ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0103.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Maximum entropy model; K-means clustering; accuracy; classification; sports forecasting
Online: 27 September 2016 (11:10:50 CEST)
Predicting the outcome of a future game between two National Basketball Association (NBA) teams poses a challenging problem of interest to statistical scientists as well as the general public. In this article, we formalize the problem of predicting the game results as a classification problem and apply the principle of maximum entropy to construct NBA maximum entropy (NBAME) model that fits to discrete statistics for NBA games, and then predict the outcomes of NBA playoffs by the NBAME model. The best NBAME model is able to correctly predict the winning team 74.4 percent of the time as compared to some other machine learning algorithms which is correct 69.3 percent of the time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: digital health; sports science; global research; bibliometrics; Citespace
Online: 1 June 2023 (02:21:27 CEST)
Digital health has gained widespread adoption across various disciplines. Within the field of sport science, there is growing interest in digital health, leading to a surge in research activities. The objective of this study is to conduct a comprehensive bibliometric and visualization analysis, tracing the evolutionary trajectory, identifying research hotspots, and uncovering emerging trends in digital health within the domain of sport science. By doing so, this research aims to offer scholars a systematic and comprehensive understanding of the dynamic landscape in this field. To achieve this, the Web of Science core collection was chosen as the primary database. A thorough literature search was performed, focusing on digital health and sport science, resulting in the screening of 1870 English-language documents. The findings revealed a consistent upward growth trend in the annual publication count from 2010 to 2023. Notably, the United States, specifically the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania System of Higher Education, and John B. Cronin, emerged as the most prolific contributors in terms of publications. Collaborative efforts among countries, institutions, and authors were also observed. The research hotspots identified encompassed several areas, including the evaluation of digital health technologies' effectiveness, exploration of the relationship between digital health technologies and physical activity/exercise performance, and the use of digital health technologies in assessing and rehabilitating sports injuries. Among the prominent digital health technologies employed in these studies were virtual reality, social media, and wearable devices. The predominant types of studies utilized meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials, and cross-sectional studies. Looking towards the future, the study identified several key research trends. These include the exploration of telemedicine, artificial intelligence-based machine learning, therapeutic interventions, and physical therapy within the realm of digital health. These emerging areas signify promising directions for future investigation and development in the field of digital health within sport science.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: sports medicine; transdisciplinary; clinical trials; sports science; thermography
Online: 23 February 2023 (04:08:46 CET)
This paper aims to list the current challenges in the study of Sports Medicine in Brazil based on a review of the literature and the author's experience as a member of a transdisciplinary team in this field, as well as to discuss methods for establishing an appropriate and organized course of health activities in this context. The authors identified four significant contemporary difficulties in the field of sports medicine in Brazil that, while minor, are complicated. There is a need to publish a greater number of national studies, generate integrated knowledge through transdisciplinary research, propose sports and movement as a tool for the prevention of degenerative conditions, and research and develop better therapeutic options through transdisciplinary research. It is expected that a transdisciplinary approach will reduce divergences between the real world and science, putting an end to dogmatism, prejudice, and theoretical thinking, increasing the scientificity of sports, bringing competitive advantages, improving training, performance, and athlete health management, and contributing to the advancement of sports medicine.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: microbiome; skin microbiome; sports recovery; sports performance; cosmetics
Online: 10 October 2022 (11:13:00 CEST)
This short communication reports on the initial results of a much larger, ongoing project, the aim of which is to investigate the question: could the skin microbiome, just like the gut microbiome, play a role in sports recovery and performance – and if so, could this role be as significant a one as that played by the gut microbiome? 17 high performance college athletes addressed their skin microbiome by minimizing contact with synthetic chemicals and by using topical skin supplements, shown previously to significantly increase skin microbiome biodiversity, for two weeks after training. 76% said their skin softness improved, 35% said their muscle stiffness and recovery after sport improved, 12% said their sleep quality improved, and 100% said they would be likely to use skin supplements again. Future work will use hundreds of athletes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0287.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: integration of sports and health care; sports; health; community
Online: 23 February 2022 (07:06:51 CET)
(1) Background: With continuous globalization and modernization of people's lives, lifestyle has changed dramatically, with decreased physical activity and increased unhealthy eating patterns in many nations throughout the world. With the COVID-19 pandemic and changes taking place in people’s health and lifestyles around the world, the need for rehabilitation is expected to rise in the coming years.(2)Methods: This paper analyzes the integration model of sports and health care using theoretical analysis, literature reviews, logical reasoning, and other methods.(3)Results: The integration of sports and health care in China has entered the stage of practical implementation after many years of development, forming a few representative integration patterns. Governments, communities, community hospitals, hospitals, and third-party institutions are the main participants, with the community playing an important role in the integration. Pharmacies, sports venues, and schools with sufficient staff have a relatively low participation rate.(4)Conclusion: The grading treatment has been applied in health management and sports rehabilitation, based on the development of digital medicine, a government-led grading treatment model of "health management center" can promote the participation of multiple subjects in the integration of sports and health care, solving the problems existing in the current integration process to a certain extent.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0105.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: team sports; performance; players
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:08:07 CET)
Top performance in team sports attracts the attention from the general public. In particular, the best players became incredibly skilled and physically powerful, a fact that potentiates to deliver a product considered attractive, exciting and competitive. Not surprisingly, this is a very valuable product from an economic and social standpoint, thus, all sports professionals are extremely interested in developing new procedures to improve sports performance. Besides, the great interests of the various stakeholders (owners, CEO-s, agents, fans, media, coaches, players, families and friends) are one of the main reasons for this development of sports science umbrella and the accompanying sports industry. all their personal performances should be coordinated and put into function by the sports team. In this scientific and applied manuscript, we will deal primarily with the individual treatment of players in order to improve their personal performance and, consequently, team sport performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Winter sports; Sports equipment; Snow; Cross-country skiing; Ski friction; Ski-base texture
Online: 6 April 2023 (10:57:19 CEST)
In winter sports, the equipment often comes into contact with snow or ice, and this contact generates a force that resists motion. In some sports, such as cross-country skiing, this resistive force can significantly affect the outcome of a race, as a small reduction in this force can give an athlete an advantage. Researchers have examined the contact between skis and snow in detail, and to fully understand this friction, the entire ski must be studied at various scales. At the macro scale, the entire geometry of the ski is considered and the apparent contact between the ski and the snow is considered and at the micro scale the contact between the snow and the ski base ski-base textures. In the present work, a method for characterising contact between the ski-base texture and virtual snow will be presented. Six different ski-base textures will be considered. Five of them are stone-ground ski bases, and three of them have linear longitudinal textures with a varying number of lines and peak-to-valley height, and the other two are factory-ground “universal” ski bases. The sixth ski base has been fabricated by a steel-scraping procedure. In general, the results show that a ski base texture with a higher Spk-value has less real contact area, and that the mutual differences can be large for surfaces with similar Sa-values. The average interfacial separation is, in general, correlated with the Sa-value, where a “rougher” surface exhibits a larger average interfacial separation. The results for the reciprocal average interfacial separation, which is related to the Couette type of viscous friction, were in line with the general consensus that a “rougher” texture performs better at high speed than a “smoother” one, and it was found that a texture with high Sa and Spk values resulted in a low reciprocal average interfacial separation and consequently low viscous friction. The reciprocal average interfacial separation was found to increase with increasing real contact area, indicating a correlation between the real area of contact and the Couette part of viscous friction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0258.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Sports Nutrition; Dietary Supplements; Athletic Performance
Online: 16 January 2023 (01:29:53 CET)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effect of caffeine supplementation on performance in official soccer matches. In double-blind, randomized crossover design, 13 professional soccer players performed two complete matches, with Caffeine (CAF) (6 mg/kg) and placebo (PLA) supplementation. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed that there was no effect of supplementation on the total distance covered (p = 0.536; ŋp² =0.033) or the total distance covered at different speeds (p = 0.453; ŋp² = 0.048), acceleration or deceleration (p = 0.387; ŋp² = 0.063) number of sprints (p = 0.521; µ² = 0.035) Heart Rate mean (p = 0.484; ŋp² = 0.042) Heart Rate maximum (p = 0.110; ŋp² = 0.199), Rate Perceived Effort (p = 0.151) or efficiency index (p = 0.480). Therefore, acute caffeine supplementation not effective to increase the performance of soccer players in official matches.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0031.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: coronavirus; sports; management; football; rules; games
Online: 2 September 2020 (06:09:34 CEST)
Each sport has its specific rules, which determine what is allowed (or not) impacting directly on the sport demands. Studies involving physiological and time-motion measurements have shown that soccer is a highly demanding sport. The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a world health crisis. Soccer seasons were interrupted worldwide to avoid spreading the virus. Leagues resumed the season (no fans at the arenas) after several weeks of interruption, causing overlay of schedule. This overlay (e.g., games every Sunday and Wednesday) will cause accumulated fatigue on players, raising the risk of injuries. Considering this condensed calendar, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) has changed (temporarily) up to five substitutions during elite games (instead of three as the regular rule allows). Considering the already published scientific evidence, clearly, the change in the soccer substitution rule due to COVID-19 is insufficient. Implementing unlimited substitutions may benefit soccer players' health, coaches’ jobs, more entertainment for fans and sponsors (e.g., keeping intensity during all game, including on the second half) and eventually prolonging the useful life of the players. A real game-changer!
