2)C2B10H10]AlX2 (X = Br 3, CH3 4) was synthesized using 2-dimethylaminomethyl-o-carboranyl lithium (2) with aluminum tribromide or dimethylaluminum bromide, resulting in a modest yield. Compound 4 was obtained by reacting compound 3 with CH3Li in toluene. All compounds were characterized by infrared (IR) spectroscopy, 1H, 11B, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. X-ray structural studies of CabNAlBr2 (3) and CabNAlMe2 (4) indicated that the Al atom was located at the center of a distorted tetrahedron. Crystal structures of the CabNAlBr2 (3) [a = 8.9360(3) Å, b = 12.0358(9) Å, c = 14.7730(4) Å, α = β = γ = 90°] and the CabNAlMe2 (4) [a = 8.9551(3) Å, b = 11.9126(9) Å, c = 14.7711(4) Å, α = β = γ = 90°] were obtained. The reactivity of aluminum complexes 3 and 4 with Lewis bases, such as H2O, pyridine, alkylamines, and arylamines, confirmed their rapid decomposition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0534.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: jute fibre; reinforcement; modified compaction test; California bearing ratio test; stabilization; shear strength
Online: 25 August 2020 (03:30:40 CEST)
Abstract: This paper is focusing on the stabilisation of soil using jute fibre as soil stabilizer. Stabilisation is the process of modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance and used it for a variety of engineering works. This study examines the potential of soil stabilization with jute fibre when it is cut into roughly 30mm lengths as stabilizer. The varying percentages like 0.5%, 1%, 1.5 and 2% of pieces of jute fibre were used and mixed it with soil. The laboratory tests such as California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test, modified compaction tests and direct shear strength tests have been conducted to observe the change in engineering properties of soil. On the basis of the experiments performed, it can be concluded that the stabilization of soil using 30mm pieces of jute as stabilizer improves the strength characteristics of the soil so that it becomes usable as one of the reinforcing material for the construction of roadways, parking areas, site development projects, airports and many other situations where sub-soils are not suitable for construction.
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: unmanned surface vehicles; optical visual perception; image stabilization; defogging; target detection; target tracking
Online: 24 November 2019 (16:54:46 CET)
Unmanned surface vehicles have the advantages of maneuverability, concealment, wide activity area and low cost of use. Therefore, they have broad application prospects. This makes unmanned surface vehicles a research hotspot at home and abroad, and the sensing technology is the basis for the unmanned surface vehicles to perform tasks. The perception technology based on optical vision has the advantages of convenient application, relatively low cost, easy data acquisition and large amount of information, and has been widely studied by scholars at home and abroad. This paper mainly discusses the research of optical vision in unmanned surface vehicles from five aspects: Firstly, the water surface image preprocessing based on unmanned surface vehicles, mainly including water surface image stabilization research and defogging enhancement research; two water boundary detection; It is the use of light vision target detection; the fourth is the surface target tracking method. Finally, the light vision research of unmanned surface vehicles is summarized and forecasted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1674.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Soil Stabilization; Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC); Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDX); Collapsible Soil
Online: 25 September 2023 (10:27:21 CEST)
This study aims to investigate utilizing Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC), a by-product of sugar beet, as a soil stabilizer for addressing settlement issues beneath pavements. Various tests were conducted to assess the engineering properties of PCC-stabilized subgrades using PCC obtained from Amalgamated Sugar Cooperation in Twin Falls, Idaho. Local loess samples, like those found beneath pavements, were collected for testing purposes. Initial tests involved evaluating the unconfined compressive strength of compacted loess samples, followed by tests on samples mixed with different weight percentages of PCC. The results revealed a significant average increase of 10% to 28% in the strength of loess samples stabilized with 5% PCC compared to the strength of the native soil. The chemical composition and microstructure of PCC were further analyzed through X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDX), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Tests conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). XRD analysis indicates the presence of calcium carbonate and silica. EDX analysis unveiled a carbon content of 9% by weight in PCC, which could contribute to the carbon footprint when it breaks down. Additionally, SEM images displayed an irregular microstructure and particle shape of PCC. Furthermore, the inclusion of PCC improved the resistance of loess to saturation collapse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: biomineralization; microbial‑induced calcium carbonate precipitation; reducing slag; stabilization; free calcium oxide; calcium carbonate
Online: 15 August 2023 (08:44:51 CEST)
