ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0215.v4
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: coevolution; herbivory; host-plant specialization; phylogeny; speciation
Online: 17 October 2019 (10:12:05 CEST)
During the last two decades, ecological speciation has been a major research theme in evolutionary biology. Ecological speciation occurs when reproductive isolation between populations evolves as a result of niche differentiation. Phytophagous insects represent model systems for the study of this evolutionary process. The host-plants on which these insects feed and often spend parts of their life cycle constitute ideal agents of divergent selection for these organisms. Adaptation to feeding on different host-plant species can potentially lead to ecological specialization of populations and subsequent speciation. This process is thought to have given birth to the astonishing diversity of phytophagous insects and is often put forward in macroevolutionary scenarios of insect diversification. Consequently, numerous phylogenetic studies on phytophagous insects have aimed at testing whether speciation driven by host-plant adaptation is the main pathway for the diversification of the groups under investigation. The increasing availability of comprehensive and well-resolved phylogenies and the recent developments in phylogenetic comparative methods are offering an unprecedented opportunity to test hypotheses on insect diversification at a macroevolutionary scale, in a robust phylogenetic framework. Our purpose here is to review the contribution of phylogenetic analyses to investigate the importance of plant-mediated speciation in the diversification of phytophagous insects and to present suggestions for future developments in this field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0126.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Development, handedness, lateralization, hemispheric specialization, interhemispheric coordination, embodiment
Online: 7 May 2021 (09:07:37 CEST)
The author presents his perspective on the character of science, development, and handedness and relates these to his investigations of the early development of handedness. After presenting some ideas on what hemispheric specialization of function might mean for neural processing and how handedness should be assessed, the neuroscience of control of the arms/hands and interhemispheric communication and coordination are examined for how developmental processes can affect these mechanisms. The author’s work on the development of early handedness is reviewed and placed within a context of cascading events in which different forms of handedness emerge from earlier forms but not in a deterministic manner. This approach supports a continuous rather than categorical distribution of handedness and accounts for the predominance of right-handedness while maintaining a minority of left-handedness. Finally, the relation of the development of handedness to the development of several language and cognitive skills is examined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: disgust; DS-R; medical students; psychology students; academic orientation; specialization
Online: 7 July 2020 (08:08:20 CEST)
Disgust evolved as a way to protect one’s self from illness. DS-R measures disgust propensity of three kinds of disgust (Core, Animal Reminder and Contamination). Although the DS-R scale was refined mainly with young and largely female student population its impact on educational orientation has not been assessed. In the present study we examined the DS-R scoring and the choice of postgraduate studies in medical (n= 94) and psychology (n= 97) students. They responded to an anonymous web-based survey and completed the DS-R and a questionnaire on their demographics and plans for postgraduate studies. Female students outnumbered males (3:1) and scored higher in Total DS-R score (median: 59 vs. 50, p<0.05). Psychology students scored higher in all three kinds of disgust (p<0.05), indicating a higher level of disease avoidance. Medical students willing to follow Internal Medicine scored higher in Core Disgust (p<0.05) while psychology students willing to study Experimental Psychology scored lower in Animal Reminder subscale (p<0.001). Also, the higher the psychology students scored in Core Disgust scale the higher was the probability to choose Experimental Psychology. In conclusion, disgust propensity as rated by DS-R differentiates medical from psychology students and is also related to orientation preferences in postgraduate studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: SBM model; industrial specialization; industrial clustering; urban land utilization efficiency
Online: 24 April 2017 (11:14:45 CEST)
In this paper, a land utilization efficiency evaluation model, which takes environmental loss into consideration, has been structured via taking advantage of the slack-based measure (SBM) model. Meanwhile, based on the panel data from 280 prefecture-level cities in China from 2003 to 2013, the paper thoroughly probed into, and discussed, the effect imposed by industry clustering and specialization on the utilization efficiency of urban land. Research results indicate several conclusions, as follows: (1) Taking environmental loss into account, the land utilization efficiency of prefecture-level cities in China is generally low. During the research period, the average value of the land utilization efficiency of prefecture-level cities in China is only 0.349, with, first, a declining trend, and then a rise. Geographically speaking, the land utilization efficiency presents a “depression in the center” phenomenon which means the land utilization efficiency of prefecture-level cities in the central China are relatively lower than in the east and west. Now, the difference among the urban land utilization efficiency in China significantly reflects the distinctions among Eastern, Western, and Central China. Moreover, the