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: coronavirus; football; rules; sports medicine; prophylaxis
Online: 2 September 2020 (05:27:55 CEST)
The soccer injury rate is distinctly higher during matches than the training sessions. Rules determine how to play, generating specific kinds of fatigue which is associated with the injury incidence. No research has evaluated the impact of potential rule-induced physical demands in soccer or comparing sports. Understanding the differences might be useful for enhancing rules (e.g., safer sport). Therefore, the aims of this study were: a) to described the differences in the rule-induced physical demands of soccer, futsal, basketball, and handball; and b) to evaluate whether soccer rule-induced physical demands are different than the other invasion intermittent team sports, focusing the impact of the substitutions rules. Data were collected from different sports rules (i.e., soccer, futsal, basketball, and handball), and performed hypothetical corrections to equate the other team sports to the soccer (i.e., court dimensions/number of players). The data showed that soccer has higher rule-induced physical demands: lower substitutions, higher dimensions in absolute (eight to 15 times), and relative (four to eight times) values. Hypothetical corrections showed that soccer has remarkably large differences. Therefore, we conclude that soccer has remarkably higher rule-induced physical demands than other team sports, and allowing unlimited substitutions in soccer is a must.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1992.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Track Cycling; Coaching; Sports Performance; Performance Modelling
Online: 31 July 2023 (02:43:50 CEST)
There is a paucity of data on the progression of track cycling sprinters, and the evolution of training and performance over a training cycle. Following prior research showing relationships between sprint cycling power and endurance cycling power, we compared these relations over a 3-month period. Our hypothesis is large improvements in power would come from training either for sprint power or sprint capacity, and this would be reflected in the data. A total of publicly available 25 datasets. These data were plotted against the line of best fit for 30-s and 2-min power to assess if training towards the line led to better 30-s power. We observe the best performances came from riders who start below the 30-s vs 2-min power line of best fit, with greater capacity and ability to ride fast over a sprint series, and progressing towards focusing on specific power in the final block leading into a competition. These results support the hypothesis of combined capacity and power training based on rider-specific relationship to the line of best fit between these measures versus a strictly maximal power training focus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1846.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: team sports; explosive strength; body composition; CMJ
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:24:30 CEST)
Player’s performance in an intense sport such as basketball is known to be related to attributes like speed, agility, and power. This study presents a comparative analysis of associations between anthropometric assessment and physical performance in different age-group elite youth basketball players, while simultaneously identifying the predictors for speed and agility in these players. U14 (n=44), U15 (n=45) and U16 (n=51) players were tested for anthropometry, lower body power, speed, and agility. U16 players were found to be taller, heavier, more muscular than U14 and U15 players. Also, the U16 group showed better performance in all performance tests. Age had a significant positive correlation with countermovement (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) performance in U14 players, and a significant negative correlation with 10m and 20m sprint times in U15 group. CMJ and DJ emerged as the most significant predictors for sprint and agility variables, respectively. Body fat percentage was found to be a significant predictor for the speed and agility tests in all age groups, but a negative lower-body power predictor. Therefore, besides all sport-specific and fitness tests, it is essential to place emphasis on the percentage of body fat when designing players’ individualized training programs, and during team selection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: emotional intelligence; mountain sports; life satisfaction; resilience
Online: 1 February 2023 (11:42:54 CET)
High-level performance in mountain sports would be unlikely unless different emotional factors are taken into account through the analysis of psychological characteristics such as mood, resilience or motivation, among many others. In this study, 788 people with a sports degree from the Spanish Federation of Mountain Sports and Climbing (FEDME) participated, 75.3% are men and 24.5% are women. The mean age of the participants was 49.8 years (±12.8), ranging from 18 to 76 years. The Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS-S), the RS-14 Resilience Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) instrument were used. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between the dimensions of emotional intelligence, resilience and life satisfaction. The results showed a relationship between several of the dimensions from the instruments used (p<.01). In terms of gender, higher scores were found for women than for men. The regression model shows that both the dimensions of emotional intelligence [Appraisal of own emotions (β=.104; p<.001); Use of emotions (β=.30; p<.001); Emotional Regulation (β=.103; p<.001)] and resilience [Personal competence (β=.402; p<.001)], are predictors of greater life satisfaction, with 44.1% positively explained by the regression model. Further proposals should extend the results obtained with the analysis of more sports modalities and provide evidence that would complement those extracted in this research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0225.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Repeated Sprint Training; Speed Performance; Physiology; Sports
Online: 9 December 2020 (12:20:00 CET)
Background: Interventions with the performance of sessions with sprints in different intensity manipulations, can be a great alternative to improve physical performance. Objective: To verify the influence of different break times between sprints on the performance of amateur futsal athletes Methods: 10 individuals, men, amateur futsal athletes (Age: 21.5 ± 1.6; Weight: 72.4 ± 6.88; Height: 1.72 ± 0.05; BMI: 24.3 ± 1.2; Fat%: 13.7 ± 3.3, VO2peak: 49.1 ± 10.5) participated in the study. For the intervention, individuals were randomly selected to perform sessions with sprints (10 sets 20 meters) with different pause times, being 15 (S15), 30 (S30) and 60 (S60) seconds. For performance analysis, the speed (km / h) applied to each sprint was used, monitored by a device with a photocell (CEFISE Biotecnologia Esportiva®, Nova Odessa, São Paulo) and the statistical treatment of all data was through the software Statistica 7.0 (Statsoft ™, Tulsa, OK, USA) using a significance level of p≤0.05. Results: There was an interaction between speed and interval time (p = 0.000). For condition S15, a greater reduction in performance was observed (p≤0.05), while for S30 and S60, no significant reduction in performance was observed (p> 0.05). The data for the area under the curve showed a significant difference (p = 0.000), where the interval of 60 seconds (S60) was longer compared to the values of 30 (S30) (p = 0.000) and 15 seconds (S15) (p = 0.000). However, there were no significant differences between the 30 and 15 second data (p = 0.248). Conclusion: Shorter time (15 seconds) of interval between repeated sprints can significantly affect performance when compared to longer breaks (30 and 60 seconds). But, all the conditions tested here, can be positive for the improvement of the performance, mainly in sports that demand fast and efficient motor actions, as for example, futsal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0105.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: energy drinks; adolescent lifestyle; alcohol; caffeine; sports
Online: 12 January 2018 (05:12:03 CET)
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has identified some risk factors for the occurrence of side effects linked to energy drinks (EDs) consumption by young people. Tachycardia, sleeplessness, caffeine addiction may be caused by excessive consumption of EDs during parties, sport matches, ect. EDs consumption has been evaluated in a sample of students in Italy together with some aspects of their lifestyle. The survey was performed in two high schools from September 2014 to June 2015. 583 students between 14 to 18 years were recruited and a standard questionnaire (EFSA checklist) was used to collect information on responders characteristics, beverages consumption, EDs with alcohol, and EDs and sports. 350 out of 583 responders (60%) consumed EDs and 146 out of 583 responders (25%) reported an occasional alcohol consumption. Despite 82 out of 146 alcoholic drinkers (56%) were EDs-alcohol consumers, only 70 out of 583 adolescents (12%) reported habitual EDs consumption. Moreover, 38 out of 379 (10%) of all physically active adolescents reported frequent EDs consumption before sportive trainings. Study results highlight the need for primary prevention measures in communication campaigns and training delivered by school to limit potential health threats related to excess of EDs consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: female athletes; winter sports; nutrition; altitude; body composition
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:49:31 CEST)
Eating disorders, especially restrictive eating, are common among female athletes. There are two main types of winter sports, those that are practised outdoors on snow (-25 to +5ºC and 2500 m), such as alpine skiing or snowboarding, and those that are practiced indoors on ice (5-10º C at low altitude), such as figure skating and ice hockey. The aim of this research was to identify the nutritional status and potential risk of female athletes practising winter sports considering the altitude of training. The sample was composed of 58 women (aged 19.81 years (SD: 12.61) who were competitors in some winter sports. Anthropometrics and nutritional variables were taken. Statistically significant differences were found between groups for all the characteristics except thigh skinfold and neither group had an EI that matched their TEE. Both groups met at least 2/3rd of the RDI for all minerals and vitamins, except iodine, fluorine, vit D, E and retinol. This study suggest that female winter sports athletes have insufficient energy, vitamin and mineral intake that can be worsened by altitude.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0154.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sports participation; junior middle school students; prosocial behavior