Most of the current methods for stabilizing electric arc furnace (EAF) slag are time-consuming and cannot be completely stabilized. In view of this, this study aimed to apply microbial‑induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) technology in the stabilization of EAF reducing slag, and this was to be achieved by using the reaction between carbonate ions and free calcium oxide (f-CaO) in reducing slag to form a more stable calcium carbonate to achieve the purpose of stabilization. The test results showed that, when the EAF reducing slag aggregates (ERSAs) were immersed in Bacillus pasteurii bacteria solution or water, the f-CaO contained in it would react such that stabilization was achieved. The titration test results showed that the f-CaO content of the ERSAs immersed in the bacterial solution and water decreased. The expansion test results of the ERSAs that were subjected to hydration showed that the seven-day expansion of ERSAs after biomineralization could meet the Taiwan regulation requirement of a less than 0.5% expansion rate. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that both the experimental group and the control group might contain calcium carbonate compounds. The results of the X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the CaCO3 content in the ERSAs that were immersed in the bacterial solution was significantly higher than those that were immersed in water. Moreover, the compressive strength test results of concrete prepared with ERSAs showed that the compressive strength of the control group concrete began to decline after 28 days. In contrast, the experimental group concrete had a good stabilization effect, and there was no decline in compressive strength until the age of 180 days. At the age of 240 days, the surface cracks of the experimental group were particularly small, while the surface of the control group showed obvious cracks. These results confirmed that a mineralization reaction with B. pasteurii bacteria could be used as a stabilization technology for ERSAs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: angular change; adjacent segment disease; disc height; dynamic stabilization; dynesys-transition-optima; listhesis distance; lumbar spine
Online: 1 November 2023 (08:55:31 CET)
Study design: Retrospective observational study. Objectives: To evaluate the change in adjacent segment disease (ASD) after hybrid dynamic stabilization with Dynesys-Transition-Optima (DTO). Methods: In 2012–2020, 115 lumbar spinal stenosis patients with spondylolisthesis re-fractory to nonsurgical management received hybrid dynamic stabilization with DTO system in a single medical center from a single neurosurgeon. After excluding those who did not receive L3–L4 dynamic stabilization and L4–L5 transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion fixation and those with incomplete postoperative data (n = 84), the 31 patients studied received follow-up vis-its at 6, 12 and 24 months postoperatively. Radiological assessment applied at the L2–L3, L3–L4 and L5–S1 segments separately included disc height, listhesis distance and angular change while in motion. Implant failure and screw loosening sign were both documented. Results: In the L3–L4 segment, the listhesis distance appeared 1 year after the operation; however, alterations in other segments showed at 6 months. At 2 years, the L3–L4 segment showed significantly less increase in listhesis distance and relatively less disc height reduction than other segments. In motion an-gular change, only the L3–L4 segment had a significant decrease at 2 years. Only the L3–L4 seg-ment maintained negative growth over 2 years in time-dependent assessment of motion angular change. Conclusions: In our study, disc height decreased, listhesis distance increased less and ASD changed later at the index level than the L2–L3 and L5–S1 levels. Angular change was re-duced at the index level while in motion. Although ASD was not significantly prevented, index level degeneration was both minor
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0417.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: nanopowders; zirconium oxide nanoparticles; adsorption phase transition; polymorphism in zirconium dioxide; size effect of structural stabilization
Online: 1 December 2021 (13:07:43 CET)
The present study was aimed at revealing the influence of the mechanical stress induced by water molecules adsorption on the composition of crystalline phases in the ZrO2–3mol%Y2O3-nanoparticles. Three basic methods have been used to determine the phase transition: neutron diffraction, Raman microspectroscopic scanning, and X-ray diffraction. The fact of phase-structural β → α transformation and the simultaneous presence of two polymorphic structural modifications (β is the phase of the tetragonal syngony and α of monoclinic syngony in nanosized particles (9nm)) under normal physical conditions was established by these methods. Satisfactory consistency was achieved between the results obtained using different techniques.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0375.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: solar energy; semiconductor; light harvesting; charge generation; photovoltaics; optimization; voltage loss; thin film materials; stabilization, doping
Online: 25 March 2020 (08:50:10 CET)
In order to reach the theoretical efficiency limits of lead-based metal halide perovskite solar cells, the voltage should be enhanced because it suffers from nonradiative recombination. Perovskite materials contain intrinsic defects that can act as Shockley-Read-Hall recombination centers. Several experimental and computational studies have characterized such defect states within the band gap. We give a systematic overview of compositional engineering by distinguishing the different defect reducing mechanisms. Doping effects are divided into influences on: (1) Crystallization; (2) Lattice properties. Incorporation of dopant influences the lattice properties by: (a) Lattice strain relaxation; (b) Chemical bonding enhancement; (c) Band gap tuning. The intrinsic lattice strain in undoped perovskite was shown to induce vacancy formation. The incorporation of smaller ions, such as Cl, F and Cd, increases the energy for vacancy formation. Zn doping is reported to induce strain relaxation but also to enhance the chemical bonding. The combination of computational studies using (DFT) calculations quantifying and qualifying the defect reducing propensities of different dopants with experimental studies is essential for deeper understanding and unraveling insights, such as the dynamics of iodine vacancies and the photochemistry of the iodine interstitials, and can eventually lead to a more rational approach in the search for optimal photovoltaic materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0724.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus; health management; antibiotic usage; pig production sector; PRRSV-1 stabilization program