contribution degree of the difference of the land utilization efficiency among cities of central China to the aggregation difference shows an ascending momentum. Additionally, the relation between the population scale and land utilization efficiency in cities manifests as a U shape; (2) theoretically speaking, the relation between industry clustering and urban land utilization efficiency presents an inverted-U shape. However, this kind of relation is not significant in Western and Central China and medium-sized cities. Moreover, most of cities are still relatively far away from the inflection point or the critical value; and (3) the industry professional level has imposed a positive influence on urban land utilization efficiency. However, that influence is not significant in Eastern China and large cities. Consequently, strengthening the industry professional development of Western and Central China and small and medium-sized cities, facilitating diversified development of industries in Eastern China and large cities, and accelerating industrial clustering, all of these measures above will be conducive to improving urban land utilization efficiency in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0248.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: anuran; competition; disruptive selection; diversification; fear; phenotypic plasticity; resource polymorphism; specialization
Online: 14 March 2023 (06:17:07 CET)
Disruptive selection arises when extreme phenotypes have a fitness advantage compared to more intermediate phenotypes. Theory and evidence suggest that intraspecific resource competition is a key driver of disruptive selection. However, while competition can be indirect (exploitative) or direct (interference), the role of interference competition in disruptive selection has not been tested, and most models of disruptive selection assume exploitative competition. We experimentally investigated whether the type of competition affects the outcome of competitive interactions using a system where disruptive selection is common: Mexican spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata). Spea tadpoles develop into alternative resource-use phenotypes: carnivores, which consume fairy shrimp and other tadpoles, and omnivores, which feed on algae and detritus. Tadpoles intermediate in phenotype have low fitness when competition is intense, as they are outcompeted by the specialized tadpoles. Our experiments revealed that the presence of carnivores significantly decreased foraging behavior in intermediate tadpoles, and that intermediate tadpoles had significantly lower growth rates in interference competition treatments with carnivores but not with omnivores. Interference competition may therefore be important in driving disruptive selection. As carnivore tadpoles are also cannibalistic, the ‘fear’ effect may have a greater impact on intermediate tadpoles than exploitative competition alone, similarly to non-consumptive effects in predator-prey or intraguild relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0046.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Privacy Policies; NLP; benchmark; general language understanding; domain specialization and generalization
Online: 3 March 2023 (01:10:56 CET)
Benchmarks for general language understanding have been rapidly developing in recent years of NLP research, particularly because of their utility in choosing strong-performing models for practical downstream applications. While benchmarks have been proposed in the legal language domain, virtually no such benchmarks exist for privacy policies despite their increasing importance in modern digital life. This could be explained by privacy policies falling under the legal language domain, but we find evidence to the contrary that motivates a separate benchmark for privacy policies. Consequently, we propose PrivacyGLUE as the first comprehensive benchmark of relevant and high-quality privacy tasks for measuring general language understanding in the privacy language domain. Furthermore, we release performances from multiple transformer language models and perform model-pair agreement analysis to detect tasks where models benefited from domain specialization. Our findings show the importance of in-domain pretraining for privacy policies. We believe PrivacyGLUE can accelerate NLP research and improve general language understanding for humans and AI algorithms in the privacy language domain, thus supporting the adoption and acceptance rates of solutions based on it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: epidemiology; baseball injury; young baseball players; injury prevalence; early single sport specialization
Online: 31 May 2023 (10:06:25 CEST)
This study aimed to describe the injury profiles of young Korean baseball players according to position and age as the proportion and distribution of injuries based on playing position and age remains unclear. A total of 271 elite youth baseball players aged 8 to 16 years were divided into two groups: elementary school (ES) (n=135) and middle school (MS) (n=136). The participants' basic, baseball practice, and injury information were collected. Injuries in the MS group were not limited to the elbow and shoulder, and the injury prevalence varied by age group and baseball position. The most injured body region in the ES group was the elbow joint, regardless of the position. In contrast, the most injured body region in the MS group was the lower back, except for infielders whose elbows were the most injured. Additionally, the MS group was more likely to experience injuries of the lower back (OR=4.27, 95% CI=2.47–7.40), shoulder (OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.08–3.43; P=0.024), and knee (OR=2.15, 95% CI=1.17–3.94; P=0.012). Our findings indicate that excessive practice and lack of rest during MS (growth spurt period) can significantly increase the risk of lower back problems in young baseball players.