Online: 8 September 2021 (14:21:00 CEST)
Based on the 2014-2015 China Education Panel Survey (CEPS) and using the propensity score matching method, we studied the causal relationship between physical exercise and prosocial behavior of junior middle school students in China. Ordinary least squares regression and propensity score matching estimation results showed that participation in physical exercise significantly increases students’ prosocial behavior by more than 0.2 standard points. The results of this study were tested and found to be robust.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0211.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Tourism industry; sports tourism; entrepreneurship; institutional factors; development
Online: 7 April 2021 (15:28:25 CEST)
The aim of this study is to identify the effective institutional factors on the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities of the sports tourism industry in developing countries. This research is a qualitative study, the systematic method of Strauss and Corbin (1990) has been used to analyze the data. Interviewing is the main method of collecting data in this research, which semi-structured interviews were done with 45 members of the research community. According to Shane and Venkataraman individual-opportunity nexus framework (2000), interview questions were drafted and simultaneously with data collection from interviews, data analysis was performed. Based on the research results, 75 indicators affecting the exploitation of entrepreneurship opportunities in sports tourism were identified. Our research findings show that the necessary institutional arrangements in regulatory/legal/administrative dimensions (rule of law, government policies), normative/cultural (social norms, values and beliefs), cognitive/educational (promotion of elite knowledge, promotion of social knowledge) and guidance measures/supporter (public sector support, private sector support, complementary attraction and information technology) can improve the rate of entrepreneurial behavior in this area by increasing the ability and willingness of entrepreneurs to take advantage of entrepreneurial opportunities in the field of sports tourism. Finally, according to the research results, it can be suggested that for the growth of the sports tourism industry in developing countries, The existence of a legal, normative, supportive and educational environment will affect the ability and desire of market participants to identify and exploit the entrepreneurial opportunities of this emerging industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: anthropometry; height; somatotype; body mass; soccer; sports performance
Online: 22 February 2021 (12:03:33 CET)
The aim of this article was to examine if there are position-specific differences in the morphological characteristics of sub-elite female football players and to establish normative standards for this level of female football players. The morphological features of 101 sub-elite female football players (age: 21.8±2.7 years) were assessed. Twenty anthropometric sites were used in the measurements of body composition and somatotype. The average value of body fat percentage was 20.8±5.7%. The somatotype of the overall group was 4.0–2.4–2.1. Positional significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences were found between goalkeepers and outfield players in morphological characteristics. Goalkeepers were taller, heavier, possessed the highest body fat percentage and showed higher values for all skinfolds, breadth, girth and length measurements. However, there were very few practically worthwhile differences between the outfield positions. Positional groups did not differ (p ≤ 0.05) in somatotype characteristics either. The study suggests that at sub-elite level there are mainly differences between goalkeepers and outfield players, but outfield players are homogeneous when comparing morphological characteristics. These results may serve as normative values for future comparisons regarding the morphological characteristics of female football players.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0394.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: unanticipated; decision-making; brain function; sports; athletes; cognition
Online: 18 August 2020 (16:32:00 CEST)
The performance of choice-reaction tasks during athletic movement has been demonstrated to evoke unfavorable lower limb biomechanics. However, the mechanism of this observation is unknown. We conducted a systematic review examining the association between 1) the biomechanical and functional safety of unplanned sports-related movements (e.g. jumps/runs with spontaneously indicated landing leg/cutting direction) and 2) markers of perceptual-cognitive function (PGF). A literature search in three databases (Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar) identified five relevant articles. Study quality, rated by means of a modified Downs & Black checklist, was moderate to high (average: 13.5/16 points). Four of five papers, in at least one parameter, found either an association of lower PGF and reduced task safety or significantly reduced task safety in low vs. high PGF performers. Yet, as a) the outcomes, populations and statistical methods of the included trials were highly heterogeneous and b) only two out of five studies had an adequate control condition (pre-planned movement task), evidence was classified as conflicting. In sum, PGF may represent a factor increasing injury risk during unplanned sports-related movements but future research strengthening the evidence of this association is warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0701.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Head posture; biomechanical parameters; sports performance; posture; gait; jump.
Online: 11 July 2023 (09:06:31 CEST)
This study assessed the relationship between head posture displacements and biomechanical parameters in three different tasks. One hundred male and female students (20 ± 3yrs) were assessed via the PostureScreen Mobile app to quantify postural displacements of head rotations and translations including: 1) the cranio-vertebral angle (CVA) (°), 2) anterior head translation (AHT) (cm), 3) lateral head translation in the coronal plane (cm), and 4) lateral head side bending (°). Biomechanical parameters during gait and jumping were measured using the G-Walk sensor. The assessed gait spatiotemporal parameters were cadence (steps / min), speed (m / s), symmetry index, % left and right stride length (% height), and right and left propulsion index. The pelvic movement parameters were: 1) tilt symmetry index, 2) tilt left and right range, 3) obliquity symmetry index, 4) obliquity left and right range, 5) rotation symmetry index, and 6) rotation left and right range. The jump parameters measured were: 1) flight height (cm), 2) take off force (kN), 3) impact Force (kN), 4) take off speed (m / s), 5) peak speed (m / s), 6) average speed concentric phase (m / s), 7) maximum concentric power (kW), 8) average concentric power (kW) during the counter movement jump (CMJ), and 9) CMJ with arms thrust (CMJAT). At a significance-level of p ≤ 0.001, moderate to high correlations (0.4 < r < 0.8) were found between CVA, AHT, lateral translation head and all the gait and jump parameters. Weak correlations (0.2 < r < 0.4) were ascertained for lateral head bending and all the gait and jump parameters except for gait symmetry index and pelvic symmetry index, where moderate correlations were identified (0.4 < r < 0.6). The findings indicate moderate to high correlations between specific head posture displacements, such as CVA, lateral head translation and AHT with the various gait and jump parameters. These findings highlight the importance of considering head posture in the assessment and optimization of movement patterns during gait and jumping. Our findings contribute to the existing body of knowledge and may have implications for clinical practice and sports performance training. Further research is warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and establish causality in these relationships, which could potentially lead to the development of targeted interventions for improving movement patterns and preventing injuries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0251.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: laser beam characterization; laser therapy; medical devices; sports medicine
Online: 13 January 2023 (10:51:11 CET)
Laser therapy devices (LTDs) operating with near-infrared laser light are increasingly being used in sports medicine. For several reasons the users cannot evaluate whether or not such devices emit laser beams according to the specifications provided by the manufacturer and the settings of the device. In this study the laser beams from two different LTDs that can be used in sports medicine were thoroughly characterized by measuring the emitted power, pulse shapes and lengths, and spatial intensity distributions using professional, high-fidelity laser measurement technology. This was repeated for three units of each LDT independently to distinguish problems of individual units from potential intrinsic instrument design errors. The laser beams from the units of one LTD agreed with the settings at the device, with the measured average power for these units being within 3.3% of the set power. In contrast, the laser beams from the units of the other LTD showed large deviations between the settings and the actual emitted light. This device came with three laser diodes that could be used independently and simultaneously. The average power differed greatly between the units as well as between the laser diodes within each unit. Some laser diodes emitted essentially no light, which could lead to a lack of treatment of patients. Other laser diodes emitted much more power than set at the device (up to 230%) that could result in skin irritations or burnings of patients. These findings indicate a need for better standardization and consistency of therapeutic laser light sources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0346.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Footwear; Carbon Fiber Insole; Sports Performance; Comfort; Muscle Fatigue