Online: 21 April 2023 (11:08:13 CEST)
Infection with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus type 1 (PRRSV-1) has serious economic consequences for the pig industry. Swine practitioners and other agricultural advisors often describe an increase in antibiotic use when PRRSV-1 is circulating. Our objective was to assess the impact of PRRSV-1 stabilization programmes on reducing antibiotic use. The study was carried out on 19 French farrow-to-finish farms that successfully implemented a PRRSV-1 stabilization protocol between 2007 and 2019. For each farm, antibiotic consumption (expressed in mg/PCU and ALEA) were compared one year before (P1) and one year after (P2) the implementation of such a protocol and the change between P1 and P2 were calculated in percentages. Data were then analysed by level of consumption. Antibiotic use decreased significantly between P1 and P2 if expressed in mg/PCU and showed a decreased tendency in terms of exposure (ALEA). Concerning the change from P1 to P2, our results showed that the higher consumption levels in P1, the greater antibiotic reduction in P2. This study highlights the ability of a stabilization protocol against PRRSV-1 to reduce antibiotic use, especially on farms that have high consumption. These hopeful results show that further investigations about the relationship between PRRSV-1 and antibiotic usage could be beneficial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Waste valorization; stabilization; nutrient recovery; closed-loop; modelling; circular economy; ammonium carbonate; organic fertilizer; bioenergy; biogas upgrading
Online: 13 March 2023 (04:42:38 CET)
The use of the commercial simulator Aspen Plus® could bring an amelioration in the accuracy of the predictions of the chemical species composition in the output streams of the anaerobic digestion process, due to availability of a broad library of thermodynamic and phenomena transport properties in this commercial package. In the present investigation, the process simulation model for anaerobic digestion, which was originally developed by Rajendran et al. , has been modified by including a stoichiometric-equilibria reactor to calculate the extent of the ionization of the molecules present in the anaerobic digestate. The refined model offers a more accurate prediction of the composition of the biogas because it delves on the chemical equilibrium of the gaseous stream and the anaerobic digestate. Additionally, the refined model allows to assess the possibility of upgrading the gaseous stream to biomethane degree via manufacturing of ammonium bicarbonate. This processing pathway relies on the stabilization of the anaerobic digestate by means of biomass ash-based treatment. First of all, the titration of the manure digestate with the hydrochloric acid showed that a dose of 3.18 mEq/g would be required to attain the targeted pH of zero-point charge, upon addition of the sewage sludge ash in a ratio to the manure digestate of 0.6 ± 0.2 %. Secondly, the profiles of ammonia, carbon dioxide, and methane found in the biogas agree with both the pH of the treated digestate and the processes described in for the simultaneously upgrading the biogas and the production of ammonium bicarbonate. The refined Aspen Plus® model presented in this article needs to be further developed to ensure the standards are attained in all output streams of stabilized anaerobic digestate, biomethane, and isolated added-value chemical fertilizers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0164.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: conformation; steroid skeleton; surfactants; mixed micelles; bile salts; regular solution theory; thermodynamic stabilization; first neighbor intermolecular interactions
Online: 12 October 2022 (07:11:07 CEST)
Binary mixtures of surfactants build a binary mixed micelle in which the ratio of surfactants usually differs from the initial ratio of surfactants in their binary mixture. The thermodynamic stabilization of the binary mixed micellar pseudophase about the hypothetical ideal state (intermolecular interactions between the different particles and the conformational states of the particles are identical to those of monocomponent states) is described by the molar excess Gibbs free energy (gE). The dependence of gE on the molar fraction of surfactant i (xi) from the binary mixed micelle can be described by a symmetric function (symmetry is described to the line parallel to the y-axis and passes through xi = 0.5) or by an asymmetric function. Theoretical analysis (canonical partition function, conformational analysis) examines how the presence of different polar functional groups, some of which are sterically shielded from the steroid skeleton of bile salt (surfactant), affect the symmetry of the function gE of the binary mixed micelle of the cholic acid anion (bile salt) and classical cationic surfactant (hydrophobic tail and polar head). Suppose the steroid skeleton of the bile salt contains non-sterically shielded polar groups (or the temperature is relatively high). In that case, gE is a symmetric function. At the same time, if the steroid skeleton also contains sterically shielded polar groups, then the gE function is asymmetric.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1644.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: fly ash; fiber reinforcement; cement stabilization; compressive strength; indirect tensile strength; flexural strength; resilient modulus; subbase and base.