Online: 20 December 2022 (03:15:29 CET)
Carbon fiber insole (CFI), which is lightweight and stiff to reduce energy loss and help wearers perform better in sports, has recently been introduced. However, there are scarce reports on the effects of CFI on sports performance, muscle fatigue and wearing comfort. This study investigat-ed the short-term effects of CFI on sports performance, lower extremity muscle activity, and sub-jective comfort. Thirty young healthy males performed various sports tasks and treadmill runs with wearable sensors under two experimental insole conditions (benchmark insole as a baseline, CFI). The results showed that compared to the benchmark insole, CFI significantly improved sports performance in terms of power generation and agility. However, it activated more of the Tibialis Anterior and Gastrocnemius Medialis muscles and was perceived stiffer, and less com-fortable. These findings suggested that CFI can improve sports performance, but it could cause more lower extremity muscle fatigue and subjective discomfort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0027.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: athletic program; collegiate sports; UNIVAS; COVID-19; mental management
Online: 1 June 2021 (11:24:42 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among student athlete’s identity and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, this study aimed to clarify the relationship between perceived social support from teammates and mental health in student-athletes. Two studies were conducted to investigate to clarify the mental health states of student-athletes in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic. In Study 1 conducted in April 2020, the participants were 402 male student-athletes, and examined the relationships among student-athlete’s identity and mental health. The results of correlational analyses indicated that there were significant negative correlations between degree of student-athlete’s identity and depression and sports helplessness. In Study 2 conducted in March 2021, the participants were 136 male student-athletes, and examined the relationship between perceived social support from teammates, student-athlete’s identity and mental health. The results indicated that there was significant correlation among social support, student athlete’s identity and mental health. These results suggested that mental health may be improved if student-athletes are strongly aware of their social identity, which is their social role, when unforeseen events such as the COVID-19 pandemic occur. In addition, social support provided by significant others such as teammates may contribute to the improvement of mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0091.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Sports injury, health-seeking behaviour, junior school footballers, Bangladesh
Online: 6 May 2021 (14:52:41 CEST)
Globally, football as a sport has recorded the highest rate of injury morbidity compared with other sports due to the high degree of contact between the players. Coaches play an important role in reducing injuries among the players. The objective of this study was to explore the pattern of football-related sports injuries among junior high school footballers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2019 to March 2019 in 20 junior high schools in Dhaka Metropolitan city. We observed 368 boys in the age range of 10 to 18 years old. A pre-structured questionnaire was provided to six trained junior physiotherapists to conduct the face-to-face interview with the boys in the school setting. Most students were from middle-income families. The injury prevalence of defenders was the most (157, 42.7%) followed by mid-fielders (132, 35.94%), forwards (63, 17.1%), and goalkeepers (16, 4.3%). Tackling was the main cause of injury in 21.1% of cases followed by foul play in 19.1% of the cases. In July, there were more injuries (69.0%) and associated muscle strain. Injured footballers did not visit sports physiotherapists as much as they did other health profession and the association was significant. When considering scientific knowledge, students were aware of fitness, flexibility & endurance (25.5%), sports massage (24.5%), the relation of body structure with sports Injury (21.2%), warm-up and/or cool down (19.6%). Based on the study, it was seen that students had no scientific knowledge of sports. As sports is a key activity for school-going children, comprehensive sports injury preventive knowledge is needed for students and sports teachers and coaches. Access to sports physiotherapists is also needed to prevent and manage sports injury at the field level and for rehabilitation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0081.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Critical speed; exercise prescription; team sports; thresholds; shuttle running
Online: 2 February 2021 (10:05:08 CET)
The overarching purpose of this review was to highlight the utility of different aerobic field tests in terms of the parameters they provide, with a specific focus on shuttle running and all-out testing. Various field tests are discussed in detail and are categorised according to linear continuous running tests (e.g. 12-minute Cooper Test, University of Montreal Track Test [UMTT], 1200/1600 m time trials, 3-minute all-out test for running [3MT]), intermittent shuttle running tests (e.g. yo-yo inter-mittent recovery test level 1 [YYIR1], 30-15 intermittent fitness test [IFT], and the intermittent all-out shuttle test [IAOST]), and continuous shuttle running tests (e.g. 1.2 km shuttle run test [1.2SRT], maximal multi-stage 20-m shuttle test [MSR], 25-m, 30 m and 50-m 3-minute all-out shuttle test [AOST]). Readers will be guided through the theoretical and practical underpinnings of the 3MT methodology, where the all-out testing methodology is stationed within the testing paradigm, and how to practically implement and interpret the results thereof.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0241.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: hyperelastic materials; FEM; basketball; sports floors; Ogden model; FIBA
Online: 13 January 2021 (11:36:53 CET)
This paper presents a method to determine material constants of a standard basketball shell together with the development of a virtual numerical model of a basketball. Material constants were used as the basis for the hyperelastic material model in the strain energy function (SEF). Material properties were determined experimentally by strength testing in uniaxial tensile tests. Additionally, the digital image correlation technique (DIC) was applied to measure strain in axial planar specimens, thus providing input stress-strain data for the Autodesk software. Analysis of testing results facilitated the construction of a hyperelastic material model. The optimal Ogden material model was selected. Two computer programmes by Autodesk were used to construct the geometry of the virtual basketball model and to conduct simulation experiments. Geometry was designed using Autodesk Inventor Professional 2017, while Autodesk Simulation Mechanical 2017 was applied in simulation experiments. Simulation calculations of the model basketball bounce values were verified according to the FIBA recommendations. These recommendations refer to the conditions and parameters which should be met by an actual basketball. A comparison of experimental testing and digital calculation results provided insight into the application of numerical calculations, designing of structural and material solutions for sports floors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Intermittent occlusion; Blood flow occlusion; Sports; Ergogenic; Ischemic postconditioning
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:42:36 CEST)
It has been demonstrated that brief cycles of ischemia followed by reperfusion (IR) applied before exercise can improve performance and, IR intervention, applied immediately after exercise (post-exercise ischemic conditioning – PEIC) exerts a potential ergogenic effect to accelerate recovery. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to identify the effects of PEIC on exercise performance, recovery and the responses of associated physiological parameters, such as creatine kinase, perceived recovery and muscle soreness, over 24 h after its application. From 3281 studies, six involving 106 subjects fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Compared to sham (cuff administration with low pressure) and control interventions (no cuff administration), PEIC led to faster performance recovery (p=0.004; ES=-0.49) and lower increase in creatine kinase (p<0.001; ES=-0.71) and muscle soreness (p<0.001; ES=-0.89) over 24 h. The effectiveness of this intervention is more pronounced in subjects with low/moderate fitness level and at least a total time of 10 min of ischemia (e.g. 2 cycles of 5 min) is necessary to promote positive effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1568.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: inertial training; eccentric overload; strength training; young athletes; team sports
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:51:27 CEST)
Inertial training is one of the most popular training methodologies in the last years and one of the objects of study in recent literature, however more studies are necessary to know its usefulness in young athletes. The aim of the current systematic review is to evaluate the current literature surrounding the chronic effect of inertial training on physical capacities of team sports through functional test. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA). The results revealed the effectiveness of these tools for improving abilities such jumps, sprints, change of directions and power measure. In conclusion, inertial training can be an adequate stimulus for the better performance in young athletes on team sports.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0867.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Photoelectric Barriers; Sprint Time Measurement; Sports Performance Measurement; Mobile Device
Online: 10 August 2023 (09:15:34 CEST)