Online: 25 September 2023 (06:36:19 CEST)
It is necessary to address the scarcity of crushed stones for pavement structural layers. So fly ash can be proved to be promising solution as more than 270 tonnes of fly ash is generated in India. Though, numerous research has been conducted for the use of fly ash intreated and untreated form, high volume of fine particles and brittleness of the stabilized fly ash pose a great problem for its use in subbase and base. Moreover, stiffness or modulus of stabilized fly ash is vital elastic parameter which is used for mechanistic pavement design. Hence, in this study an extensive experimental investigation is carried out to study its strength and stiffness properties such as compressive strength, indirect tensile strength and flexural strength, cyclic indirect tensile modulus and flexural modulus of fiber reinforced cement stabilized fly ash, stone dust, aggregate mixtures. The stone dust and aggregates have been added to enhance the gradation of the composite’s mixture. The study presents the effect of fiber on strength and stiffness properties. The experimental result reveals that addition of polypropylene (PP) fibers up to 0.25 wt.% enhances the compressive strength and any further addition of fiber results in decrease of the strength. However, indirect tensile strength and flexural strength increases with increase in fiber percentage up to 0.5 wt.%. Cement content is observed to be the dominant parameter for stabilized materials. Suitable relationships have been developed between strength and modulus parameters for stabilized mixtures. Based on the strength and stiffness study, 70% fly ash and 30% stone dust-aggregate and 60% fly ash and 40% stone dust-aggregate with 6% cement can be considered for the base layer. Based on the indirect tensile strength and flexural strength behavior, 0.35% is considered as the optimum fiber percentage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Genetic coding; free energy transduction; non-equilibrium thermodynamics; transition-state stabilization; conformational change; aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases; emergent phenomena
Online: 4 January 2021 (16:21:16 CET)
Bioenergetics, genetic coding, and catalysis are all difficult to imagine emerging without pre-existing historical context. That context is often posed as a “Chicken and Egg” problem; its resolution is concisely described by de Grasse Tyson: “the egg was laid by a bird that was not a chicken”. The concision and generality of that answer furnish no details—only an appropriate framework from which to examine detailed paradigms that might illuminate paradoxes underlying these three life-defining biomolecular processes. We examine experimental aspects here of five examples that all conform to the same paradigm. The paradox in each example is resolved by coupling if, and only if, conditions for two related transitions between levels. One drives, and each restricts fluxes through, or “gates” the other. That reciprocally-coupled gating, in which two gated processes constrain one another, maps onto the formal structure of “strange loops”. That mapping may help unite the axiomatic foundations of genetics, bioenergetics, and catalysis. As a physical analog for Gödel’s logic, biomolecular strange-loops provide a natural metaphor around which to organize these data, linking biology to the physics of information, free energy, and the second law of thermodynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0452.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: neurodegeneration; Parkinson's disease; essential tremor; Deep Brain stimulation; Levodopa; Virtual Reality; Oculus Rift; Medical Virtual Reality; Tremor stabilization; Equalizers
Online: 29 February 2020 (03:56:19 CET)
Multidisciplinary neurotechnology holds the promise of understanding and non-invasively treating neurodegenerative diseases. In this preclinical trial on Parkinson's disease (PD), we combined neuroscience together with the nascent field of medical virtual reality and generated several important observations. First, we established the Oculus Rift virtual reality system as a potent measurement device for parkinsonian involuntary hand tremors (IHT). Interestingly, we determined changes in rotation were the most sensitive marker of PD IHT. Secondly, we determined parkinsonian tremors can be abolished in VR with algorithms that remove tremors from patients' digital hands. We also found that PD patients were interested in and were readily able to use VR hardware and software. Together these data suggest PD patients can enter VR and be asymptotic of PD IHT. Importantly, VR is an open-medium where patients can perform actions, activities, and functions that positively impact their real lives - for instance, one can sign tax return documents in VR and have them printed on real paper or directly e-sign via internet to government tax agencies. Lastly, we generated a technical framework wherein movements in the real world can be measured side-by-side with those in virtual reality. With this framework, we observed anecdotal evidence of parkinsonian tremors being reduced in real life when our algorithms abolished digital hand tremors in VR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electrical vehicle charging infrastructure; State of charge; stabilization method; ESS control strategy; coordination operation; violation of voltage; Energy Storage System
Online: 8 November 2019 (04:29:04 CET)