This paper introduces a novel approach to addressing the challenge of accurately timing short distance runs, a critical aspect in the assessment of athletic performance. Electronic photoelectric barriers, although recognized for their dependability and accuracy, have remained largely inaccessible to non-professional athletes and smaller sport clubs due to their high costs. A comprehensive review of existing timing systems reveals that claimed accuracies beyond 30 milliseconds lack experimental validation across most available systems.To bridge this gap, a mobile, camera-based timing system is proposed, capitalizing on consumer-grade electronics and smartphones to provide an affordable and easily accessible alternative. By leveraging readily available hardware components, the construction of the proposed system is detailed, ensuring its cost-effectiveness and simplicity. Experiments involving track and field athletes demonstrate the proficiency of the proposed system in accurately timing short distance sprints. Comparative assessments against a professional photoelectric cells timing system reveal a remarkable accuracy of 62 milliseconds, firmly establishing the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed system. This finding places the camera-based approach on par with existing commercial systems, thereby offering non-professional athletes and smaller sport clubs an affordable means to achieve accurate timing.In an effort to foster further research and development, open access to the device's schematics and software is provided. This accessibility encourages collaboration and innovation in the pursuit of enhanced performance assessment tools for athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1879.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Patient Safety; Organizational Culture; Quality Improvement; Accreditation; Sports Medicine Hospital
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:33:06 CEST)
Background: This study aims to investigate the patient safety culture at a sports medicine hospital and explore quality of healthcare and associated factors. Methods: In a cross-sectional study design, the tool Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPC) was administered online among staff at a sports medicine hospital in Doha, Qatar. About 319 staff participated from 898 staff who received emails (35.5%). Results: The results showed that 49.2% of the staff rated the patient safety grade as excellent and 36.1% as very good, which sums up to 85.3%. Factors associated with better patient safety grade were work climate (OR 10.3 95% CI (3.2 to 33.6); teamwork OR 7.6 95% CI (2.8 to 20.9) and team communication (OR 2.9 95% CI (1.1 to 7.6). Conclusions: Addressing the work climate, enhancing communication, and cohesive work within teams facilitates a culture of trust that improves patient safety grade. Ensuring quick return to play is a team effort involving multiple disciplines, hence a high performance and safety culture can enhance teamwork. Reducing punitive response to error and encouraging staff and supervisors are key areas that can improve safety culture in sports medicine organizations, and efforts should be placed in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0631.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: caffeine; New Zealand blackcurrant; anthocyanins; ergogenic; supplement; performance; endurance; sports
Online: 20 April 2023 (08:25:40 CEST)
The use of isolated supplements to enhance performance is widespread among athletes. The aim of this study was to increase knowledge about the combined effects of caffeine and New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) dietary supplements. In this study, two subjects each underwent four phases of four sessions in a double-blind and randomized alternating treatment single-case design. After a 3-week pre-test phase, the supplement combinations of placebo/placebo, caffeine/placebo (5 mg/kg), NZBC/placebo (600 mg), and caffeine/NZBC (5 mg/kg + 600 mg) were taken and weekly performance tests were conducted to examine their effects on relative power (W/kg) during a 20-minute time trial on a bicycle. Data were analyzed descriptively and using the Tau-U calculator from Single Case Research. The ergogenic effect of caffeine was confirmed in both subjects, with increases of 3.3% and 6.5%, while the positive effect of NZBC on performance was only seen in one subject (13.4%). The combination of caffeine and NZBC again increased performance in both subjects (2.2% and 19.2%), but the data only showed an additive effect of the supplements in one subject. Further studies are required to confirm or refute this evidence of the synergistic effects of these supplements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0437.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; LaLiga; sports; spatial and temporal analysis; serological status
Online: 26 August 2022 (02:59:56 CEST)
Objectives: COVID-19 pandemic interrupted the Spanish professional football competition until May 2020, when it was restarted following a surveillance protocol established by LaLiga. The aims were to describe the infective and serological status of professional football players (PLY) and staff (STF) between May 5th 2020 until April 22nd 2021, to analyze the spatial-temporal distribution of the COVID-19 disease in this cohort and its comparison to the Spanish population. Methods: a prospective observational cohort study was carried out. Differences between PLY and STF were assessed by Chi-squared test and test of equality of proportions. Pearson correlation test was used to measure the presence of an association between the percentages of positivity in population and LaLiga cohort. Results: 137,420 RT-PCR and 20,376 IgG serology tests were performed in 7,112 professionals. Positive baseline serology was detected in 10.57% of PLY and 6.38% of STF. Among those who started the follow-up as not infected and before STF vaccination, 11.87% of PLY and 5.03% of STF became positive. Before summer 2020 the prevalence of infection was similar than the observed at national level. The percentage of positivity in the Spanish population was higher than in LaLiga cohort, but both series showed a similar decreasing trend.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0378.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: water quality; outdoor sports; dissolved oxygen; stagnant water; cable ski
Online: 16 July 2021 (14:36:47 CEST)
Abstract: The concept of sustainability applied to sports activities means ensuring that the economic benefits brought about by their development are not obtained at the expense of causing ecological damage or interference in local cultural habits. A cable-ski is a nautical ski system whereby a motorboat is substituted by a cable traction system powered by an electric motor. The effect on the quality of the water in those places that can boast cable-ski facilities has been described in cold freshwater lakes. Objective: Our purpose was to study the evolution of water quality in a ten-year period after the installation of a cable-ski facility in a warm, salted, semi-stagnant pond. Material and Method: Review of the data gathered from the routine test carried out by the Laboratory of the Council of Alcúdia from 2010 to 2019 Results: The levels of dissolved oxygen have increased, being significantly higher in the period 2016 – 2019 than in that of 2010 – 2015. The turbidity of the water has also seen a reduction in the second period with respect to the first. Conclusion: It seems that cable-ski improves the quality of water even warm, high-conductivity, semi-stagnant conditions
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0139.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Cognitive load theory; dynamic visualizations; design techniques; learning; team sports
Online: 5 September 2020 (10:41:11 CEST)
Dynamic visualizations have been developed to exchange information that transforms over time across a broad range of professional and academic contexts. However, these visual tools may impose substantial demands on the learner’s cognitive resources that are very limited in current knowledge. Cognitive load theory has been used to improve learning from dynamic visualizations by providing certain design techniques to manage learner cognitive load without adding any oral/written explanations. This systematic review examined a series of experimental studies assessing the roles of these design techniques in learning tactical scenes of play through dynamic visualizations. Electronic databases PubMed and Google Scholar were used to search relevant articles. Eleven studies were eventually included for the systematic review based on the eligibility criteria. The present review revealed that adapting design techniques to the level of learners’ expertise, type of depicted knowledge, and level of content complexity is a crucial part of effective learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: acute physical stress; sports performance; heart rate variability; physical exhaustion
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:35:01 CET)
Athletes are exposed to high-intensity loads to promote athletic performance, however without appropriate evaluation for its effects. This study investigates the effects of four types of exhaustion exercises on Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and Poincaré features as markers of central fatigue; Creatine Kinase (CK) and blood lactate concentrations ([LA-]b) as biomarkers of peripheral fatigue. To achieve this purpose, ten healthy volunteers were exposed to exhaustive exercise using isotonic-, isometric-, aerobic-, and anaerobic-fatigue protocols. HRV Poincaré features, standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability (SD1) and standard deviation of continuous long-term R-R interval variability (SD2) variables were collected. Central fatigue was tested through the sympathetic stress index (SS) and the sympathetic and parasympathetic index (SS/SD1). Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the exercises to determine CK and [LA-]b. The SD1 decreased in each exercise protocol, while the SS and SS/SD1 increased. [LA-]b and CK increased at the end of each protocol and correlated with SD1 and SS/SD1. HRV, CK, and [LA-]b are acute markers to detect, both central and peripheral fatigue; sensitive to the type, duration, and intensity of exercise, being HRV a novel noninvasive marker, simple and useful for sports coaches and athletes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0503.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: HMB; Branched-chain amino acid; Strength training; Sports nutrition; Inflammation.