The introduction of electrical vehicle charging infrastructure including EV charger, renewable energy resource at secondary feeder in distribution system has been increased as one of countermeasure for global environmental issues. However, the Electric Vehicle Charging (EVC) infrastructure may act as the peak load in distribution system, which can adversely impact on the voltage stability when the electric vehicle is quickly charged. Therefore, to keep within the limit capacity of secondary feeder and allowable limit for feeder voltage, this paper proposes a stabilization method by the Energy Storage System (ESS) control strategy at secondary feeder in order to be not violated over than lower and upper limit. Also, this paper presents the estimation method to keep the proper standard value of State of Charge (SOC). From the simulation results, the voltage stabilization operation by ESS should make the feeder voltages of the distribution system(secondary feeder) introduced EVC Infra keep better voltage conditions, also estimation method to keep the proper standard value is confirmed that the SOC of ESS when is the standby condition could be exactly kept within the proper reference range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1219.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: road construction; soil stabilization; soil binders; soil compressive strength; soil capillary forces; frost resistance; waste additives; industrial waste; pyrolytic wax; emulsions; soil water absorption
Online: 20 October 2023 (11:01:31 CEST)
In road construction, before applying an asphalt or concrete surface, the ground must be compacted and stabilized. There are two basic methods of soil stabilization: in situ and in a stationary node (ex-situ). The method of performing stabilization in place (in-situ) is the most frequently used method due to its convenience and lower price. The most popular type of binder for stabilization is a hydraulic binder (most often cement and various ashes). Such stabilization is performed at a depth of 10-50 cm, achieving the desired load-bearing parameters. In order to improve them, various chemical additives for stabilization are often used, such as ion exchange compounds, additives based on sulfuric acid, additives based on vinyl polymers or even organic additives using lignosulfonates. However, the use of such additives is associated with much greater costs and environmental burden, resulting in seeking for cheaper and equally effective alternatives. The win-win situation would be for instance recycling the problematic waste-based materials that on one hand are landfilled or impossible to recycle and on the other hand cause problems for the waste producers. Therefore, an interesting issue is the production of stabilization additives from various types of waste materials. As a result of the extensive testing of various waste-based materials blends with soil, the mechanical (compressive strength after 7 and 28 days) and hydraulic (capillary rise, water absorption, frost resistance) soil properties were measured. The optimization process led to obtaining additives compositions ensuring the best strengthening and sealing properties. These were for sandy soil: Pure foil (wax emulsion), Pure foil (wax emulsion) + waste sulphuric acid, RDF from waste tires (wax emulsion), Pure foil (wax emulsion) + “by-pass” waste ash + NaOHx2 and for clayey soil: Pure foil (wax emulsion) + NaOH, Pure foil (wax emulsion) + waste sulphuric acid, Tequant, Pure foil (wax emulsion).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0205.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: antibody coating; proximity-enhanced reaction; immunoglobulins; IgG; protein A; protein G; bio-interaction; immunoprecipitation; pull-down assay; immunocapture; stabilization; yield; regeneration; nanoparticles; microparticles; biochips; immunosensor; photochemical crosslinker; click chemistry; herceptin; trastuzumab
Online: 18 April 2019 (07:55:11 CEST)
Crosslinking of proteins for their irreversible immobilization on surfaces is a proven and popular method. However, many protocols lead to random orientation and the formation of undefined or even inactive by-products. Most concepts to obtain a more targeted conjugation or immobilization requires the recombinant modification of at least one binding partner, which is often impractical or prohibitively expensive. Here a novel method is presented, which is based on the chemical preactivation of Protein A or G with selected conventional crosslinkers. In a second step, the antibody is added, which is subsequently crosslinked in the Fc part. This leads to an oriented and covalent immobilization of the immunoglobulin with a very high yield. Protocols for Protein A and Protein G with murine and human IgG are presented. This method may be useful for the preparation of columns for affinity chromatography, immunoprecipitation, antibodies conjugated to magnetic particles, permanent and oriented immobilization of antibodies in biosensor systems, microarrays, microtitration plates or any other system, where the loss of antibodies needs to be avoided, and maximum binding capacity is desired. This method is directly applicable even to antibodies in crude cell culture supernatants, raw sera or protein-stabilized antibody preparations without any purification nor enrichment of the IgG. This new method delivered much higher signals as a traditional method and, hence, seems to be preferable in many applications.