Online: 29 August 2018 (14:12:18 CEST)
β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a bioactive metabolite formed from breakdown of the branched-chain amino acid leucine. Given the popularity of HMB supplements among different athletes, specifically, those who engage in regular resistance training, this review was performed to summarize current literature on some aspects of HMB supplementation that have received less attention. Because of the small number of published studies, it has not been possible to conclude the exact effects of HMB on cardiovascular parameters, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Thus, the interpretation of outcomes should be taken cautiously. However, the data presented here suggest that acute HMB supplementation may attenuate pro-inflammatory response following an intense resistance exercise in athletes. Also, the available findings collectively indicate that chronic HMB consumption in conjunction with resistance training has no more adaptive advantages associated with decreasing cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress markers. Taken together, there is clearly a need for further well-designed, longer duration studies to support these findings and determine whether HMB supplementation affects the adaptations induced by resistance training associated with body’s inflammatory condition, antioxidative defense system, and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0008.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: JCQ; job crafting; construct validity; leisure sports instructor; valid scale
Online: 1 May 2018 (11:36:48 CEST)
In previous researches, Job Crafting questionnaire to develop is consists of 3 factors which are Task Crafting, Cognitive Crafting, and Relationship Crafting with 12 to 17 items. The purpose of study is to develop JCQ for leisure sports instructor of Korean. 274 valid samples are used for analysis. Data collecting is purposeful sampling. At result, for Korean Sports Instructor Job Crafting Scale is constructed 3 factors with 12 items is constructed by 3 step procedure. KSIJCQ is confirmed on convergent discriminant validity evidence. In conclusion, KSIJCQ is a valid scale of the measuring and distributes Job Crafting of generalization in sports.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1073.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: continuous glucose monitoring; application in sports; carbohydrate management; active subjects; validation
Online: 16 May 2023 (03:52:33 CEST)
The objective of this pilot study was to compare glucose concentrations in capillary blood (CB) samples analysed in a laboratory by a validated method and glucose concentrations measured in the interstitial fluid (ISF) by continuous glucose monitoring under different physical activity levels in a postprandial state in healthy and active subjects without diabetes. Ten healthy, active subjects (26±4 years, 67±11 kg bodyweight (BW), 11±3 h) were included in the study. Within 14 days, they underwent six tests consisting of a) resting fasted (R/Fast), b) resting after intake of 1 g glucose/kg BW (R/Glc) and c) running for 60 minutes at moderate (65/Glc) and d) high (85/Glc) intensity after intake of 1 g glucose/kg BW. Data were collected in the morning, following a standardised dinner before test day. Sensor-based glucose concentrations were compared to simultaneous capillary blood glucose concentrations. Pearson’s r correlation coefficient was highest for R/Glc (.92, p<.001) compared to R/Fast (.45, p<.001), 65/Glc (.60, p<.001) and 85/Glc (.70, p<.001). Mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) and standard deviation (SD) was smallest for resting fasted and similar between all other conditions (R/Fast: 8±6%, R/Glc: 17±12%, 65/Glc: 22 ± 24%, 85/Glc: 18±17%). However, Bland-Altman plot analysis showed a higher range between lower and upper limits of agreement (95% confidence interval) of paired data under exercising compared to resting conditions. Under resting fasted conditions, both methods produce similar outcomes. Under resting postprandial and exercising conditions, respectively, there are differences between both methods. However, further data in healthy subjects need to be gathered considering physical activity and nutrition status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0549.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Yoga of Immortals (YOI); atheltic performance; Dewan Sport Inventory; Sports resilience
Online: 31 August 2022 (14:33:54 CEST)
The mental and emotional health of an athlete is crucial for their performance and well-being. Sports-related stress can significantly impair that mental health. Yoga of Immortals (YOI) is a unique combination of specific yogic postures, breathing exercises, sound therapy & meditation, which has demonstrated benefit in improving measures of mental health. This study used the Sports Mind Inventory (SMI) to examine whether YOI can improve the resilience of athletes to sports-related stress. Participants were a diverse set of athletes based in Mauritius who routinely engage in a wide range of athletic activities. Participants were randomly assigned to receive four weeks of YOI or no intervention. Both groups completed the SMI questionarie at baseline and again after four weeks. The YOI intervention significantly increased the total mean SMI scores by 14%, indicating improved sports resilience and psychological health. No improvement was observed in the control group. This study demonstrates that YOI is a promising intervention in improving sports related stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0034.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Gene doping; Gene therapy; Erythropoietin; Adenoviral vector; Sports; Athlete; RNA sequencing
Online: 1 July 2021 (14:30:04 CEST)
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has prohibited gene doping in the context of progress in gene therapy. In addition, there is a risk of the EPO gene being applied in gene doping among athletes. Along with this, development of a gene-doping test has been underway in worldwide. Here, we had two purposes: to develop a robust gene doping mouse model using the human EPO gene (hEPO) transferred using recombinant adenovirus (rAdV) as a vector and to develop a detection method to prove gene doping using this model. The rAdV including the hEPO gene were injected intravenously to transfer the gene to the liver. After injection, the mice developed significantly increased red blood cell counts in whole blood and increased gene expressions of hematopoietic markers in the spleen, indicating successful development of the gene doping model. Next, we detected direct and indirect proof of gene doping in whole blood DNA and RNA using qPCR assay and RNA sequencing. Proof was detected in one drop of whole blood DNA and RNA over a long period; furthermore, the overall RNA expression profiles significantly changed. Therefore, we have advanced detection of hEPO gene doping in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0079.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Stretch-shortening cycle; Peak power; Plyometric with load; Team sports; Throwing.
Online: 5 October 2020 (12:11:13 CEST)
This study examined the effects of incorporating 8 weeks of biweekly upper limb loaded plyometric training (elastic band) into the in-season regimen of handball players. Trial participants were assigned between control (n = 15, age: 18.1±0.5 years, body mass: 73.7±13.9 kg) and experimental (n = 14, age: 17.7±0.3 years, body mass: 76.8±10.7 kg) groups. Measures obtained pre- and post- included a cycle ergometer force-velocity test, ball throwing velocity in three types throw, 1-RM bench press and pull-over, and anthropometric estimates of upper limb muscle volumes. Gains in the experimental group relative to controls included absolute muscle power (W) (Δ23.3%; t-test p<0.01; d=0.083), relative muscle power (W.kg-1) (Δ22.3%; t-test p<0.01; d=0.091), and all 3 types of ball throw (Δ18.6%, t-test p<0.01, d=0.097 on jumping shot; Δ18.6%, t-test p<0.01; d=0.101 on 3-step running throw; and Δ19.1%, t-test p<0.01, d=0.072 on standing throw). Furthermore, a significant improvement by time interactions was observed in both groups on 1-RM bench press and pull-over performance. However, upper limb muscle volumes remained unchanged in both groups. We conclude that adding biweekly elastic band plyometric training to standard training improves measures important to game performance. Accordingly, such exercises can usefully be adopted as a part of handball training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0291.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: food exchange list; sports foods; dietary supplements; dietetic practice; menu planning
Online: 24 June 2020 (09:41:43 CEST)
Food exchange lists have been widely used in dietary practice in health and disease situations, but there are still no exchange lists for sports foods. The aim of this study was to develop a sports foods exchange list based on previously published statistical criteria. A cross-sectional study of the nutritional composition of sports foods, regarding macronutrients and energy, was carried out. A total of 323 sports foods from 18 companies were selected and divided into seven groups: sports drinks; sports gels; sports bars; sports confectionery; protein powders; protein bars; and liquid meals. A sports foods composition database based on portion size was created. Food exchange groups, with the definition of the amounts - in grams - of each sports foods within each group, were designed using the same methodology and statistical criteria as previously published. The nutritional composition of the portions usually consumed by athletes and/or recommended in commercial packaging was used to calculate the mean energy and macronutrient values for each group. Within each sports foods group, different subgroups were defined due to differences in the main and/or secondary macronutrient. The mean nutrient values of each exchange group and the subgroups were determined according to previously established rounding criteria. This sports foods exchange list, made up of commercial sports products, is a novel tool for dietetic practice. Its management will allow dietitians to adapt dietary plans more precisely to the training and/or competition of the athlete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0015.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: school sports facility; assessment; t-sne; fuzzy c mean; unsupervised learning
Online: 3 December 2019 (05:24:26 CET)
The aim of this study is (a) to develop, test, and employ a combined method of unsupervised machine learning to objectively assess the condition of sports facility in primary schools (PSSFC) and (b) examine the examine the geographical and typological association with PSSFC. Based on the Sixth National Sports Facility Census (NSFC), six PSSFC indicators (indoor and outdoor facility included) were selected as the measurements and decomposed by using the t-stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE). Thereafter, the Fuzzy C-mean (FCM) algorithm was used to cluster the same type of PSSFC with selecting the optimum numbers of evaluation level. Overall 845 primary schools in Shanghai, China were recruited and tested by this combined approach of unsupervised machine learning. In addition, the two-way analysis of covariance was used to examine the location and types of school associated with PSSFC variables in each level. The combined method was found to have acceptable reliability and good interpretability, differentiating PSSFC into five gradient levels. The characteristics of PSSFC differ by the location and school type of individual school. Our findings are conducive to the regionalized and personalized intervention and promotion on the children’s physical activity (PA) upon the practical situation of particular schools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0357.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Performance, Sports, Aortic Valve, Sinus of Valsalva, Echocardiography, Sudden cardiac death
Online: 18 September 2018 (14:40:43 CEST)
Aortic rupture is known as one of the potential causes of sudden cardiac death in athletes. Nevertheless, adaptation strategies for aortic root dilation in athletes vary. The purpose of this study was to investigate aortic root adaptation to physical workload and to determine if aortic root’s and left ventricle sizes are contingent upon the physical workload. Echocardiography was applied to 151 subjects to measure the aortic root at aortic valve annulus (AA) and at sinus of Valsalva (VS). 122 were athletes (41 females and 81 males) and 29 were non-athletes (14 females and 15 males). Of the 41 female athletes, 32 were endurance athletes, and 9 strength athletes. From 81 male athletes, 56 were endurance athletes, and 25 were strength athletes. AA and VS mean values for the body surface area were presented as rAA and rVS. Left ventricle (LV) meaures incuded LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), interventricular septum thickness in diastole (IVSTd), LV posterior wall thickness in diastole (LVPWTd), LV mass (LVM), LV mass index, LV end-diastolic diameter index (LVEDDI). Results indicated that VS was higher in female athletes (28.9±2.36mm) than in non-athletes (27.19±2.87mm, p=0.03). On the other hand, rAA was higher in strength athletes (12.19±1.48mm/m2) than in endurance athletes (11.12±0.99mm/m2, p=0.04). Additionally, rVS and rAA were higher in female strength athletes (17.19±1.78mm/m2, 12.19±1.48mm/m2) than female basketball players (15.49±1.08mm/m2, p=0.03, 10.75±1.06 mm/m2, p=0.02). Statistically significant positive moderate correlations were found between VS and LVEDD, LVM, IVSTd, LVPWTd, rVS and LVEDDI parameters in all athletes. The diameter of Valsalva sinus was greater in female athletes compared to non-athletes. The rAA mean value for body surface area was greater in female athletes practising strength sports as compared to their counterparts who were practising endurance sports. The diameter of the aortic root at sinuses positively correlated with the LV size in all athletes. Trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03656861, September 3, 2018 (retrospectively registered).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0017.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; unbalanced data; predicting rare events; NFL football; sports analytics
Online: 2 November 2016 (07:07:06 CET)
Turnovers in the National Football League (NFL) occur whenever a team loses possession of the ball due to a fumble, or an interception. Turnovers disrupt momentum of the offensive team, and represent lost opportunities to advance downfield and score. Teams with a positive differential turnover margin in a given game win $70\%$ of the time. Turnovers are statistically rare events, occurring apparently randomly. These characteristics make them difficult to predict. This investigation advances the hypothesis that turnovers are predictable in NFL football. Machine learning models are developed to learn the concept: At any point within a football game, what is the likelihood that a turnover will be observed on the next play from scrimmage? Results presented suggest evidence to support the working hypothesis. Under certain conditions, both fumbles and interceptions can be anticipated at low false discovery rates (less than $15\%$). This approach may be useful to inform in-game strategies to mitigate the negative consequences of turnovers by an offensive team, or to maximize their probability by a defensive squad.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0087.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: public sports service; new urbanization; development dynamic relationship; interaction mechanism; optimal path
Online: 8 June 2022 (10:19:08 CEST)
In the new period, the state has made every effort to promote the new urbanization of public sports service. Entropy method, coupled coordination model, cold hot spot analysis is used to explore the dynamic relationship between public sports services and the development of new urbanization in China from 2008 to 2017. The results show that: (1) The development of the internal subsystem of public sports service is not balanced, the sports financial investment system grows rapidly, but the development of professional sports talent team is slow. (2) The imbalance of regional development cannot be ignored, and the public sports service level shows a decreasing gradient from east to west. (3) The regional development features are different. The eastern region is dominated by the coordinated development of sports public service and urbanization, while the central region is mainly in the type of public sports service lag, while the western region has multiple complex characteristics of low-level coordination and public sports service lag. Therefore, it is proposed that the construction of modern public sports service system should be investigated in the context of the development of new urbanization. It should be promoted from the following aspects: promoting the extension of public sports service to rural areas, engendering the "citizen's right" of sports health to the migrant population, conforming to the trend of mass sports intelligence, developing green sports and revitalizing idle sports assets in cities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0559.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: sports cardiology; athlete; caffeine; anabolic steroids; heart disease; cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
Online: 22 December 2020 (12:39:52 CET)
Several performance-enhancing or ergogenic drugs have been linked to both significant adverse cardiovascular effects and increased cardiovascular risk. Even with increased scrutiny on the governance of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) in professional sport and heightened awareness of the associated cardiovascular risk, there are some who are prepared to risk their use to gain competitive advantage. Caffeine is the most commonly consumed drug in the world and its ergogenic properties have been reported for decades. Thus, the removal of caffeine from the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list of banned substances, in 2004, has naturally led to an exponential rise in its use amongst athletes. The response to caffeine is complex and influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Whilst the evidence may be equivocal, the ability of an athlete to train longer or at a greater power output cannot be overlooked. Furthermore, its impact on the myocardium remains unanswered. In contrast, anabolic steroids are recognised PEDs that improve athletic performance, increase muscle growth and suppress fatigue. Their use, however, comes at a cost, afflicting the individual with several side effects, including those that are detrimental to the cardiovascular system. This review addresses the effects of the two commonest PEDs, one legal, the other prohibited, and their respective effects on the heart, as well as the long-term implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: arthroscopy; sports medicine; anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; implant-associated infection; biofilm; septic arthritis.
Online: 5 May 2023 (11:26:50 CEST)
Background: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the formation of biofilm in bone patellar tendon bone grafts (BPTB grafts) and to compare it to the formation of biofilm formation in quadrupled hamstring anterior cruciate ligament grafts (4xHt graft). Methods: A descriptive in vitro study was conducted. One 4xHt graft and one BPTB graft were prepared. They were then contaminated with a strain of S. epidermidis. Later, a quantitative analysis was carried out by means of microcalorimetry and sonication with plating. Additionally, a qualitative analysis was carried out by means of electron microscopy. Results: No significant differences were found between the bacterial growth profiles of 4xHt graft and BPTB graft in microcalorimetry and colony counting. In the samples analyzed with electron microscopy, no specific biofilm growth pattern was identified upon comparing BPTB graft to 4xHt graft. Conclusions: There were no significant differences at either the quantitative or qualitative level when comparing bacterial growth in BPTB graft to that in 4xHt graft. Therefore, the presence of sutures in 4xHt graft cannot be established as a predisposing factor for increased biofilm growth in this in vitro study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0267.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: psychological wellbeing; gifted teenagers; giftedness in math; giftedness in humanities; giftedness in sports
Online: 24 November 2019 (04:47:02 CET)
Current article presents the study of psychological wellbeing of adolescents (n=168, age 15-17) gifted in math, humanities and sports and educated in advanced programs for gifted children. Theoretical framework of this study is eudemonic concept of psychological wellbeing by C. Ryff. Psychological wellbeing is measured with Ryff wellbeing scales in Russian adaptation by L.V. Zhukovskaya and E.G. Troshikhina. The study is aimed at understanding differences in psychological wellbeing of gifted teenagers connected to gender and type of giftedness. The results suggest that general wellbeing score did not differ for adolescents with different types of giftedness or of different genders. Separate components of psychological wellbeing, such as purpose in life and self-acceptance, are influenced by activity connected to the talent. Gender differences are subjected to age-specific trends of personal development in adolescence. Type of giftedness might reinforce these trends.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0044.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: women's health; sports; non-communicable disease; obesity; physical activity; health promotion; mixed-methods; Africa
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:23:47 CET)
Despite the well-documented health benefits of recreational sports, few opportunities exist in lower- and middle-income countries for adult women to participate in recreational physical activities. An explanatory sequential mixed methods approach was used to explore associations between an innovative soccer program for adult women and self-reported health status. Cross-sectional survey data were collected in 2018-2019 from 702 women in the Nikumbuke Project, a health and literacy program in southeastern rural Kenya, followed by focus group discussions with 225 women who also participated in the Project's soccer program. Quantitative findings suggest that women who participated in soccer had 67% greater odds of reporting good or excellent health than their non-soccer playing peers. Thematic analysis of qualitative data indicated that women credited soccer with less pain, fatigue, and stress, as well as weight loss and reduced dependence on medicine for hypertension, pain, and sleep problems. Women equated health benefits with greater ease and efficiency in completing chores, reduced worries, youthful energy, male-like strength, and pleased husbands. Soccer programs for adult women may be particularly effective interventions in settings where access to health care is limited and where lack of opportunity to engage in physical aerobic activity increases women's risks for poor health outcomes. .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0346.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Cross-Country Skiing; Sports Equipment; Multi-Scale; Contact Mechanics; Ski-Camber Profile; Ski-Base Texture
Online: 5 July 2023 (15:37:49 CEST)
At the highest level of endurance sports, the differences in finishing times are small, so equipment is constantly being constantly improved to enhance the athletes' performance. For instance, one dominant resistive force in connection with cross-country skiing is the friction between the skis and snow and since the 1930s, research designed to understand and reduce this friction has been ongoing. The mechanisms involved in ski-snow friction include compaction, micro-ploughing, adhesion, viscosity, and water-bridging. Of these, adhesive and viscous friction have been most studied, while much less is presently known about compaction, micro-ploughing, and water-bridging. At the macro-scale, the ski-camber profile plays a key role in determining whether, with respect to friction, a particular cross-country ski is suitable for use under a given set of conditions. Through its influence on where ski-snow contact occurs, this ski-camber profile has a profound impact on adhesive and viscous friction, micro-ploughing, the formation of water bridges, and the rate of compaction. Different contact zones with different apparent areas of contact and pressure have been found to be most suitable for different conditions. In addition, the micro-scale texture of the ski base is also an important determinant of ski-snow friction. Topographical measurements of this texture can be achieved with white-light interferometer and recent characterisation has focused on the mechanical properties of contact. In numerous tribological studies the interactions between features at different scales are modelled. In most tribological systems, features on several scales influence friction and ski-snow contact is certainly no exception. Accordingly, the current investigation was designed to evaluate the multi-scale properties of different combinations of two skis with two different base textures. The real area of contact and the average interfacial separation and total average reciprocal interfacial separation between the ski and snow were taken into consideration. We found that different macro- and micro-scale properties of the ski favour different mechanisms of friction. Both the profile of the ski camber and texture of the base play decisive roles in determining viscous friction. At the same time, the texture of the ski base exerts a greater impact on the average real contact pressure, real contact area and minimal average interfacial separation between the ski and snow than does the ski-camber profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0512.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Contact Mechanics; Cross-Country Skiing; Cross-Country Ski; Load Conditions; Ski-Camber Profile; Sports Equipment
Online: 31 August 2022 (02:26:22 CEST)
In cross-country skiing the time difference between a race winner and the person coming second is typically very small. Since much of the energy is spent on overcoming resistive forces, a relatively small reduction of these can have a significant impact on the results. The resistive forces come partly from the friction in the tribological interface, between the ski and the snow, and as with many tribological applications the characterisation of its origin, plays an important role in determining the frictional properties. Also in cross-country ski friction, there are several scales impacting the frictional performance, with the major contributors being the ski-camber profile and ski-base structure. Macro-scale measurements of the ski's camber profile under load, are often used to determine how adequate the ski is for a specific condition. The characteristic properties usually obtained are, the force required to collapse the ski to a certain camber height, the topography of the kick-wax zone, and by simple means a determined lengths of the frictional interface, i.e., the apparent contact length. To this date, there are some mathematical models, but there is no robust way of determining the macro-scale contact properties between a cross-country ski and a counter surface using simulations. In the present paper an Artificial neural networks (ANN) is trained to predict the ski-camber profile for various loads placed at different positions, and a well established deterministic approach is used to simulate the contact between the ANN-predicted ski-camber profile and a linearly elastic body with a flat surface, representing the snow. The results suggest that this method is feasible for the determination of the apparent contact characteristics of different skis. Moreover, we show that the apparent contact area does not linearly depend on the load, and that the elastic properties of the counter surface also has a large impact on the apparent contact area and the average apparent contact pressure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: dietary assessment; food record; FFQ; biomarker; doubly labeled water; energy intake; validity; athletes; sports nutrition
Online: 12 October 2017 (09:43:35 CEST)
Dietary assessment methods recognized as appropriate for the general population are usually applied in a similar manner to athletes, despite knowledge that sport-specific factors can complicate assessment and impact accuracy in unique ways. As dietary assessment methods are used extensively within the field of sports nutrition, there is concern the validity of methodologies have not undergone more rigorous evaluation in this unique population sub-group. The purpose was to systematically review studies comparing two or more methods of dietary assessment, including dietary intake measured against biomarkers or reference measures of energy expenditure, in athletes. Six electronic databases were searched for English-language, full-text articles published from January 1980 until June 2016. The search strategy combined the following keywords: diet, nutrition assessment, athlete and validity; where the following outcomes are reported but not limited to: energy intake, macro and/or micronutrient intake, food intake, nutritional adequacy, diet quality, or nutritional status. Meta-analysis was performed on studies with sufficient methodological similarity, with between-group standardized mean differences (or effect size) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) calculated. Of the 1624 studies identified, 18 were eligible for inclusion. Studies comparing self-reported energy intake (EI) to energy expenditure assessed via doubly labelled water were grouped for comparison (n=11) and demonstrated mean EI was under-estimated by 19 % (- 2793 ± 1134 kJ/d). Meta-analysis revealed a large pooled effect size of - 1.006 (95% CI: -1.3 to -0.7; p<0.001). The remaining studies (n=7) compared a new dietary tool or instrument to a reference method(s) (e.g. food record, 24-h dietary recall, biomarker) as part of a validation study. This systematic review revealed there are limited robust studies evaluating dietary assessment methods in athletes. Existing literature demonstrates substantial variability between methods, with under and misreporting of intake frequently observed. There is a clear need for careful validation of dietary assessment methods, including emerging technical innovations, among athlete populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0436.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Naïve Bayes Classification; Eulers Strength Formula; Cricket Prediction; Supervised Learning; KNIME Tool; Cricket prediction; sports analytics; multivariate regression; neural network
Online: 21 October 2020 (12:34:00 CEST)
In cricket, particularly the twenty20 format is most watched and loved by the people, where no one can guess who will win the match until the last ball of the last over. In India, The Indian Premier League (IPL) started in 2008 and now it is the most popular T20 league in the world. So we decided to develop a machine learning model for predicting the outcome of its matches. Winning in a Cricket Match depends on many key factors like a home ground advantage, past performances on that ground, records at the same venue, the overall experience of the players, record with a particular opposition, and the overall current form of the team and also the individual player. This paper briefs about the key factors that affect the result of the cricket match and the regression model that best fits this data and gives the best predictions. Cricket, the mainstream and widely played sport across India which has the most noteworthy fan base. Indian Premier League follows 20-20 format which is very unpredictable. IPL match predictor is a ML based prediction approach where the data sets and previous stats are trained in all dimensions covering all important factors such as: Toss, Home Ground, Captains, Favorite Players, Opposition Battle, Previous Stats etc, with each factor having different strength with the help of KNIME Tool and with the added intelligence of Naive Bayes network and Eulers strength calculation formula.